Search results for "Verb affixes"

‑an‑ asp. this infix encodes an aspect that expresses the concept of an action done repeatedly; frequently; iterative; co-occurs with punctiliar aspect affixes. Kumanoga din golang. The child is always crying. Nala-uy opat an oras hi nakihanummanganan da ya numpahpahmokan da nah bibiyo. Four hours passed while they negotiated and pleaded again and again with the ‘bibiyo’. Umanay-ayyam da nah dalan. They always play on the path. Mahanilngan nah dalan. Night always overtakes him on the road. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes, 8.1.1.3 - Number of times.)

‑an₂ TACR. this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; it encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with a site semantic role. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on the books Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. Wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut nunhituwan mid Longnga. There was a person who saw him and helped him to return to where we were staying in Longnga. Sim: ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

CV(C)-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant functions to intensify the meaning of a predication. <Morphophonology: The modal form reduplicates the first syllable of a root. For that reason, the syllable pattern of the root dictates whether the reduplicant form is CV- or CVC-.> Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is very dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to finish it (lit. make it very good) . (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

i- -an TACR. this circumfix cross-references a beneficiary-object of an action and encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect. I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Igaudam hi inam te nain-ina mo. Spade for your mother because she is old already. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a shaman has to perform a ritual for him to make him well. Deket munda-guh da ya mahapul an painuman ya ipaltiyan nan kon bale. If they should stop at a house, the relative must give them wine and butcher a pig for them. Sim: iN- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑imm‑ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. 3this infix encodes a process completive aspect and cross-references the subject. Himmapit hi Apu Paredes ot kinalikali da mu toan kay dibdib ya abun munlau. Sir Paredes gave a speech, followed by Sir Datumanong’s inspirational talk; they said many good things, but who knows if their words are just like the wind that passes by. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; cross references the subject; past tense. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi ceremony.

‑imm‑ ‑an TACR. this circumfix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect; and cross-references a topicalized place. Hituy immaliyan mi handi. Here is where we came before. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

immipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative concept; it co-occurs with emotion verbal roots and cross-references the causer-agent-subject; past tense. Immipaamo ka. You caused me to be jealous. Immipatakut ka. You caused me to be afraid. Sim: umipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impa- (sp. var. impi-) caus. this prefix encodes a causative concept; cross-references a patient-object, but an agent, the person doing the action is always implied though the causative-agent is the subject; past tense. Impatanom nay bulhe. He had some beans planted. Impaalik nan bulwatim. I had your clothes brought. Sim: ipa-, ipi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impa- -an caus. this circumfix encodes past tense and a causative concept; it cross-references a site-object, but an agent, the person doing the action is always implied though the causative-agent is the subject. Mada-idaih ya pakayahyaak moppe te impainumanak hi liting. After a while, I could breathe again because she gave me a drink of water (lit. had me drink water). Sim: pa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impakaC1- mod. this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 4 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. Impakaddikhal na nan kaiw. He split well the piece of wood. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impakaC2- -an TACR. expertise modal, cross-references object, Class 5 verbal roots; past tense; this is an affix combination and the prefix impaka- also includes a C1 reduplicate. Impakahhiggidan Maria nan dulung. Maria swept the floor very well. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impakaiC1- this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. <The C1 geminate is not always pronounced or written.> Hanan tagun mangngol hi kalik ya un-unudona ya miingngo nah nanomnoman an tagun nangapyah balenan impakaihammad nay tukud na. (Mateo 7:24) The person who hears what I say and follows it can be compared to the intelligent person who has built his house and strongly stabilized its posts. Sim: pakaiC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impaki- TACR. this prefix encodes past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or a group of objects. Impakidawat na nan papel nah basket. He received the paper inside the basket with the other. Impakiala da am-in nadan ngunut da ya limmu da. They got all of their household items and their property. Sim: paki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impaN- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root; co-occurs with Class 4 and 5 verbal roots. <The use of this prefix is related to syntactic structure that has a topicalized constituent. > Hanadan u-ungan impanaptok ku ya mangohe dan ha-on. (Isaiah 1:2b) The children that I have cared for are rebelling against me. Man-uket makakkahlu kamin mangitaniuttuduh mipanggep ke Kristo ya gapuh impaminhod nan ditaku. (2 Corinth 5:14a) The reason that we are so very industrious to constantly teach about Christ is because of his love for us. Sim: impangi-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impangi- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root. Ahina bo ipainilay makulug an impangi-en di hin-oh-an ditaku, takon nadan ugge nainilan inat taku ya nadan wada nomnom taku. (1 Corinth 4:5b) He will cause to be known the truth about the way of each one of us, even what is not known about what we have done and thought about doing. Sim: impaN-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impuN- TACR. past tense form of prefix puN-, punctiliar aspect, agreement with indirect object instrument. Ot hay inat ku ya impun-almas ku nadan tataguh ispada, pahul ya pana...(Nehemiah 4:13a) And so what I did was I armed the people with swords, spears and arrows... (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

