Search results for "Bugan"

Bugan 1prop. a woman’s name, one of the most popular Ifugao names. [In the hudhud, the main heroine is usually Bugan, wife of Aliguyon.] Ha-on hi Bugan an in-Aliguyon. I am Bugan, wife of Aliguyon. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.) 2prop. the daughter of the Skyworld god, Wigan, who with her brother, Kabbigat, produced the first Ifugao. [father was Wigan] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 3comm. in traditional speech and oral literature, the name may simply be used to refer to a woman.

Humad’ol prop. place of Bugan, from the Hudhud epic. Restrictions: Hudhud epic.

Nabugbugan di Ido prop. a class of gods that are considered to be very evil by the Ifugao. Syn: Nangga Ido. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Kabbigat₂ prop. the male god from the Skyworld who with sister, Bugan, produced the first Ifugao. [In the myth of the origin of the Ifugao one of the Skyworld gods, Wigan, sent his son and daughter to the valley Kay-ang to populate the earth.] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

Wigan prop. the god who is believed to have populated the earth by sending his son, Kabbigat, and daughter, Bugan, to live on earth and in Ifugao mythology, they are considered to be the first Ifugao; Wigan is also considered to be the god who caused the Flood because of overpopulation. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

Nangga Ido prop. a class of gods that are considered to be very evil by the Ifugao. Syn: Nabugbugan di Ido. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Loudes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

abtu (sp. var. aptu) to anticipate. 1.1trans. to look forward to something; eagerly await someone or something; the affix cross-references that which is anticipated. Abtuwan day aliyana. They are eagerly anticipating her arrival. Abtuwan nay ayan da. He was eager for them to leave. Naabtuwan ka yaden ugge ka immali. You were waited for eagerly, yet you did not come. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . (sem. domains: 3.2.7.1 - Hope.) 1.2intrans. to anticipate something with impatience; the negative component of waiting and time passing is highlighted; the person feeling the impatience is cross-referenced by the affix. Uma-abtuh Bugan an nunhood ke he-a. Bugan was impatiently waiting for you. Umabtuwak hi kahilongana. I am waiting impatiently for nighttime. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. umab-abtu

aga’mang 1comm. sleeping house or sleeping quarters for young people. [In times past, there were separate houses for young women and young men; young women usually stayed with a widow; traditionally there were evenings when young men went to ‘serenade’ the young women. ] (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2intrans. to sleep in someone’s house, other than the home of the nuclear family. Eyak mun-agamang hi balen da Bugan. I will go to sleep in Bugan’s house. muN‑/nuN‑.

Agba 1prop. a ritual usually performed to find the cause of an illness, or to find out who stole something that has been lost. Hay aton da ya mundinol dah Agba. What they do is trust the divination ritual. Sim: Ketema, Pakko. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.6 - Prophecy, 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony.) 2intrans. to perform the agba ritual. Hiyay mun-agba ta mainila hin dahdiy nangako. He will be the one to perform the agba-ritual so that the thief will be known. Immen e numpaagbah Bugan te waday nangakoh pihhuna. Bugan went to have the agba-ritual performed because someone stole her money. {ritual} muN‑/nuN‑, mumpa‑/numpa‑.

agol 1comm. to be hesitant; refers to the feeling of hesitation to do a thing because of fear of consequences. Waday agol kun e mundallanan nah hilong. I am afraid to go and walk around during night time. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.3 - Doubt.) 2intrans. Umagolak an e hunggop hi baleda. I am hesitant to enter their house. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautiously walking on the slippery dikes. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.5 - Uncertain.)

amuyu intrans. to feel compassion for the suffering of someone; to pity. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Umamuyuh Indangngunay ke Bugan an binuhbuna. Indangngunay felt so much pity for Bugan, her child. {literary} ‑um‑. Sim: homok. (sem. domains: 3.5.4.6 - Verbal tradition.)

annil sta. to be jealous; applied to a married couple; has components of possessiveness and suspicion. Man maka-annil hi Jose kinali adi uggan bumudal hi Bugan. Jose is so jealous that’s why Bugan never goes out. Mun-annil hi Jose. Jose is jealous. muN‑, makaC1‑. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.8 - Jealous, 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

apunge trans. to caress by pushing the hair away from the face; related to the expression of joy at seeing someone who has not been seen for a long time. Dimmatong hi Bugan ot apungayon inanan hi Indumulao. When Bugan arrived, her mother Indumulao caressingly pushed back her hair. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.1 - Touch.)

