Search results for "at"

-maq /mɑʔ⁵⁵/ n plural (for animate beings) 们(复数,众生);群 | vngningmaq they 他们 | shosingmaq students 学生们
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-ra /rɑ⁵³/ n plural (+) for moveable things (humans, animals) | vchitra flock of sheep 羊群 |
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-shi /ɕi⁵³/ nprop 专有名 suffix on personal names for people who are deceased ("the late") 敬语(死者人名)
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-shin /ɕin³¹/ v : Agreement first- and second-person dual optative 第一、第二人称双数愿望态 | ewa mvnwashin. Don't do that, you two. 你们俩,不要这样作. | -sheu+-neu
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*cheum /tɕɯm⁵⁵/ n 1maternal aunt 姨妈 2aunt (wife of paternal uncle) 叔母;伯母 3stepmother 后母 | (Fourth Township) nyanya /ɲɑ⁵⁵ɲɑ⁵⁵/
nvcheum n (your) maternal aunt; aunt (wife of paternal uncle); stepmother (你/你们的)姨妈;叔母;伯母;后母
vcheum n (my/our) maternal aunt; wife of paternal uncle; stepmother; older woman (我的)姨妈;叔母;伯母;后母;阿姨
vngcheum n (his/her/their) maternal aunt; wife of paternal uncle; stepmother (他/她/他们的)姨妈;叔母;伯母;后母
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*ci /tsi⁵³/ n 1grandmother (maternal or paternal) 奶奶;外婆 2great-aunt 姨祖母;姑祖母
nvci n (your) grandmother; great-aunt (你/你们的)奶奶;外婆;姨祖母;姑祖母
vci n (my/our) grandmother; great-aunt (我/我们的)奶奶;外婆;姨祖母;姑祖母
vngci n (his/her/their) grandmother; great-aunt (他/她/他们的)奶奶;(他/她/他们的)外婆;(他/她/他们的)姨祖母;(他/她/他们的)姑祖母
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*kang /kɑŋ⁵³/ n 1grandfather (maternal or paternal) 爷爷;外公 2great-uncle 舅祖父;从祖父 3master 师傅
kangkang n grandpa 爷爷
nvkang n (your) grandfather; great-uncle (你/你们的)爷爷;外公;舅祖父;从祖父
vkang n (my/our) grandfather (我/我们的)爷爷;外公;舅祖父;从祖父
vngkang n (his/her/their) grandfather; great-uncle (他/她/他们的)爷爷;外公;舅祖父;从祖父
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*keu /kɯ⁵³/ n 1maternal uncle 舅舅 2uncle (husband of paternal aunt) 姑丈 3father-in-law 岳父
nvkeu n (your) maternal uncle; uncle (husband of paternal aunt); father-in-law (你/你们的)舅舅;姑丈;岳父
vkeu n (my/our) maternal uncle; uncle (husband of paternal aunt); father-in-law (我/我们的)舅舅;姑丈;岳父
vngkeu n (his/her/their) maternal uncle; uncle (husband of paternal aunt); father-in-law (他/她/他们的)舅舅;姑丈;岳父
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*kop /kɔp⁵⁵/ n 1great-grandparent 曾祖父母 2great-grand-uncle or aunt 曾祖父母的兄弟姐妹
nvkop n (your) great-grandparent; great-grand-uncle or aunt (你/你们的)曾祖父母;曾祖父母的兄弟姐妹
vkop n (my/our) great-grandparent; great-grand-uncle or aunt (我/我们的)曾祖父母;曾祖父母的兄弟姐妹
vngkop n (his/her/their) great-grandparent; great-grand-uncle or aunt (他/她/他们的)曾祖父母;曾祖父母的兄弟姐妹
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*la /lɑ⁵³/ n 1first cousin (child of paternal aunt or maternal uncle) 姑母的子女;舅父的子女 2cousin's spouse (married to child of paternal uncle or maternal aunt) 堂表兄弟的配偶 3(my/our) brother-in-law; (my/our) sister-in-law; (my/our) cousin-in-law 配偶的兄弟姐妹;配偶的表哥
nvla n (your) first cousin; cousin's spouse; brother-in-law; sister-in-law; cousin-in-law (你/你们的)姑母的子女;舅父的子女;堂表兄弟的配偶;配偶的兄弟姐妹;配偶的表哥
vla n (my/our) first cousin; cousin's spouse; brother-in-law; sister-in-law; cousin-in-law (我/我们的)姑母的子女;舅父的子女;堂表兄弟的配偶;配偶的兄弟姐妹;配偶的表哥
vng'la n (his/her/their) first cousin; cousin's spouse; brother-in-law; sister-in-law; cousin-in-law (他/她/他们的)姑母的子女;舅父的子女;堂表兄弟的配偶;配偶的兄弟姐妹;配偶的表哥
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*ni /ni⁵³/ n 1paternal aunt 姑妈 2aunt (wife of maternal uncle) 舅母 3mother-in-law 岳母
nvni n (your) paternal aunt; aunt (wife of maternal uncle); mother-in-law (你/你们的)姑妈;岳母;岳母
vngni n (his/her/their) paternal aunt; aunt (wife of maternal uncle); mother-in-law (他/她/他们的)姑妈;舅母;岳母
vni n (my/our) paternal aunt; aunt (wife of maternal uncle); mother-in-law (我/我们的)姑妈;舅母;岳母
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*nvm /nəm⁵⁵/ n 1first cousin (child of paternal uncle or maternal aunt) 堂兄弟;姨表兄弟 2cousin's spouse (married to child of maternal uncle or paternal aunt) 堂兄的配偶 3sibling-in-law spouse 配偶之兄弟的配偶
nvnvm n (your) first cousin; cousin's spouse; sibling-in-law's spouse (你/你们的)堂兄弟;姨表兄弟;堂兄的配偶;配偶之兄弟的配偶
vngnvm n (his/her/their) first cousin; cousin's spouse; sibling-in-law's spouse (他/她/他们的)堂兄弟;姨表兄弟;堂兄的配偶;配偶之兄弟的配偶
vnvm n (my/our) first cousin (child of paternal uncle or maternal aunt); cousin's spouse; sibling-in-law's spouse (我/我们的)堂兄弟;姨表兄弟;堂兄的丈夫或妻子;配偶之兄弟的丈夫或妻子
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*pei /pəi⁵³/ n 1male 2father 父亲
Mvpei mvjvl nprop 专有名 female spirit 女神
Mvpei Pung nprop 专有名 deity 天帝
nvpei n your father (你/你们的)父亲
vngpei n (his/her/their) father (他/她/他们的)父亲
vpei n (my/our) father (我/我们的)父亲
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*pi /pi⁵³/ n 1grandmother 奶奶 2great-aunt 姨祖母;姑祖母 | Lisu loanword. 傈僳语借词.
nvpi n (your) grandmother; great-aunt (你/你们的)奶奶;姨祖母;姑祖母
vngpi n (his/her/their) grandmother; great-aunt (他/她/他们的)奶奶;姨祖母;姑祖母
vpi n (my/our) grandmother; great-aunt (我/我们的)奶奶;姨祖母;姑祖母
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*wvng /wəŋ⁵³/ n 1paternal uncle 伯伯;叔叔 2husband of maternal aunt 姨丈
nvwvng n (your) paternal uncle; uncle (husband of maternal aunt) (你/你们的)伯伯;叔叔;姨丈
vngwvng n (his/her/their) paternal uncle; uncle (husband of maternal aunt) (他/她/他们的)伯伯;叔叔;姨丈
vwvng n (my/our) paternal uncle; uncle (husband of maternal aunt); older man (我/我们的)伯伯;叔叔;姨丈
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am /ɑm⁵⁵/ n 1eat (Used in Maku and border areas. 马库国边使用.) 2food 食物 (Child language. 儿语)
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at /ɑt⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 escape 逃跑
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ban /bɑn⁵⁵/ n bucket; basin; plate; dish 盆子
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ben /bɛn⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be infected; catch (a disease) 传染(疾病) | vng keuq moq mi ben ri. He has also caught a cold. 他也被传染感冒了. | (First Township) ku /ku⁵³/
svben vt 及物动 infect 使被传染
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beu /bɯ³¹/ prt 助词 go (andative deictic, from speaker's point of reference) 去(动作向外,说话人所处位置) | na pvdi beu. You go ahead. 你去吧. | nga ding beung ning. I'm going. 我去吧. | singho sot sot gym taq laqvpoq beu. It will make life better and better. (这会)让生活变得更美好.
