i1particle1Englishdirect object markerThis particle’s most frequent use is at the beginning of phrases marking the direct objects of verbs. This occurs with all classes of transitive verbs, although if it is immediately preceded by a verb ending in ‘i', then the two blend into one ‘i' at the end of the verb and are not heard or written separately. Any intervening material between the verb and the direct object phrase, even following verbs ending in ‘i', causes this particle to occur again to mark the direct object.Ái Pupun a tari sang i kán kunlán hol ngo na han besang ur Kokopo, má ngorer ák lala ser pirán tabal uri kán hul sál.Pupun gave his entire thinking/effort that he would go to Kokopo, and so he greatly searched for money for his trip-buying.Ái tata a lu lain belbelken sang i gimhat kukun suri koion á tekesi táit na long bengtai kángimhat liu. A lu lain ololoh i gimhat ngorer ák han pang onin gimá pakta.Daddy took very special care of us brothers and sisters so that nothing would spoil our lives. He looked after us well like that going until today when we are grown.2Englishtopic marker; subject markerThis particle occurs at the beginning of phrases marking the topic of a clause or sentence. It occurs in this role less than the particle á. It is also used to mark the subject of a clause.Kalilik, saksak erei gam saki a tuan kuluk sang i kaungán. Pákánbung gim longrai ialngán, a tuan tang kuluk sang.Children, that song you sing its voice/sound it very good indeed. When we hear its tune, it cries/sounds very nice indeed.á1máiái3Englishlocative markerUse of this particle, which occurs as a prefix when used with a location word, implies a stative situation, lack of movement, location at this very time or at a certain time. It indicates that both direction and place is known. English equivalents include ‘at, in, on’. The implication of ida in the example is that the sea is both the usual and current location of the things that live out in the sea. It precedes both long and short forms of direction words. It can also occur to mark a noun or noun phrase by itself with no other location words.Bos rokoi má bos toltolom man tili armongoh turán tan táit di káukáu adi bim mái rung di sehel mai bál di má tan táit di liu ida i lontas, bos kálámul di arwat suri olas pas di no. (Iak 3.7)The wild animals and various kinds of birds from the sky together with things that crawl down along the ground and those ones who slither with their stomachs and things that live out in the sea, people are able to tame them all.a-4ai...áiaiáhala-ia-iatungma-ai8.5Locationlocation4Englishtime markerThis particle precedes words and phrases indicating time. The only other particle used with time words is ala.
Ái kauh a han ur Lipek nabung i kábungbung má kápte a kaleng melek i nas ngorer a parai ngo na ngoi. Gim lala konngek kabin kápate kaleng ngorer ákte parai. Mái sár i ronron gim mákmák uramuda i lontas, ki gimá mák pasi kán takup ki áng kuluk má i bál gim.Our son went to Lipek (island) yesterday morning and he did not return quickly at sun/midday like he said that he would do. We were very worried because he did not return like he had said. However at dusk we looked out over the ocean, then we spied his canoe then our stomachs were good (we were relieved).Ái kauh a parai ngo na hut i kalang tungu ki gimá tu lu monai, mái sár i kunlán kalang tungu gimá tu lu mangmangwa suri, má kápte a hut.My son said that he would arrive last month so we waited for him, however the entire month previous (to this) we just waited expectantly for him, but he did not arrive.ala8.4.1Period of timetime

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *