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dongol (sp. var. dongngol) 1to listen. 1.1trans. to listen, giving concentrated attention to specific things being heard; to allow oneself to be persuaded to give heed to and follow a suggestion or advice. <morphophonemics: When infixed, the vowel ‘o’ in the first syllable of the root is deleted.> Donglon yuy kalyon apuyu. Listen to what your grandfather will say. Dingngol mu? Did you hear it? He-a ken ohan ap-apuk ya donglom tun kalik. My grandson, listen to me. Dingngol ku an makattugal ka. I heard that you are an habitual gambler. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 1.2trans. the affix focuses on the manner of listening. Tipet idngol muh kalin di tatagu? Why do you listen (pay attention) to what people say? i‑/iN‑. 2to hear. 2.1trans. to perceive sound with the ear; to make an effort to hear something with durative aspect. Mundongol kah kanta nah ladyu. You hear music from the radio. Mundongol kayu ke tuwalit maawatan yuy kalkalyona? Why don’t you listen so that you’ll understand what he is saying? Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 2.2pass. refers to what can or cannot be heard. Deya ot an madngol di tatawa da. There, their laughter can be heard. Adi pakadngol di ingak te nahulatan. My ear cannot hear because it’s obstructed. ma‑, paka‑. 3cause to be heard. 3.1caus. to cause something to be heard. Impadngol nay kantana. He caused his song to be heard. Dahdiy nangipadngol? Who let it be heard? ipa/impa‑, mangipa‑/nangipa‑.. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) id. Donglom tun pangiha-adak id. Madngol di bangluna infl. midngolan infl. mundingngol infl. padngol

nangamung₂ 1advpred. to be responsible for something. Adi kayu madanagan, ha-oy di nangamung. Don’t worry, I’m the one responsible. Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back (be responsible) and he should let me know. Manner. Sim: uk’od. 2trans. to be responsible for accomplishing something, even if it requires taking a risk. Inangamungan day nitaguwan da takon naligatan da. They are responsible for their own lives, even if they are hardshipped. i‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.)

uk’od (sp. var. okod) advpred. to assume responsibility for a decision or task; to be given responsibility; depends on someone to take charge of things. Ukodak an mibangngad. It’s up to me to come back. He-ay ukod ke hiya. You are responsible for him. Ukod ka, umeka weno adika. It’s up to you whether you go or not. ‑an. Manner. Sim: nangamung. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) infl. iukod