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beum /bɯm⁵³/ vi 不及物动 1lie; crouch | dvgeui dvmbong lok beum. The dog is lying down in the yard. 狗在院子里卧着. 2(hen) incubate (an egg) (母鸡)孵(蛋) | kaq kaqdung do beum. The chicken is in the coop hatching an egg. 鸡在鸡窝里孵蛋.
svbeum vt 及物动 put (a child) to sleep 使(孩子)躺下(睡觉)
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beur /bɯr⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be fat (person or animal) | waq tvtei beur. The pig is pretty fat. 猪很肥. | vng beur beur e. He's very fat. 他很胖.
svbeur vt 及物动 fatten 使肥
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blu /blu⁵⁵/ v discuss; talk over; negotiate 商量;商议 | ing blu chuq waai neu. Let's discuss it a bit. 我们商量一下.
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boq /bɔʔ⁵⁵/ adv near at hand 附近;旁边(挨近身体处) | kyeum boq do seum beumbeum kat. There are lot of peach trees planted near the house. 房子旁边种了很多桃树. | boq kei | Fourth Township. 四乡话.
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bot /bɔt⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 expand (in volume); inflate (体积)增大;膨胀 | gyaq ngang shaaq mvnvng bot tvcha e. After soaking in water, this thing is going to expand. 这个被水湿了以后会膨胀.
svbot vt 及物动 cause to expand; increase; exaggerate 使膨胀;增多;夸大
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brai /brɑi⁵⁵/ v scratch (with a claw) (爪子)划 | vli mi mvr nvbrai ra neu. Be careful the cat doesn't scratch your face. 小心猫抓你脸.
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brvt /brət⁵⁵/ v scratch (with a claw) (用爪子快速)抓 | chuq nvbrat rang. It scratched me a bit. 抓了我一下. | (Fourth Township) huai /xuɑi⁵³/
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buq /buʔ⁵⁵/ v bubble up (of spring water) (水)冒出 | wang buq | Fourth Township. 四乡话.
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bvna /bə³¹nɑ⁵³/ post 后置 comitative (with) 随伴格(和、与) | ing bvna tikat together with us 和我们一起 | nga bvna nvdi. Come with me. 你根我去. | Fourth Township. 四乡话.
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bvngkang /bək⁵⁵kɑŋ⁵³/ n type of caterpillar (white body, red head, lives undeground, likes to eat potatoes) 一种虫子(白色,红头,住在地下,喜欢吃土豆)
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bvngtuq /bək⁵⁵tuʔ⁵⁵/ n tattooing 文身 | bvngtuq ru get tattooed 做文身
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chakeu /tɕɑ³¹kɯ⁵⁵/ n hot water (for tea) 没有打过茶水
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chat /tɕɑt⁵⁵/ v discard; throw away 丢弃;扔;撒 | vya pvchaat. Throw that out. 把那个扔了. | mvcheu chat throw wherever you like 随便撒
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chatsheu /tɕɑt⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ vi 不及物动 jump
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cheu /tɕɯ⁵⁵/ 1vt 及物动 catch (with a fishing net) (用夹网)夹(鱼) | ngvplaq cheu beung ning. I'm going to catch fish. 我去夹鱼. 2n fishing net (hung on two long bamboo canes) 夹网
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chi'klung /tɕi³¹kluŋ⁵⁵/ n bamboo cane used in divination 占卜拐杖
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chi'klung mon /tɕi³¹kluŋ⁵⁵ mɔn⁵⁵/ n cane divination 拐卜
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chideut /tɕi³¹dɯt⁵⁵/ n water rat 水鼠 | ngang do chideut lang. The water rat is swimming in the water. 水里有水鼠在游. |
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chiglam /tɕə³¹glɑm⁵⁵/ n type of waterfowl (black body, red mouth, very strong) 一种水鸟(黑身,红嘴,力气大)
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chinit /tɕi³¹nit⁵⁵/ n type of water rat 鼠(生活在水中)
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chipkor /tɕip⁵⁵kɔr⁵⁵/ n watermill 水车
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chop /tɕɔp⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 be satisfied 满意 | mit chop
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chor /tɕɔr⁵³/ v 1rush (of water) (水柱)涌出 2urinate; piss 尿(尿) | vng chi chor di. He went to take a piss. 他去小便了.
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chung pvting /tɕuŋ⁵⁵ pə³¹tiŋ⁵⁵/ n type of waterfowl 一种水鸟 | (First Township) chung pvteung /tɕuŋ⁵⁵ pə³¹tɯŋ⁵⁵/
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chv'lam /tɕə³¹lɑm⁵⁵/ n irrigation canal 水渠(人做的) | ngang chv'lam
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chvben /tɕə³¹bɛn⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 be flat
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chvhraq /tɕə³¹xrɑʔ⁵⁵/ n throat (interior) 嗓子(口腔内部)
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chvhrop /tɕə³¹xrɔp⁵⁵/ n palate 上颚 | neuigong chvhrop za. My palate is all sore. 嘴的上颚疼痛.
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chvkop /tɕə³¹kɔp⁵⁵/ n 1turtle 乌龟 2water beetle 一种水生的甲虫
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chvkuq /tɕə³¹kuq⁵⁵/ n pool (of water); well 水塘 | ngang chvkuq
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chvngdung /tɕəŋ³¹duŋ⁵³/ n type of waterfowl 一种水鸟
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chvpanchvl /tɕə³¹pɑt⁵⁵tɕəl⁵³/ n illegitimate child 私生子 | (First Township) pattoq /pɑt⁵⁵tɔʔ⁵⁵/
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chvtar /tɕə³¹tɑr⁵³/ n waterfall 瀑布
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ci /tsi⁵⁵/ v calculate (number) 计(数)
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ciq /tsiʔ⁵⁵/ 1vt 及物动 build by laying bricks, stones etc. 砌;垒 | vngning lung ciq ra. They are laying stones (for a building). 他们在砌石块. 2n pile (firewood, stone) 堆(柴堆、石墙) | (First Township) ceuq /tsɯʔ⁵⁵/ | (Fourth Township) cuq /cuʔ⁵⁵/
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cut /tsut⁵⁵/ v notice; pay attention | vng nga le macut. He doesn't pay attention to me. 他不理我.
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cvng /tsəŋ⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 mate (of animals) (动物)交配 | gyaq pe geu cang. This animal is mating. 这个动物正在交配.
svcvng vt 及物动 cause to mate 使(牲畜)交配
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cvt /tsət⁵⁵/ v estimate; reckon 估计;估量 | ngei cvt be vya dvngbeum mal. I reckon there aren't that many. 我估量没那么多.
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da /dɑ⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 1inflate; expand 膨胀 2swell (stomach) (肚子)胀 | nga pa dang. My stomach is swollen. 我肚子胀.
svda vt 及物动 cause swelling 使膨胀
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dala /dɑ³¹lɑ⁵⁵/ n reward; remuneration (劳动的)报酬 | dala ngul
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dar /dɑr⁵⁵/ v 1mark (with tool or item) (用利器)划破 | gyaq gyoqpuq pvdaar rvt. Use this string to mark it. 把这布条划开. 2scratch | vng mvr do dar. His face is scratched. 他脸划破了.
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demsheu /dɛp⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ vi 不及物动 communicate; be in touch (with someone) 于(某人)联系 | (First Township) lvnsheu /lət⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ | (Fourth Township) tepsheu /tɛp⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/
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deum /dɯm⁵⁵/ 1vt 及物动 pool (water) 使水聚集 2n midstream where current is gentler because of a blockage 江河中水流因受阻,比较平缓处
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deut /dɯt⁵⁵/ n mouse; rat 老鼠 | (Fourth Township) dit /dit⁵⁵/
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deutdeung /dɯt⁵⁵dɯŋ⁵³/ n large mouse or rat 大老鼠
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deutgrong /dɯt⁵⁵grɔŋ⁵³/ n rodent path 老鼠道(草丛里老鼠爬行留下的路)
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di /di³¹/ prt 助词 1go (andative deictic marker from any point of reference, often the speaker) 去(动作向外,可能是说话人正处的位置,兼表亲见意义) | vng shing ri le dii di. (I saw that) he went to carry firewood. (我看见)他去背柴了. | nga sheng le ding di wa geuq kleup e. Someone said I went to the county capital, but he was lying. (某人说)我去县城了,是谎话. 2immediate past perfective (visual evidential) 完成体(刚刚完成,兼表亲见意义) | ngang vsu di. The water is boiled. 水(烧)开了. | In both senses, typically not used with a first-person agent, unless reporting someone else's statement about the speaker. Speaker is directly reporting a witnessed event. 一般不用于第一人称做施事,除非表示说话人转述他人的话. 动作的发生是说话人亲眼目睹的. | (First Township) gyi /ɟi³¹/
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do /dɔ³¹/ post 后置 1locative (at, on) 在(表示方位和方向) | gya do pvrong. Sit here. 坐这里. 2temporal (at, when) 在(时间) | (Fourth Township) kei /kəi³¹/
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don /dɔn⁵⁵/ v 1narrate; tell out aloud | vng jvgye don ra. He's reading a book. 他在念书. 2read 3attend school 上学;读书
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dul /dul⁵³/ vi 不及物动 occur (of a natural disaster) 发生(灾害) | gya do duul gyang. There was a landslide here. 这里滑坡了. | Rockslide, flooding, mudslide etc. 滑坡洪水泥石流等.
svdul vt 及物动 cause landslide 使滑坡
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dung /duŋ⁵⁵/ n 1hole (in roof, in clothing, nostril etc.) 2natural source of salt water, where takins go to drink 盐水的源头
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dung /duŋ⁵⁵/ v 1beat; play (drum) 敲打(鼓) | ngeu dung play the drum 敲鼓 2butt (with one's head) 以头或角抵撞
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dv- /də³¹/ v causative 使动态 | vpraq dvboq blow up the cliff (to repair the road) 炸悬崖(修路) | Apparently not a productive affix, but goes before certain monosyllabic roots with voiced initial consonants. Related to Rawang dv-. 显然不是一个派生词缀,可以加在浊辅音声母的单音节动词前,跟日旺语 dv- 有关系.