impuN-- caus. this prefix is used for indicating that there is a causative agent involved in the action though it cross-references the agent who is the one performing the action. Impunggaud na hi Pedro. He had Pedro spade. Impuntanom nah ina hi bulhe. He had mother plant beans. Sim: puN- -on, pun-i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑in‑₁ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense; punctiliar aspect, cross references an object with a patient semantic role. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think well enough about what they will do. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your spare time in the library. Sim: ‑on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this infix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an object with a path or destination semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 1B movement verbal roots. 3this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with an experiencer semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 2C emotion and sensation verbal roots. 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; past tense; cross-references the object. An inapatut nan apatut ku? Did you wear my shoes? Pinatlattug da on hamuti. They shot a bird.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

‑in‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross references the direct object; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 5 verbal roots. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Dinulhukak nan apuy te nalutu di kanon ta. I extinguished the fire because our food is cooked. Sim: ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2when this circumfix co-occurs with verbal root classes other than Class 5, the affix cross-references a specific site-object. Uhup nan tinaddogak hidi. I stood there for a long time. .

iN- -an TACR. this circumfix cross-references a beneficiary-object of an action and encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hiyo dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka some small er...meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. Sim: i- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑inn‑ rec. this infix encodes a reciprocal concept. Munhinnuggutan da. They are teasing each other. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑inum‑ TACR. this infix is an allomorph of the past tense infix -imm-. It is used when there is a loss of the vowel ‘u’ in the first syllable of a root. Binumtik kanu te tumattakut. He ran away because he is afraid. Deke bot immatung, immeyak inumbun tat immatung, immat-atung ta, hay bo odog di indangdang. When it became hot again, I went and sat so that I became very warm again; I would turn so that I can feel the heat on my back. This infix is an allomorph of the past tense infix imm. It is used when there is a loss of the vowel ‘u’ in the first syllable of a root. ‑inum‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ka-₂ (sp. var. kaC-) asp. this prefix encodes the time aspect of an action, activity or event as being completed in the immediate past; just completed. <Morphology: The form ends in a glottal stop indicated by a hyphen ka-; it should be noted that it is a prefix.> Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war ended there were many incidences of ghost appearances. Ka-iali na nan liblu. He just brought the book. Ka-datong da. They just arrived. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ka-₃ TACR. this prefix encodes a neutral or present tense that co-occurs when the CV(C)CV reduplicant highlights a continuous activity. Kapalapalang nah dulung. He keeps on cutting the floor. Kakalikali ka yaden adik maawatan. You keep on talking yet I cannot understand. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

kaCV- mod. to have a tendency toward certain behavior or have the characteristic encoded in the root. <The prefix ka- requires the cooccurence of the CV- reduplication to encode the ‘tendency’ modal concept. > Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. The cup is breakable. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

kahi- mod. this prefix encodes a participatory concept with a neutral or present tense. Kahitatappo day naten dolog. Dead fish were floating everywhere on the surface (on the top). Kal-inadi ya kahibubutik nadan babuy nah dopla ot pun-iyapa da nah baybay ot malting da. (Luke 8:33b) Immediately, the pigs joined together in running to the cliff and they jumped into the lake and drowned. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

kahiN- -on mod. this modal circumfix adds the concept of pretense to a verb. Kahinhuyhuyopona pangalinat ha-oy di manaang. He pretended to be sleeping, hoping that I’ll be the one to cook. Deke bo udot ya kahinlullokon da ot inila takun adida unudon intugun taku. If they keep pretending to be deaf, then, we know that they will not follow what we advised. Kahindongdongollona hi kinalik. He pretends to be hearing what I said. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ka- CV- this prefix combination encodes the tendency to become the characteristic expressed in the root or the tendency to go through a process. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. That cup is breakable (easily broken). (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ka- -inn- mod. 1this circumfix encodes the modal concept of something that can be easily done; facility; describes the state or condition of something that facilitates an action or process. Kadinnaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. Kaginnabyon nan luta. That soil can be easily hoed. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2encodes the modal concept of someone who has a tendency toward emotional or physical affects. Kabinnungot hi amana ten nabutong. His father tends to be angry when he is drunk. Kadinnoggoh inana. Her mother tends to be sickly.

