C1 this form symbolizes the gemination of the first consonant of the root word; when it co-occurs with the prefix paka-, it intensifies the ability of the agent-subject to perform something very well or completely. Dimmin-ong ta pakaddonglona ya impidwanan bon pimmalak an palak di babai. He was quiet so that he could carefully listen and the groan of a woman was repeated. Sim: pakaC1-.
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impakaiC1- this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. <
> Hanan tagun mangngol hi kalik ya un-unudona ya miingngo nah nanomnoman an tagun nangapyah balenan impakaihammad nay tukud na. (Mateo 7:24) The person who hears what I say and follows it can be compared to the intelligent person who has built his house and strongly stabilized its posts. Sim: pakaiC1-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) The C1 geminate is not always pronounced or written.
1this prefix encodes an intensifying modal of a state. < . mod > Makangnganta din unga. That child loves to sing. Maka-aliy kogak. I was just at the point of crying. (lit. really coming my crying) Hituwen amayyu ya makahammuy This animal is very odorous. Maka-atung ad Manila. It is very hot in Manila. 2this prefix intensifies the state of the subject referent; co-occurs with stative verbs. Makayyam-oy tinapay ni kinapya na. The bread that she makes is very soft. Sim: nakaC1-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.) 3this prefix intensifies the passive state of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Maphod di makaddikhal nan itungu te gagala ya mahap-ayan It is good if the firewood is well-split because it will dry quickly. The first consonant of the root is geminated.
nakaC1- mod. this prefix is an intensifying modal affix; past tense. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a very loud noise when it is about to land. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Sim: makaC1-. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.)
nakaC1- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive, past tense; cross-references an object promoted to subject; the first C of the root is geminated when the form of the root is CVCCV(C). Nakallampahuan nan dulung. The floor is very well polished.
nakaiC1- intensifier. the prefix derives an intensified passive form of Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Hay bangan nakai-ustuy hukap nay maphod an punha-angan hi pihing. A well-covered pot is best for cooking pihing-vegetables. Hinae mo nan kanak nakaihhalla kayu. (Marcos 12:27b) About that, I say you are very mistaken (lit. have missed the mark about that). (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.)
pakaC1- mod. this prefix functions as an intensifying modal for Class 4 verbal roots. Dimmin-ong ta pakaddonglona ya impidwanan bon pimmalak an palak di babai. He was quiet so that he could carefully listen and the groan of a woman was repeated. Hiya ke ya pakappinhod da aman inana ya hi apunan hi Dulnuan. He really loved his father, mother and grandfather Dulnuan. Mu hay pakappinhod nan kanon ya hay da munlumiin bunga. But what it really likes best is sweet fruit. Sim: C1. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)
pakaC1- -an this circumfix is an intensifier and cross-references the site-object. <
> Hi Joshua ya pakabbaddangan APU DIOS, kinali nundingngol di ngadanah kabobboble. (Joshua 6:7) As for Joshua, the LORD greatly helped him, that’s why his name was heard in all the villages. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.) This circumfix is an allomorph of the circumfix pakaC2‑ ‑an . It co-occurs with roots with the CVC.CV(C) syllable pattern.
pakaC1- -on this circumfix is an intensifier and cross-references the object of Class 4 roots. <
> Pakabbidbidom ke nan impitudok Apu Dios, maid di kananah malpud Galileen profetas. (Juan 7:52b) Read very carefully what God has caused to be written, there is nothing said about a prophet from Galilee. Hanadan tataguh di ya pakaddonglon day intuttudun Felipe te tinibo day milogron inat na. (Acts 8:6) The people there listened very well to what Felipe was teaching because they saw the miracles that he did. Sim: C2, pakaC2- -on, pakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) This circumfix is an allomorph of the circumfix pakaC2‑ ‑on . It co-occurs with roots with the CVC.CV(C) syllable pattern.
pakaiC1- trans. this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; non-past tense. Indani ya imme on profetas ot kananan Ahab di “Mibangngad kayu ke ya pakaidaddaan muy titindalum ya pakaipplanum di ustu te hantuh umalin toon hi athitun tiempo ya gubaton daka bo nah patul di Syria. (1 Patul 20:22) Later, the prophet went and said to Ahab, “You all return and you must carefully prepare your soldiers and carefully plan because about this time in the coming year, the king of Syria will war against you.” Sim: impakaiC1-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
annil sta. to be jealous; applied to a married couple; has components of possessiveness and suspicion. Man maka-annil hi Jose kinali adi uggan bumudal hi Bugan. Jose is so jealous that’s why Bugan never goes out. Mun-annil hi Jose. Jose is jealous. muN‑, makaC1‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.8 - Jealous, 2.6.1 - Marriage.)