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dvbluq /də³¹bluʔ⁵⁵/ v tell; narrate 讲;叙述 | kvt dvbluq chat 聊天
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dvbratvng /də³¹brɑ⁵³təŋ⁵⁵/ n foot of the bridge 桥头
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dvbreq /də³¹brɛʔ⁵⁵/ v 1set off firecrackers 放鞭炮 2shoot weapons in a series 一连串的打枪声
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dvbrvt /də³¹brət⁵⁵/ v annihilate; put an end to 消灭 > brvt
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dvgleup /də³¹glɯp⁵⁵/ v 1insert 插入 2integrate 使嵌入
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dvgrang /də³¹grɑŋ⁵³/ vi 不及物动 1be beautiful 漂亮;美丽 | vng tvtei dvgrang. She's very beautiful. 她很漂亮. 2be attractive 好看
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dvm /dəm⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 be flat (level) | dvm mvli flatland 平地;坪坝
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dvm /dəm⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 float (on water) 浮;漂在(水上) | ngang do shing dam. There's wood floating on the water. 水上漂着木头.
svdvm vt 及物动 make float 使漂浮
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dvm /dəm⁵⁵/ prt 助词 inchoative (be about to) 将要 | (四乡)Mvningwang Bvngpot le di dvm e ra, na vtei wa dvm? When you go to Bapo next year, what will you do? 明年去巴坡你要怎么办? | (四乡)lambroq me neu ngaq dvm svlon. His friends are encouraging him to drink. 他的朋友劝他喝. | Fourth Township. 四乡话.
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dvnggang /dəŋ³¹gɑŋ⁵³/ n 1large, wide knife (面宽的)大刀 2sheath; scabbard 刀鞘
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dvp /dəp⁵⁵/ v 1nail; hammer in | gyaq lok pvdap. Hammer here. 钉在这儿. | 2stick 3go with; fit well; match (in appearance or status) 配得上
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dvwat /də³¹wɑt⁵⁵/ n type of hunting trap, usually made of bamboo and activated when an animal steps on a string 一种扣子(地弩)
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ebesheu /ɛ⁵⁵bə³¹ɕɯ³¹/ conn 1in that case 这样的话...也 2no matter what 无论如何 | ebesheu, na pvdi beu. No matter what, you're going. 无论如何,你去吧. 3but 可是 | (Fourth Township) edisheu /ɛ⁵⁵di⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/
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edisheu /ɛ⁵⁵di⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ conn 1that being the case 这样的话...也 | edisheu nga mvding. If that's how it is, I'm not going either. 这样的话,我也不去. 2no matter what 无论如何 | vtei wa edisheu no matter what 不管怎么样;无论如何 | Fourth Township. 四乡话.
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eup /ɯp⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 suffocate (from smoke) (烟)呛 | vng neut mi eup. He was suffocated by the smoke. 他被烟呛着了.
sv'eup vt 及物动 be suffocated with smoke 使被(烟)呛
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geur /gɯr⁵⁵/ 1n sweat | geur vpuq can't help but sweat 忍不住出汗 | nga pvreq mi geur vpuk. I'm sweating from fear. 我害怕得冒汗了. | geur vlai give off sweat 冒汗 2v sweat 出汗 | nga geur ding. I'm sweating. 我出汗了.
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geurti /gɯr³¹ti⁵³/ n sweat 汗水
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gol /gɔl⁵⁵/ v 1need 需要 | nga kyeum le loq sa gol. (Something serious has happened) I have to go home. 我得回家(出事了). | mvgol mit mvntvsha neu. Don't be nervous, don't grieve. 不要紧,别伤心. | mvgol you're welcome (don't bother) 不客气;没事 2let (hortative) 激励 | kei gol let's eat 吃吧 | vtvng svna sei gol what are you doing getting angry 干吗生气呢?
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gonggrai /gɔŋ³¹grɑi⁵³/ n caterpillar 毛虫
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goq /gɔʔ⁵⁵/ v sate (baby's appetite) 娃娃肚子饱 | (一乡)nagoq goq gi. The baby is sated. 娃娃喂饱了.
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gret /grɛt⁵⁵/ v slice (hard material) 切(硬材料)
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greum /grɯm⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 smell deliciously (of burning meat) 焦味 | sha greum ra. The meat smells good. 肉香味.
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guat /gʷɑt⁵⁵/ v snatch 攫夺
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gunatshuq /gu⁵⁵nɑt⁵⁵ɕuʔ⁵⁵/ adv dead drunk; in a drunken stupor 喝醉地
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gung /guŋ⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be mature (of seeds) (籽)成熟 | tabong tvntaq mvgung. The corn seeds are not yet mature. 玉米(籽)还没成熟.
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gya /ɟɑ⁵⁵/ dem 指示代 1this (proximal) | gya do here 这里 2 | (Fourth Township) ya /jɑ⁵⁵/
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Gyangmu Kvwakarpu /ɟɑŋ³¹mu⁵⁵ kə³¹wɑ⁵³kɑr³¹pu⁵⁵/ top 地名 Great Kawagebo mountain (in the Gaoligong mountains near Gongshan) 卡瓦格博(贡山境内高黎贡山最高峰) Holy mountain where a brother and sister took refuge from an ancient flood, and from which mankind then spread out and the nations of the world emerged. 圣山,传说远古时洪水淹没大地以后,只有两兄妹在山顶幸免于难,后来婚配繁衍人类,形成世界上的各个民族. > Kvwakarpu
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gyenaq /ɟɛ³¹nɑʔ⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 be fortunate 幸福 | gyenaq kya | gyenaq gyesom thriving 繁华
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gyeumbrai /ɟɯm³¹brɑi⁵³/ n sweet buckwheat 甜荞
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gyeumbrai pi /ɟɯm³¹brɑi⁵⁵ pi⁵³/ n sweet buckwheat flour 甜荞面 | gyeumbrai pi mi pvleq pvnai. Knead the sweet buckwheat flour into fried bread. 用甜荞面来捻粑粑.
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gyu /ɟu⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 1be correct 正确 2be appropriate 合适 | mvgyu kop hide what is inappropriate 不合适隐藏 3be permitted 允许
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gyvng /ɟəŋ⁵³/ vt 及物动 watch; look; see | tvng nvgyvng? What are you looking at? 你看什么? | pvgyvng take a look (for example) 你看(比如) | (Fourth Township) yvng /ŋ⁵³/
svgyvng vt 及物动 cause to look 使看
vgyvngsheu vi 不及物动 be visible 看得见
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hrap /xrɑp⁵⁵/ v 1arrive from downriver (从下游方)到达 2arrive at the top 到(上面)
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hreitot /xrəi³¹tɔt⁵⁵/ n 1leg amputation 断腿;断腿的人 2leg amputee 断腿的人
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hreq /xrɛʔ⁵⁵/ prt 助词 until (terminative) 才(表示终结) "vpei vmei" geuq so hreq oo chiwa. [The baby] did this until it could say "mommy, daddy". (婴儿)这样做,直到它可以说“妈妈,爸爸”. ko hreq pvgyi. Go over there (and no further). 走到哪儿(为止). First Township. 一乡话. > taq
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hri /xri⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be appropriate; compatible (of something long term) 适合 | hri mvhri ma'vsa don't know if they're compatible or not (of a couple) 不知道他们是不是合适
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hrvmchi /xrəp⁵⁵tɕi⁵³/ n small drying area just above the hearth, made of bamboo and suspended from the hrvmmei, used to dry wood and meat 火塘上方的架子,用来晒干东西
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hrvmmei /xrəm³¹məi⁵³/ n large storage area under the roof, covering the space above the hearth and serving for cereal storage, notably those for alcohol 火塘上方的存放东西的大架子 | Symbolically represents the second level of the sky (hrvm). 象征天空中的第二级.
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hul /xul⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 have bad breath 口臭 | na svni nvhul. You have bad breath. 你口臭.