ma-₁ sta. this prefix encodes the state or property of a referent. Matukatukal ka an e makitugaltugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You do not sleep at night because your gambling goes on night and day. Madam-ot di hagabin (name), hahaggiyon! “The hagabi-bench of (name of owner is inserted) is heavy, hahaggiyon.” (This is chanted as a cheer at the hagabi ceremony.) Nan matadom an wahey maphod hi pundikhal. The sharp ax is the good one for aplitting wood. Sim: na-; Sim: na-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ma-₂ pass. this prefix derives the passive form of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Matbal da mo peman! Now they are highly respected indeed. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitied. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You think what can be seen are houses but these are what they call ships. Sim: na-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ma-₃ abl. this prefix encodes an abilitative modality; able to do something. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu. I can remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. Makeke nan lobong te atappo. The lake can be swam because it is shallow. Magibok nan wadan nah pingngit di wa-el. He could sense that he was by a creek. Sim: maka-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

makaC1- mod. 1this prefix encodes an intensifying modal of a state. <The first consonant of the root is geminated.> Makangnganta din unga. That child loves to sing. Maka-aliy kogak. I was just at the point of crying. (lit. really coming my crying) Hituwen amayyu ya makahammuy This animal is very odorous. Maka-atung ad Manila. It is very hot in Manila. 2this prefix intensifies the state of the subject referent; co-occurs with stative verbs. Makayyam-oy tinapay ni kinapya na. The bread that she makes is very soft. Sim: nakaC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 3this prefix intensifies the passive state of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Maphod di makaddikhal nan itungu te gagala ya mahap-ayan It is good if the firewood is well-split because it will dry quickly.

makaC2- -an mod. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; non-past tense; cross-references the subject. <The second consonant of the root is geminated.> Kalyok hituwe te ad uwani ya makaawwatan takuy ine-en di pamhod te hidiyey impatibotibon Jesus hi pangi-ena. (1 Juan 2:8b) I say this because now we fully understand the way of love because that is what Jesus continuously revealed by his customary way. Sim: nakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maka- -an pass. this circumfix inflects the passive form of Class 5 verbal roots with the meaning that the result of an action will be very satisfactory; intensifier; non-past tense. Makahiggidan nan dot-al. The floor will be well-swept. Sim: naka- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

makai- intensifier. this prefix derives an intensified passive form of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Mahapul an makaikammo nan binokbok. The yeast must be well-stirred (into the rice). Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaipaptok am-in. If it is repeated, everything should be well-planned. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maki-₁ mod. this prefix encodes a participatory concept; it indicates that the agent subject is participating with others in an action or activity; non-past tense. Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Hinumang inada, “Te ume kayu moh iskul. Maki-e kan manong mu. Their mother answered, “Because you are going to school. You will go with your brother.” Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake to join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. Sim: naki-; Sim: maki- -an, naki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; the object referent is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Paddungnay naatu kan nakibuttikan hi tatagu mu ahi namam-a moy inatum ten makibuttikan kah kakabayu. (Jeremiah 12:5b) It’s like you were tired joining in racing people but you would be more tired if you joined in racing horses. Sim: maki-, naki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maN- 1TACR. the prefix encodes a non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized subject-agent; it co-occurs with Classes 4 and 5 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The N in the form symbolizes a nasal that assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant. If the first consonant of the root is followed by the ‘o’ vowel, the vowel will also be reduced.> Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Da Juan ke Maira din mange. It’s Juan and Maria who are passing by. Sim: naN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2asp. the prefix encodes a present continuative aspect; it co-occurs with roots that have an innate punctiliar aspect. Manatong kami nah ohan bale ya namodwongak an nanibo nah ohan lalaki. As we were arriving near one of the houses, I was surprised to see a man. Hay kalyona ya, kediyen hilong an manganamut, an gawan mon di hilong... He explained to us that the night before while he was on his way home at about midnight... (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

mangi- top. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished (lit. made-good). Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung. That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to place the dynamite sticks. Sim: nangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mangin- TACR. this prefix encodes a time concept and functions to express that an event or condition will come about without an undue time lapse; quickly; soon. Umala ka nah makakkaphod an alina ta manginkakapya kah tinapay. (Genesis 18:6) Get some fine flour and quickly make bread. Mangin-a-ali kayu ta baddangan dakami. Come quickly to help us. Ot e mangin-a-ala nan tagu nah wahe. (2Kings 6:7) And so that man went and quickly got the ax. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes, 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

mangipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent that is topicalized and cross-referenced; non-past tense. Hay pundallanan ina di mangipaatun hiya. It is mother’s walking that makes her tired. Hanan mittuluy mangipataddog hanadah u-unga. It is the teacher who will have the children stand. Nganney mangipadukke hi buuk? What will make the hair grow long? Sim: nangipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mi- pass. this prefix encodes the passive of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Sim: ni-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mi- -an pass. this circumfix encodes the non-past passive for Class 3 verbal roots. Idawawa yuy takle yu ta midatan kayu. Reach out your hands and you will be given some. Sim: ni- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mipa- -an pass. this circumfix has the features of passive, causative, topicalization; non-past tense. Hay am-in nan nitudok nah kalin Apu Dios ya mipaannungan. As for everything that is written in the word of God, it will be fulfilled. Sim: nipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mumpa- caus. 1this prefix encodes a causative agent in the grammatical subject position that is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Kanayun kan mundasal an mumpasalamat kan hiya. Pray always to him, thanking him. Sim: numpa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2used with any locomotion or directional verb root, giving prominence to the direction of movement. Mumpaabat an mumpaed Tinoc di oha ya mumpatpatikid an mumpaed Madannum ta ad Liwon di oha. This is where three main pathways branch out, one going to Tinoc, and ascending, going toward Madannum and one to Liwon.

mumpa- -an trans. this circumfix encodes a causative agent-subject with the cross-referencing of a site-object; non-past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Ot mundasalak ke he-at mumpabaddangak, APU. (Psalm 30:8) And so I prayed to you so that you will help me, LORD. Mundongol kayun papatul ya dakayun aap-apu te ikantaak hi APU DIOS an Dios Israel ya mumpagangowak hi pundayaw kun hiya! (Hanadan Huwes 5:3) You kings and you leaders listen because I will sing a song to the Lord God, the God of Israel and I will play music in my honoring of him. Sim: numpa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mumpaN- TACR. this prefix combination functions to encode an action that will affect more than one object; co-occurs with Class 5 transitive verbs; non-past tense. Adida mun-ap-apu tuh luta ya adida mumpangapyah o-ongal an boble. They will not rule this land, and they will not build big cities. muN‑/nuN‑ + paN‑. Sim: numpaN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mumpangi- TACR. this prefix combination functions to encode an action that will affect more than one object; co-occurs with Class 3 transitive verbs; non-past tense. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take that letter to all the cities and villages. Sim: numpangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mumpuN- TACR. this prefix encodes distributive, i.e. there is a plurality of subjects involved in the action, activity, or experience; it cross-references the subject; non-past tense. Waday mumpundogo ke dida. There are many sick among them. Hinanhanan day ngadan am-in nadan mumpungngunuh di. They asked for the names of all who will work there. Sim: numpuN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

muN- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references the agent-subject. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. As for us people, we believe that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. After awhile, he was approaching the creek, oh my, there were voices conversing. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

muN- -inn- TACR. this circumfix encodes a reciprocal action or activity; non-past tense; cross-references agent-subjects. Mun-innapput da nan hintulang. The two brothers are competing with each other. Sim: nuN- -inn-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

muN- -on trans. this circumfix encodes the notion that there are plural agent-subjects, each one performing the action expressed in the verb, and it cross-references the object referents; non-past tense. Sim: nuN- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mungki- TACR. this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action; non-past tense. Datuwe kan duduplanu ya mungkakalpu da mungkidadawwin boble. These airplanes come from faraway places. Mungkitalu nadan allama ya umipit da hin eda howngon di baleda. The crabs hid and pinched the children’s hands when they reached inside their holes to get them. Sim: nungki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

na-₁ sta. this prefix co-occurs with stative-process verbal roots and encodes a completive aspect. Nalakan mabutong. It is easy to get drunk. Natukal di tatagu te hay ngalan di munla-un tatagu. The people were sleepless because of the noise of passers-by. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man (because of his gambling). Sim: ma-; Sim: ma-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

na-₂ pass. this prefix derives the passive form of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense. Kananay “Hoy, nganney naat ke he-a?” He said “Hey, what was done to you?” Maid maptok ya nunhakkubun natu-i. Suddenly, he fell flat as he was pushed over. Adiyak kuma makiinum mu napilitak. I didn’t really want to drink with them but they pressured me (lit. I was forced). Sim: ma-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

na- -an pass. this circumfix derives the past tense passive form of Class 5 verbal roots. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day came. Impundallan da nan nasugatan. They let the wounded person walk. Natanoman hi kaiw nan bilid. The tree was planted on the mountain. Sim: ma- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nakaC1- mod. this prefix is an intensifying modal affix; past tense. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a very loud noise when it is about to land. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Sim: makaC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nakaC2- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; past tense; cross-references the subject; the second C of the root is geminated. Nakatanomman hi balat di boble da. Their place was well-planted with banana trees. Nakahiggidan dah maphod. They swept it very well. Sim: makaC2- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

naka- -an intensifier. this circumfix inflects the passive form of Class 5 verbal roots with the meaning that the result of an action is very satisfactory; intensifier; past tense. Nakatanomman hi balat di boble da. Their place was well-planted with bananas. Sim: maka- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nakaiC1- intensifier. the prefix derives an intensified passive form of Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Hay bangan nakai-ustuy hukap nay maphod an punha-angan hi pihing. A well-covered pot is best for cooking pihing-vegetables. Hinae mo nan kanak nakaihhalla kayu. (Marcos 12:27b) About that, I say you are very mistaken (lit. have missed the mark about that). (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

