i1particle1Englishdirect object markerThis particle’s most frequent use is at the beginning of phrases marking the direct objects of verbs. This occurs with all classes of transitive verbs, although if it is immediately preceded by a verb ending in ‘i', then the two blend into one ‘i' at the end of the verb and are not heard or written separately. Any intervening material between the verb and the direct object phrase, even following verbs ending in ‘i', causes this particle to occur again to mark the direct object.Ái Pupun a tari sang i kán kunlán hol ngo na han besang ur Kokopo, má ngorer ák lala ser pirán tabal uri kán hul sál.Pupun gave his entire thinking/effort that he would go to Kokopo, and so he greatly searched for money for his trip-buying.Ái tata a lu lain belbelken sang i gimhat kukun suri koion á tekesi táit na long bengtai kángimhat liu. A lu lain ololoh i gimhat ngorer ák han pang onin gimá pakta.Daddy took very special care of us brothers and sisters so that nothing would spoil our lives. He looked after us well like that going until today when we are grown.2Englishtopic marker; subject markerThis particle occurs at the beginning of phrases marking the topic of a clause or sentence. It occurs in this role less than the particle á. It is also used to mark the subject of a clause.Kalilik, saksak erei gam saki a tuan kuluk sang i kaungán. Pákánbung gim longrai ialngán, a tuan tang kuluk sang.Children, that song you sing its voice/sound it very good indeed. When we hear its tune, it cries/sounds very nice indeed.á1máiái3Englishlocative markerUse of this particle, which occurs as a prefix when used with a location word, implies a stative situation, lack of movement, location at this very time or at a certain time. It indicates that both direction and place is known. English equivalents include ‘at, in, on’. The implication of ida in the example is that the sea is both the usual and current location of the things that live out in the sea. It precedes both long and short forms of direction words. It can also occur to mark a noun or noun phrase by itself with no other location words.Bos rokoi má bos toltolom man tili armongoh turán tan táit di káukáu adi bim mái rung di sehel mai bál di má tan táit di liu ida i lontas, bos kálámul di arwat suri olas pas di no. (Iak 3.7)The wild animals and various kinds of birds from the sky together with things that crawl down along the ground and those ones who slither with their stomachs and things that live out in the sea, people are able to tame them all.a-4ai...áiaiáhala-ia-iatungma-ai8.5Locationlocation4Englishtime markerThis particle precedes words and phrases indicating time. The only other particle used with time words is ala.
Ái kauh a han ur Lipek nabung i kábungbung má kápte a kaleng melek i nas ngorer a parai ngo na ngoi. Gim lala konngek kabin kápate kaleng ngorer ákte parai. Mái sár i ronron gim mákmák uramuda i lontas, ki gimá mák pasi kán takup ki áng kuluk má i bál gim.Our son went to Lipek (island) yesterday morning and he did not return quickly at sun/midday like he said that he would do. We were very worried because he did not return like he had said. However at dusk we looked out over the ocean, then we spied his canoe then our stomachs were good (we were relieved).Ái kauh a parai ngo na hut i kalang tungu ki gimá tu lu monai, mái sár i kunlán kalang tungu gimá tu lu mangmangwa suri, má kápte a hut.My son said that he would arrive last month so we waited for him, however the entire month previous (to this) we just waited expectantly for him, but he did not arrive.ala8.4.1Period of timetime
-i2-ái2-ei-oiEnglishthird person singular direct object suffixThis suffix serves as a third person singular direct object following certain classes of transitive verbs, so a parallel to on (third person singular direct object). It occurs on verbs which immediately precede noun phrase direct objects, or as the 3rd person singular direct object alone. It has 3 allopmorphs or variations (-ái,-ei,-oi), their occurrence usually dependent on vowel harmony, but not always.-ái2-eingoi1-oion1