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hvbiq /xə³¹biʔ⁵⁵/ n potato 土豆;洋芋 | Lisu loanword. 傈僳语借词.
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jat /ʑɑt⁵⁵/ v give birth 生孩子 | nagoq jat
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jatni /ʑɑt⁵⁵ni⁵³/ n birthday 生日 | (Fourth Township) jatjvn /ʑɑt⁵⁵ʑən⁵³/
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jeur /ʑɯr⁵⁵/ v indirect causative (force; cause; allow; make someone do something) 役使(让;使;叫) | nga na le vngza kei svjeur. I am making you eat the food. 我让你吃饭. | pu rong jeur. There was an owl in there (revealed by someone poking around a tree). 原来有猫头鹰在那里. | Preceding main verb must be volitional, or else morphological causative is used. In control and purposeful, the causer makes one object act on another. 前一个动词只能是自主动词. 主题役使第一个客体致使第二个客体.
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jin /ʑin³¹/ prt 助词 durative (while) 现行体 | laika wa jin rong make a living 做工作生活 | (四乡)kei chaq rong sitting and eating 坐着吃 | Links two simultaneous actions. 连同助词. | (Fourth Township) chaq /tɕaʔ⁵⁵/
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jvgrim /ʑə³¹grim⁵⁵/ n type of dark-colored waterfowl 一种黑色的水鸟 | (First Township) zegreum /zɛ³¹grɯm⁵⁵/
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jvl /ʑə³¹li⁵⁵/ v accumulate 积累
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kalop /ka³¹lɔp⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 be talkative; be garrulous 多嘴;话多的习惯 | (Fourth Township) kabeum /kɑ⁵⁵bɯm⁵³/
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kam'la /kɑm³¹lɑ⁵³/ n type of waterfowl, similar to a chicken in size, dark blue-green in color with a white head 一种水禽,约家鸡大,青黑色,白头
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kang /kɑŋ⁵³/ n big cat (leopard, tiger) 老虎(豹子、老虎)
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kaqdur /kɑ³¹dur⁵⁵/ n featherless chicken at egg-laying time 孵出时尾部光秃的鸡
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kaqkyer /kɑ³¹cɛr⁵⁵/ n 1chicken wing 鸡翅 2fletching (feathers for an arrow) 箭羽
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kaqleum mon /kɑ³¹lɯm⁵³ mɔn⁵⁵/ n type of divination practiced with eggs 蛋卜
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kaqmeul /kɑ³¹mɯl⁵⁵/ n chicken feather 鸡毛
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kaqmon /kɑ³¹mɔn⁵⁵/ n chicken divination 鸡卜 | The movements of the chicken are watched for divination purposes. 为了占卜都看鸡的动作.
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kar /kɑr⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 pull apart; separate (livestock, people or animals in conflict) 分开(家畜或发生冲突的人,动物);劝架
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karan /kɑ³¹rɑn⁵⁵/ v slather; smear 乱涂
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kari /kɑ³¹ri⁵³/ vi 不及物动 rotate (by itself) 转动
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kasvng /kɑ³¹səŋ⁵⁵/ n 1headman; chief (informal) 头人;领袖 2spokesman; good orator 口才好的人;能说会道的人
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kata /kɑ³¹tɑ⁵⁵/ n apron 围裙;围腰 | Article of clothing in daily use for many minorities in Yunnan. 云南少数民族日常生活穿的服装.
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katam /kɑ³¹tɑm⁵⁵/ n shelf (for chicken to sleep in their coop) (鸡睡觉的)架子
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kateq /kɑ³¹tɛʔ⁵⁵/ n button 纽扣
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kei /kəi⁵³/ 1vt 及物动 eat | nga mvkei. I'm not eating. 我不吃. 2vt 及物动 bite | nvkei rang. I was bitten (by a dog). 我被(狗)咬了. 3v exploit; invade; raid 剥削;侵略
svkei vt 及物动 feed; make eat; invite over to eat 喂;使吃;请吃饭
svkeisheu vi 不及物动 make a living 生活
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kei /kəi³¹/ post 后置 1locative (in; on; at) 在(表示方位和方向) | (四乡)lvka kei shingwvt beumbeum vl. On the mountains there are many flowers. 山上有很多花. 2temporal (at, when) 在(时间) | (四乡)ip wa vlang kei while sleeping 睡觉的时候 | (四乡)vya svnaq kei neu after all that 那个以后 | Fourth Township. 四乡话.
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kleup /klɯp⁵⁵/ v 1lie 撒谎 2cheat; deceive 骗;诈骗;哄骗 | kleup vcvng liar 骗子 | kleupka rumor 谣言
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ko /kɔ⁵⁵/ dem 指示代 that; those (distal) 那;那个;那些 | koo that one (even further) 那(还更远) | ko vmi e? Who is that? 那是谁? | ko mvli vcvng outsider 外地人 | ko do there 那边 | ko lap that side; over there 那边 | ko meung gya meung all kinds 各种各样
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kon /kɔn⁵⁵/ v gather up (drying clothing, fishing net) 收(晒的衣服、下的渔网等) | gyoq pvkon beu. You go gather up the clothing. 你去收衣服.
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kongshi /kɔk⁵⁵ɕi⁵⁵/ n boat (usually a wooden raft) 船(木头的) | kongshi ti lung one boat 一只船
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kongsvng /kɔk⁵⁵səŋ⁵³/ 1n reputation; fame and prestige 名声;名望 2vi 不及物动 be well-known 有名望;出名
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konkvn /kɔk⁵⁵kən⁵⁵/ n orphan (fatherless child) 孤儿 | tvcheu konkvn destitute orphan 孤苦伶仃的孤儿 | Literary language. 文学语言.
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koq /kɔʔ⁵⁵/ det 限定 that; those 那个;那些(作定语) | koq vcvng that person 那个人
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krakraq /krɑ³¹krɑʔ⁵⁵/ adv immediately 马上;立即
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kreq /krɛʔ⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 be emaciated (because undernourished) (因营养不良)瘦小长不大 | gyaq chvmmra kreq ra. This child is emaciated. 这孩子长不大.
svkreq vt 及物动 thin out 使瘦
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kvp /kəp⁵⁵/ v fetch; draw (water) 打(水) | vng ngang kvp di. He's going to fetch water. 他去打水了.
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kvrwa /kər³¹wɑ⁵⁵/ n pancake usually made from sweet buckwheat, often less chunky than pvleq 粑粑(甜荞麦)
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kvtbu /kət⁵⁵bu⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be talkative; garrulous 多嘴(话多) | vng ka tei bu. He talks the most. 他的话最多. | (First Township) kabu /kɑ³¹bu⁵³/
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kyechi /cɛ³¹tɕi⁵⁵/ n 1urgent or important matter 急事;要紧的事 | tvng kyechi mi ewa nvnan? What urgent business do you have that you're so anxious? 你这样着急(去)有什么要紧的事? 2relation; connection 关系 3necessity 必要
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kyeul /cɯl⁵⁵/ 1v spit at | ewa vcvng kyeeul mvnkyeeul? How can you not spit at that kind of person? 这样的人怎么不唾他. 2n spit; saliva 口水;唾液 | kyeul dvbeq spit 吐痰
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kyeumkol /cɯm³¹kɔl⁵⁵/ n base; foundation (of a building) 地基
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kyeumma /cɯm³¹mɑ⁵⁵/ n longhouse, consisting of two parallel rows of hearth areas, used by nuclear families 一种长屋(家人公共住所) | Archaic. Literally "mother house". 古代.直译“妈家”.
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kyeumpa /cɯp⁵⁵pɑ⁵⁵/ n longhouse, consisting of a row of hearth areas apportioned according to married couples 一种长屋(家人公共住所) | Archaic. Literally "father house". 古代.直译“爸家”.
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kyeup /cɯp⁵⁵/ v hibernate (动物)冬眠 | gya do beu kyeup. Here there's a snake hibernating. 这里有蛇冬眠.
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kyi /ci⁵⁵/ 1v weigh 2nclf 名量 catty (traditional unit of weight equivalent to 500 grams) (一)市斤
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kyisa /ci³¹sɑ⁵⁵/ n wheat (Triticum aestivum) 麦子 | kyisa pvta wheat noodle 面条
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lada /lɑ³¹dɑ⁵⁵/ v gesticulate 打手势;挥手;招手 | ur lada wa gesticulate (with the hands) 打手势
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laika /lɑi³¹kɑ⁵⁵/ n 1work; job 工作 2matter; event; thing 事情 | (Fourth Township) men /mɛn⁵³/
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lam /lɑm⁵⁵/ n 1messenger 信差 2path; route
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lat /lɑt⁵⁵/ v tip with poison (arrows) (给箭)上(毒药) | vng pvla lat di. He's going to make poison arrows. 他去制毒箭了.
