Search results for "Ifugao"

ayyuding 1comm. a guitar-like instrument made of bamboo, four strings made of thin strips of bamboo. Ayyuding di ay-ayyamon na. His plaything is a bamboo guitar. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 2intrans. to play the stringed instrument. Mun-ayyuding ka. Play the guitar. muN‑/nuN‑.

Ifugao (sp. var. Ipugao) prop. refers to an ethnic group of people living in the province by the same name located on the island of Luzon, Philippines; also refers to the language of the people. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people.)

Ipugaw prop. refers to an ethnic group of people living in the province by the same name located on the island of Luzon, Philippines; also refers to the language of the people. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo-spirits or pinading-spirits (sem. domains: 4.1.9.8 - Family, clan.)

Lagawe prop. a place name; today it refers to the provincial capital of Ifugao Province. Dimmatong kami ad Lagawe ya nipalpu mo tuwaliy parada. When we reached Lagawe, the parade had already started. (sem. domains: 9.7.2.3 - Names of cities.)

Liddum prop. a god, teacher of Ifugao rituals; god of the Skyworld, teacher of rice cultivation and raising of chickens and pigs. [This god is a member of the mabaki class; these gods are invoked by offering sacrifices.] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

Alim 1prop. a ritual ballad, one form of Ifugao literature and a part of some sacrifical rituals. Sim: Hudhud. (sem. domains: 3.5.4.6 - Verbal tradition.) 2intrans. to perform the Alim ballad. Mun-alim dah alang da te mun-ani da ad uwanin algo. They are performing the Alim in their granary because they are harvesting today. muN‑/nuN‑.

Bag’ol 1prop. the Ifugao gods, deities and spirits in general; many sub-classes exist. Deket mumbaki da ya idawatan da nadan bagol hi babuy. If they perform the baki they sacrifice pigs to the gods. Idawat da nadah bagol di kalyon da nah pumbakiyan da. They offer the gods what they say in their rituals. Tobotbalona diday bagol ya aammod ta dumalay-up da. He is invoking the gods and his ancestors so that they will bless (him). (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2intrans. to perform the bagol ritual. Mumbagol da te mundogoh amana. They are performing the bagol ritual because his father is sick. muN‑/nuN‑. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture) der. mumbagol n. ph. hambal di Bagol

bagat 1comm. the four main corner posts of the Ifugao native house; four main, inside posts nailed to the floor joist and girders, holding and connecting girders to roof. Naane nan bagat di bale. The main post is attacked by termites. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to place corner posts. Bagatan yuh palayon nan bale. Use the oak wood for the corner posts. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

baki 1comm. ritual, Ifugao sacrificial rite. [The traditional religion has many rites and rituals, all are classified under this generic name.] (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2nom. the shaman-priest who performs the baki. <Although the prefix muN- derives a verb, the form functions as a nominal reference, referring to the person who performs the ritual. > Mungkama-id da mo nadan nakaginnilan mumbaki ya wada ke bo ya naka-am-amma da mo ya adida mo pakabbakiy tatagud uwani te hay pangulug da mo ke Apu Dios. Priests who perform the baki ritual are becoming few and if there are any they are very old and many people nowadays don’t perform the baki because of their faith in God. Gulat na nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the believers in God become ill, there would be no more baki-priests. muN‑ . 3sta. refers to the deities or ancestors invoked in a ritual and are the recipients of the sacrifice offered. Mabaki nadan ammod na. His ancestors are invoked in the ritual. der. Mabaki der. mumbaki

Ballituk prop. the name of a folk hero in Ifugao mythology. O-ohha day mungngadan hi Ballituk. There are a few who are named Ballituk. (sem. domains: 3.5.4.1 - Fable, myth.)

baltung 1comm. ritual in which the Ifugao shamans stamp their feet after each sentence of the ritual chant. Ingunu da nan baltung nah hogop. They perform the baltung-ritual during the hogop-ritual. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the baltung-ritual. Baltungan dah tulun babuy nan balen da Jose. They are going to perform the baltung ritual with three pigs in the house of Jose. Mumbaltung hi Jose. Jose will perform the baltung-ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑. 3comm. refers to the sound of the rapid stamping of feet. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 4intrans. to stamp one’s feet in rapid succession. [performed during the hogop ritual.] Mumbaltung da boh hilong. They are going to stamp their feet again tonight. Bumanalbaltung hanadan u-unga. The children are always stamping their feet. Mapmaphod hhi Dulyaggan ten mumbaltung. Dulaggan was very skillful when he was doing the baltung ritual. muN‑, ‑um‑.

Banaue prop. Ifugao town. Hanada ken natdaan an Ippangyol ya hi aman Tomas Morado ad Kiangan, hi Beyer ad Banaue, hi Hora ad Bontok ya nan ohan binumtik ad Bambang. The Spaniards who survived were the father of Tomas Morado in Kiangan, Beyer in Banaue, Hora in Bontok and one who ran away to Bambang.

Bannawol (fr. var. Banawe; sp. var. Banawol) prop. Banawe; town in Ifugao. Imme dad Bannawol. They went to Banawe.

Bert prop. shortened form of a common proper name among the Ifugao, Alberto.

bub’ung (sp. var. bubong) comm. roof peak in an Ifugao house or granary usually with a vent at the side which serves as a chimney; the topmost ridge of thatch. Muntudu nan bubung nan abung. The roof of the house is leaking. Kinayat kuy bubung di baleda. I climbed to the peak of the roof of their house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

Bugan 1prop. a woman’s name, one of the most popular Ifugao names. [In the hudhud, the main heroine is usually Bugan, wife of Aliguyon.] Ha-on hi Bugan an in-Aliguyon. I am Bugan, wife of Aliguyon. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.) 2prop. the daughter of the Skyworld god, Wigan, who with her brother, Kabbigat, produced the first Ifugao. [father was Wigan] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 3comm. in traditional speech and oral literature, the name may simply be used to refer to a woman.

bulalakki comm. refers to handsome young men in the Ifugao Hudhud epics. {literary} (sem. domains: 2.3.1.8 - Appearance.)

dalikan 1comm. hearth stones; fireplace, three stones set in a triangle to serve as the place for setting the cooking pot in a fireplace in an Ifugao house. Iphod mu nan dalikan ta adi katinnu-i. Fix the hearth stones so that they will not be unstable. (sem. domains: 5.5 - Fire.) 2trans. to use in making a hearth. Idalikan yu nadan muling. Make a hearth using the river stones. Tulun hintutulang nangdon tuh luta. (dalikan) (riddle) Three relatives hold earth. (hearth)(riddle) i‑/iN‑.

Dangli 1prop. a funeral ritual, generally performed by the wealthy, aristocratic Ifugao. pt: hablag. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2comm. animals butchered during a wake with baki funeral rituals. Nuwang di Danglin nan nate. A carabao is the animal butchered during the wake. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice.) 3trans. to provide sacrificial animals during the wake of a relative. Dangliyan dah inada. They will produce the necessary animals for the wake of their mother. Kababain mo ahan hin adika pakadanglin amam. It is particularly shameful if you cannot afford your father’s funeral ritual. (i.e. produce the minimum number of animals to be butchered) ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

danum 1comm. liquid of any kind, including a mother’s milk; liquid; water. Umala kah danum ta inumok. Get some water for me to drink. Comment on borrowing: Some speakers believe that this word has been borrowed from Ilocano and that liting is the correct Ifugao word. Syn: liting. (sem. domains: 1.3 - Water.) 2comm. a metaphor that means ‘a house burned down’. [This has been used as a metaphorical reference for ‘a house burned down’, used instead of ‘naghob nan bale’; used especially at night so as not to cause nightmares. (Matima Dulawan)] Inudmanah liting nan danum nan ihda. He added water into the broth of the viand. 3proc. to become watery. Dimmanum nan ingkail mu? Has the rice you are fermenting become watery? ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4trans. to obtain or add water to something. Danumam nan intanom mu ta adi makleng. Water your plant so that it will not wither. Idanum mu nan malpuh gulipu. Use the water from the faucet. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. id. nadanuman nan bale n. ph. danum di ihda n. ph. danum di niyug

Dulnuan prop. a common proper name among the Ifugao; name of male or family name.

gawan di gawana n. refers to the very center of a settlement; residential area of prestige. (Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History) {hist}

hapad₁ comm. the joining-hands marriage ritual; one of the rituals involved in the uya-uy marriage ceremony of the aristocratic class of Ifugao. [Two shamans chant the alim during the ritual; those who have performed the uya-uy may participate with the couple.] (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

Hudhud 1prop. an epic song; narrations that reflect the life of the early Ifugao and their cultural values; during the past, the epics were chanted while harvesting rice and during the wake of elderly persons. Inilak di hudhud Aliguyun ad Hananga. I know the epic of Aliguyun of Hananga. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2sing a Hudhud epic. 2.1intrans. to sing the epic; the singing activity is prominent. Munhudhud nadan mun-ani. The harvesters are singing the Hudhud epic. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: Alim. 2.2trans. to sing the epic with prominence on manner. Ihudhud mu di ohan mahaldot. Sing one epic that is interesting (sung with clear enunciation). i‑/iN‑.

ipugo₁ comm. 1native rice. [This rice variety is planted on wetland; it requires 5 to 6 months of growth before it can be harvested. According to an oral legend, this rice variety was first planted on a hill called Imbiday, near Kiyangan by hunter-brothers, Ballituk and Kabbigat.] Mahong-o nan ipugo mu nan wagwag. Native rice is more delicious than the lowland-rice. Ipugo nan intanom mid uwani nah payo. The rice we planted now is the native-vairety. Sim: bulkitan, tinoon; gen: bog’a. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1 - Food from plants.) 2human being. [May also refer to someone from the hills, ipugo.] 3refers to the Ifugao people. [Used in the Ketema and Bonwe rituals.] Oral Literature of the Tuwali Ifugao in Kiangan by Manuel Dulawan.