apyu trans. to rub rice wine on the entire body, from head to toe, for the purpose of removing sickness; ritual massage, done in the ketema ritual. Inapyun Aginnaya Bugan. Aginnaya rubbed rice wine on the body of Bugan. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.5 - Rub, 7.3.4.1 - Touch.)

atigagayo intrans. to be restless in thinking; uneasy thoughts; thinking about something. Mun-atigagayoy adol Bugan hi punnomnom nah dolada ad Gonhadan Bugan was restless thinking of her village of Gonhadan. {literary} muN‑. Sim: atigag-a.

awil 1comm. a gift animal; given to visitors who visit a place for the first time; usually a chicken or a duck. Indattanak hi manuk an awil ku. They gave me a chicken as my gift. Mahapul an waday awil di golang ten pinghanay pangighopan dan hiya nah bale. It is necessary that a gift be given to a baby when she is brought into a house for the first time. Laawon mon Magappid ot idat na ta hidiye moy awil Bugan. Aunt Magappid agreed and gave it to Bugan as a present. Sim: regalo. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) 2trans. to give an animal gift. Awilan dakah manuk hin umanamut kayu. They will give you a chicken as your animal gift when you leave for home. ‑an.

ay-aya sta. to be appropriate, refers to clothes that fit just right in size, length, appearance. Naka-ay-ayay ampuyon Bugan. Bugan’s skirt was just right for her. {literary} na‑. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.)

ba-ba adv. expresses that it will be a short time until an event occurs. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Maid ba-ba yaden immalih Bugan. In a short time Bugan came. {literary} Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

bahhut trans. to disturb or disrupt a planned activity. Hay gaga-ihon kalin inan Bugan di bimmahut hi uya-uy. It is the bad words of Bugan’s mother that disrupted the wedding feast. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2H General class. Sim: bahiba. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.)

balal trans. 1to mortgage a property, houses or ricefields. [The person who mortgages his property is called the mortgagor.] Ibalal ku nan balemi. I am mortgaging our house. Nibalal din payon da Bugan. Bugan’s ricefields are mortgaged. Bangadok nan imbalal ina. I’ll pay back what mother has mortgaged. i‑/iN‑. 3H Conversive action process. (sem. domains: 6.8.5.3 - Owe, 6.8.4 - Financial transaction.) 2refers to the act of underwriting a mortgage. [The person who underwrites a mortgage is called the mortgagee.] Wada ke ot di pihhuyu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. balalan infl. mangibalal

baliw 1intrans. to change, transform one’s attitude, behavior, mind, physical appearance and things. Mumbaliw ka mo te naam-ama ka. Reform/Change your ways because you are already old. Ug-ugge numbaliw. He didn’t change at all. Dih nun-ahawa da Bugan ke Jose ya numbaliw hi ustu Jose. Adi mo makanginnum ya adi pay muntugal ot maan-anla Bugan. When Maria and Jose got married, Jose reformed. He stopped drinking and gambling and that made Maria very happy. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: lumman. (sem. domains: 4.3.8 - Change behavior.) 22.1trans. to change something, e.g. change and twist someone’s words or the truth. Adim balbaliwan nan kinalik. Don’t be changing/twisting what I have said. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2pass. refers to something that has been or will be changed. Nabaliwan di nun-ubuna. His sitting position changed. Pinhod kun mabaliwan di pangi-em. I want your life-style to change. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. infl. mangibaliw

ban-uk intrans. to feel annoyed by another’s action or speech. Mumbanban-uk hi Bugan nah em nangitud-akan ke hiya. Bugan is showing she is annoyed in your sending her for an errand. Bimman-uk hi Bugan dih nangidatana nah hapid. Bugan was annoyed when she gave the betelnut-leaf. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: mutmut, ngutuwol, ngudu, ngalotongot. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.)