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lateu /lɑ³¹tɯ⁵⁵/ n turban 包头巾 | Lisu loanword. 傈僳借词.
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le /lɛ³¹/ post 后置 1allative (to; towards) 夺格 | kyeum le vblaq teum after we went back home 回家以后 2anti-ergative (recipient, patient, benefactive) 反作格 | tvng le nadvgvng? What are you being so stubborn about? 你倔强什么? | vta jvng geuq e? What do you want to say? 你想说什么? 3purposive (in order to) 目的格(为了) | prase kei le come to raid the people 来剥削老百姓 | (Fourth Township) jvng /ʑəŋ³¹/
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lem /lɛm⁵⁵/ v silver-plate
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let /lɛt⁵⁵/ v water; pour water on 浇;泼 | vng kvn let di. He's going to water the vegetables. 他去浇菜了.
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leum /lɯm⁵³/ 1vi 不及物动 be warm or hot 暖和 2v warm up; heat up 热;加热 | vngza sheul maleum ning? Should I heat up the cold rice? (我)要不要把冷饭热一下? | (Fourth Township) vkat /ə³¹kɑt⁵⁵/
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lok /lɔk⁵⁵/ post 后置 LOC | shing gya lok lacoong. Pile up the firewood. 把柴堆这儿. | Upriver/Nujiang dialect. 上游/怒江方言.
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losvr /lɔ³¹sər⁵⁵/ n 1New Year's celebration 新年 2New Year's day 初一 | Typically lunar calendar. 农历.
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lungciq /luk⁵⁵tsiʔ⁵⁵/ n 1cairn; rock pile (made with human intention) 石堆(人做的) 2stone foundation 石垒 | Often used to demarcate land or keep animals out of an area. 经常用于划分土地或阻止养动. | (First Township) lungceuq /luk⁵⁵tsɯʔ⁵⁵/ | (Fourth Township) lungsiq /luk⁵⁵siʔ⁵⁵/
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lungplang /luk⁵⁵plɑŋ⁵³/ n large flat rock 大片岩石(平坦,大面积,裸露)
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Lvka'taq /lə³¹kɑ⁵⁵tɑʔ⁵⁵/ top 地名 Lakata 山外 | Lvkataq vcvng "beyond the mountains" people (impolite) 山外的人(不礼貌) | Present-day Dazeungdam (upriver, mountainous area) 现在的迪政当(江上).
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lvm /ləm⁵³/ nclf 名量 fathom; armspan (traditional measure of length with outstretched arms) (一)寻(测量单位)
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lvng /ləŋ⁵³/ nclf 名量 long flat object (一)张;片;根 | jvgye ti lvng one piece of paper 一张纸 | nvmbu ti lvng a pair of pants 一条裤子 | unei ti lvng one hair 一根头发
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lvpvt /lə³¹pət⁵⁵/ v compensate; make up 补偿
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ma /mɑ⁵⁵/ v 1hide (with advance warning) 藏(提前准备) | gya nvnggvm pvma sheu. Hide this well, you two. (你俩)把这个藏好. 2hibernate 3keep a secret 保密
masheu vi 不及物动 hide oneself 躲藏
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meq mvdvm /mɛʔ⁵⁵ mə³¹dəm⁵³/ v be satisfied 满意 | vng meq mamvdvm. He is not satisfied. 他不满意.
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meu /mɯ³¹/ prt 助词 1perfective non-visual (daytime occurrence) 完成体(白天完成或发生,兼表非亲见意义) | Pung zaai meu. Pung got sick (as I discovered upon my return). 阿普生病了(早上还好好的,我回来发现他病了). 2mirative evidential (discovery of result) 发现体(结果) | vng (tvnni) gyoq jvl meu. He washed clothes (today, as I saw from the clothes hanging up). 她今天洗衣服了. | vya pvgyvnggyvng meu. Just go have a look, just have a look. 你去看看一下. | geu svraqsheu meu, tvng nvso. They might have been feeling a little ashamed, you know? 他们可能是感到惭愧,你知道吗?
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meung /mɯŋ⁵³/ n type; category 种类;群体 | meung meung vngza all kinds of crops 各种各样的食物 | pvmameung the female gender 女人们 | Lisu pemeung Lisu people 傈僳族 | shinwvt ti meung a type of flower 一种花
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mon /mɔn⁵⁵/ n 1divination 占卜 2sign (in divination) 标记
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monwvt /mɔn³¹wət⁵⁵/ 1n divination 占卜 2v practice divination | Usually tying leaves together and reading them. 把叶子捆绑在一起,阅读.
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monzeng /mɔn³¹zɛŋ⁵⁵/ n 1divination expert; soothsayer; fortune-teller 占卜师父 2spirit which teaches divination 教占卜的神
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moq za /mɔʔ⁵⁵ zɑ⁵³/ v catch cold 感冒 | Literally "phlegm sickness". 直译“痰病”.
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moq /mɔʔ⁵⁵/ v wear (hat) 戴(帽子) | na gya pvmoq. You wear this. 你戴这个.
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mv- /mə³¹/, /mɑ³¹/ v negative 否定式 | gya mvgvm. This is not good. 这个不好. | nga mvding. I'm not going. 我不去了. | vng madvgrang, gyvng mvgvm. She's not beautiful, not good-looking. 她不漂亮,不好看. | na mvng e. You aren't. 你不是. | ma- is used before two-syllable and already prefixed verbs. ma- 用在双音节动词(包括其他语法前缀)前.
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mv'ngu /mə³¹ŋu⁵⁵/ v cooperation; mutual aid 互相帮助 | mv'ngu wa do cooperatively (farming, plowing etc.) (耕地,耕作)伙有 | Parcel of land jointly cultivated by two households. 两户共同耕种的一块地.
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mvdeum /mə³¹dɯm⁵⁵/ v 1return (item) 归还(东西) 2retaliate; take revenge 包袱
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mvdeum /mə³¹dɯm⁵³/ v 1return (from midway) (中途)返回 | vng mvdeum di. He went back (when only part way there). 他返回去了. 2retreat 撤退
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mvjing /mə³¹ʑiŋ⁵⁵/ n constellation with eight stars 一种星座 | (First Township) mvjeung /mə³¹ʑɯŋ⁵⁵/
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mvjiq mvliq /mə³¹ʑiʔ⁵⁵ mə³¹liʔ⁵⁵/ adv no matter what 无论如何 | tvng na svkei gyvng ning, mvjiq mvliq di sa geung. I should go see whatever it is he wants to feed me. 他请我吃什么,我无论如何应该去看一下.
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mvlan /mə³¹lɑn⁵³/ v 1proceed immediately; continue on (without stopping at an intermediate place) (刚到某处不停留又)去(某处) 2just (finished) 刚(完了) | ka geuq ton mvlan just after finishing what he had to say 话刚说完了
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mvlong /mə³¹lɔŋ⁵³/ n road; path; route | mudo mvlong car road 公路
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mvn- /mən³¹/ v prohibitive (negative imperative) with non-first person actor 禁止(别) | na mvnrvna neu. Don't you rest now. 你别休息. | Combination of mv- and nv-. Sometimes used with vl. mv-, nv- 结合起来.能和 vl 搭配.
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mvrvlsheu /mə³¹rəl⁵⁵ɕɯ⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be impatient 不耐烦
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mvsheung gunyit /mə³¹ɕeuŋ⁵⁵ gu⁵⁵ɲit⁵⁵/ n constellation 一种星座 | First Township. 一乡话.
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mvshvng /mə³¹ɕəŋ⁵⁵/ n menstruation; period 月经 | Older usage. 古典语言.
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mvtot /mə³¹tɔt⁵⁵/ n match head 火柴头
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nali /nɑ³¹li⁵⁵/ n 1watch 手表 2clock 钟表 | Burmese loanword, possibly via Lisu 可能是通过傈僳语言的缅甸语借词.
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nan /nɑn⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be anxious; impatient (to leave) 急于(走) | tvng le nvnan? What are you anxious about? 你急什么? | mit tei nan feel all anxious 心里很着急
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neu /nɯ³¹/ prt 助词 optative mood (expressing the speaker's desire) 吧(愿望态) | na mvndi neu. Don't you go. 你别去. | do, looq neu. Let's go. 走,咱们回去吧. | Used with first-person plural or second person, in sentence-final position. 在句尾,用于第二人称(说话人).
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ngan /ŋɑn⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 deflate; make air leak out 使(气)泄露
sv'ngan vt 及物动 deflate (air) 使漏(气)
v'ngan vi 不及物动 let out (air) 漏(气)
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ngang mvlong /ŋɑŋ⁵⁵ mə³¹lɔŋ⁵³/ n 1water channel (created naturally) 水渠(自然的) 2water route (between two places) 水路 | Literally "water road". 直译“水路”.