Kabbigat₂ prop. the male god from the Skyworld who with sister, Bugan, produced the first Ifugao. [In the myth of the origin of the Ifugao one of the Skyworld gods, Wigan, sent his son and daughter to the valley Kay-ang to populate the earth.] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

kadangyan 1comm. traditionally this word referred only to the class of Ifugao who had performed prestige rituals, aristocrat, but it may now refer to any person who has wealth. Kadangyan di tagun waday pangulug nan Apu Dios. A person who has faith in God is rich. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot te matugal. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man because he was a gambler. Bokon taku met kadangyan ya maid di tawidon yu. We are not rich and you have nothing to inherit. Opp: wotwot. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people, 6.8.1.2 - Rich.) 2comm. this word is used to refer to the highest class of people in Ifugao traditionally, those who have performed all of the rituals of prestige feasts. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The one who performs the humgabi-ritual must be rich. Cultural note: In traditional society, there were three classes of people: kadangyan - aristocrats, tagu - common people, children of the kadangyan who did not perform the wealth rituals, nawotwot - the poor. 3proc. to become rich or wealthy. Kumadangyan day mahlun tagu. Industrious people become rich. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes. 4trans. to enrich someone with something or to be enriched. Ikadangyan mu nan inakom. You will enrich yourself with what you stole. Pakiala day kinadangyan diyen boble. They will also get the wealth that enriched that village. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an,‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. id. ikadangyan di imbabale say. Hay uya-uy di puntopong hi kinadangyan di ohan tagu.

Kiangan prop. refers to a municipality in Ifugao Province, Philippines. Immali da Juan hitud Kiangan. Juan and his companions came here to Kiangan. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

lanaw comm. bamboo, big trunk variety; not native to Ifugao. Nan lanaw di panukud mu. Use the big trunk bamboo for the post. Sim: bay’ug. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

liwliwa comm. Ifugao love songs that are composed at the time of singing by a talented leader; usually performed during the gotad-day of the uya-uy marriage ceremony.

Mabaki (der. of baki) 1prop. deified culture heroes who lived in the past and whose exploits are recounted in the Ifugao Hudhud epics. 2comm. the deities who are invoked and offered sacrifices in a ritual. Iniknogan da nadan mabaki. They offered meat sacrifices to the gods. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki: (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Maknongan₁ (der. of konong) comm. the most supreme of the Ifugao gods. [In the traditional religion, the name means ‘one to whom sacrifice is due’.] Oha ya abuy Maknongan nadan mangulug ke Jesus. There is only one God for those who believe in Jesus. Syn: Apu Dios. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

mungkalun nom. refers to a person who arbitrates or judges cases of violation of Ifugao traditional law; settlement is usually accomplished through mediation. (sem. domains: 4.8.4.9 - Reconcile, 4.7.1 - Laws.)

Nabugbugan di Ido prop. a class of gods that are considered to be very evil by the Ifugao. Syn: Nangga Ido. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Nangga Ido prop. a class of gods that are considered to be very evil by the Ifugao. Syn: Nabugbugan di Ido. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Loudes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

nawotwot (infl. of wotwot) sta. to be poor; refers traditionally to the lowest class of Ifugao, those without property. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people, 4.5.6.2 - Low status.)

Nungkutu prop. the name given to those who taught the Ifugao their religious rituals, particularly those related to the rice agricultural rites and rituals. Loudes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

pugo₂ comm. native Ifugao rice. Ipugo di intanom da nah ambilog an payo. Native rice is what they planted in the wide ricefield. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

Punholdayan one of the major deities in the Ifugao traditional religion.

puta comm. a whore; a prostitute. Kalyam nan ibam ta adi mikamkamo nah puta. Tell your sibling not to mingle with the whore. general: This word is seldom used in the Ifugao area. (sem. domains: 2.6.2.3 - Sexual immorality.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

Sentral prop. the name of the elementary public school in Kiangan, Ifugao.

tayo 1comm. the native Ifugao dance. Uggena inilay tayo taku te iBontok. He does not know our dance because he is from Bontoc. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Sim: tagg’am. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance.) 2v. to dance the native dance. Aga, manayo taku. Come on, let’s dance. Itayok di tayon di iKiangan. I will dance the Kiangan dance. Maphod di panayum. You dance the native dance well. maN‑/naN‑/paN‑, i‑/iN‑. infl. manayo

tiking comm. Ifugao coffin, carved out of a big piece of wood with a cover. Maid di ek tiniboh tiking. I have never seen an Ifugao coffin. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.3 - Funeral, 6.7.7 - Container.)

tinayum (sp. var. tinayyum) comm. thread, spun by Ifugao from cotton. Nan tinayyum di pangut mu. Use the spun-cotton-thread in sewing. (sem. domains: 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.)

