Appendices 01 – 05



APPENDICES 01 - 05.01




Appendix 1: Phases of the moon in relation to rice planting
This is specifically for the months of March sélél tdanan hotuk , the months for rice planting.


Moon; month.


nengel ohu
It’s in the ground, can’t be seen. New Moon (astonomer’s terminology).


uluk lanab
It appears just above the ocean as large as a wild pig’s tusk. New Moon .


sebwól tikung
It is one handspan above the ocean, red in appearance.


lulón klembew
It appears over the tops of the mountains.


nù lem léhéken
It appears halfway between earth and sky. Crescent. (Poor harvest if planted at this phase.)


It appears at the highest point of the sky. First Quarter . (Excellent harvest if planted at this phase, when the moon and blotik ehek ‘star for planting’ are in direct line, one above the other.)


deng semfóyón
It has just passed the sky’s highest point.


It is halfway down the sky (by daylight reckoning), beginning to be large. Gibbous. (Poor harvest if planted at this phase, because the moon and the blotik ehek have passed each other.)


Becoming larger. (Not good to plant at this phase.)


Usually the best time for planting. Last quarter .


Full moon. Second Quarter .


Still very large.


sotu knifuhen
‘First night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up.


lewu knifuhen
‘Second night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up.


tlu knifuhen
‘Third night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up.


fat knifuhen
‘Fourth night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up.


limu knifuhen
‘Fifth night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up, known as kifu lóbô ‘night of the wild things’ as animals, snakes. (Good harvest only if the owners themselves do the planting.)


nem knifuhen
‘Sixth night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up, known as kifu likò ‘night of being afraid’ (because the darkness is so intense).


hitu knifuhen
‘Seventh night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up, known as tanay ketfesen or tfes udì . (Good harvest if planted at this phase.


wolu knifuhen
‘Eighth night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up, known as tfes sumuy or tfes bong . (Good harvest if planted at this phase.)


syóm knifuhen
‘Ninth night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up, known as yewen bong; half of the moon is seen. Third/Last Quarter .


sfolò knifuhen
‘Tenth night with (a time of) darkness’ before moon comes up, also known as yewen udì ; only a small part of moon is seen. Crescent .


sudù kdaw
Moon is no longer seen since it sets the same time the sun comes up. New Moon.


limu butengen mbut bulón glimun
‘Five nights until the fifth month starts’ (i.e., May 1, the last chance to plant rice).


Month of March.


stileng bulón
Month of July.


tdanan hotuk
The dry season, usually from the last week of February through March, after the field has been cleared, while waiting for it to dry enough to be burned (lit. a time of resting).



Appendix 2: Spirit beings



Appendix 2.1: Spirit beings known as individuals


Bé lem bnes
A spirit believed to live in the grass (lit. grandmother in the grass).


The spirit owner of water.


A witch-like spirit whose speech scares people at night.


The owner of land, fields, houses, possessions, bamboo, slaves.


A spirit that makes the person change his looks and look fierce; a person who has this spirit.


The cackler of ghoul spirits which parents name to scare their children.


A false spirit that everyone reminds a child of when the child cries at night.


Loos Klagan
A spirit which causes sickness and also removes sickness when sacrifice is made.


A spirit that leads someone to behave in an unusual manner leading to a bad ending.


A spirit in the Big Spirit traditional stories who eats people alive.


The spirit who is the owner of a taboo such as Sfu Halay ‘spirit origin of rice’.


A spirit that causes venereal disease.


A fairy spirit said to live in the blétê ‘strangler fig’ tree.


A spirit believed to live in the grass who hunts people’s souls with a bow and arrow.


A spirit which parents name to frighten children and stop them from crying.


Témê Gu Bwak
A spirit believed to go hunting with his bow and arrow during rain showers while the sun shines or in the mists of fog after the rain in the afternoon. He shoots the spirit/soul of human beings he encounters causing them to get sick.


Témê Lus
A spirit believed to live in the grass (lit. grandfather in the grass.)


A spirit believed to be in charge of justice on the earth.


A spirit believed to help a person trap or catch a pig.


A spirit that appears like a bird whose head is believed to go out at night, called onuk busaw ‘spirit-bird’.



Appendix 2.2: Spirit beings considered as a group


A spirit believed to be be living in caves in the jungle that makes a stranger sick and unable to go through the jungle.


An evil spirit.


An evil spirit-being, the specific term used for the ghoul spirits who are known as yó kem msék ‘those who gnaw/chew/eat raw (the dead)’, but it is also the generic term for all classes of evil spirits.


The spirit of a dead relative.


ngà bù
Familiar spirits.


A supernatural power.


yó kem hmikò
Those who frighten people.


yó kem msék
Those who chew/gnaw at the dead.


yó kem lomi sut
Those who are recent arrivals, such as wa, tiktik, introduced by the Visayans.