naki- participatory. this prefix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; it cross-references the agent-subject; past tense. Hi Mariay nakiali ke ha-on. Maria came with me. Nakiatuwak damdama handih nakingunuwak. I was also tired when I joined in working. Nakitanom hi ama na ke dakami. His father joined in planting with us. Sim: maki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

naki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; past tense; cross-references the object referent. Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Sim: maki-, maki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

naN- TACR. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 4 verbal roots; past tense. <Morphophonology: The final nasal of the prefix assimilates to the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant; if the vowel o follows the root consonant, the vowel will also be reduced.> Himmagob, nana-ang ya nunhigup hi bintok. He got water, he cooked and carried rice bundles into shade. Hi manang ya dingngol na damdama ot mundihhan namtik nah panto. As for my older brother, he heard it too and ran to the door at the same time. Hiyay nangalah kadukkayan kawayan. He is the one who got the longest bamboo. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who participated in the songs and dances did not (eat). Mun-an-anlah inadan nangngol an dakol di inadal da. Their mother was happy to hear that they had learned so much. Sim: maN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

naN- -an top. this circumfix topicalizes and cross-references a time or place; past tense. Ad Kiangan di nangayan da. Kiangan is the place where they went. Daanay em nangamungan ketuwen pagey? Where did you gather this rice? Sim: maN- -an; Sim: paN- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangi- top. this prefix encodes and cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 3 verb roots; past tense. Nagibbuy programa ot waday nangitkuk hi daanay epangenan di tatagu. After the program, someone shouted out the places where the different groups will take their lunch. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was big so I had to hang from a branch. Sim: mangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangi- -an TACR. this circumfix topicalizes and cross-references a time or place; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Tibom di nangiha-adan na nah basket. Find where she placed the basket. Hay nangidongolana ya hi nangappit nah payoh kawad-an di ob-ob. What he heard was in the direction of the ricefield near the spring. Sim: pangi- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangipa- top. this prefix encodes a topicalized causative agent; the causative agent is cross-referenced; past tense. Hanan taguy nangipadikhal. That man is the one who had the wood split. Hi Mariay nangipaen hiyah iskul. It is Maria who sent him to school. Sim: mangipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangipa- -an₁ caus. this circumfix encodes a causative, topicalizes and cross-references a place; past tense. Daanay nangipaayan da hanadah dakol an tagu? Where did they send all those people? Sim: pangipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nangipa- -an₂ top. this circumfix encodes past tense and cross-references the topicalized agent-subject in a causative topicalization construction. <The agent doing the work is highlighted by syntactic fronting, i.e. placed in the pre-verb position and is cross-referenced by the circumfix.> Dahdiy nangipadngolana? Whom did he let hear it? Hi inay nangipatanomanah bulhe. My mother was the one that he had plant beans. Hi Pedroy nangipagaudana. Pedro was the one that he had spade. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ni- 1pass. this prefix is the passive form for Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Dakol di inggampa dan nibangngad mu hay kapkaphodan ke Bugan ya nan gawgawa. They had many gifts in a basket that they returned home with but the very best for Bugan was the duck. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. Sim: mi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2mod. functions to encode non-volitionality.

ni- -an pass. this circumfix encodes a passive; a semantic role site is cross-referenced as subject; Class 3 verbal roots. Sim: mi- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nipa- caus. this prefix encodes a non-agentive passive-causative; past tense. Nipaali nadan bulwatim. Your clothes were brought here. Nipae da Pedro ke Juan ot mibangngad dah kad-an nadan iibba da...(Acts 4:23) Peter and John were released and so they returned to their companions... Sim: mipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nipa- -an pass. this circumfix encodes passive, causative, topicalization; past tense. Datuwen am-in di nipaannungan nan nitudok nah kalin Apu Dios....(Romans 2:24a) All of these are the fulfillment of the written word of God... Ipaali na boy kolyog ya iwagot na nadan batun nipab-unan tun luta. (Job 9:6) He will again bring an earthquake and he will shake the rocks that are seated on the earth. Sim: mipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

numpa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent and cross-references that person; past tense. Hi Maria di numpabayu. Maria had rice pounded. Dahdiy numpataluh libutan? Who had the pouch hidden? Nan hakit nay numpapalak ke ha-on. It’s the pain that made me groan. Sim: mumpa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