ban’ong 1comm. lip of ricefield dike which contains the water; projecting edge of ricefield dike sometimes stepping stones are laid for walking on the lip. Niphod mo nan banong nan payo? Is the ricefield dike already fixed? Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Sim: botnge. (sem. domains: 6.5.2.1 - Wall.) 2trans. to build ricefield dikes. Banongan dan nan payo ad uwani. They are going to build the ricefield dike today. Mumbanong da ama nah payon da Juan. Father and his companions are building mud dikes in the Juan’s field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

bangnga 1comm. pipe for smoking; made of brass or bamboo. [The brass pipes are rarely found now; in fact, few people smoke pipes today.] Ena tinutungan di bangngana. He went to light his pipe. Sim: tagungngok, gullingngay. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use a smoking pipe Mumbangngah apuna. His grandfather smokes a pipe. muN‑/nuN‑. 3intrans. to use something other than the typical pipe for smoking. Ibangnga nay nunbugbugan hi gahhilang. He uses a corn cob for a pipe. i‑/iN‑.

bel’et 1intrans. to hurry; to move or walk as fast as possible. Mumbelet an immanamut. He hurried as he went home. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: butik. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.2 - Move quickly, 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2advpred. to hurry an action or activity. Beletan yu ta adi kayu mataynan. Walk fast so that you will not be left behind. Belebeletan Marya an mundallan ta wadan akhupanah Bugan. Marya walked fast so that she would be able to catch up with Bugan. Iblet yu nan mundogo nah ospital. Quickly take the sick person to the hospital. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. Time.

bik-i 1trans. to tear, rip or pull apart cloth or paper. Bik-iyon yu nan tudok. Tear open the letter. Bumik-i ka nah papel. Tear off a part of the paper. Pumbik-i na nan bulwati. She is tearing the dress. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: pinga, hethet. (sem. domains: 7.8.4 - Tear, rip.) 2trans. tear into little pieces; shred. Banik-ihon yu nan tudok ne inwele yu nah kanal. Tear the letter into small pieces and throw them in th canal. Adim banik-iyon nan papel. Don’t tear the paper into pieces. ‑an‑ ‑on/‑in‑. 3pass. for something to be torn. Adim guyudon te mabik-i. Do not pull it because it will be torn. Nabik-i nan pantalon na. His pants are torn. Nabik-i nan bulwatin Bugan nah ena naki-ay-ayyaman. Bugan’s dress got torn when she went to play. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. ma‑/na‑. infl. banik-ihon

binleg 1comm. back of the body. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Sim: odog, bangkug. 2trans. to put someone on back and carry. Impaw-id Guminnigin hi Bugan nah binlegana ot ume da. Guminnigin swung Bugan on his back and they went their way. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

Bogwa 1prop. exhumation ritual. [The exhumation ritual is usually done for the purpose of divining the needs of the spirit of the individual; the initiation of the ritual is usually based on the belief that the spirit has notified the living about the need through making a member of the family sick. Before exhumation, a previous divination ritual has determined whose spirit is in need.] Mabogwa tuh toon. His bones will be exhumed next year. Sim: lophak, apuy, katlu. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2trans. to exhume a corpse for another death ritual. Bogwaon dah apuna. They are going to exhume-for-second-burial-rites his grandparent. Mumbogwa dah hilong. They are going to perform the bogwa-exhumation-ritual tonight. Binogwa da din apun Bugan ot mumbaki da ya dakol di kinlong dan babuy. They exhumed the grandparent of Bugan, and then, they performed the baki-ritual and butchered many pigs. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: iapuy. der. mabogwa der. mamogwa

bohwat₁ trans. to erect a building; to build. Bohwaton da hi bigat nan alang. They are going to build the granary tomorrow. Bumohwat dah bale nah tap-on di wa-el. They are going to build a house above the stream. Binohwat da mo nan balen da Bugan. Bugan’s house was built already. Mumbohwat dah bale. They are building a house. Adi mabohwat inggana umalih tulang na. It will not be built until his sibling arrives. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.)

bugbug 1trans. to detach corn kernels from cob; to pick coffee beans from tree. Bugbugom nan gahhilang ta ipakan mun nah manuk. Shell the corn and feed the chicken. Mumbugbug hi Juan. Juan is removing corn from the cob. Bumugbug kah kanon nan gawgawa. Shell some corn for the ducks to eat. Nabugbug mo nan kanon di manuk. The corn for the chicken is already shelled. ‑on, muN‑, ‑um‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.) 2detach produce. 3trans. corn cob, i.e. the shelled remains. Amungon yu nadan namugbugan yu ta itungu taku. Gather the shelled-corn-cobs for us to use for firewood. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mamugbug

bulad trans. to unclench hand; to force-open someone’s clenched hand. Buladom ya- di taklen tun golang te inhabungul nay buuk ku. Please open the child’s hand because he is grasping my hair. Binulad da nan taklen Bugan an ingkawot nah wannon Kabbigat. They unclenched/opened Bugan’s hand which was grasping Kabbigat’s loin cloth. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: balukyad. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.5 - Actions of the hand.)