Appendix 2.3: Spirit beings known as the owners
Generic Terms:


Fun bulul
‘Owner of the mountains’


Fun des
‘Owner of sickness’


Fun dlag
‘Owner of the forests’


Fun ’el
‘ Owner of (the bodies of) water’


Fun halay
‘Owner of the rice’


Fun kimu
‘Owner of (the traditional) possessions’


Fun tonok
‘Owner of the ground’


Fun twél
‘Owner of the metal casting’


Fun utón
‘Owner of the edible wild animals’
Some Specific Terms:


Fun Ala
‘Owner of the Allah River’


Fun bak ngeb
‘Owner of a certain treacherous pool at the bottom of a waterfall in the Allah River’


Fun bolos
‘Owner of (animals similar to) foxes’


Fun hfét
‘Owner of wild chickens’


Fun hikong
‘Owner of waterfalls’


Fun Hólón
‘Owner of Lake Parker’


Fun hulu
‘Owner of plants’


Fun iwas
‘Owner of monkeys’


Fun kdungon
‘Owner of abaca plants’


Fun kulón
‘Owner of rain’


Fun léhék
‘Owner of mountain rocks’


Fun lenos
‘Owner of wind’


Fun litok, Fun bnes
‘Owner of weeds’


Fun msól
‘Owner of blacksmith’


Fun Mtutung
‘Owner of Matutum Mountain’


Fun nesif
‘Owner of cross stitch’


Fun Sbù
‘Owner of Lake Sebù’


Fun sdô
‘Owner of wild pigs’


Fun Slótón
‘Owner of Slótón , the lake’


Fun sowu
‘Owner of pythons’


Fun Telemwél
‘Owner of Telemwél , the mountain’


Fun tnalak/Fun nes
‘Owner of abaca cloth’


Fun ulal
‘Owner of snakes’


Fun ungé
‘Owner of rats’



Appendix 3: Terms of address


Term of address between two people with the same name.


Term of address for teenage girls by older women.


Grandmother; grandchild; term of address between grandmothers and grandchildren.


Pal, friend; friendship name used by two people living in different areas.


Term of address between spouses of sisters-in-law and brothers-in-law.


Term of address for a young boy.


Term used when speaking of one’s sister-in-law or brother-in-law and other relatives except the parents.


Term of address between brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law


A man’s brother-in-law; term of address between brothers-in-law.


Great grandparent; great grandchildren; ancestor


Great, great grandparents; great, great grandchildren.


Name or term of address for a short, stout, round child.


Aunt (slang).


In-law; term of address between family members and relatives of a husband and wife only.


Term of address by a man to a woman; term of address between females meaning lady friend.


Term of address by a woman to a man.


Generic term of address used between spouses of sisters or brothers.


Term of address for a young girl.




mà dì
Uncle; term of address for older male friend.


Term of address for a young boy.


Name or term of address for a mute.


Term of address for a young boy.


Term of address for a young boy.


nuón, nguun
Term of address between the spouse of an uncle and the nieces and nephews.


Name or term of address for a mute.


Name or term of address for a short, stout, round child.


A relationship term used between spouses of brothers and sisters.


Term of address for a young boy.


Term of address for a young unmarried man by an older person.


Grandfather; grandchild; term of address between grandfathers and grandchildren.


Term of address for one’s son-in-law or young boy.


Son-in-law or daughter-in-law; term used when speaking about one’s son-in-law or daughter-in-law.


tuha libun
A husband’s term of address for his wife.


tuha logi
A wife’s term of address for her husband.


Term used when speaking about one’s father-in-law or mother-in-law.


Older sibling.


Younger sibling.


Friend; term of address for one’s peers and between wives of brothers.


Term of address between sisters-in-law.


wê libun
Term of address by the the son-in-law or daughter-in-law to his/her mother-in-law.


wê logi
Term of address by the son-in-law or the daughter-in-law to his/her father-in-law.


Term of address used when speaking to an elder sibling; short form of twogu ‘older sibling’.


Term of address used when speaking to a younger sibling; short form of twoli ‘younger sibling’.




yê bong
Aunt; term of address for a big, older woman.


yê dì
Aunt; term of address for a small, older woman.


Term of address for one’s daughter-in-law.



Appendix 3.1: Relationship terms


grandmother, granddaughter


bé fù
great-grandmother, great-grandchild


female child, teenager’ (older person to younger relationship)


spouse’s sibling-in-law (opposite sex relationship)


male’s sister-in-law; female’s brother-in-law


fê udì
male’s sister-in-law (younger than his wife); female’s brother-in-law (younger than her husband)


male’s brother-in-law


fóg udì
male’s brother-in-law (younger than his wife)


child’s spouse’s parents


male’s female cousin


female’s male cousin


spouse’s sibling-in-law (male to male)


female sibling: sister


male sibling: brother


female child, teenager (older person to younger relationship)




mà bong
older man with authority


mà dì


male child, teenager (older person to younger relationship)


female child, niece (older to younger relationship)


ngà udì
daughter-in-law (a child)


spouse of aunt or uncle (niece and nephew)


male child (older person to younger relationship)


male child, nephew


grandfather, grandchild


témê fù
great-grandfather, great-grandchild


son-in-law; a male child (older to younger relationship)


tò udì
son-in-law (child)


tuha libun


tuha logi


friend (male or female, recognized or not recognized)


female’s sister-in-law, spouse’s sibling-in-law (female to female)


wê udì
female’s sister-in-law (younger than her husband); spouse’s sibling-in-law (younger than her husband)


wê libun


wê logi


older sibling or cousin (male or female)




yê bong
aunt, older woman with authority


yê dì





Appendix 3.2: Term of address for people in authority


traditional male leader




Father (priest)




a female teacher






‘a male teacher’



Appendix 4: Musical instruments


bnogul litok
Very heavy and expensive type of gong.


