lung /luŋ³¹/ prt 助词 recent past perfective (non-visual evidential) 完成体(刚刚完成,兼表非亲见) | vng looq luung. He went back (so he's not here). 他回去了(不在了). | Nvng mi vngza ton lung teuq e. Nang should have finished cooking the food (by now). 阿娜该把饭做好了. | na toi manvdi lung? Did you just go or not? 你刚才去了没有? | Speaker did not directly witness, but learned the result. 动作过程说话人没目睹,只发现结果.

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