CV intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable of a verbal root is the form of a morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in very dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Anakkayang peman hi Bugan tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Wow (how excited you must be) Bugan, why do you go very early when there are no jeepneys yet. Gadgadam nan bila te dakol di lamut na ya napipitok. Scrape the tubers because they have many roots and they are very muddy.

da₂ quan. plural quantifier; co-occurs with demonstratives, nouns and the existential predicate. <Morphology: The quantifier form becomes an enclitic on Set 1 demonstratives and the existential predicate; it becomes a proclitic on Set 2 and Set 3 demonstratives; it stands alone as an independent form when co-occuring with nouns, common and proper.> Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. Wada da Apu Paredes ya Datumanung nah stage ya Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanung were on the stage together Loktat bo kaya ya wadaday inin-innilak an gagayyum ku. Then, I met some people who became my friends. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to ants when you are walking along the road. Dakamin da Bugan ke da Kabbigat ya hi Hinayyup di nungkukuyyug. We were together with the group of Bugan, Kabbigat and Hinayyup. Daan da nan iibbam? Where are your companions? (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) comp. dayyada

danglol 1sta. to be slippery. Madanglol nan dalan an umed Linda. The path which goes to Linda is slippery. Madanglol nan manteka nah dulung. The cooking oil on the floor is slippery. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.) 2proc. to become slippery. Dumanglol nan kalata hin umudan. If it rains, the road will became slippery. Ha-adam hi lana nan buuk mu ta dumanglol. Put oil on your hair so that it will be soft (lit. slippery). ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. madanglol

diyat open eyes. 1.1trans. to open eyes. Diniyat Bugan nan matanah namodwongana. Bugan opened her eyes wide in surprise. Diyaton yuy mata yu ta tibon yu. Open your eyes wide so you will see it. Adi madiyat di matana. Her eyes cannot be opened. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2intrans. to open the eyes wide, appearing to stare at something. Pundiyat nay matana. She was opening her eyes wide./She was staring. puN‑. 1.3nom. to have eyes opened. Mahakit di ek pundiyatan hi matak te nakamataak. It is painful when I open my eyes because I’m having sore eyes. puN‑ ‑an.

dolog 1comm. fish, generic; mudfish; found in rice paddies, rivers and small lakes. Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. spec: yuyu, dalit. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to catch fish. Eda manlog nah payon Bugan. They are going to catch fish in Bugan's field. maN‑/naN‑. 3trans. to have fish in pond or ricefield; to place fish into pond or ricefield. Nadlogan di payomi. Our rice field has mudfish in it. Dologan yu nan payoyu. Place mudfish in your ricefield. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

habug 1comm. fish roe; eggs of fish. Ayyoka nan habug nan dolog an inhida taku. What a pity for the fish roe that we ate. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2intrans. for fish to produce eggs. Tuwen humabug nadan dolog te matabada. The fish are about to have eggs because they are fat. Nahabugan da mo nadan yuyu. The Japanese fish already have eggs. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

halinu advpred. 1frequently; often. Halinuwam an ang-angon din intanom mu. Frequently look at/check on what you planted. Ag-agam halinuwam bo ahan bon e alan. Oh it’s too much, you are frequently getting it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2to habitually do something with diligence. Humalinu kan munha-ang. Always remember to cook when it’s time to cook. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Manner. 3to care for something diligently. Ipaptok ku nan intanom kun grapes an ihalinuk an sibugan. I will care for the grapes I planted to diligently/frequently water them. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.2 - Meet a standard.)

hanga 1advpred. to calculate something as being too much of the actual size or amount; to evaluate something as excessive. Hangaanay in-alin Bugan an bulhe. She thought that Bugan bought too many beans. Evaluative. (sem. domains: 9.3.1.3 - To a larger degree.) 2intrans. to always calculate an amount as being more than necessary. [When the form is used, it tends to express a negative evaluation of the person who does this.] Adika humangahanga. Don’t be always saying that it is too much.

