Timucua is an extinct isolate, once spoken primarily in Florida. Its relationship to other language families has not been clearly demonstrated.  This ongoing project is an effort to document and recover the lexicon of Timucua.  The project leader is George Aaron Broadwell, Elling Eide Professor of Anthropology, University of Florida.

Our knowledge of Timucua comes almost entirely from 17th century Spanish colonial documents.

The most important of these fall into two categories: a.) a Latinate grammar (Pareja 1614) (hereafter the Arte), giving a treatment of some aspects of Timucua grammar and b.) several long volumes of parallel Spanish-Timucua religious materials, including a confessional, three catechisms, and a doctrina (explication of Christian doctrine).

Definitions in this dictionary are based on a corpus of about 138,000 words, based on the sources listed below.  (Thanks to the many contributors listed at who helped create this corpus!)

Primary sources

Here is a list of  the primary materials on Timucua, with links to electronic versions where available.

Various sources on Timucua have attempted to get the most correct list of the various materials and their dates, but there are some discrepancies in the items listed by Granberry (1993) and Milanich and Sturtevant (1972).  Having looked at microfilm or other versions of all of these, this is my best current understanding of what the materials are and where the originals are located.

Pareja, Francisco. 1612a. Cathecismo en lengua castellana, y Timuquana. En el qual se contiene lo que se les puede enseñar a los adultos que an de ser baptizados. Mexico City: Impresa de la Viuda de Pedro Balli. (NY Historical Society)

Pareja, Francisco. 1612bCatechismo y breve exposición de la doctrina christiana. Mexico City: Casa de la viuda de Pedro Balli. (NY Historical Society)


Pareja, Francisco. 1613. Confessionario en lengua castellana y timuquana con unos consejos para animar al penitente. Mexico City: Emprenta de la viuda de Diego Lopez Daualos.

One copy of Pareja 1613 is at the NY Historical Society.
Another copy is at the John Carter Brown library.

Pareja, Francisco. 1614Arte y Pronunciacion de la Lengua Timucvana y Castellana.. Mexico City: Emprenta de Ioan Ruyz. (NY Public Library rare book room)

Pareja, Francisco. 1627a.Catecismo en lengua timuquana y castellana en el qual se instruyen y cathequizan los adultos infieles que an de ser Christianos. Mexico City: Emprenta de Ioan Ruyz.

A version from the Biblioteca Digital AECID is available at

 This book is in two parts.  The first part is new, and the second part is a reprint of Pareja 1612a.  

Google Books versions of Pareja 1627a are available at the following places.

The version that is available on Google Books has a stamp from the Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele in Rome.

Pareja, Francisco.  1627b.  Cathecismo y Examen para los que comulgan. En lengua castellana y Timuquana.  Mexico City: Imprenta de Iuan Ruyz. (In the British Museum.)

A copy is available from the Codrington Library, Oxford at

Pareja, Francisco. 1628. IIII parte del catecismo, en lengua Timuquana, y castellano. En que se trata el modo de oyr Missa, y sus ceremonias. Mexico City:Imprenta de Iuan Ruyz.  (In the Codrington Library, Oxford.)


Movilla, Gregorio de. 1635a. Explicacion de la Doctrina que compuso el cardenal Belarmino, por mandado del Señor Papa Clemente 8. Traducida en Lengua Floridana: por el Padre Fr. Gregorio de Movilla. Mexico: Imprenta de Iuan Ruyz. (NY Historical Society)

Movilla, Gregorio de. 1635bForma breve de administrar los sacramentos a los indios y españoles que viven entre ellos. Mexico: Imprenta de Iuan Ruyz. (NY Historical Society)