Wigan prop. the god who is believed to have populated the earth by sending his son, Kabbigat, and daughter, Bugan, to live on earth and in Ifugao mythology, they are considered to be the first Ifugao; Wigan is also considered to be the god who caused the Flood because of overpopulation. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

bangibang 1intrans. the ceremony of revenge; part of the ceremony is what is described as a war dance. Numbangibang day aammod Pedro. Pedro’s relatives performed the war dance. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: git’ak, him-ung. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.5 - Revenge.) 2comm. a rhythm block musical instrument; percussion instrument; the primary use is in the bangibang revenge ritual. Intungu na nan bangibang. He used the bangibang-block for firewood. Sim: gikkong. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 3trans. to perform the revenge war dance ritual for someone who has been killed. Bangibangan da nan pinate dad nakugab. They will perform the wardance for the person killed yesterday. Mumbangibang da nadan iiban nan pinalang da. The relatives of the one slain-by-machete are performing the revenge ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.) 4trans. a ritual performed to drive away rats. [Men form a possession and proceed to the next village, making noise by banging things. Eventually they perform a ritual to curse rats’ spirits.] Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao (Sense #4)

bikkung (sp. var. bikkong) comm. small musical instrument of brass used for courting (notes are like words); wind instrument made of brass. [Old men and women may also play the instrument during lonely hours at night.] Immeh Pedro nah dolan di agamang di binabai ot e mumbikkung. Pedro went near the girls dormitory and played his bikkung. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

Bulul comm. a class of gods symbolized by wooden statues resembling a person; considered to be spirits that guard granaries and forests. [It is believed that the rice-gods come to dwell in the statues to guard every Ifugao rice granary and village.] Waday bulul hi alang mi. There is a wooden statue of a god in our granary. Sim: hip’ag, tinattaggu. (sem. domains: 4.9.8.1 - Idol.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History der. mumbulul

cabecillas comm. those appointed to oversee ranches during American and Spanish times. {hist} Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

da-u comm. an ordeal using boiling water to determine guilt in the cases of theft. [In the case of theft, the accuser and the accused met in a designated place. Both were expected to put an arm into the boiling water up to the elbow. A burned arm was evidence for being guilty of theft or of making a false accusation. This ordeal is no longer used.] Maid di inaang-ang kuh da-ud uwani. I have not seen the ordeal today. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) Loudes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

dintagan (dotag) comm. refers to meat. Restrictions: ritual word. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

Dulom prop. invocation of ancestors and deities. Sim: Gonob. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

dumalay-up intrans. come near or approach. Restrictions: Ritual word. Syn: mih-up. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

ginumta trans. 1for a spirit to have bitten someone to indicate a need [This word is related to rituals, usually involving a sacrifice, that are intended to counteract events caused by the bite of a spirit.] {ritual} Syn: kimmalat. 2to have caused something. {ritual} Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

Gonob prop. refers to the invocation of ancestors and deities by name. Sim: Dulom. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

gopa₂ sta. sundown; may also refer to the sun being hidden by clouds. Ahika umalih magpa. You come this afternoon at sundown. Umudan hi magpa. It will rain this afternoon (sundown). (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

got’ad (sp. var. gott’ad) 1comm. the climaxing day of the uya-uy marriage feast or prestige feast. [The Gotad day follows the final night holyat of two weeks of nightly dancing. On this day, there is much drinking, dancing and singing of liwliwa-love songs for the whole day.] Kakon-anay gotad ad Baguinge? When is the gotad feast of the wedding in Baguinge? Sim: Ballihung, uya-uy. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2intrans. Ginumtad dad Bayninan. They performed the gotad feast in Bayninan. ‑um‑/‑inum‑. 3comm. a line of people going to attend a ceremony. [For a procession, gongs are used for the music and the tune of gongs is for a procession or during the bogwa ritual.] Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

gottad comm. a gong rhythm. [When five gongs are used, a complicated sequence of beating is employed.] Sim: kipkipol, talektek, dikdikuk. (sem. domains: 4.2.3 - Music.) Manuel Dulawan: Readings On Ifugao.