hid-ip 1intrans. to peep or peek through a small aperture, e.g. a crack or crevice. Adika munhidi-ip te bumoh-ol da. Do not peep because they will be angry. Munhidhid-ip di uluna nah batu. His head was peeping out from behind a stone. (meaning only his head could be seen.) Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes (peeping) because it was dark, Lammooy was not around. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 2trans. to look slyly or quickly through a window for someone or something. Ihid-ip mu ten wadah Bugan. Peep to see if Bugan is there. Ihid-ip mu nah tawang. Peek through the window. i‑/iN‑. infl. ihid-ip

hiding intrans. to be pregnant; conceiving a child. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Himmihhiding hi Bugan. Bugan was pregnant. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Syn: higa. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.)

hikdul (sp. var. hikdol) trans. to lean on someone or something. Ihikdul Maria ke Bugan Maria leans on Bugan. Adika mihikdol nah panto. Don’t lean on the door. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. (sem. domains: 7.1.6 - Lean.)

hil-ok comm. audible gasp or sigh related to surprise or admiration and also dismay. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Kayang di hil-ok Aliguyun hi nangang-anganan Bugan. How Aliguyon gasped in admiration when he saw Bugan. Tipe anhan di hil-ok mu? Why your continous gasps of surprise? (sem. domains: 2.2.1 - Breathe, breath.)

hin conj. if; marks a dependent conditional clause. <When this conjunction, hin, is compounded with interrogative pronouns, it indicates that the question is indirect.> Hin ume ka, alam tun tudok ku. If you go, get my letter. Hin athinay kanam, umunud kami. If that is what you say, we’ll go along with it. Hin babai di imbabalem ingadanam hi Bugan. If your child is a girl, name her Bugan. Ahim ipainila hin umali ka. Let us know if you will come. Sim: deket, konnat, nu. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) comp. hin anoka ta comp. hin bokon comp. hin kananat

hingngot (sp. var. hongot) 1comm. engagement to marry, engagement offerings; the main offering is usually three pigs. [The engagement offerings are brought by the man’s family to the woman’s family; the word also refers to gifts, other than animals, such as bundles of wood, and a basketful of malagkit rice with coins placed on top. The animal engagement offerings are specifically referred to as the imbango.] In-eday hingngot Juan ad Bae. They brought Juan’s engagement offerings to Bae. Ine day hingngot Bugan. They brought the animals needed for the marital engagement of Bugan. Sim: Hongot; Sim: bango, Tokop di mom-on. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to give animals and other paraphernalia used in the marital engagement arrangements. Mumpakan he dakel an babuy ta waday ihngot na hin malahin. He is feeding a lot of pigs so that he will have animals to use if he decides to be married. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to bring the betrothal gifts for the engagement ceremony. Munhongot da Juan hi bigat. Juan will bring the animals needed for his engagement tomorrow. Munhongot hi Juan ke Ana. Juan will bring his engagement offerings to Ana. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to bring necessary animals for the marital engagement. i‑ ‑an.

hungdu trans. to go to visit; to visit a place. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Hungduwon Aliguyon ad Hananga ta ena tibon hi Bugan. Aliguyon goes to the village of Hanaga to see Bugan. ‑on. Sim: pahyal, ay-ayyam. infl. hungduwon

ihik trans. to desire intensely; to want something intensely; to obsess about something. Ihik nan e patayon. He really wants to kill him. Ihik Bugan an umeh payo. Bugan wanted very much to go to the field. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 3.3.1.8 - Lust, 3.3 - Want.) infl. mun-ihhikan

ilag 1comm. yellowish, reddish color as of rice ripening or any other fruit. Maang-ang moy ilag dih page. Now, we can see the yellowish-reddish color of the rice grains (nearing harvest time). (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3 - Color.) 2proc. to become yellow-red in color, describes rice or fruit that is becoming ripe. Umilag di kantol ten munkal-um. The santol-fruit becomes yellowish-reddish when about to be ripe. Mun-iilag nan bugan di kantol. The santol-fruit is reddish. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑. 2G Processes.