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ngang pvchiq /ŋɑŋ⁵⁵ pə³¹tɕiʔ⁵⁵/ n type of waterfowl 一种水鸟 | (First Township) ngang pvcheuq /ŋɑŋ⁵⁵ pə³¹tɕɯʔ⁵⁵/
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ngang'leum /ŋɑŋ³¹lɯm⁵⁵/ n hot water 热水
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ngang /ŋɑŋ⁵⁵/ n water | (Fourth Township) wang /wɑŋ⁵⁵/
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ngangchem /ŋɑk⁵⁵tɕɛm⁵⁵/ n waterside 水边
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ngangdung /ŋɑŋ³¹duŋ⁵³/ n 1pool; waterhole 池塘 2mouth of a spinrg 泉眼
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ngangglvng /ŋɑŋ⁵⁵gləŋ⁵⁵/ n cold water 冷水
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nganggyit /ŋɑŋ⁵⁵ɟit⁵⁵/ n boiled water 烫水
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ngangmon /ŋɑŋ³¹mɔn⁵⁵/ n water divination 水卜
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ngangsaq /ŋɑk⁵⁵sɑʔ⁵⁵/ n sound of water (booming sound of river water or waterfall) 水声(江水或瀑布的轰鸣声)
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ngangsheul /ŋɑk⁵⁵ɕɯl⁵⁵/ n cold boiled water 凉水(开过的)
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ngangsu /ŋɑk⁵⁵su⁵⁵/ n boiled water 开水
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ngaq /ŋɑʔ⁵⁵/ 1vt 及物动 drink | tvng nv'ngaq? What are you drinking? 你在喝什么? 2vi 不及物动 breathe 呼吸 | saq ngaqsheu 3vi 不及物动 smoke 抽(烟) | (Fourth Township) aq /ɑʔ⁵⁵/
sv'ngaq vt 及物动 make someone drink; invite to drink 使喝;请(人)喝
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nguq /ŋuʔ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 eat up; drink up 吃得光;喝得光 | vng mi neu nguuq luung. He drank up the alcohol. 他把酒喝光了. | vya dvngbeum ma'vnguq. This much I can't finish eating. 那么多(我)吃不完.
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ngvloi /ŋə³¹lɔi⁵³/ n water buffalo 水牛
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ngvm /ŋəm⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 be aromatic; rich and fragrant smelling (e.g. of fresh meat) 醇香(鲜肉味) | tvng ngvm raq e? What smells so good? 是什么香?
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ngvseu /ŋə³¹sɯ⁵³/ n water buffalo 黄牛 | (Fourth Township) batseu /bɑt⁵⁵sɯ⁵³/
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ning /niŋ³¹/ prt 助词 optative (marking requests, desires, intentions) 吧(愿望态) | ngei geuq ning. I am telling you (him, her). 我说给你(他/她). | nga lang rang ning. I'll look for you. 我会找你. | (四乡)peut vsvng sheu saqdeu taq greung gol, ta vsvng sheu ding ning mitsheu. The person talking should make it so vivid that the person listening will think about going. 要尽量说得生动一些,使听的人想去. | Used by first-person speaker, in sentence-final position = neu +-ng. 在句尾,用于第一人称(说话人)= neu +-ng. | (First Township) yeung /jɯŋ³¹/
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niq /niʔ⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 press with the finger (into water) 摁(入水) | gyu le pvniiq. Press it down (with your finger). (把它)摁下去. | (First Township) neuq /nɯʔ⁵⁵/
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nv- /nə³¹/, /nɑ³¹/ v : Agreement 1non-first person actor 非第一人称 | na vmi nv'e? Who are you? 你是谁? | gya neu vpei mi nvbing svra e. This is the gift my father gave me. 这是我爸爸给我的礼物. | na mvr na'pvsai. Your face is red. 你(的)脸(是)红了. 2imperative 命令式 (Fourth Township only. 四乡话.) | na- is used before two-syllable and already prefixed verbs. na- 用在双音节动词(包括其他语法前缀)前. | (First Township) nyv- /ɲə³¹/
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nvcheum /nə³¹tɕɯm⁵⁵/ n 1(your) maternal aunt (你/你们的)姨妈 2(your) aunt (wife of paternal uncle) (你/你们的)叔母;(你/你们的)伯母 3(your) stepmother (你/你们的)后母 > *cheum
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nvci /nə³¹tsi⁵³/ n 1(your) grandmother (你/你们的)奶奶;外婆 2(your) great-aunt (你/你们的)姨祖母;姑祖母 > *ci
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nvcim /nə³¹tsim⁵³/ n goatee 下巴山羊 | (First Township) nvceum /nv³¹tsɯm⁵³/
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nvkang /nə³¹kɑŋ⁵³/ n 1(your) grandfather (你/你们的)爷爷;外公 2(your) great-uncle (你/你们的)舅祖父;从祖父 > *kang
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nvkeu /nə³¹kɯ⁵³/ n 1(your) maternal uncle (你/你们的)舅舅 2(your) uncle (husband of paternal aunt) 姑丈 3(your) father-in-law (你/你们的)岳父 > *keu
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nvkop /nə³¹kɔp⁵⁵/ n 1(your) great-grandparent (你/你们的)曾祖父母 2(your) great-grand-uncle or aunt (你/你们的)曾祖父母的兄弟姐妹 > *kop
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nvm'la /nəm³¹lɑ⁵⁵/ n 1deity 2god (bodhisattva) 菩萨 | Generic term for all spirits, literally "sky spirits". 通称各路神仙,直译“天神”
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nvmei /nə³¹məi⁵⁵/ n cat
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nvmzvng ti /nəm⁵³ zəŋ⁵³ ti⁵³/ n rainwater (collected in containers) 雨水(接在器皿中的)
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nvni /nə³¹ni⁵³/ n 1(your) paternal aunt (你/你们的)姑妈 2(your) aunt (wife of maternal uncle) (你/你们的)舅母 3(your) mother-in-law (你/你们的)岳母 > *ni
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nvpching kan /nəp⁵⁵tɕiŋ⁵⁵ kɑn⁵³/ n entrance; doorway; gate 门口 | (First Township) nvpcheung kan /nəp⁵⁵tɕɯŋ⁵⁵ kɑn⁵³/
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nvpei /nə³¹pəi⁵³/ n your father (你/你们的)父亲 > *pei
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nvpi /nə³¹pi⁵³/ n 1(your) grandmother (你/你们的)奶奶 2(your) great-aunt 姨祖母;姑祖母 > *pi
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nvppvwvng /nəp⁵⁵pə³¹wəŋ⁵⁵/ n bat 蝙蝠
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nvwvng /nə³¹wəŋ⁵³/ n 1(your) paternal uncle (你/你们的)伯伯;叔叔 2(your) uncle (husband of maternal aunt) (你/你们的)姨丈 > *wvng
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pacvng /pɑ³¹tsəŋ⁵⁵/ n mating (of livestock, especially pigs) (家畜)交配 | waq pacvng wa. The pigs are mating. 猪在交配.
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paikoq /pɑi⁵⁵kɔʔ⁵⁵/ n tall rattan basket 藤萝
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panteu /pɑt⁵⁵tɯ⁵⁵/ n seat; bench; chair (usually wood) 板凳;凳子 | na panteu do pvrong. Sit down in the chair. 请你坐在凳子上. | Chinese loanword. 中文借词.
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pateu /pɑ³¹tɯ⁵⁵/ v respond 回答
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patkvteu /pɑt⁵⁵kə³¹tɯ⁵⁵/ v upend; turn upside down 颠倒;倒立 | (Fourth Township) pattvteu /pɑt⁵⁵tə³¹tɯ⁵⁵/
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patoq /pɑ³¹tɔʔ⁵⁵/ n corral; pen 畜栏;棚子 | waq patoq pig pen 猪圈 | nungngua patoq cattle shed (牛)棚子
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pattoq /pɑt⁵⁵tɔʔ⁵⁵/ n 1illegitimate child 私生子 2hybrid; mongrel 杂种 | First Township. 一乡话.
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pattung /pɑt⁵⁵tuŋ⁵³/ n traitor 叛徒 | Chinese loanword. 汉语借词
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peichvl /pəi³¹tɕəl⁵³/ n father and child 父子;父女 | vngne peichvl those two, father and child 他们父子;他们父女
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peng /pɛŋ⁵⁵/ n flat rice pounded after being fried 炒熟后舂成的扁米
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penma /pɛn³¹mɑ⁵³/ n beater: part of a loom, consisting of a piece of wood slipped in to pack the new weft threads tightly into the fabric 铺网机(织布机的部分) | (First Township) cenma /cɛn⁵⁵mɑ⁵³/
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peq /pɛʔ⁵⁵/ n 1skin; peel 2shell 3ear or spike (of wheat or other grain-producing plants)
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pet /pɛt⁵⁵/ v catch; capture 捕捉
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peup /pɯp⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 scatter; sprinkle | vng kvn'gyeu peup ra. She's scattering vegetable seeds. 她在撒菜种.