Hagophop prop. a ritual for the weeding of rice fields by women, February-March; the ritual petitions the gods for protection against rats, worms, bugs and other pests. Cal: Lukat, Pudung, Loka, Ugwid, Bolnat, Kulpi, Hagophop, Paad, Pokol, Ingngilin, Tuldag, Ponpon, Takdog, Kahiu, Hikgut, Apui; Sim: kagokoh. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony, 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History. comp. ahihagophop

Halupe prop. a class of gods that charm and are persuasive; believed to be friends of men and therefore, are thought of as being capable of mediating between men and other gods. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

hawan trans. to block the view. Adim hawanan nan dilag. Do not block the light. Ihawan mu nan saku nah tawang. Use the sack in blocking the window. Humawan nan kaiw ta adi matibo nan bale mi. The tree blocks the view so that our house cannot be seen. Adika mihawan na. Do not block our view. ‑an/‑in‑‑an, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑/ni‑. Sim: duklig, hani; Sim: hani. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

hib-at intrans. the alternate sounding of the gongs. [One player beats a gong with his palms; that is called the tobab rhythm. Three or four players play the hib-at rhythm to complement the tobab.] Hib-atom ta manayo kami. Beat the gongs so that we will dance. Mahaldot di panib-at nah gangha. The mannner in which he is striking the gongs is very sonorous. ‑on/‑in‑, paN‑. Sim: pol-ag. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

hingal trans. to scold loudly; especially an elder sibling scolding a younger one, parents scolding their children, or superiors scolding subordinates. Ihingal mu din unga te deyan munhapuke. Scold that child because he is playing with the dirt. Antipet eka umihingal? Why do you scold? i‑/iN‑, umi‑. 3I Direct action toward object. Sim: hanggik, hong-ak, bugtak. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry, 3.5.1.8 - Criticize.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

hiwo intrans. to dislike something or someone. [This word refers to a milder emotion than hingit.] Humihhiwon ha-on. She dislikes me. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: hingit. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.1 - Dislike.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

holyat 1comm. the wedding celebration final day, celebrated on the night of the uya-uy, following the gotad, may also refer to the last day of the hagabi celebration. Holyat hi Sabado. The holyat-celebration is on Saturday. wh: uya-uy. (sem. domains: 4.2.2 - Social event, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to celebrate the uya-uy marriage ceremony on the final night. Holyaton dah Sabado. They will have the celebration on Saturday. Etaku makiholyat. Let’s go join in the celebration. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑/naki‑. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

inggalgaletget comm. a loom-woven skirt made from excess thread; worn by the poor. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) (Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History)

ingngiing (sp. var. inggiing) 1comm. a flute made of bamboo, played with nose. Ikapyaanak hi ingngiing, aga. Please make a bamboo flute for me. Sim: kupli-ing, ipiip. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 2intrans. to play the flute. Hantuh program ya mun-ingngi-ing ka. During the program you will play the flute. muN‑. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

intinlu comm. a native loom-woven skirt; 3-piece skirt joined by black and red thread, one weave cut into three and sewn to make one. [This skirt is generally worn by the poor. ] Gimmatang hi intinlu te uggena inilan mun-abol. She bought a intinlu-skirt because she doesn’t know how to weave. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, inabol, ampuyo, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) (Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History)

kah-on comm. a way on which to walk; path. Punpaldangon yu nadan kawayan ta mihaad an kah-on. Place the kawayan in a line to serve as a pathway. Daan di kah-on yu? What way will you take? Sim: kalata, dalan. (sem. domains: 6.5.4.1 - Road.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

kik-i trans. to scratch. Kik-iyam nan odog ku. Scratch my back. Mungkik-i te makiyakiy uluna. He is scratching his head because it itches. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: gug-u, gadut. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.5 - Actions of the hand.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

lan-u sta. to have a very sour taste. Makallan-u nan mangga. The mango is very sour. na‑, maka‑ C. Sim: antam, nginul; gen: tamtam. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

lingling trans. 1to forget. Adim linglingon nan tugun amam. Do not forget the advice of your father. Nalingling ku nan libluk kinali imbangngad kuh bale. I forgot my book so I returned home. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: kal-iw. (sem. domains: 3.2.6.1 - Forget.) 2to ignore when attention is focused on something else. ‑on. Language Of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

Liwliwa prop. The title of a jovial parody done by a group of males and a group of females chanting alternately at prestige feasts. [Lyrics are spontaneously created as they are sung.] Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

lubung₂ comm. clothing. Maphod nan lubung mu. Your dress is beautiful. Sim: bulwati. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

ludit comm. a small double-edged bolo attached to a staff through its handle socket. Sim: balabog, baghe, pahul, gayang, hinolgat. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