imbango (infl. of bango) comm. 1bride price; animals for engagement, three pigs are required. In-e day imbangon nan tulang ku ot ume kamit emi bolwaon. They brought the bride price to my cousin so we went to take our share. Tulun babuy di pinalti da nah imbangon Bugan. Three pigs were butchered for Bugan’s bride price. In-e day imbango na. They brought his engagement animals. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2an engagement ceremony; betrothals have historically been arranged for their children by parents anytime from infancy through puberty.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

inay-aw (inay) adjunct. expression of surprise, can be positive or negative. Tinibom hi Bugan an e nanayo yaden nabutong. Inay-aw tipet maid di baina. I saw Bugan dance and yet she is drunk. Oh my, why doesn’t she have any shame? Inay-aw, nakagganas man! Wow! What a wonderful time we’ve had! Inay-aw, tumakutak, indae ya matalak da! Oh my! I’m so afraid they’ll get lost. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

inimbabaleyan (der. of imbabale) trans. to have children out of wedlock. Inimbabaleyan Jose hi Bugan. Jose has a child out of wedlock with Bugan. ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.5 - Illegitimate child.)

laawon trans. to agree to honor a request. Laawon mon Magappid ot idat na ta hidiye moy awil Bugan. Aunt Magappid agreed and gave it to Bugan as a present.

lai (sp. var. laik) 1comm. the old leaves of rice plants. Dakdakol di bungan di page hin makaan di lai na. There will be more rice grains if the old leaves of rice plants are removed. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to remove old leaves of rice plants. Munlai da hi bigat nah payon Bugan. They are going to remove the old leaves of the rice plants in Bugan’s field. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movment with a directional component. comp. ahilai

latlatu 1comm. picture; photo. Dakol di latlatun tun imbabalek. My child has many pictures. (sem. domains: 6.6.5 - Art.) 2trans. to take pictures. Latlatuwom hi Bugan. Take the picture of Bugan. Linatlatu da nan bale. They took a picture of the house. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: litrato. der. munlatlatu der. punlatlatuwan

lawwan intrans. for something to be fitting and attractive. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Nilawlawwan di pundaldallan Bugan. Bugan walked so well, just right and nice. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.8.1 - Beautiful.)

mahin-alangan (der. of alang) sta. a size measure of a ricefield; its produce can fill a normal size granary. Mahin-alangan nan payon Bugan. Bugan’s ricefield produces enough to fill a granary. mahin‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.)

motwa trans. to look at; to behold. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Motwaom key adol na! Just look at her body! Dakol day e makimotwah binlan Bugan. Many went to behold the beauty of Bugan. ‑on, maki‑.

munlangkak (der. of langkak) intrans. a euphemism used to refer to committing adultery; extended meaning of langkak ‘to lie’. Nunlangkak da Bugan ke Dulawan. Bugan and Dulawan committed adultery. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.2.3 - Sexual immorality.)

nadandani (der. of dani) advpred. refers to indefinite intervals of time related to actions or events. Nadandani on immalih tu. Every now and then, he comes here. Nadandani on ingkiwam ta gagalan mabao. Now and then, stir it (the rice) so that it will cool quickly. Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. ma‑/na‑. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.6.2 - Sometimes.)

nangatang (infl. of gatang) trans. buyer, the one who has bought something. Hiyay nangattang nah lutan Bugan. He is the one who bought Bugan’s ricefield. Kaatnay nangatang mun nah payo? How much did you pay for the field? maN‑/naN‑.

ni- 1pass. this prefix is the passive form for Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Dakol di inggampa dan nibangngad mu hay kapkaphodan ke Bugan ya nan gawgawa. They had many gifts in a basket that they returned home with but the very best for Bugan was the duck. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. Sim: mi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2mod. functions to encode non-volitionality.

ni-yan advpred. just right; perfect. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Ni-ni-yan tuy pun-am-ampuyyon Bugan. How fitting to perfection did Bugan wear her tapis-skirt. Ni-ni-yan tuy panpannayona bo. Her dancing was also perfect. Evaluative.

nun-addum (infl. of addum) v. to live together as the final stage of the traditional betrothal-marriage ceremonies. Nun-addum da mo da Bugan ke Wigan. Bugan and Wigan are now living together. muN/nuN . (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

ope trans. to cast a spell on someone. Inopayan Kuyappi hi Bugan te nanayo da. Kuyappi cast a spell on Bugan because they were dancing. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.1 - Sorcery.)