numpa- -an caus. this circumfix encodes a subject-causative agent with the cross-referencing of a site-object; past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Nganney ginun-ud yuh eyu numpabaddangan hanadah iEgypt ya iAssyria? (Jeremiah 2:18a) What did you gain by helping the Egyptians and the Assyrians? Hi Herod damdama ya nadan tindaluna ya tinaltalanggaan da ya numpadngolan da. (Luke 23:11) Herod and his soldiers also mocked and ridiculed him (Jesus). Sim: pumpa- -an; Sim: mumpa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

numpaN- trans. this prefix encodes a distributive modality; when attached to a transitive verb, the action expressed in the verb is distributed to multiple objects undergoing the action; past tense. Ne pun-ala da damdamay limmun nadan buhul dan numpangalah limmu da handi. (Ezekiel 39:10b) Then they will also get the property of their enemies who got their property long ago. Sim: mumpaN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

numpangi- trans. this prefix encodes a distributive modality; when attached to a Class 3 transitive verb, the action expressed in the verb is distributed to multiple objects undergoing the action; past tense. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take those letters to all the villages. Sim: mumpangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nuN- -an₁ 1TACR. this circumfix cross-references a time or place noun phrase. Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan. During the Spanish rule in the Philippines, some of them to Kiangan. Nakaluggit nan eyu nungkekeyan. The place you went swimming is very dirty. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references agent-subject. Nuntotobbalan dah diyen aton da ot gutudon day algo. They agreed to do that and set a date. 3nom. nominalizes a non-noun form. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga.

nuN- -inn- rec. this circumfix encodes a reciprocal action or activity; past tense; cross-references subjects. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Numbinnalbal dah bulwati. They washed each other’s clothes. Nunkinnaan da hi apatut. They removed each others’ shoe. Sim: muN- -inn-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nuN- -on this circumfix encodes the notion that there are plural agent-subjects, each one performing the action expressed in the verb, and it cross-references the object referents; past tense. Danaen liman patul ya nun-aaddumon day tindalu da nah Nundotal an Siddim an nih-up nah Naten Baybay. (Genesis 14:3) Those five kings, they joined together their soldiers at the Siddim Valley which is by the Dead Sea. Sim: muN- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nun-i- TACR. this prefix combination encodes distributive action over multiple objects that are cross-referenced; it also encodes past tense. <The nun- form encodes the distributive component, and the i- cross-references the object.> Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria placed the extra paint in bottles (lit.bottled) the paint we saved. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nungka- proc. this prefix encodes the distribution of a process or state over a number of objects; completive aspect. <This prefix generally co-occurs with process-state verbal roots or with passive forms of active verbs.> Nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. Ya nada ke bon kakaiw an sycamore an nungkalngo ya hannotan takuh sedar an kapkaphodan an kaiw. And also as for those sycamore trees that were felled, we will replace them with sedar which is the best tree. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nungki- distr. 1this prefix encodes the distribution of a feature or property over a number of objects. O-ongal ya nungkitatag-e day babaleh tu. Houses here are big and tall. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action. Gagala ya ahi mipae nadan nungkikalabut. (Isaiah 51:14a) Soon those imprisoned/captured will be released. Sim: mungki-.

