CV intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable of a verbal root is the form of a morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in very dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Anakkayang peman hi Bugan tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Wow (how excited you must be) Bugan, why do you go very early when there are no jeepneys yet. Gadgadam nan bila te dakol di lamut na ya napipitok. Scrape the tubers because they have many roots and they are very muddy.
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CV- num. this reduplicant form functions to pluralize a noun referent. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana. When a man says that he will perform the hagabi-ceremony, he notifies his relatives beforehand. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Noun affixes.)
CV(C)-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant functions to intensify the meaning of a predication. <
> Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is very dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to finish it (lit. make it very good) . (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.) Morphophonology: The modal form reduplicates the first syllable of a root. For that reason, the syllable pattern of the root dictates whether the reduplicant form is CV- or CVC-.
CV(C)₁ asp. 1the reduplication of the first syllable, either CV or CVC, of a verbal root is the morpheme form that encodes the continuative aspect; this aspect expresses a single, uninterrupted continuing activity; continue. Kabigabigat on nangin-innum da ya nunhahamul da nah muyung. Every day these men continue to feast and drink in the forest. Idihhan ta hin mungngangala da ta adi dita donglon ke dida. We will coincide it with when they are continuously noisy so they will not hear us. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed continuing to pick and eat the fruit. Munhaghaggeyak te nikudliyak. I am limping because I slipped. Ot matatpuuk da nah puhung, mundopdoppap dah di. Then, they splashed into the pool, continuing to grapple there. 2expresses a continuative time aspect when co-occuring with roots that have an inherent punctiliar time aspect, but have been derived to have a durative time aspect with the prefix set muN-/nuN-. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli te hidiyey pinghanan ena nakidilagan hi allama. She jumped and screamed because it was the first time she went to catch crabs with a torch. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around Nuntadtaddog kamin mundongdongngol hi kalkalyon nan mittulu. We were continuously standing as we were listening to the speech of the teacher. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.3 - End.)
CV(C)₂ mod. when prefixing a form that is not functioning as an active verb, e.g. passive, or quantifying adjective, it intensifies by maximizing. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. Ta mamangulun ipulitu ta deket nage-geengngan hi ittay ne inid-um di amput ya danggu And fry first until it is brown and add garlic and onions.
CV(C)CV intensifier. co-occurs with adjective roots. Andukkedukke nan linubid. The rope is very long.
CV(C)CV-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant intensifies the meaning of an adjective; extremely; very. Hay kibalinana ya kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longonah nuwang ya babuy. The meaning of this is that he is very, very rich because he will butcher many carabao and pigs. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is very wide and there are many, many people. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was very big so I had to hang from a branch. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - To a larger degree.)
1this aspectual reduplicant encodes an habitual or constant aspect. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You are always awake to join in gambling because your gambling goes on day and night. Adina itikod nan mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear would be constant that he might die anytime. Wadan ustu moy bidbibidbid hi novels I think it’s time to put away the constant reading of novels (sem. domains: 8.4.2 - Take time.) 2to do something continuously over a durative period of time. Tobatbalona diday bagol ya aammod ta dumalay-up da ta hay idatong di hagabi ya maphod dan am-in an hin-am-a ya ta dumakol di babuy da ya manuk da. He continuously calls on the gods and his ancestors to witness the arrival of his hagabi-bench so that with its arrival, it will bring along good health for his family and the increase (become many) of their pigs and chickens. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngubungubun mangabat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were voices continuously mumbling. . asp
CV1C2 1intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable, CV(C), and the medial consonant of an adjective noun root is the form of the morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahiga-ud. The men have more work during the plowing season. Hi Luis an ong-ongal ya himpuluy toona ya hi ke Julie ya onom. Luis, the older (lit. bigger), was ten years old and Julie was six. Mu dakdakol di kaapputan ta maahinut ot ya abun am-in. But one loses more times than he wins such that eventually, everything will be lost. 2dim. refers to something smaller than the norm; this reduplication form encoding this meaning co-occurs only with nouns.
CVC- dim. this reduplicant expresses the meaning of small size; it co-occurs with nouns; diminutive. Waday dakol di ka-kaiw hi bale mi. There are many bushes (small trees) by our house. Pina-i na nan taltalak an indat ku. He destroyed the toy truck that I gave him.
hiN- CV- quan. when this prefix and reduplicant combination co-occurs with numbers, it functions to divide and distribute whatever is being modified by the affixed number, e.g. one each, two each Ohan algo ya inayagan Jesus nadan himpulut duwan disipulos na ot hindudwa on intud-ak nah kabobboblen e muntuttudu...(Marcos 6:7) One day, Jesus called his twelve disciples and then, he sent two each to the villages to teach... Am-in dadiyen kuwartu ya nun-iingngon himpupulun piyey lukud di kadukkena ya kabilog na. (Ezekiel 40:7b) All of those rooms were the same in measurement, each one was ten feet in length and width. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes, 8.1 - Quantity.)
ka- CV- this prefix combination encodes the tendency to become the characteristic expressed in the root or the tendency to go through a process. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. That cup is breakable (easily broken). (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
ka- CV(C)CV- comm. this affix combination inflects nouns with the meaning of each and every referent of the noun undergoes the action of the verb. Kaalgoalgo on umeh di. Every day he goes there. Kabulabulan an umali da. They come every month. Kabigabigat on imme da nah Templo ya hi kabalebale an e muntuttuduh mipanggep ke Jesus an hiyah Kriston mangipaptok hi tagu. (Acts 5:42) Every day they go to the Temple and from house to house to teach about Jesus who is the Christ who cares for people. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Noun affixes.)
kaCV- mod. to have a tendency toward certain behavior or have the characteristic encoded in the root. <
> Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. The cup is breakable. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.) The prefix ka- requires the cooccurence of the CV- reduplication to encode the ‘tendency’ modal concept.
kaCV(C)- comm. this prefix is affixed to common nouns and encodes the meaning that the action or activity is distributed throughout every place. Nundingngol hi Jesus hi kabobboble. Jesus was heard in every place. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take that letter to all the cities/villages. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Noun affixes.)
kaCV(C)CV- distr. this prefix expresses the distributive, inclusive quantity concept of ‘every’. Kabulabulan an umali da. They come every month. Kahimbahimbatangan on ume da. They go every afternoon. Ka-algo-algo on umehdi. Everyday he goes there. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Noun affixes, 8.1.5 - All.)
ag’i comm. sibling; brother; sister; cousin. Hin-aaggi dadiyen u-ungan mun-ay-ayyam. Those children playing are cousins. All the relatives of the same generation as the speaker may be referred to as a sibling. hin‑ CV‑ C2. Sim: iba, manang, tulang, kamang. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.3 - Brother, sister.)
alubyag 1trans. to comfort in time of sorrow; to console. Alubyagom hi inam te oha ka mon wada. You console your mother because you are the only one around now. Maal-alubyag hi inana. Her mother is consoled. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. Sim: al-aluk, anawa. (sem. domains: 4.4.4 - Respond to someone in trouble.) 2intrans. to try to obtain someone’s favor. Mangal-alubyag bo te waday pinhod nan ibaga. He is trying to be in your favor because he wants to ask for something. maN‑ + CV(C). (sem. domains: 4.4.1 - Prosperity.)
aminul 1intrans. to salivate; mouth watering, especially. when induced by sour food, delicious food, or when hungry. Mun-am-aminulak handi tinibok nan mangga. My mouth watered when I saw the mango fruit. Mun-am-aminul nadan u-unga te inang-ang dakan mangan hi mangga. The childrens’ mouths were watering because they saw you eating mango. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.) 2trans. to swallow something; swallow something without chewing by allowing saliva to soak it first before swallowing. Aminulom nan agam ta waday atom an pumhod. You swallow your medicine so that you will get well. ‑on/‑in‑.
amlong happy. 1.1intrans. refers to a feeling of well-being and contentment. Mun-am-amlong nadan aammod na handih nibangngad. His parents were very glad when he returned. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: anla. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Happy.) 1.2intrans. refers to a happy feeling at a point in time. Umamlong ka ot immalih inam. Be happy because your mother arrived. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3sta. to be happy, characterizes someone as being happy. Maam-amlong dan am-in. They are all happy. ma‑ CV(C). 1.4trans. refers to the reason for feeling happy. Adim amlongan di adi maphod. Do not be happy about bad things. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.5caus. for someone or something to cause happiness. Hin-uddum ya mangipaamlong an ang-ang-angon di plawer. Sometimes seeing flowers causes one to be happy. Hay inap-apu diday mangipa-amlong hi aammod. Grandchildren cause grandparents to be happy. mangipa‑/nangipa‑.
anla 1intrans. to be happy, to be glad; to be joyful. Immanla handih immalih inana. He was/became happy when his mother came. Mun-an-anla da handi hilong. They were having fun last night. muN‑nuN‑ CVC, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: amlong. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Happy.) 2trans. to tease someone Adim an-anlaon nan tulang mu. Do not be teasing your sister. ‑on/‑in‑. der. an-anlaon infl. maan-anla