Lukya prop. ritual that is related to removing the first or topmost rice bundles from the stacks in the granary for use; during the ritual, the people petition the god that the stored rice bundles will last. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

mabla ya kadangyan handsome and wealthy; the phrase refers to people with status who live in the very center of a settlement. {hist} Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

makalun comm. a messenger to and from the gods and spirits. {ritual} (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki. Makalun di Bagol

Makalun di Bagol (makalun) prop. messenger gods, a class of gods thought to be messengers of other gods. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

Maknongan₂ (der. of konong) comm. a class of gods in the traditional religion that deserve sacrifices and offerings. [Usually thought of as the gods of reproduction; the Supreme God, a concept accepted by the Ifugao following the introduction of Christianity.] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

mamul-ut (infl. of pul-ut) nom. traditionally referred to a person who was hired to gather roofing materials. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

Mana-haut prop. a class of gods that are believed to be deceivers. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

mangaiw (der. of kaiw) trans. 1to gather firewood. Mangaiw da nadan u-unga ad uwani. The children are going to gather firewood now. maN‑/naN‑. 2traditionally referred to a class of people who were contracted to provide firewood. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao (Sense #2)

Matungulan prop. this name refers to a class of Bagol gods that require offerings to pay them so that they will not bring evil or sickness; gods to be appeased. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

mina-iho (sp. var. na-iho) comm. ritual language for referring to anything evil or bad; may be related to the common language word gaga-iho. Restrictions: ritual word. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.1 - Bad.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

mumbaal (infl. of baal) intrans. to serve or act as a servant for others. Diday mumbaal hi tatagu. They are the ones who should serve others. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 4.1.2.1 - Working relationship.) Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

Mun-anup an Bakbakayyawon prop. a class of gods that are believed to hunt for men’s souls. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Ritiuals for Man and Rice Culture)

Mungkontad di Bagol prop. a class of supernatural beings who are thought to be the messengers of other gods in the traditional religion; they are believed to appear in dreams with messages from the gods; they are invoked in rituals as messengers and mediators. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

munhithit (der. of hithit) nom. refers to the person who cleans the entrails of large animals that are butchered during a ritual performance. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

munwahawa (sp. var. munwahiwa) nom. refers to the main attendant of a corpse during a vigil. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

Nambal hi Bagol prop. deified men and women from whom the gods appeared to demand recognition; those who received the gods. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

nangamung hi Gallman pred. a phrase that referred to the American military governor, Jefferson D. Gallman (1905-1911), indicating his responsibility for judgment and decisions on disputes. {hist} Lourdes S. Dulawn: Ifugao Culture and History

natudu nom. this refers to the member who receives financial help from the financial cooperative called ammung. [Each member who has received help will, in turn, pay back his obligation, tungngul, as money is given to the next member in line to receive financial help. The amount of money that each member contributes is agreed upon when the cooperative is established.] Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

nginul intrans. to have a sour taste. Mungnginul nan mangga te ugge nal-um. The mango is sour because it is not ripe. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: lan-u, antam. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

pagaddut comm. a tune of gongs played for dancing. [This tune is performed during these prestige rituals: ballihung, uyauy and hagabi. All in attendance may participate in dancing when this tune is played.] (sem. domains: 4.2.3 - Music.) Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

Pan’al prop. the ritual for sowing rice in seedbed. Pun-ingunu day panal te in-eda nan binong-o nah punhopnakan. They are performing the panal-ritual because they already brought the selected rice for planting in the seedbed. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History)

rancheria comm. refers to a place where cattle and carabao were raised during American and Spanish times. {hist} Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Cutlure and History

Tuldag (sp. var. Tuldog) prop. the ritual related to the filling of the granary with rice bundles. [The Tuldag ritual is the seventh in a series of rituals performed during the agricultural cycle. After harvesting, rice bundles are placed under the granary on a mat for drying purposes. When the rice is dry, the rice bundles are piled into the granary.] Cal: Lukat, Pudung, Loka, Ugwid, Bolnat, Kulpi, Hagophop, Paad, Pokol, Ingngilin, Tuldag, Ponpon, Takdog, Kahiu, Hikgut, Apui. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

tungngul comm. refers to the money that is loaned to a member of a cooperative, ammung. [The member is obliged to pay the loan back when money is being loaned to another member of the group.] (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money.) Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

tuntun trans. to elicit truth, a word used in religious rituals; the ancestors determine among themselves who is responsible for causing sickness among the living. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Riituals for Man and Rice Culture)

ubuwan (sp. var. ubbuwan) comm. a young hen. Umala kah ubbuwan ta pun-ibban tun poltan. Get a young hen so that this rooster will have company. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

‑in‑₂ num. this infix encodes plural for the noun roots meaning woman, babai, and man, lalaki, and some cardinal numbers. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was many women dressed in the Ifugao skirt. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.2 - Noun affixes.)

am-in adj. all; referring to people, i.e. everyone, or things, i.e. everything. Makakkaphodan am-in di matiboh tu. Everything that is seen here is beautiful. Am-in on ipabahul nan ha-oy. He blames me for everything. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.6 - Whole, complete, 8.1.5 - All.)

ampuyo 1comm. a native loom woven skirt. [Generally considered to be the type of skirt worn by the kadangyan ‘aristocratic’ class of women.] Antikkey ampuyo na. Her skirt is short. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, inabol, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. donning the skirt 2.1deriv V. to wear the native, loom-woven skirt. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that women would dress in the Ifugao skirt. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.3.7 - Wear clothing.) 2.2deriv V. to dress someone in the native skirt. Ampuyowan yuh tulang yu. Dress your sister in the Ifugao skirt. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

an₁ lk. 1this form links a main clause and a complement clause. Naka-ang-ang ku an pungkiting daka. I actually saw that you were being pinched. Tinuttuduwanak an kumalih kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Katatakut pay an e buma-el na kalata. It is very dangerous to cross the street. 2this form links a relative clause to noun and verb heads. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Mr. Paredes and Mr. Datumanong would come here to Ifugao. 3this form links quantifiers and adjectives to noun heads. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel of the linker is reduced and the n attaches to the word.> Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. We, all of us women, wore the Ifugao-skirt. comp. deya ot an

Aplil prop. April, the fourth month of the year. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu Apu Paredes ya Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao hi 27th. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said it is reported that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong would come here to Ifugao on the 27th. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.4.1 - Months of the year.)

atal 1comm. a share of meat usually cooked during a feast. Iyalim di atal ku. Give me my share. Sim: ahap. 2trans. to divide into shares; distribute meat. Iatalan yu nadan u-unga. Distribute some of the meat to the children. Deket imbango on painnatal day ihda. With the Ifugao engagement feast, the viand, particularly the meat, is distributed individually. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an, pa‑ ‑inn‑. (sem. domains: 7.8 - Divide into pieces.)

bilid 1comm. mountain. Hitu ked Ifugao ya dakol di bilid an maang-ang. Here in Ifugao, many mountains can be seen. Etaku munhabal nah bilid. Let us go to make a swidden in the mountains. Ot mungkampu dad Awwa an tap-on di bilid. And they had their camp at the top of the mountain called Awwa. Sim: duntug. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.1 - Mountain.) 2intrans. to roam from mountain to mountain. Mumbilibilid day ulha. Wild pigs roam from mountain to mountain. muN‑ CV(C)CV‑. 3sta. to be mountainous, for an area to have many mountains. Mabilid nan kad-an di kudal. The ranch is mountainous.

binabai (infl. of babai) comm. the plural form of woman/female. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Do not involve the women. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

dinol 1rely on. 1.1trans. to trust someone or something; to believe in the reliability of another. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1.1 - Trust.) 1.2trans. to rely on; depend on. Gapu bot mauleyak ya pundinlam ta hay pinhod muy at-attom. Just because I am kind, you depend on that and do whatever you like. Pundindinlam hi inam an mangingunuh kanom. You are always depending on your mother to provide your food. Idinol muh kalyon da inam. Trust in what your mother says. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ ‑an. Sim: piyal. 2trustworthy. 2.1sta. to be worthy of confidence; to be trustworthy, one who can be relied on. Adi midinol te hinaulak. He is not trustworthy because he deceived me. mi‑. 2.2sta. to be and feel confident; to trust in someone or something. Madinol kami an hi Apu Dios an mamaddang dakami. We are confident that God will help us. Naapput da te makadinnol da te hay inila da ya makattakut di Ipugao. They were defeated because they were unsuspecting because they thought (were confident that) the Ifugao were cowards. ma‑, maka‑. 3comm. trust. Maid dinol kun he-a. I have no trust in you. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1.1 - Trust.) der. madinol infl. idinol infl. makadinnol infl. mangidinol infl. midinol

ditaku pers. 1us-all; first person, plural inclusive pronoun; member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2we-all; first person, plural pronoun; member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the subject is fronted and cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ditakuy kombahul peman. We-all are certainly the ones at fault. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading. We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo spirits or pinading spirits. n. ph. ke ditaku

gamud trans. to curse someone who then becomes sick, dies, or becomes crazy. <Morphology: The infix ‑um- cross-references the one who curses. The circumfix ma‑ ‑an cross-references the one cursed.> Dakol day Ifugao hi nagamudan; mun-ango day udum, mundogo day udum on nate da, te hay naminhod da. Many Ifugao have been cursed; some became crazy, some sick and died because of love. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑‑an/na‑ ‑an. 2H General class. Sim: idut, dug-a, duhngil, Ayak, Hagoho, hiblot, bong’eg; Sim: Hagoho. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.4 - Curse.)