ia-Englishlocative marker prefixThis prefix indicates that the general direction is known but the specific place is unknown, and carries the connotation of something far away. It is never used to indicate motion, and only precedes long forms of direction words.Má i katbán matananu erei, gama ngorer i bos mátmátiah di márám iamuni armongoh, má gama para talsai si di á pinpidan án liu. (Pil 2.15-16)And among those people, you are like the stars that shine up in the sky, and you will explain/proclaim to them the words of life.maa-4ala-i1iatungma-8.5Locationlocation
iahintransitive verbSurtangsi minatEnglishwailThis is a custom done by women only. Men cry more quietly.Ngo kálámul a mat má dik han á tan wák suri tangsi, ki di lu parai ngo tan wák di han suri iah i iátin buli.When a person dies and the women go to cry for him, then they say that the women go to wail on top of/over the corpse.iahwai22.214.171.124Customanthro
iahwa-itransitive verbSurtangsiEnglishwail over someoneTan wák iatung di han no suri tang, da iahwai minat imi Himau.The women there all went to cry, they will wail over the death (of the one) up at Himau.iah126.96.36.199Customanthro
iaktepronounEnglishfirst person singular (realis completed)Kalilik di hut anang i bang i pákánbung iakte barung sang i boptin, má káp iau te ásla di er di hut.The kids arrived at the men's house when I had already dropped off into a deep sleep, and I was not conscious that they arrived.iakiaute2
ialialintransitive verbEnglishobserving; watchingTok Pisinlukluk singsingThis includes the idea of listening to and watching singing and dancing, be a spectator without participating onself.nián ialialialbái
ialngáninalienable nounSurkaungán saksakEnglishtuneKalilik, saksak erei gam saki a tuan kuluk sang i kaungán. Pákánbung gim longrai ialngán, a tuan tang kuluk sang.Children, that song you sing its voice/sound it very good indeed. When we hear its tune, it cries/sounds very nice indeed.4.2.3Musicsong
ian1intransitive verbSurtikai sang á isuEnglishfull up with fishPákánbung ngo di longrai bek musmusing a tang ki tan kálámul di mánán ngo a ian á tas. Má ngo da han suri wonwon ki da wonoi marán isu.When they hear the Horseshoe Bat crying then people know that the ocean is full of fish. And if they go to fish then they will catch many fish.
ian táminintransitive serial verbSurtapam hut muswanEnglishfulfill; successful; prevail; happenhappen trueNgádáh, a ian támin á kam inan ur anang Samo?Did you accomplish what you set out to do down at Samo?Tan táit no a lu parai ái tátáil er, a lu ian támin kabin git lu mákái ngo a lu long arwat pasi sang.Everything that leader says, it happens because we see that he really accomplishes it.ian2
ianangianamiániánáninalienable vocative nounianamiánánián gitEnglishmy mother-in-law; my father-in-law; my daughter-in-law; my son-in-lawTok Pisinpapa bilong meri bilong miThis term refers to one's same sex parent-in-law and the spouse of one's opposite sex offspring. So for a female speaker, this term refers to her husband's mother and her sons' wives. For a male speaker, this refers to his wife's father and his daughters' husbands.araiánániánántau14.1.9Kinshipkinship
iang talum / iang talmitransitive serial verbEnglishgather togetherMarán pákán sang iau nem i gam á matananu til Ierusalem suri ina lu pam talum gam ngorer i kok a iang talmi rang natun uri lalin bábán, mái sár á gam kápgamte nem i iau. (Mat 23.37)Many times indeed I wanted you the people from Jerusalem that I would hand together you (bring you together) like a chicken/hen gathers together her children to underneath her wings, but you you did not want me.lam talum/lam talmi; pam talum/pam talmiiangi
iapsitransitive verbEnglishspit with a spraying effectTok PisinsipetimThis is often done when one has chewed betel nut with betel pepper and lime powder. It is also done, as in the example below, to add fragrance to something for use in dancing.Tan kalilik di han suri kip kalai uri iapsi kándi lom er da mermer mai i pákánbung ngo da mil.The guys went to get kalai (fragrant fruit) to spit it on those fragrant bundles they will decorate with when they dance.188.8.131.52Customanthro
iaralienable nounSurngisán kubauEnglishtree type; fir; pine; casuarinaThe iar is a tree that has leaves that are long like leaf ribs or sewing needles, and it is a hardwood and a very tall tree. Some iar people plant in the village, and some grow (naturally) along the beach and around in the village. It is a hardwood tree, but they don’t make buildings with it because the wind twists its trunk it becomes very twisted, and it is very difficult to nail it also.1.5Planttree/plant