pa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent involvement in the action or activity; it is the basic causative form. <This causative prefix co-occurs in combination with many other affixes.> Adim mo painnay-ayyam te mahapul an mun-istudy kah ustu. You are not going to squander your time. Mipatibo an dakol di page da. This shows that they have rice to spare. Sim: pa- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pa- -an this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a causative concept; it cross-references the site-object relation rather than the causative agent. Ne nganne, kon pangali yu on paamlonganak kediyen at-atton yu? (Isaiah 57:6c) So what about it, do you think that what you are doing makes me happy? Hin waday mumbagan dakayuh baddang ya idat yuy ibagana ya pabanhan yu nadan bumanon dakayu. (Mateo 5:42) If someone asks you for help, give what they ask for and loan to those who ask to borrow from you. Sim: impa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pa- -on (‑on) caus. this circumfix encodes non-past and a causative concept; it cross-references the patient-object relation rather than the causative agent. Hanadan tatagun maka-am-amlong ya paamlongon day ibba da ya paphodon nan maphod an kalyon day gibok nan mangngol. (Proverbs 15:30) The people who are very happy cause their companions to be happy and by the good things they say, they cause those who hear to feel good. Inun-unud day kalina ot pab-unon da nadan tatagu. (Luke 9:15) They followed what he said and had the people sit down. Sim: pa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paka- mod. non-past form; functions to encode the negative ability of an agent to do what the verb expresses; cannot do something. <This prefix co-occurs with the negative form adi.> Athidi bon nah hilong ta adi ka pakahuyop. It’s like that at night, too, so that you cannot sleep. Mu hanada ken iibana ya adi da pakatibo kediyen golang. But as for his companions, they could not see that child. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pakaC1- mod. this prefix functions as an intensifying modal for Class 4 verbal roots. Dimmin-ong ta pakaddonglona ya impidwanan bon pimmalak an palak di babai. He was quiet so that he could carefully listen and the groan of a woman was repeated. Hiya ke ya pakappinhod da aman inana ya hi apunan hi Dulnuan. He really loved his father, mother and grandfather Dulnuan. Mu hay pakappinhod nan kanon ya hay da munlumiin bunga. But what it really likes best is sweet fruit. Sim: C1. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pakaC1- -an this circumfix is an intensifier and cross-references the site-object. <This circumfix is an allomorph of the circumfix pakaC2‑ ‑an. It co-occurs with roots with the CVC.CV(C) syllable pattern.> Hi Joshua ya pakabbaddangan APU DIOS, kinali nundingngol di ngadanah kabobboble. (Joshua 6:7) As for Joshua, the LORD greatly helped him, that’s why his name was heard in all the villages. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pakaC1- -on this circumfix is an intensifier and cross-references the object of Class 4 roots. <This circumfix is an allomorph of the circumfix pakaC2‑ ‑on. It co-occurs with roots with the CVC.CV(C) syllable pattern.> Pakabbidbidom ke nan impitudok Apu Dios, maid di kananah malpud Galileen profetas. (Juan 7:52b) Read very carefully what God has caused to be written, there is nothing said about a prophet from Galilee. Hanadan tataguh di ya pakaddonglon day intuttudun Felipe te tinibo day milogron inat na. (Acts 8:6) The people there listened very well to what Felipe was teaching because they saw the miracles that he did. Sim: C2, pakaC2- -on, pakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pakaC2- -an this circumfix intensifies the action of the agent-subject and cross-references a definite object. Ot pakaguwwalyaan da ot maid moy oggan madngol nadah bibilid ad Israel hi katatakut an olmom na. (Ezekiel 19:9a) They carefully guarded him and so never again would his fearful roar be heard in the mountains of Israel. Sim: C2, pakaC2- -on, pakaC1- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pakaC2- -on TACR. this circumfix is an intensifier and cross-references the object of Class 4 roots. Pakabayyuon dah maphod nan page. They will pound the rice very well. Sim: C2, pakaC2- -an, pakaC1- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pakaC3- -on this circumfix is an intensifier and cross-references the object of Class 4 roots. Om, inat nay gaga-ihon pakabalawwon Apu Dios. (2 Chronicles 21:6b) Yes, he did evil that God intensely hates. “Pakadadaggon takuh tuwen boble!” (Psalm 137:7) “We will totally destroy this city.” Sim: C3, paka-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paka- -an this circumfix encodes the competence and expertise of the agent-subject to do whatever is expressed in verb; the site-object is cross-referenced. Ha-on (God) ya takon di daana ya wadaak, kinali, paka-innilak am-in di at-aton di tatagu. (Jeremiah 23:23) As for me, I (God) am everywhere, that is why I know very well everything that people are doing. Itikod yun mangat hi gaga-ihot ha-oy (God) di paka-u-unnudan yu. (Jeremiah 4:4a) Stop doing evil so that I will be the one you carefully follow. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pakaiC1- trans. this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; non-past tense. Indani ya imme on profetas ot kananan Ahab di “Mibangngad kayu ke ya pakaidaddaan muy titindalum ya pakaipplanum di ustu te hantuh umalin toon hi athitun tiempo ya gubaton daka bo nah patul di Syria. (1 Patul 20:22) Later, the prophet went and said to Ahab, “You all return and you must carefully prepare your soldiers and carefully plan because about this time in the coming year, the king of Syria will war against you.” Sim: impakaiC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paki- TACR. this prefix encodes a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or group of objects; non-past tense. Pakipaem hituwe ke ina. Could you send this to mother (include it along with other things)? Pakialiyom hi ina. Let mother come along (include her with others). Iha-ang mun tuwen dotag ya pakiha-ang mu nadan gunigunit. Cook this meat and cook it along with those bones. Pakiala day kinadangyan diyen boble. They will also get the wealth of that village. Sim: impaki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paki- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references a site-object. Pakidammuwak ke he-ah bigat. I will meet with you tomorrow. Ad Kiangan di ek pakitendaan. Kiangan is where I will also sell. Dahdi nan pakihumhumangan mu. Whom are you talking with. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paki- -on caus. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references a patient-object. Namam-a te kanan hanadan iibanay adida mo paki-ayon hi pidwana. What was even worse was her brothers told her that she could not come with them again. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paN- -an₂ TACR. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized time or place; it co-occurs with Class 4 transitive verbs and some members of Class 1 and Class 2 intransitive movement verbs. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling? Pinhod mu ke bon mun-ang-ang hi sini ya dakol di damanah pangayam. If you want to see a movie, there are many places you can go. Takon di hay dangli na ya maid ta daana mo peman di e pangal-an nan inayana? Because they had nothing, he was not even given the customary death ritual for how could his poor wife afford it? Kinali kediyen eda panggopan ke dida ya inila da moy aton da ya hay eda kipustuwan. That’s why on the day of the raid, they knew what to do and where to post themselves. Em hanhanan ten kakon-anay pangayan da ad Manila. Go ask him when they will go to Manila. Sim: naN- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pangipa- top. this prefix encodes a topicalized causative. Ong-ongal di pangipaamlang di pamhod mun ha-on mu hay mainum. (Song of Songs 4:10b) Your love for me causes greater happiness then wine. Takon nin di kanan yuy nahalman di pangipadayaw mih kalebbengan min muntuttudu ya adiyak bumain te hituwen kalebbengan mi ya pamaddang min dakayu, bokon hay kadadagan yu. (2 Corinth 10:8) Even should you think that our authority to teach gives too much honor to us, I am not ashamed because this authority is meant to help you, not destroy you. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pangipa- -an caus. this circumfix has a topicalized agent, a causative agent in the subject position in the clause, and a definite cross-referenced object. Dahdiy pangipaalian da nadah liblu? Who will they have bring those books here? Hi Juan di pangipadikhalak nah ongal an kaiw. Juan will be the one that I will have split the big piece of wood. Sim: nangipa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pi- caus. this prefix encodes the presence of a causative agent in the action. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao and pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