ot-ok intrans. to harp on the same thing; to talk about someone or something continually. It-ok day binlan Bugan. They talked continuously about Bugan. It-ok day ulena. They talk so much about her kindness. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

otok advpred. to be excessive; to overstate or exaggerate. It-ok day binlan Bugan. They exaggerated the beauty of Bugan. It-ok na damdama an manginum. He drinks excessively also. i‑/iN‑. Comparative.

paddi 1sta. for two actions or events to occur at the same time; coincidentally. Eyak umali mu nipaddi an immudan. I was about to come but it happened to rain. Mipapaddih aliyan yu ya dumatong hi Bugan. Your coming will coincide with Bugan’s arrival. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: dihhan. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 2trans. to do something at the same time as another event. Paddiyom hi baleda ot dehdi nah himbatangan. Go see him in their house; anyway he is there in the afternoon. Ipaddi yun umali tu hin maidak hitu. Come here when I am not here. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions.

pinghana (der. of oha) 1comm. refers to the first day of the week; Monday. Handih pinghana di immaliyak hi bale yu. It was last Monday that I came to your house. piN‑ + na. Syn: Lunes. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) 2adv. refers to the beginning of a period of time or the first instance of an event; first time. Man-u dih pinghana te maphod ka; ad uwani ya makangohhe ka. It was only at the beginning that you were good; now you are proud. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Hidiyey pinghanan pangayan Bugan an e manibon inaonan hi Magappid. It was the first time Bugan went to visit her Aunt Magappid. Time. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.2 - Ordinal numbers.)

taligonggong (sp. var. of tuligonggong) trans. to make something circular; to be circular. Taligonggongon yu nan matan nan tagtaggu. Make the eyes of the wooden figure circular. Ugge nataligonggong nan kinapyam. What you made is not circular. Nan kinapyan Bugan di kataltalligonggongan an am-in. What Bugan made has the most perfectly circular form than all others. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.)

tud-ak trans. to send someone on an errand. Itud-ak muh Bugan ta e humagob. Send Bugan to fetch water. Intud-ak nay inayana e gumatang hi boga. She sent her husband to buy rice. Adina pinhod an mitud-ak. He does not want to be sent on an errand. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: hon’ag, baal, gitgit. (sem. domains: 7.3.3.3 - Send.) infl. itud-ak

tul-un intrans. to surface or come to the top, e.g. fish in water Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.4 - Move up.)

ubbu 1comm. a work-sharing system. Ad uwani di ubbu da. Today is their share-work. Sim: ammung, bokla, kalu. (sem. domains: 4.2.1 - Come together, form a group.) 2trans. to pool resources for someone. Ubbuwon da hi Juan ad uwani. They will share their resources for Juan today. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑, paki‑ ‑on. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 4.1.2.1 - Working relationship.) 3intrans. to do share work; take turns in helping each other in farm work. Mun-ubbu da ama nah payon Bugan. My father and the rest are doing share-work in Bugan’s field. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.6 - Participate.) 4v. to join others in working; usually means taking turns in working in each other’s rice fields. Pinhod mun makiubbu? Do you want to join in share-working? Pakiubuwom nan imbabalem. Have your son join in share-working. maki‑/naki‑, paki‑ ‑on. der. mun-uubbu

ule 1sta. to be kind; to be calm. Indai ya kanana pay di “Maphod ta hiyo- nan bumdang ya- maule. Later on, he added “It’s good that the bumdang-spirits are kind.” Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina? an kanak bo. “Mother, fairies are kind aren’t they because they give us candy,” I said. Makaulle kan ha-oy. You are very kind to me. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristis of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2intrans. to be careful; do something carefully; do something slowly Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Tibom ta mun-ul-ulen malutu. See that it cooks slowly. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.4.3.4 - Caution.) infl. maule infl. ul-ule

umuk 1comm. the tender portion of the stem of rice; the shoots of a rice plant. Inamung nay dakol an umok ot ihda mi. She gathered a lot of rice-plant-shoots and we had them for viand. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to gather rice plant shoots. Mangumuk da nah payon Bugan. They are gathering rice-plant-shoots in the field of Bugan. maN‑/naN‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent.