Search results for "Jose"

Jose prop. common name for men. (sem. domains: 9.7.1.1 - Personal names.)

akkad 1comm. stilts; two poles with straps to hold each foot to elevate a person in walking. [Stilts are usually made and used by children for their entertainment.] Nakattag-e nan akkad an kinapyan Jose. The stilts Jose made are very tall. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to use stilts in walking. Mun-akkad kayun nah dola. Walk with stilts in the yard. muN‑/nuN‑.

akmul trans. to suck; to lick something hard which is put in and out of the mouth like a lollipop. Akmulam nan kindi. Lick on the candy. Pun-akmulan nan golang di gamat na. The child is licking his fingers. E pulhon Jose nan tinapay an punkan Pablu mu inakmulan Pablu nan tinapay kinali ugge inalan Jose. Jose wanted to grab the piece of bread that Pablu was eating but Pablu licked the piece of bread so Jose didn’t get it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: luplup, mulmul. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.)

alad 1comm. fence; enclosure of ground. Napa-i nan alad taku. Our fence was destroyed. Inyapana nah kad-an di alad. He jumped into a place near the fence. Sim: iya, luhud. (sem. domains: 6.5.1.5 - Fence, wall.) 2intrans. to build a fence. Mun-alad hi Jose. Jose is building a fence. Umalaka hi lappao ta pun-alad ku. Get some Jerusalem artichoke so that I can use to make a fence. Umalad kah pukungan di gawgawa. Fence a space for a duck pen. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to focus is on what is used for building a fence or what is being fenced. Ialad mu nan bilau. Use the canegrass for in building a fence. Aladon yu nan dola. Build a fence around your yard. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 4pass. to be fenced. Naaladan nan ek pangidalanan. The way I will pass by is fenced. ma‑/na‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

aladdu 1comm. key. Nangihdiyam nah aladdun di bale? Where did you put the key to the house? Pudugom hi Jose ta em idat tun aladdu. Run after Jose and give this key to him. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.) 2trans. to lock up. Ialaddum nan bale hin lumah-un ka. Lock the house when you go out. Aladduwom nan kaban. Lock the wooden crate. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.6.1 - Shut, close.)

alak 1comm. irrigation canal. Maid di liting nah alak. There’s no water in the irrigation canal. Mibakilang kanuh Abe nah alak ot kanana kanuy “Aday, aday, aday, aday. According to him, he lay down in the ditch and he said “Ow, ow, ow, ow.” Sim: paluk, boy’a, kanal. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) 2trans. to build an irrigation ditch. <With this affixation the agent-subject is fronted and cross-referenced.> Hi Jose di mangalak hitu. Jose wil build the canal here. maN‑/naN‑. der. mangalak

alingangnga intrans. to be confused; disconcerted; bewildered; thrown into disorder, e.g. when there are too many tasks to do, and by hurrying, some things are forgotten and others are not done. Mun-al-alingangngah Jose hi ena panamakan nah imbabalena. Jose was bewildered as to where to look for his child. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.)

ambule advpred. No wonder!; So that’s why!; an exclamation of understanding the reason for something. Immeyak ad da-ul. Maid hi Josephine ot ibagak. E numboka, ambuley maid hidi. I went downtown. Josephine wasn’t there so I asked about her. She went to dig camote, that’s why she wasn’t there. Evaluative. Sim: kinali, hana mon. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.)

anggulud (sp. var. hanggulud) intrans. to snore; rale - the abnormal sound of breathing when one has a cough or cold. Mun-anggulud hi Jose. Jose snores. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: danggok. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep, 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

annil sta. to be jealous; applied to a married couple; has components of possessiveness and suspicion. Man maka-annil hi Jose kinali adi uggan bumudal hi Bugan. Jose is so jealous that’s why Bugan never goes out. Mun-annil hi Jose. Jose is jealous. muN‑, makaC1‑. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.8 - Jealous, 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

apit₁ trans. to harvest, may be used regarding any crop. Dakol di inapit da nah payon Jose. They harvested much rice in the field of Jose. Apiton yu nan wadad Linda. Harvest whatever is in Linda. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: ani. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

apput compete. 1.1rec. to compete in games, discussion, or politics. Mun-innapput da nan hintulang. The two brothers are competing with each other. muN‑ ‑inn‑. (sem. domains: 4.8 - Conflict.) 1.2trans. to defeat an enemy, contestant or competitor. Inapput Aquino Marcos. Aquino defeated Marcos. Apputon dakan Juan. Juan can beat/defeat you. Apputon dakan Jose te ong-ongal. Jose will beat you because he is bigger. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: abak. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.1 - Defeat.) 1.3v. identifies the one who defeated someone as winning. Dahdiy nangapput? Who won? maN‑/naN‑ . der. pangapput infl. mangapput infl. naapput infl. nangapput

aw’al trans. to embrace; to hug; to put arms around someone or something. Awalom hi inam ta adi ume. Embrace your mother so that she will not go. Iawal mu nah tukud. Embrace the post. Inawal Joseh amana ot ahina bo awalon hi inanan mungkokkogga. Jose hugged his father after which he also hugged his mother who was crying. Mangali nan mun-ango an umawal. The crazy person who embraces people is coming. Adi maawal te makatabba. She cannot be embraced because she’s so fat. ‑on/‑in, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.1.9 - Move a part of the body.)

aydu 1comm. in-law; brother-in-law; sister-in-law. Hin-aydu da. They are in-laws. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.2 - Related by marriage.) 2v. to designate someone as an in-law. Ayduwon Jose nan nate. The dead person is an in-law of Jose. Mun-aydu da. They are in-laws. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑.

bad-ung intrans. to struggle to free oneself from restraint, a person or animal. Mumbadbad-ung hi Jose dih pindon da. Jose was struggling when they held him. Bobodan yuy hukin nan babuy ta adi bumad-ung. Tie the feet of the pig so that it cannot struggle. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

bakwad intrans. to roam around; going from place to place without purpose. Mumbakwaddan hi Jose te humigan mungngunu. Jose roams about because he is too lazy to work. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: duka. (sem. domains: 7.2.4 - Travel, 7.2 - Move.)

baliw 1intrans. to change, transform one’s attitude, behavior, mind, physical appearance and things. Mumbaliw ka mo te naam-ama ka. Reform/Change your ways because you are already old. Ug-ugge numbaliw. He didn’t change at all. Dih nun-ahawa da Bugan ke Jose ya numbaliw hi ustu Jose. Adi mo makanginnum ya adi pay muntugal ot maan-anla Bugan. When Maria and Jose got married, Jose reformed. He stopped drinking and gambling and that made Maria very happy. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: lumman. (sem. domains: 4.3.8 - Change behavior.) 22.1trans. to change something, e.g. change and twist someone’s words or the truth. Adim balbaliwan nan kinalik. Don’t be changing/twisting what I have said. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2pass. refers to something that has been or will be changed. Nabaliwan di nun-ubuna. His sitting position changed. Pinhod kun mabaliwan di pangi-em. I want your life-style to change. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. infl. mangibaliw

Ballihung (sp. var. ballihong) 1prop. a ritual of prestige that shows wealth and status, particularly performed by an unmarried person; involves a feast. [This ritual feast was formerly celebrated to share wealth; a bulul god was considered to be the partner of the unmarried person; occasionally it was performed because no other rituals had been effective in removing the sickness of a child.] Sim: uya-uy, got’ad. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion, 4.2.2 - Social event, 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the ritual feast. Mumballihung hi Jose hi bigat. Jose is going to perform the prestige feast for unmarried people tomorrow. Bumallihung te binugtung. They’ll perform the prestige ritual feast for him because he is an only child. Naligat di bumallihung ad uwani te naginay nuwang ya babuy. It’s difficult to have the ballihung feast nowadays because carabaos and pigs are so expensive. Bimmalihung nan imbabalen da Juan ke Marta ot eyak manayottayo. Juan and Marta held a festival for their child and I danced and danced. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

baltung 1comm. ritual in which the Ifugao shamans stamp their feet after each sentence of the ritual chant. Ingunu da nan baltung nah hogop. They perform the baltung-ritual during the hogop-ritual. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the baltung-ritual. Baltungan dah tulun babuy nan balen da Jose. They are going to perform the baltung ritual with three pigs in the house of Jose. Mumbaltung hi Jose. Jose will perform the baltung-ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑. 3comm. refers to the sound of the rapid stamping of feet. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 4intrans. to stamp one’s feet in rapid succession. [performed during the hogop ritual.] Mumbaltung da boh hilong. They are going to stamp their feet again tonight. Bumanalbaltung hanadan u-unga. The children are always stamping their feet. Mapmaphod hhi Dulyaggan ten mumbaltung. Dulaggan was very skillful when he was doing the baltung ritual. muN‑, ‑um‑.

bang-al 1comm. hips and upper buttocks. Ong-ongal di bang-al di binabai mu hay linalaki. The hips of women are bigger than those of men. Nan babai an ittay di bang-al na an mumpaligat an muntungo. The woman who has small (narrow) hips will have difficulty in childbirth. Hanada ken aammod ya adida pihday bang-al di babuy hi u-unga te hay kanan da ya adida maam-ama weno main-ina ya humakit di bang-al da. The old folks prohibit the young people from eating the hip part of the pig because they say they will suffer backache if they do. Sim: tim-uy, tipa. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2sta. to have wide hips. Namag-al hi Jose yaden lalaki. The hips of Jose are wide yet he is a man. na‑.

bayyay sta. to be slow in walking. Nabayyay hi Jose. Jose is a slow walker. na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.)

bidbid intrans. 1to read. Mumbidbid kayu. You read. Bumanidbid hi Jose on ahi na kinaliy mahakit di mata na. Jose keeps on reading; then he complains of eye pain. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.5.7.3 - Read.) 2to read with what is being read highlighted as prominent information. Bidbidon yu nan nitudok. Read what is written. Wadan ustu moy bidbibidbid hi novels. I think you have read enough novels. ‑on/‑in‑.

bikkong (sp. var. of bikkung) 1) comm. a mouth musical instrument made of brass or bamboo with a vibrating part. Ibobolsan Jose nan bikkong na. Jose’s bikkong-mouth instrument is always in his pocket. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 2) intrans. to play a mouth instrument Immeh Pedro nah dolan di agamang di binabai ot e mumbikkong. Pedro went near the girls dormitory and played his bikkong-mouth instrument. Immeh Pedro nah dolan di agamang di binabai ot e mumbikkong. Pedro went near the girls' dormitory and played his bikkong-mouth instrument.

bola₁ 1comm. ball; anything round used as a ball. Makaddam-ot nan bola an nigyang ke ha-on. The ball that hit me was so heavy. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.) 2intrans. to play with a ball. Mumbola kayun Jose ta eyak munha-ang. Play ball with Jose while I go and cook (rice). Ayagam nan ibbayu ta makibola. Invite your friend to play ball with you. muN‑/nuN‑, maki‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

boltan 1trans. to transfer from one person to another; to take turns, change of responsibility. Boltanom an mun-adug tuh golang. You take over caring for this child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: tawid, odon. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 2trans. to inherit something. Binoltan na nan payon amana. He inherited his father’s ricefields. Maid di maboltan an payowon. No land can be inherited to be planted with rice. Nan payon ambilog di boltanon Jose. It is the wide field which Jose will inherit. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. 3comm. change of ownership, from parent to child. Cultural note: Inherited objects include ricefields, houses, wine jars, gongs, jewelry. (sem. domains: 6.8.1.1 - Own, possess.) infl. mumbinbinoltan infl. mumboltan

botyak (sp. var. butyak) trans. to cut open the stomach and/or intestines of animals. Botyakom nan putu ne lininiham. Cut open the stomach and clean it. Hi Jose di mumbotyak nah gulding. Jose will be the one to cut open the stomach of the goat. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bukal trans. to crumble; break into small bits. Pumbukal Jose nan pangitanmanah kolet. Jose was breaking-up the soil where he is going to plant cabbage. Bumukal kah pangitanman tuh buwa. Break-up the soil so we can plant this seed. Kon kah-in di pakabukkalon di luta on ahi intanom nan buttata? Is it necessary to pulverize the soil well before planting petchay? Bukalom nan luta ta ahim tanman. Break the soil into smaller bits before planting. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.) der.infl. mabukal

bulyaggo₂ 1comm. a child’s game using a top to split an opponent’s top without spinning the top but by using it as an ax. Pini-ang da nan bawwot Jose nah bulyaggo. They split the top of Jose in the bulyaggo-game. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to play the spinning-top game. Mumbubulyaggo da nadan u-unga. The children are trying to split each other’s tops. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑.

dahdi int. who; interrogative pronoun asking for the identification of someone. Dahdi kan kumanugkug? Who are you, knocking? (at the door) Nahngang hi Jose ya kananay “Dahdi Anah”? Jose was shocked and said “Anah who?” (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words.) comp. dahdin

dama₁ 1comm. a game like checkers. Naapputak hi nun-ay-ayyaman mi hi dama ke Jose I was defeated when I played checkers with Jose. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to play checkers. Mundama da hin magibbu dan mangan. They will play checkers when they are through eating. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

datong₁ 1intrans. to reach a destination; to arrive. Dimmatong dad Lagawe ad nakugab. They arrived at Lagawe yesterday. Madatong di tiempon ahi daka tibon. The time will arrive when I’ll see you. Dakol day tatagun e munhood hi iiba dan dumatong. Many people go to meet their relatives who are arriving. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑. 2A Movement, from one place to another.. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.3.1 - Arrive.) 2trans. to arrive, bringing something with oneself. <The prefix cross-references the object that is brought.> Idatong yu nan itunguh bale. Bring the firewood up to our house. Indatong da nan babuy dih indai. They arrived with the pig a while ago. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with onself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.) 3trans. the site of arrival is an object that is cross-referenced, a person, place or time. <Morphophonology: datngan; dinatngan; the ‘o’ in the second syllable of the root is lost when a suffix is added.> Datngan hiyah di. You will arrive there where he’ll be. Dinatngan Jose hitud Kiangan ad nakugab. Jose arrived here in Kiangan yesterday. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day arrived. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. infl. madatngan

dikhal split wood. 1.1trans. to split wood. Dikhalon yu nan udyo. Split the narra-wood. Dinikhal na nan ongal an kaiw. He split the big log. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: giha, gihgi, potw’ak. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 1.2trans. to split with a component of manner, place, or instrument in view. Idikhal mu nah dola. Split the wood in the yard. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. to split wood with a durative activity in view. Mundikhal hi Jose hi itungu. Jose is splitting firewood. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. to split wood involving a partitive component, i.e. split a limited amount; some. Dumikhal kah itungun da apum. Split some wood for your grandparents’ firewood. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.5trans. to split wood with the component of contrasting the agent with others. <Morphophonology: The final consonant of the prefix maN- assimilates to the point of articulation of the initial consonant of the root, and then, reduces that consonant.> Manikhal ka. You split wood. maN‑/naN‑. 1.6trans. to split wood for a beneficiary. Indikhalan Juan nan nain-ina. Juan split wood for the old woman. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 1.7pass. refers to wood that will be split or has been split. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. ma‑/na‑.

e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.6.4 - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume

emeng (sp. var. imeng) 1comm. beard. Mahdol di emeng na. His beard is thick. Kay emeng di paltat di emeng na. His beard is similar to that of a catfish. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.) 2comm. mustache; whiskers. Kay emeng di puha di emeng na. His mustache is like that of a cat’s. (few long ones) 3sta. to have a beard, a mustache or any facial hair. Naemengan hi Jose. Jose is bearded. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

gagala (fr. var. galgala) 1advpred. may refer to the speed with which something is done, i.e. quickly, or a short duration of time; soon. Gagalay pangapyaan Fely hi cookies. Fely makes cookies quickly. Gagala ya nap-uy makan. Soon the food was gone. Gagala ya dimmatong da nah balen nan inaona. Soon they arrived at Aunt Magappid’s house. Time. Sim: alittu; Sim: galgala. (sem. domains: 8.4.8 - Speed.) 2to hurry. 2.1advpred. to hurriedly do something; do something with haste. <The action is cross-referenced by the affix on the adverbial predicate.> Galgal-am ta magibbu. Hurry it (the thing being done) so that it will be finished. Tipet galagalaam an mangan? Why do you eat so fast? (hurriedly) Gal-am an ume. Hurry and go. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.4.2 - Take time.) 2.2advpred. the information focus is on the hurried manner rather than the action that is modified. Inggagalanan in-e. He hurriedly brought it. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 2.3intrans. the information focus is on the person hurrying. the agent-subject is cross-referenced by the affix.. <The agent-subject is cross-referenced by the affix. on the adverbial predicate.> Tipet eka gumalagala? Why are you hurrying? Kanan Josey “Tipe eka munggagalan manayyu?” Jose said “Why are you hurriedly going down?” ‑um‑/‑imm‑; muN‑/nuN‑.

gidgid trans. to shave off hair. Igidgid mu ta maid kihdiyan di kutu. Shave off all hair so the lice won’t have any place to hide. Gidgidom am-in di buuk na. Shave off all his hair. Antipet em ginidgidan hi Jose? Why did you shave Jose? ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

gumhul 1trans. to cut off fingers or toes. Gumhulan yu te nangako. Cut off his fingers because he stole. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2pass. missing fingers/hands/toes, they have been cut off, usually fingers. Nagumhulan hi Jose. Jose has a missing (cut off) finger. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

hi-an 1intrans. to part ways; to be apart; to be separate. Nganney gapunah nunhi-anan da? What is the cause of their separation? Ahita munhi-an ad Baguinge. We will part ways when we reach Baguinge. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. Sim: hiwwe. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.) 2trans. to separate something. Ihi-an muy pangihdiyam hi bulwatim. Put your dresses in a separate place. Hi-anon yu nadan nabuluk an buwa. Separate the rotten seeds. Punhi-anom da Jose ke Ana. Let Jose and Ana separate. Punhi-anom nan gahhilang nah bulhe. Separate the corn from the beans. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in, puN‑ ‑on.

hikug 1trans. (prim) to seek shelter. Maid pundag-uhan da Jose ke Maria ot eda mo kattog mihikug nah abung. Joseph and Mary had no place to stay so they sought shelter in a hut/stable. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 2trans. (fig) to seek help, an extended meaning. Deket maligatan ka, ihikug mun Jesus. Whenever you have hardships, seek shelter in Jesus. i‑/iN‑. 3comm. a shelter especially of last resort. ki‑ ‑an. der. kihikugan

holag 1comm. descendants; offspring. Da Joseph ke Benjamin ya holag Jacob. Joseph and Benjamin are descendants of Jacob. Sim: an’ak, bunat, tanud. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2sta. to have children. Antipet adi mahlag hi Dinnaun? Why can’t Dinnaun bear children? Adika mahlag! May you not bear children. (a curse) Nahlag hi David ot da Solomon ke Absalom. David had offspring and they are Solomon and Absalom. ma‑.

hubul 1intrans. to resemble; to be almost indistinguishable. Munhubbul da te dappil da. They are indistinguishable because they are twins. Munhubbul da Jose ke Tomas. Jose and Tomas resemble each other. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2 - Compare.) 2trans. to mistakenly identify someone because of their resemblance to another person. An hubulonak? Do you mistake me for someone else. Punhubbulok da Jojo ke Gigi. I mistakenly identified Jojo and Gigi (because they resemble each other). ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑ ‑on.

hulug sta. to waive a right; to relinquish something. Inhulug Jose nan payona ke tulang na. Jose relinquished his field to his brother. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.4 - Altruistic, selfless.)

impi- (sp. var. of impa- This variant of the prefix impa- co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.) caus. this prefix encodes past tense and a causative concept. Indani ya impiayag ama hi Jose. After awhile, father had someone call Jose. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

inanap (infl. of anap) trans. for someone to find something that has been misplaced or lost. Inanap hi Jose nan otak amana. Jose found his father’s bolo. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.6.2 - Find.)

inimbabaleyan (der. of imbabale) trans. to have children out of wedlock. Inimbabaleyan Jose hi Bugan. Jose has a child out of wedlock with Bugan. ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.5 - Illegitimate child.)

itbi (infl. of tubi) 1trans. to arrange a marital engagement of a child. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2pass. for someone to be engaged. Nitbi hi Maria ke Jose. Maria was engaged to Jose when they were kids. mi‑/ni‑.

kadanidani (der. of dani) adv. frequently. Kadanidani on umen da-ul hi Jose. Jose frequently goes down. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.6.3 - Often.)

kalbu 1trans. to to shave hair on head; to be bald. Nakalbuwan hi Jose. Jose is bald. Kalbuwam ta makaan nadan kutu na. Shave his head so that the lice will be removed. Kinalbuwan da te nagulid di ulu na. They shaved his hair because his head had scabs. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: pulpug, mukmuk, pu-lit. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.) 2comm. to be bald Nan tagun kalbu ya kay nunhelmet. A person who is bald seems to be wearing a helmet. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: calvo.

kapun 1comm. a castrated animal. Nan kapun an poltan di ilagim taku. The castrated rooster will be the one we will singe. (understood butcher) Nal-ot di kapun an pun-aladuwon. A castrated carabao is strong for plowing. Sim: kubhil, pulin. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2trans. to castrate an animal. Kapunon yu nan nuwang ta pun-aladuwon taku. Castrate the carabao so that we will use it for plowing. Kinapun da nadan manuk. They castrated the roosters. Mungkapun da hi balen da Jose. They are castrating in the house of Jose. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4D Releast, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 6.3.8.2 - Castrate animal.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: capon.

kil-at 1comm. a natural electrical discharge in the air; lightning. Linhitan di kil-at nan akasya. Lightning burned the acacia tree. Sim: luhit, kimat. (sem. domains: 1.1.3.6 - Lightning, thunder.) 2intrans. to discharge an electrical flash; to lightning. Humgop kayu tuh bale te kumil-at. Come in the house because there will be lightning. Mungkikil-at yaden wada nah payo hi Jose. There are flashes of lightning yet Jose is in the field. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2F Meteorological.

komersiyante nom. one who is involved in commerce; storekeeper; merchant. Hi Jose ya ohan komersiyanten inilak. Jose is one of those that I know as a merchant. (sem. domains: 6.8.2.7 - Earn.)

kontalata (sp. var. kontrata) 1comm. contract. Waday kontalata na an mangapyah kalata. He had a contract to build a road. (sem. domains: 4.7.8 - Legal contract.) 2intrans. to bid for a contract and be the contractor to work on it. Hi Jose di mungkontalata nah kalata. Jose will be the contractor for the road. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: kontrata.

lattik 1comm. rubber bands; slingshot; something that is elastic. [Children play a game with rubber bands.] Mun-ay-ayyam dah lattik din u-unga. Those children are playing with rubber bands. Sim: bayyabe, laddi, kallat. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to hit with a slingshot. Lattikom nan ba-at ta mag-a. Use a slingshot to get the guava fruit. Linattik Jose on hamuti. Jose got a bird with his slingshot. ‑on, ‑um‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: elastic. der. linnattik

law’ah adj. of no help or worth; useless. Lawah naen em inat. What you did is useless. Lawah Jose an ibba. Jose is a useless companion. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.2.2 - Useless.)

mabaal (infl. of baal) intrans. to voluntarily take sides with someone in a fight; to be aroused to action. Nabaal ot ya abuwan hi Jose nah nundamaan da Pedron Pablu. Jose voluntarily helped Pedro when they fought with Pablu. ma‑/na‑.

mambab (der. of tobab) comm. drummer, one who plays the lead rhythm in the playing of the gongs; uses a clenched fist and an open palm. Mambab hi Jose ya manayo hi Juan. Jose is drumming and Juan is dancing. maN‑.

mangibalal (infl. of balal) 1comm. refers to the one who sells a mortgage. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.2 - Sell.) 2trans. to mortgage a ricefield. Hi Jose di nangibalal nah payo da. Jose was the one who mortgaged their ricefield. Dakol day ibaliwon an mangibalal hi payo da. There are many lowlanders who are mortgaging their ricefields. mangi‑/nangi‑.

naappowan (infl. of appo) pass. to have been beaten in a race or other competition. Naappowan hi Jose handi numpuddug dan Pedro. Pedro overtook Jose when they raced. na‑ ‑an.

nahngang (infl. of hong’ang) sta. to be surprised; to feel surprise or shock. Nahngang hi Jose. Jose was shocked. na‑.

neh interj. an interjection expressing surprise. “Neh, hi Juan? an kanan Jose. “Naka-anus da met an duwa? an kanana bo. “Oh, is it Juan?” said Jose. “But they are both very kind.” (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

panuyu trans. to blame someone; to accuse someone of being at fault. Impanuyu dan Jose nan natalak an otak. They blamed Jose for the lost machete. Panuyuwon dan hiya nan natalak an pihhu. They blamed him for the lost money. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 4.7.5.3 - Accuse, confront.)