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peuq /pɯʔ⁵⁵/ 1vi 不及物动 be soft 2v macerate (soften food in liquid) 浸软 | (First Township) piq /piʔ⁵⁵/
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peurkoq mon /pɯr³¹kɔʔ⁵⁵ mɔn⁵⁵/ n bowl divination 碗卜 | Bowl filled with water is thrown to see how it will land. 碗装满水被抛出,看看如何落下.
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piceut /pi³¹tsɯt⁵⁵/ n flatulent person; person who farts a lot 屁多的人
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plan /plɑn⁵⁵/ v scatter (of clouds) (云)散
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plat /plɑt⁵⁵/ v put out; drive out; herd 放;驱赶 | vchit vra le nvplat lung sheu? Where were the goats herded off to? 羊赶到哪儿了?
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plet /plɛt⁵⁵/ v water; irrigate | vng kvn plet di. She went to water the vegetables. 她去浇菜了.
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prvt /prət⁵⁵/ v 1welcome; receive (a guest) 接待 | lambroq prvt sheu mvnsoo. You don't know how to welcome friends. (你)朋友也不会接待. 2have relations 交往
prvtsheu vi 不及物动 communicate 联系
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prvtsheu /prət⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ vi 不及物动 communicate; be in touch 联系 | vng nga le mvprvtsheu ra. He didn't communicate with me. 他没跟我联系. > prvt
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pv- /pə³¹/, /pɑ³¹/ v imperative 命令式 | nagoq kraq pasv'iip. Quick, make the child go to sleep. 你快让(使)孩子睡觉. | chuq patvkeuk rang. You pull me a little. 你拉我一下. | pvdi ra. Come over here. 你过来. | pa- is used before two-syllable and already prefixed verbs. pa- 用在双音节动词(包括其他语法前缀)前. | (Fourth Township) nv- /nə³¹-/
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pvdeu /pə³¹dɯ⁵³/ v 1like 喜欢 | kei pvdeu like to eat 喜欢吃 2feel the urge (to go to the bathroom) 想(大小便)
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pvhrvm /pə³¹xrəm⁵⁵/ n thatched building 茅屋;草棚
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pvka /pə³¹kɑ⁵⁵/ n bitter buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) 荞麦
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pvka pi /pə³¹kɑ⁵⁵ pi⁵³/ n bitter buckwheat flour 苦荞面
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pvkachvl /pə³¹kɑ⁵⁵tɕəl⁵³/ n kind of bitter buckwheat (a little bit sweet) 一种荞麦(一点甜)
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pvlaq /pə³¹lɑʔ⁵⁵/ n great-grandchild 曾孙
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pvng- /pəŋ³¹/ v inchoative (be about to) 会;将要 | nga Bvngpot le di pvngwang. I am going to Bapo. 我要去巴坡. | (Fourth Township) dvm /dəm⁵⁵/
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pvngpvng /pək⁵⁵pəŋ⁵³/ adv in detail; systematically 一五一十;按照顺序
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pvnvm /pə³¹nəm⁵⁵/ v 1smell 2catch the smell of 嗅到 3be foul or smelly
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pvnvng /pə³¹nəŋ⁵⁵/ v accumulate; save (money) 积攒;积累 | ngul nvnggvm papvnvngsheu. You two should save up some money. 你俩好好攒钱.
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pvral /pə³¹rɑl⁵⁵/ n 1partner 伙伴 2relative by marriage (e.g. two unrelated men marrying sisters) 娶同一家族或家庭女子的男子
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pvreu /pə³¹rɯ⁵⁵/ n bamboo rat (Rhizomys, large in size) 竹鼠(体型很大)
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pvshi /pə³¹ɕi⁵⁵/ n mouse (relatively large) 老鼠(体型较大,生活在箐沟)
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pyong /pʲɔŋ⁵³/ v float; drift (of snow) (雪)飘 | tvwvn pyong ra. The snow is floating (falling). 飘(下)雪了.
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ra /rɑ³¹/ prt 助词 1venitive deictic (towards the speaker) 来(动作向心) | pvdi ra. (You) come over here. 你过来. | nga vdoi ding rang ning. I'll come back in a little while. 我过一会儿过来. | u na'vdeup rang. I hit my head. 撞了我的头了. 2mirative (eye-witness discovery by sight, touch etc.) 发现体(亲眼目睹的视觉、触觉) | vng tvng geuq ra? (You heard him) say what? (你听到)他说什么了? | vng gyoq jvl ra. (I see that) he is washing clothes. (我发现)他正在洗衣服. | tvtei sison ra very interesting 有趣极了 | Used with imperative to sound more polite. 跟命令式同时使用更礼貌.
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rap /rɑp⁵⁵/ nclf 名量 generation (一)代 | ti rap generation 一代(人) | charap ancient times 古代 | ti rap lambroq lifelong friend 一辈子的朋友 | nga ti rap my lifetime (generation) 我这一代
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rei /rəi⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be toothed; serrated 有齿 | vng'rei vl shinlvp serrated (plant) leaves 带齿的草叶
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reup /rɯp⁵⁵/ v 1pick (fruit, flowers) 摘(果子、花) | vng seum reup di. He's going to pick peaches. 他去摘桃子了. 2catch 捕捉 | bvling reup catch worms 捉捉虫
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reuq /rɯʔ⁵⁵/ v scratch lightly (at an itch) 挠(痒)
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reusheu /rɯ⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ vi 不及物动 berate unfairly; take one's pain or anger out on someone (who doesn't deserve it) (因疼痛或某种原因)迁怒于 | vng nga le reusheu. He's berating me unfairly. 他迁怒于我.
svreusheu v berate unfairly 迁怒于
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ri /ri³¹/ prt 助词 1experiential (aspect) 过(曾经经历某种事情) | gya vng kei mvri. He has never eaten this. 这个他没吃过. 2non-visual perfective (took place at night, unseen by speaker) 夜间发生(非亲见意义) | toigyaq ngang taai ri. Last night the water (in the river) rose. 昨夜(江)水上涨了.(Compare with ip. 与 ip 相比.)
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rop /rɔp⁵⁵/ v 1beat up 敲打 2play (a game) 打(篮球) | picheu rop play a ball game (e.g. badminton) 拍球 3call (phone); dial 打(电话) | vmi le nvroop? Who are you calling (on the phone)? 你给谁打(电话)的?
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rvchi /rə³¹tɕi⁵³/ v investigate; look into (reason) 追究;追究(话);探问(原由)
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rvkol /rə³¹kɔl⁵⁵/ v pick up; gather 拾;捡 | vng shing rvkol ra. He's gathering wood. 他在捡柴.
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rvp /rəp⁵⁵/, /rəp⁵⁵/ v 1thresh (grain) 打(谷子) | tvnni vmbeu rvp pvngwang. Today I'm going to thresh the paddy. 今天我要打稻谷. 2sift; sieve 3strike; hit 4paddle; row (a boat) 划(船) | kongshi rvp
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rvsaq /rə³¹sɯ⁵⁵/ n water spirit (水里的)鬼 | rvsaq laq! Oh god! (This is serious.) 天啊!(不得了) | Known for seducing human souls. 会勾引人的灵魂.
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rvtsheu /rət⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ v scratch 挠(痒) | dungbeur nvrvtsheu scatch a beard 挠胡子 > rvt
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rvwel /rə³¹wɛl⁵³/ v separate (humans and spirits) 分开;分离(人类和鬼) | Only appears in the myth of the primeval flood. Tradition holds that humans and spirits once lived together, humans were on the verge of extinction, and the heavenly spirit sent a flood to separate humans and spirits. 只出现在洪水神话中.传说远古时候人类和鬼生活在一起,人类濒临灭绝,天神就发洪水把人与鬼分开.
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sam /sɑm⁵³/ v permeate (of water) (水)渗入
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sang /sɑŋ⁵⁵/ v fumigate; smoke out 烟熏
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saq dvmat /sɑʔ⁵⁵ də³¹mɑt⁵⁵/ 1v cough 咳嗽 | vng ti gyaq saq dvmat ra. He coughed all night. 他咳了一夜. 2vi 不及物动 be hoarse; lose one's voice
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saq /sɑʔ⁵⁵/ n 1sound 声音 | vngsaq tei loud 大声 2voice 人的声音 | saq dvmat have a cold (be hoarse, cough, or sneeze) 咳嗽(或打喷嚏) 3breath 呼吸 | saq ngatsheu 4strength 力气 | saq mvzvng. I don't have any strength. 我没有力气. 5steam 蒸汽
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sat /sɑt⁵⁵/ n gift 礼品 | sat wa give a gift 送礼
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sat /sɑt⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 rouse; wake (somebody) 唤醒 | Pung pvsat beu. You go rouse Pung. 你去唤醒阿普.
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satot /sɑ³¹tɔt⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 be connected 连接着 | ti teuq ti teuq satot one room connected to the next 一间连着一间
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sha /ɕɑ⁵⁵/ n 1meat; flesh 2wild animal; game 野生动物
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sha'raq /ɕɑ³¹rɑʔ⁵⁵/ n distilled alcohol made with grilled meat, which colors and gives a pleasant smell to the alcohol 沙拉酒 | Literally "meat alcohol", said by some to come originally from the Nu river valley. 直译“肉酒”. > vraq
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shacheq /ɕɑ³¹tɕɛʔ⁵⁵/ n large chunk of meat 大肉块
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shagyong /ɕɑ³¹ɟɔŋ⁵³/ n long strip of meat (割下的长条形大块的)肉块
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shakaq /ɕɑ³¹kɑʔ⁵⁵/ n chunk of meat (小块的)肉块
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shanaq /ɕɑ³¹nɑʔ⁵⁵/ n lean meat 瘦肉
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shasheu /ɕɑ³¹ɕɯ⁵⁵/ n raw meat 生肉
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shashi /ɕɑ³¹ɕi⁵⁵/ n ground meat 磨肉
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sher /ɕɛr⁵³/ v separate (leaves, cloth) into thin strips (把草叶、布等)划(成若干细条)
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sheuikvp /ɕɯi³¹kəp⁵⁵/ n straight-line tattooing on the palm of the hand 手掌直纹 | "Bear" tattoo. 黑熊纹.
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sheup /ɕɯp⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 1deflate; empty 使瘪;弄瘪 2shut (umbrella) 关闭(雨伞等等)
tvsheup vi 不及物动 deflate 弄瘪
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shi /ɕi⁵³/ 1v die 2n death 死亡
tvshi vt 及物动 kill 弄死
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shin /ɕin³¹/ prt 助词 emphatic (for information considered obvious) 嘛(强调明显)
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shing'lushom nvm /ɕiŋ³¹lu⁵⁵ɕɔm⁵³nəm⁵³/ n late, rainy season (when leaves fall) 落叶时下雨的季节 | (First Township) sheung'lushom nvm /ɕɯŋ⁵⁵lu⁵⁵ɕɔm⁵³nəm⁵³/
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shiwang'at /ɕi⁵⁵wɑŋ⁵⁵ɑt⁵⁵/ n type of medicinal plant 一种药材
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sholaq /ɕɔ³¹lɑʔ⁵⁵/ 1v raise; bring up 培养 2v educate 教育 3n caregiver; maid 保姆 4n hired hand 帮佣 (Now uncommon. 不经常用。)
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shvmmon /ɕəm³¹mɔn⁵⁵/ n knife divination 刀卜
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Shvwatvng /ɕə³¹wɑ⁵⁵təŋ⁵⁵/ top 地名 Shawatang (Third Township village) 学哇当(三乡村名)
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shvwer mon /ɕə³¹wɛr⁵⁵ mɔn⁵⁵/ n type of divination practiced with this type of orchid 兰花卜
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som /sɔm⁵³/ v incinerate (small insects and random items by throwing them in the fire) (把小虫、杂碎的东西扔到火里)烧
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soq /sɔʔ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 1calculate (numbers) 算;计算 2estimate 估计
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su /su⁵³/ vi 不及物动 be fat (pig) | gyaq waq tvtei su. This pig is really fat. 这猪很肥. | susha fatty meat 肥肉
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sujeung /su³¹ʑɯŋ⁵⁵/ n permanent cultivated land (as opposed to swidden land), usually for corn 固定的耕地(与轮歇刀耕火种的火山地相对)
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sv- /sə³¹/, /sɑ³¹/ v causative 表示使动 | gyoq nasvbreeng luung. You made the clothing tear. 你把衣服弄破了. | sa- is used before two-syllable and already prefixed verbs. Related to archaic Proto-Tibeto-Burman causative. sa- 用在双音节动词(包括其他语法前缀)前. 来自藏缅语的使动前缀.
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sv'eup /sə³¹ɯp⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 be suffocated with smoke 使被(烟)呛;熏 > eup
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sv'ngan /sə³¹ŋɑn⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 deflate (air) 使漏(气) > ngan
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sv'ngansheu /sə³¹ŋɑt⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ vi 不及物动 be deflated; be in low spirits 消沉 > sv'ngan deflate (air)
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sv'ngeum /sə³¹ŋɯm⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 gather together 使聚集;集中 > ngeum
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sv'ngong /sə³¹ŋɔŋ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 starve (someone) to death 使饿死 > v'ngong
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svbeur /sə³¹bɯr⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 fatten 使肥 > beur
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svbot /sə³¹bɔt⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 1cause to expand 使膨胀 2increase 增多 3exaggerate 夸大 > bot
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svbra /sə³¹brɑ⁵⁵/ v gather; collect 采集
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svcvng /sə³¹tsəŋ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 cause to mate 使(牲畜)交配 > cvng
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svdvm /sə³¹dəm⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 make float 使漂浮 > dvm
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svga /sə³¹gɑ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 illuminate; brighten 使亮;照亮 > ga
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svgra /sə³¹grɑ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 satiate (with food) 弄饱;使饱 > vgra
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svgrai /sə³¹grɑi⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 1freeze 使冻 2starve to death 饿死 > grai
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svguar /sə³¹gʷɑr⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 heat until red (e.g. iron) 使黄(烧红) > guar
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svhreuq /sə³¹xrɯʔ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 make emaciated 使瘦 > hreuq
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svkei /sə³¹kəi⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 1feed; make eat 喂;使吃; 2invite to ea 招待(食物) > kei
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svlang /sə³¹lɑŋ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 dispatch; send on a mission 派遣;派 > lang
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svlon /sə³¹lɔn⁵⁵/ v 1instigate 唆使 | (四乡)lambroq me neu ngaq dvm svlon. His friend gets him to drink alcohol. 朋友劝他喝酒. 2collude 勾结
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svlop /sə³¹lɔp⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 inculcate (a bad habit) 使养成(某种坏习惯) > lop
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svmeuq /sə³¹mɯʔ⁵⁵/ adv just before death; in extremis 临死前的
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svmvn /sə³¹mən⁵⁵/ n caterpillar 毛虫
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svmvn saq /sə³¹mən⁵⁵ sɑʔ⁵⁵/ n caterpillar 毛毛虫
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svng /səŋ⁵³/ v spread (reputation, news) (名声、消息)传开
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svng /səŋ⁵⁵/ vi 不及物动 1be tasty; strong (味道)好 2be (moderately) salty (盐咸味)适度
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svni hul /sə³¹ni⁵⁵ xul⁵⁵/ n bad breath 口臭
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svpang /sə³¹pɑŋ⁵⁵/ n elevated granary, used for drying, with open bamboo lattice walls to allow for aeration 提高的粮仓
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svreusheu /sə³¹rɯ⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ v berate unfairly; take one's pain or anger out on someone (who doesn't deserve it) (因疼痛或某种原因)迁怒于 > reusheu
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svring /sə³¹riŋ⁵⁵/ n type of rattan 一种藤子 | (First Township) svreung /sə³¹rɯŋ⁵⁵/
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svroq /sə³¹rɔʔ⁵⁵/ v mate (chickens) (鸡)交配
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svtot /sə³¹tɔt⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 1join; connect 连接 2bequeath; hand down 遗留 | vng svtot his successor 他的继承人 3save someone's life 救活 | saq svtot > tot
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svtsheu /sət⁵⁵ɕɯ³¹/ vi 不及物动 1fight 打架 2battle 打战 > svt
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svwa'ngat /sə³¹wɑ⁵⁵ŋɑt⁵⁵/ n type of wild vegetable (which grows on high mountains) 一种野菜(生长在高山上)
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svzom /sə³¹zɔm⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 incinerate (make something burn up) 使烧尽 > zom
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svzung /sə³¹zuŋ⁵⁵/ vt 及物动 make (a child) go to the bathroom 使(孩子)大小便 > zung
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ta- /tɑ³¹/ dem 指示代 1demonstrative (this; that) 这;那 | vcvng tagyoq tagyoq very few people 个别人 2each | tagyoq each person 每个人 | Archaic, used in set phrases. 古代(只用于搭配)
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taitu /tɑi³¹tu⁵⁵/ n attitude 态度 | Chinese loanword. 汉语借词.
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tangdeut /tɑŋ³¹dɯt⁵⁵/ n type of rodent which lives in the woods 一种鼠(树林中生活)
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tapit /tɑ³¹pit⁵⁵/ n bamboo wattle (used for walls of a house) 竹篾笆 | tapit kyeum bamboo wattle house 竹蔑房 | (Fourth Township) jima /ʑi³¹mɑ⁵⁵/
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taq /tɑʔ³¹/ prt 助词 resultative (cause) 致使(让) | nga gyoq shaq taq oo lung.