hahinu sta. to be awkward. Mihahinuy pungkalim hi Ipugaw. Your way of talking in Ifugao is awkward. mi‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.2.1 - Below standard.)

imo 1trans. to forbid the eating of snails after a baki ritual. Iimon nan mumbaki di mangan hi battikul. The Ifugao shaman forbids eating snails. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2intrans. to abstain from eating certain food when certain rituals have been performed. Mun-imoh Dulnuan te numbaki. Dulnuan will not eat (snails) because he performed some rituals. muN‑/nuN‑.

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: 3.5.3.1 - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.3.3.7 - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kami pers. we exclusive; first person, plural, exclusive pronoun; member of Set 2 subject; cross-referenced by verbal affix. Maid kami hidi handi hilong. We were not there last night. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. Luckily there were many rides so that we could go. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

kulug 1to believe. 1.1trans. to believe in something or someone. Kulugon da nan kinalina yaden makallay-a. They believed in what he told them yet he is a liar. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading. We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo spirits or pinading spirits. ‑on/‑in‑ . (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1 - Believe.) 1.2trans. the affix cross-references those who believe; believers; Christians. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the Christians (lit. those who believe in God) would become ill, there would be no more priests of the traditional religion. maN‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.7.1 - Religious person.) 2intrans. the process of becoming true or fulfillment of a predicted event or happening. Kimmulug nan kinalim. What you said became true, (it happened) ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kakulugana der. makulug der. pangulug infl. mangulug

makattakut (infl. of takut) sta. to be very afraid; may describe someone who is too afraid to do an expected action, i.e. a coward. Naapput da te makadinnol da te hay inila da ya makattakut di Ipugao. They were defeated because they were unsuspecting (lit. trusting) because they thought the Ifugao were cowards (lit. very afraid). makaC1‑. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4 - Afraid.)

mayor (sp. var. of meyor) comm. an elected official of a town or city to serve as the chief executive or manager. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an umali dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was that women dressed in the Ifugao skirt would come. (sem. domains: 4.6.4 - Rule.)

muN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp.

naapput (infl. of apput) pass. for someone to be defeated. Naapput da te makadinnol da te hay inila da ya makattakut di Ipugao. They were defeated because they were unsuspecting because they thought the Ifugao were cowards. ma‑/na‑.

ngadanon (infl. of ngadan) trans. to enumerate or name things. Ngadanon yu nadan boble hitud Ifugao. Enumerate the towns in Ifugao. Ngumadan kah liman makan an pinpinhod mu. Enumerate five kinds of foods that you love. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

ngayo intrans. 1to headhunt; headhunter. [The civil government outlawed headhunting.] Kanan day mungngayo di Ipugaw. They say that the Ifugao are headhunters. muN‑. 2to go on a headhunting expedition; to join a headhunting expedition. Eda mungngayo ad baliwon di ammod handi. In the old days, our ancestors went to the lowlands to headhunt. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.1 - Kill.)

nuN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense and durative time aspect; it cross references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Nip-ot bo te nundogo ot mate. To top it all off, he fell sick and died. Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is as good for nothing without education (lit. have not learned) and without a job. 2past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occurring with a transitive verbal root, cross references subject. Nuntudokak ke hiya nimpe. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross references the subject. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes past tense and cross references the subject. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes past tense and cross- references the subject. Man-ut nun-iskul mu ingganah grade four ya abu. He took formal education to grade four only Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. 6the prefix encodes past tense, reflexive and cross references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Indani ya naatu da nin nundopap. After a while maybe they were tired of grappling with each other.

ot₃ adjunct. an optative modal expressing a wish, hope or desire. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was that women would dress in the Ifugao skirt Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.5 - Uncertain.)

pubo adjunct. an expression of politeness, used in requests; please. “Ume-mee kanna pubo,” kalyon Kotyang yaden pungkaanay wano na. “Go on, move out there” said Toad while he removed his loin cloth. (quote from Ifugao folktale) Umidat ka pubo hi kindi. Please, give me also some candy. Maid puboy indat dan hiya. They did not give him any. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 3.3.2 - Request.) boppubo

tonok comm. 1pure-blooded; the original inhabitants of a certain place. He-a ya tonok kan Ipugao. You are a real Ifugao. Tonokak an Ipugao. I am a pure-blooded Ifugao. (Whole-hearted Ifugao.) (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people.) 2may refer to the original state of something. (sem. domains: 8 - States.)