Search results for "Verb affixes"

‑an‑ asp. this infix encodes an aspect that expresses the concept of an action done repeatedly; frequently; iterative; co-occurs with punctiliar aspect affixes. Kumanoga din golang. The child is always crying. Nala-uy opat an oras hi nakihanummanganan da ya numpahpahmokan da nah bibiyo. Four hours passed while they negotiated and pleaded again and again with the ‘bibiyo’. Umanay-ayyam da nah dalan. They always play on the path. Mahanilngan nah dalan. Night always overtakes him on the road. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes, 8.1.1.3 - Number of times.)

‑an₂ TACR. this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; it encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with a site semantic role. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on the books Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. Wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut nunhituwan mid Longnga. There was a person who saw him and helped him to return to where we were staying in Longnga. Sim: ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

CV(C)-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant functions to intensify the meaning of a predication. <Morphophonology: The modal form reduplicates the first syllable of a root. For that reason, the syllable pattern of the root dictates whether the reduplicant form is CV- or CVC-.> Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is very dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to finish it (lit. make it very good) . (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

i- -an TACR. this circumfix cross-references a beneficiary-object of an action and encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect. I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Igaudam hi inam te nain-ina mo. Spade for your mother because she is old already. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a shaman has to perform a ritual for him to make him well. Deket munda-guh da ya mahapul an painuman ya ipaltiyan nan kon bale. If they should stop at a house, the relative must give them wine and butcher a pig for them. Sim: iN- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑imm‑ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. 3this infix encodes a process completive aspect and cross-references the subject. Himmapit hi Apu Paredes ot kinalikali da mu toan kay dibdib ya abun munlau. Sir Paredes gave a speech, followed by Sir Datumanong’s inspirational talk; they said many good things, but who knows if their words are just like the wind that passes by. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; cross references the subject; past tense. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi ceremony.

‑imm‑ ‑an TACR. this circumfix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect; and cross-references a topicalized place. Hituy immaliyan mi handi. Here is where we came before. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

immipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative concept; it co-occurs with emotion verbal roots and cross-references the causer-agent-subject; past tense. Immipaamo ka. You caused me to be jealous. Immipatakut ka. You caused me to be afraid. Sim: umipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impa- (sp. var. impi-) caus. this prefix encodes a causative concept; cross-references a patient-object, but an agent, the person doing the action is always implied though the causative-agent is the subject; past tense. Impatanom nay bulhe. He had some beans planted. Impaalik nan bulwatim. I had your clothes brought. Sim: ipa-, ipi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impa- -an caus. this circumfix encodes past tense and a causative concept; it cross-references a site-object, but an agent, the person doing the action is always implied though the causative-agent is the subject. Mada-idaih ya pakayahyaak moppe te impainumanak hi liting. After a while, I could breathe again because she gave me a drink of water (lit. had me drink water). Sim: pa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impakaC1- mod. this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 4 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. Impakaddikhal na nan kaiw. He split well the piece of wood. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impakaC2- -an TACR. expertise modal, cross-references object, Class 5 verbal roots; past tense; this is an affix combination and the prefix impaka- also includes a C1 reduplicate. Impakahhiggidan Maria nan dulung. Maria swept the floor very well. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impakaiC1- this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. <The C1 geminate is not always pronounced or written.> Hanan tagun mangngol hi kalik ya un-unudona ya miingngo nah nanomnoman an tagun nangapyah balenan impakaihammad nay tukud na. (Mateo 7:24) The person who hears what I say and follows it can be compared to the intelligent person who has built his house and strongly stabilized its posts. Sim: pakaiC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impaki- TACR. this prefix encodes past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or a group of objects. Impakidawat na nan papel nah basket. He received the paper inside the basket with the other. Impakiala da am-in nadan ngunut da ya limmu da. They got all of their household items and their property. Sim: paki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impaN- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root; co-occurs with Class 4 and 5 verbal roots. <The use of this prefix is related to syntactic structure that has a topicalized constituent. > Hanadan u-ungan impanaptok ku ya mangohe dan ha-on. (Isaiah 1:2b) The children that I have cared for are rebelling against me. Man-uket makakkahlu kamin mangitaniuttuduh mipanggep ke Kristo ya gapuh impaminhod nan ditaku. (2 Corinth 5:14a) The reason that we are so very industrious to constantly teach about Christ is because of his love for us. Sim: impangi-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impangi- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root. Ahina bo ipainilay makulug an impangi-en di hin-oh-an ditaku, takon nadan ugge nainilan inat taku ya nadan wada nomnom taku. (1 Corinth 4:5b) He will cause to be known the truth about the way of each one of us, even what is not known about what we have done and thought about doing. Sim: impaN-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impuN- TACR. past tense form of prefix puN-, punctiliar aspect, agreement with indirect object instrument. Ot hay inat ku ya impun-almas ku nadan tataguh ispada, pahul ya pana...(Nehemiah 4:13a) And so what I did was I armed the people with swords, spears and arrows... (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impuN-- caus. this prefix is used for indicating that there is a causative agent involved in the action though it cross-references the agent who is the one performing the action. Impunggaud na hi Pedro. He had Pedro spade. Impuntanom nah ina hi bulhe. He had mother plant beans. Sim: puN- -on, pun-i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑in‑₁ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense; punctiliar aspect, cross references an object with a patient semantic role. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think well enough about what they will do. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your spare time in the library. Sim: ‑on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this infix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an object with a path or destination semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 1B movement verbal roots. 3this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with an experiencer semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 2C emotion and sensation verbal roots. 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; past tense; cross-references the object. An inapatut nan apatut ku? Did you wear my shoes? Pinatlattug da on hamuti. They shot a bird.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

‑in‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross references the direct object; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 5 verbal roots. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Dinulhukak nan apuy te nalutu di kanon ta. I extinguished the fire because our food is cooked. Sim: ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2when this circumfix co-occurs with verbal root classes other than Class 5, the affix cross-references a specific site-object. Uhup nan tinaddogak hidi. I stood there for a long time. .

iN- -an TACR. this circumfix cross-references a beneficiary-object of an action and encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hiyo dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka some small er...meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. Sim: i- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑inn‑ rec. this infix encodes a reciprocal concept. Munhinnuggutan da. They are teasing each other. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑inum‑ TACR. this infix is an allomorph of the past tense infix -imm-. It is used when there is a loss of the vowel ‘u’ in the first syllable of a root. Binumtik kanu te tumattakut. He ran away because he is afraid. Deke bot immatung, immeyak inumbun tat immatung, immat-atung ta, hay bo odog di indangdang. When it became hot again, I went and sat so that I became very warm again; I would turn so that I can feel the heat on my back. This infix is an allomorph of the past tense infix imm. It is used when there is a loss of the vowel ‘u’ in the first syllable of a root. ‑inum‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)