hunni 1sta. to be inverted or reversed in a position or order; often related to teaching or thinking. Dakayun nahunnihunniy punnomnom na. You are inverting thinking (about what is good and bad). Isaiah 5:20 Nakahhunni kan tagu. You are a person who prefers the reverse. ma‑/na‑, makaC1‑/nakaC1‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. Sim: ballin₁. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Change something.) 2trans. to invert; to turn upside down; to reverse. Hanunhunniyon nah diyen intuttudu kun dakayu He is always twisting (reversing, saying the opposite of) what I have taught you. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an‑ CV(C)‑. 3nom. the opposite of something. He-ay hunnin inam. You are the opposite of your mother. (She is gentle but you, you’re an angry person.)
iliw sta. to be homesick; to feel lonely or to miss someone. Nun-oppot da Juan ke Maria an maka-iliw dan duwa. Both Juan and Maria miss each other. Mailiw nadah imbabalena ot umanamut. He missed his children so he came home. ma‑, makaC1‑. Sim: ilmu, ingle. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Sad.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
kawwan trans. to keep something for oneself. Makakkawwanak hi pihhu te naligat an hamakon. I keep money (I am frugal) because money is hard to earn. makaC1‑.
luku (sp. var. luko) 1comm. fool. Luku hi amam te duway inayana. Your father is a fool because he has two wives. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Stupid.) 2sta. to be foolish or naughty; describes one whose behavior is senseless or irrational. Naluku hi tulang mu hi iskul. Your brother is naughty in school. Nakallukuh naen unga muden nalaing. That child is very naughty but he is intelligent. na‑, nakaC1‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.1 - Immature in behavior.) 3trans. to deceive; to fool or mislead so that behavior is unreasonable or foolish. Adim kulugon hinaen tagun te lukuwon daka ya abu. Do not believe that person because he will just deceive you. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Deceive.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
makattakut (infl. of takut) sta. to be very afraid; may describe someone who is too afraid to do an expected action, i.e. a coward. Naapput da te makadinnol da te hay inila da ya makattakut di Ipugao. They were defeated because they were unsuspecting (lit. trusting) because they thought the Ifugao were cowards (lit. very afraid). makaC1‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Afraid.)
takut 1to be afraid. 1.1intrans. to feel anxiety or dread due to impending danger; afraid. Tumakut hi banig. He is afraid of ghosts. Maid moy udum an Ippangyol an nangipatnan immalin niha-ad ad Kiangan te tumakut da. No other Spaniard ever tried again to come to stay in Kiangan because they were afraid. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. Opp: tulid; Sim: kol-o, kobkob. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Afraid.) 1.2sta. to be very afraid. Makattakut hi Juan nah ahu. Juan is very afraid of the dog. makaC1‑. 2to fear something. 2.1trans. to fear something with the thing feared cross-referenced by the affix. Takutan di mangalanay ahu. It’s the dog that night prowlers are afraid of. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to cause someone to feel frightened; the affix cross-references the person who is being frightened. Taktakuton da dakayu ya alan day diyen limmu yu. They will frighten you and get your property. CVC‑ ‑on. 3sta. to be frightening; to have characteristics that cause fear. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (lit. frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. kaCV‑. 4comm. refers to the emotion that someone experiences. Adina itikod nan mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He doesn’t stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die anytime. der. katatakut der. matakutan infl. makattakut
C2 this form symbolizes the gemination of the medial consonant of the root word; when it co-occurs with the circumfixes paka- -on and paka- -an, it intensifies the ability of the agent-subject to perform something very well or completely. Pakabayyuon dah maphod nan page. They will pound the rice very well. Sim: pakaC2- -on, pakaC2- -an, pakaC1- -on.
pakaC2- -an this circumfix intensifies the action of the agent-subject and cross-references a definite object. Ot pakaguwwalyaan da ot maid moy oggan madngol nadah bibilid ad Israel hi katatakut an olmom na. (Ezekiel 19:9a) They carefully guarded him and so never again would his fearful roar be heard in the mountains of Israel. Sim: C2, pakaC2- -on, pakaC1- -on. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)