pidwa (der. of duwa) to repeat. 1.1caus. cause something to be done twice; repeat. Adik mo ipidwa nae. I will not repeat that again. ipi. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.2.6 - Repeat.) 1.2trans. to do a specific action twice. Adi mahapul an pidwaon Jose an tuwikon nan babuy te nate mo. Jose did not need to repeat piercing the pig because it was already dead. Pidwaom nan kinalim. Repeat what you said. pi‑ ‑on. 1.3v. to do something twice. Mumpidwaak an umaliyak an manibon dakayu. I will come to see you twice. Inunom nan agam hi mumpidwah kabigabigat. Drink your medicine twice daily. mumpi‑/numpi‑. pamidwa der. pidwana ph. v. pidwa bo

pitlek sta. to be soggy; to have too much water in cooked rice or in rice wine; crushed rice can cause this to happen. Napitlek di inhaang Jose. The rice Jose cooked has too much water. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

porman 1comm. foreman; superintendent of workers. Hiyay porman tudan mungunuh kalata. He is the foreman of these people working on the road. (sem. domains: 4.5.3 - Exercise authority.) 2intrans. to act as a foreman or superintendent of a group of workers. Hi Jose di mumporman nadah mungngunu nah kapyaon dan iskul. Jose acts as the foreman of those working to build the school. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

pottok 1trans. to place directly in front, under or above something else, includes the concept of adjacency though not necessarily in actual contact. Ipottok mu nan dilag nah ubunan. Place the light directly above the chair. Nipottok ke hiya nan banbanaggo. The lizard was directly above him. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 8.5.2 - Direction.) 2pass. (fig) extended meaning of a spatially oriented word meaning to be near someone. Hi Maria di nipottokan Jose. Jose is married to Maria. ni‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) id. nipottokan

pu-lit trans. to cut hair; to remove hair by cutting. Pu-litam nan imbabalem tedeyan mahaniyan nan anga. Cut the hair of your child because her face is hidden. Mumpu-lit hi Jose ad Linda. Jose is cutting the hair of someone in Linda. Ha-oy di mamu-lit ke he-a. I’ll be the one to cut your hair. Ipu-lit da nah dola. They will cut hair in the yard. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑,/nuN‑, maN‑/naN‑, i‑/iN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: kalbu, pulpug, mukmuk. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

pudug trans. to chase someone or something; to pursue; to run after. Pudugom hi Jose ta em idat tun aladdu. Run after Jose and give this key to him. Pudugonak ya- hin kayam. Chase me if you can. Pindug da nan mangako. They chased the thief. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: ton’od; Sim: kaddug. (sem. domains: 7.2.6 - Pursue.) id. pindug di am-ama

timid comm. the chin. Dinuntuk na nan timid Jose. He socked Jose's chin. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.)

tipe int. why; an interrogative pronoun used to ask for a reason, cause or purpose. Tipet eka immali? Why did you come? Ot kanan Josey “Tipet eka munggagalan manayyu?” And Jose said “Why are you hurrying to go down?” Sim: nganat. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words, 9.6.2.5.1 - Reason.) comp. antipe comp. tipet

ton’od trans. to chase; to run to catch up to someone or something. Tinnodak nah nabutong. The drunk man chased me. Tondom din unga. Run after that child. Mitnod kan Jose ta maki-e ka ad Banaue. Run and overtake Jose so that you can go with him to Banaue. Mungkitnod hi tulang mu. Your brother is chasing you. Initnod na nan balabog ya nipanot nah odog nan makawa. He threw the spear at the moving deer and it stuck at its back. ‑on/‑in‑, mi‑/ni‑, mungki‑, ini‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: pudug. (sem. domains: 7.2.6 - Pursue.) id. itnod

tungpup 1comm. bamboo shoots. [To remove the bitter taste of bamboo shoots, they are boiled twice. After the first boiling, the bamboo shoots are still bitter and the water is thrown away before boiling a second time.] Naken magattang hi market an tungpup ya adi mapait te naulaulahan mo. The bamboo shoots sold at the market don’t taste bitter because they are already boiled and washed two times. Pinpinhod kun ihda di tungpup. I’m very fond of bamboo shoots for my viand. gen: hobwal. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1 - Food from plants, 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2intrans. to gather bamboo shoots for food. Eyak manungpup ya dinamuk hi Jose. I was going to get bamboo shoots and I met Jose. maN‑/naN‑.