pumpa- -an this circumfix encodes a causative agent, an agent, and an object of the verbal action; durative time aspect; cross-references topicalized agent. Dahdiy eyu pumpabaddangan? (Isaiah 10:3b) Who can you have help you? Sim: numpa- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

puN-₂ TACR. this prefix cross-references a topicalized instrument. Nan matadom an wahey maphod hi pundikhal. The sharp axe is the good one for splitting wood. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

puN- -an₁ TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a distributive concept; it distributes an action or activity to plural objects and cross-references the objects. Bimmoh-ol hi ama ot pumboh-olan dakami. My father was so angry that he scolded us. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this circumfix cross- references a topicalized time or place. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to put dynamite sticks. Daanay pungkekeyan yu? Where will you swim?

puN- -an₂ dervN. this circumfix derives a noun. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

puN- -on 1caus. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a causative concept; the object is cross-referenced. Mumpundikhal da nan pungngunuom. Your workmen are splitting wood. Pundallomom tun balituk nah kaban mu. You put this gold at the very bottom of your trunk. Sim: impuN--, pun-i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2mod. this circumfix encodes a mitigated causative; Class 4 verbal root. Pun-ang-angom hi mama. Let mama watch. Punha-angon dakan ha-on. I’ll let you cook. Pumbakkaom din golang nah dulung. Let the baby crawl on the floor.

pun-i- distr. this prefix encodes distributive or directional components and cross-references the direct object, Class 3 verbal root; non-past tense. <The pun- form has the distributive or directional conponents, while the i- cross references the direct object. > Takon di hilot ya pun-ialo da ten nap-uy dayakkot. When the rice is gone, some naughty ones throw dung at each other. Pun-igatang nah mainum ta in-inummon da nah ibbana. He buys drinks for his friends. Pun-ihagmuk nan iniggid mu di binokbok yaden pun-ikiwan di winawwan mu. As you sprinkle the yeast over the rice with your left hand, you keep stirring with your right. Pun-ikayat nah tawang da. He is climbing through their window. Pun-ibtik nay gamgam. He is running away with something valuable. Sim: impuN--, puN- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

‑um‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a non-past tense process and cross-references a specific object. Ya hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. And the most important thing is to spend (your money) on those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Oha bo ya nakalligat di pumalattugan. Another reason is, their guns were hard to shoot (not automatic). Bumanidbidak hi liblu nah bakasyon. I do nothing but read books during vacation. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2non-past tense, reciprocal action. Pumanuddugan da yaden nahuyop hi inada. They keep running after each other while their mother is asleep.

umi- TACR. this prefix encodes a partitive quantity of an indefinite object; non-past tense. Umiballabag da boh iittay an kaiw ta pangipah-odan da. They also use short poles tied across it (the hagabi-bench) so that they can shoulder-carry it. Umiali dah pihum. They will bring some of your money. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

umipa- caus. 1this prefix encodes a causative concept; it co-occurs with emotion verbal roots and cross-references the causer-agent-subject; non-past tense. Umipabungot nan inat Pedrito. The thing Pedrito did makes one angry. Umipatakut ka. You are causing me to fear. Sim: immipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix may also co-occur with some stative-process verbal roots and then cross-references the cause of a process. Umipatabay dotag. Meat makes one become fat.