Small flute-like instrument made from a certain kind of leaf.


Instrument made from half of a coconut shell with a piece of bamboo as its handle. Its one string (any kind) and bamboo bow is strung with abaca and played like a violin.


Horn, a wind instrument made from rice straw; harmonica.


Lute, long and slim in shape, carved out of wood, complete with two strings and nine frets made from honeycomb.


Long flute.


Musical instrument made up of a graduated series of seven or eight brass gongs placed on a frame with strings and played with padded sticks somewhat like an xylophone, usually played together with the drum.


Musical instrument made from a long pole. A portion is sliced off the middle. It is suspended by both ends and, using sticks, a certain rhythm is beat out along the length of the pole.


Drumsticks, bigger at one end, used to pound out a rhythm.


Musical instrument similar to the jews-harp, made from bamboo.


Flute-like instrument made from slender bamboo.


Suspended gongs.


Bamboo tube zither, a musical instrument made from a 2 ½ ft. 6 in. or so in diameter with five to eight strings.


Bass gong, a large gong emitting a deep, somber sound, used for transmitting calls to someone in the field or calling a meeting. Also played along with other instruments.


Large heavy gong.


Drum made from a section of bamboo with deer hide stretched over both ends; the music played on this drum.



Appendix 5: Stages in the development of the rice plant


‘It is like the point of a needle’ (i.e., only one tiny spear of green has come up out of the ground).


kikong sit
‘It is like the tail of the rice bird’ (i.e., it now has two spears of green showing).


tawan lenos
‘It is affected by the wind’ (i.e., its spears of green are tall enough to be moved by the wind).


‘It is like an onion’ (i.e., as tall as onion greens).


glimun bótóng numa
‘It is tall enough to conceal the logs of the forest’ (which have been chopped down and left lying in the field).


‘It has c ome out directly across from each other’ (i.e., the last two leaves at the top of the plant have come out directly across from one another, a sign that the plant has reached its full height and is ready for the flag leaf to grow).


tmubed kling
‘It has a new shoot like bamboo’ (i.e., the flag leaf has come out at the very top of the plant; inside this leaf the rice heads will form).


‘It has conceived’ (i.e., the plant has turned yellow, the sign that the heads of rice will begin to form inside the flag leaf).


mosò lehen
‘It is filling out thinly’ (i.e., the flag leaf is being filled up with the head of rice, but it is not yet discernible—‘it’s body is still straight’).


‘It is filling out’ (i.e., the flag leaf is filling up with the rice head enough to be discernible).


‘It is pregnant’ (i.e., the flag leaf is filled up full and bulging, ready to burst open).


‘It is calling out to others’ (i.e., the flag leaf on plants here and there throughout the field has opened and the heads of rice are seen standing upright; they are spoken of as recognizing one another and calling out to each ot her).


sembol doun
‘It is mixed with the leaves’ (i.e., the flag leaves have opened all over the field and the heads of rice are standing upright among the flag leaves).


‘It’s like cogon grass’ (i.e., heads of rice are seen standing upright on all the plants all over the field).


‘It is beginning to hang down’ (i.e., many of the rice kernels at the very tip of the rice heads are filling out so that this part of the head is heavy enough to hang down, ‘to bow’).


‘It is beginning to show red’ (i.e., four or five kernels at the very tips of the heads are beginning to ripen, to show a reddish color).


mlem lemnaw
‘It is filling up green’ (i.e, the grains are beginning to fill out, but still greenish in color).


sebwól kudung
‘Some rice grains are filled out and hanging down ‘bowing’, others are not. Rice heads are heavier, being swayed/swung around by the wind. Past the mlem lemnaw stage.


sóól twogun
‘Half of the older siblings are ripe’ (i.e., half of the rice heads that first came out are ripening, turning red; the other half is still green).


mfu twogun
‘The older sibling is complete’ (i.e, the rice heads that came out first are completely ripe).


sóól twolin
‘Half of the younger sibling is ripe’ (i.e., the rice heads that came out later are half ripee, half green).


‘Completely ripe’ (i.e., ready to be harvested).



Appendix 5.1: Stages of rice and corn growth


Rice, unhusked, a staple food of the Philippines.


The sheath-like covering at the base of each stem (of rice, banana plants, Manila hemp, coconut palm, areca nut palm).


Seed which is planted by dropping it in a hole.


Process of germination, beginning of growth.


Stage in the growth of corn when the kernels are just beginning to form.


Stage in corn growth when the buds appear in a cone-like shape for the flowers to come in.


A new shoot on a plant, sprout.