Dictionary Entries explained


A starred entry indicates that it is only used with affixation, e.g., fasang*.
Each entry includes a list of affixes used on that root. These affixes are listed
in alphabetical order and function as explained in the Grammar sketch.
Two of these are focus markers: (m-/-em-/-m-) and (n-/-en-/-n-).
The others are derivational/inflectional prefixes:
ge- abilitative/unintentional action
he- causative action
ke- nominalizer
se- reciprocal action/singularizer

When root words beginning with h are affixed with he-, me- or se-, h becomes f as in the word hatay.
he- + hatay ® hfatay
se- + hatay ® sfatay
me- + hlingay ® meflingay

In root words with l in the first syllable, l usually drops out when focus affixes are used, as in the word slolo ® smolo, snolo.

Stress is not written as it is always on the last syllable of the root, never on the attached pronoun.
The affixation on roots often makes a stem which takes all of the same affixes as a root and carries added meaning, while still retaining a thread of the original meaning as in the word laan 'under, lightweight' with affixes ® glaan,
hlaan, klaan, lemaan, lenaan, slaan.
glaan ® heglaan, keglaan, gemlaan, etc.
heglaan ® keheglaan, hemglaan, henglaan, etc.
Thus, glaan and heglaan are also entries.

Hyphen (-) is used only between n and g when needed to contrast it with the ng sound, written as ng.

Language words referred to in text are italicized.
We have endeavored to render in natural English the translation of the example sentences.
The alphabetical order of characters is as follows:
a, à, á, b, d, e, è, é, ê, f, g, h, i, ì, k, l, m, n, ng, o, ò, ó, ô, s, t, u, ù, w, y.
2 Introduction

5. Order of major entry
• Citation form
• Variation ( ) +/-
• Root form (from --) informs the reader that it is also an entry +/-
• Source language ( ) +/-
• Numbers indicate homonyms +/-
• Part of speech
• Scientific name +/-
• Gloss (lexical)
• Example sentence with English translation +/-
• [ ] Grammatical information +/-
• { }Additional ethnographic information +/-
• Reference to Appendix +/-
• Affixation of entry +/-
• Example sentences with English translation +/-
• Idioms +/-
• Antonyms (ant.), compare with (cf.), synonyms (syn.) occur at the end of an entry, but may refer to any part of the entry. In words found here the letters between hyphens indicate an affix, the root word is without the affix. +/-
• Tables +/-