Search results for "Juan"

hol’ok 1comm. grass, generic term. Ginabut ku nan holok nah dalan. I cut the grass on the way. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2sta. to be very grassy; describes an area that is very grassy. Maholokan bo tedeyan immudan. It will be grassy again because it rained. ma‑ ‑an. 3comm. medicinal grass; usually made up of hapid with oil and ginger with Japanese grass. Eyak mungkodoh holok hi clinic. I went to ask for medicine at the clinic. 4trans. to treat with medicine; to cure with medicine. Doctor, holkam anhan hi ina. Doctor, please cure/treat my mother. Adi humlok di alcohol. Alcohol does not cure anything. Damanan mahlokan/maholkan di tibi. Tuberculosis can be cured. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an, um‑/‑imm‑. 5comm. marijuana. Kumdowak hi holok yu. May I have some of your grass.

holok comm. marijuana. Nunlukutak hi holok. I smoked marijuana. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.)

Juan prop. a common name for men. (sem. domains: - Personal names.)

mariwana 1comm. refers to the marijuana plant. Puma-ih utok di mariwana. Marijuana destroys the brain. 2intrans. to smoke marijuana. Pinatnaak an nummariwana. I tried smoking marijuana. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

abak trans. to compete with someone. 3H Conversive action process. 1.1defeat. 1.1.1trans. to compete with the focus on the ‘defeat’ component. Abakon dakan Juan. Juan will/can defeat you. Abakok nan mittulu I can defeat the teacher. Pangabakom nan pihhuk te bayadam ten ipaabak mu. Make my money win because you will have to pay it back if you lose it. Adika piabbak. Don’t let yourself be defeated. Inabakak ke Pedroh tugal. I lost to Pedro in gambling./Pedro defeated me in gambling. ‑on/‑in‑, pi‑, ipa‑. Sim: apput. 1.1.2sta. to be the one to lose; loser. ma‑. 1.2trans. to win 1.2.1trans. to win something; usually used in relation to gambling. Kaatnay inabak mun dih hilong hi tugal. How much did you win last night in gambling. Man-u te deket nangabak di tagu nah tugal ya mun-an-anla. It might be that when one wins in gambling he is happy. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 1.2.2nom. winnings. [The word may be used in a communication situation: 1. winning in a debate 2. being more articulate than another.] Kaatnay pangabak yu? How much are your winnings?/How much did you win? Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. pangabak infl. maabak infl. mangabak infl. nangabak

adi manghop (ph. v. of ngohop) . implies that a person has a desire that is unlikely to be fulfilled, but continues to have hope; fits the English saying ‘to hope against hope’. {The Christian Bible references are given for the purpose of encouraging research as to how this phrase is used in a story context.} Adi manghop hi Juan an emun-adal. John is not without the desire/hope to go and study. Hidiyen babai ya adi manghop ot mundukkun hi hinangngab na. (Matthew 15:25) That woman, she did not lose hope and so she knelt before him. Mu hi David ya adi manghop. (1 Samuel 17:34) But as for David, he did not lose hope. Kapyanan wadada nadan adi manghop. As expected, there were those who did not lose hope. Nanongnan adi kayu manghop. You still did not lose hope. (sem. domains: - Hope.)

aktor comm. an actor. Aktor di tulang Juan. Juan’s brother is a movie actor. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) Language Of Borrowing: English: actor.

ambilog₂ 1adj. wide; extending over large area from side to side. Ambilog nan wangwang an e mi gawaon. The river we are to cross is wide. Ambilog tun abok. This mat is wide. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is very wide and there are plenty of people. aN‑. Dimension quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.4 - Wide.) 2trans. to widen something. Ambilogom nan abolom an ulo. Make the blanket that you are weaving wider. Bumillog nan pantalon mu. Your pants will widen. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3adj. wide; for something to be described as large in size. Timmawid hi Juan hi muyung an ambilog. Juan inherited a wide forest. aN‑. (sem. domains: 8.2.4 - Wide.) der. kinabilog

an’ak (sp. var. nak) comm. child of; son; daughter. Hi Tomas an anak Tuguinay di ahawana. It is Tomas, son of Tuguinay, who is her husband. Hi Juan ya anak Pedro. Juan is the son of Pedro. general: This word for child is frequently used in oral literature and rituals. Sim: bunat, tanud, holag; Syn: imbabale. (sem. domains: - Related by birth, - Child.)

apayo 1comm. fish and crab trap with sharp bamboo prongs pointed inward so fish cannot squeeze out; placed at a point where water exits a rice terrace. Apayoy mahapul hi pangalah yuyu nah payo. A fish trap is needed to be able to get Japanese fish from the field. Ihulbuk mu nan apayo nah dolya. Set the fish trap along the wall of the field. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to use a fish trap for catching fish E nangapyoh Juan. John went to catch fish using the apayo-trap. maN‑/naN‑. Sim: hingihing.

apostoles (sp. var. aposel) comm. apostle; refers to Jesus’ companions in the New Testament. Himpulut duwa nadan apostoles Jesus. Jesus had twelve apostles. Hi Juan di ohan apostoles Kristo. Juan is one of the apostles of Christ. (sem. domains: - Religious person.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

apput compete. 1.1rec. to compete in games, discussion, or politics. Mun-innapput da nan hintulang. The two brothers are competing with each other. muN‑ ‑inn‑. (sem. domains: 4.8 - Conflict.) 1.2trans. to defeat an enemy, contestant or competitor. Inapput Aquino Marcos. Aquino defeated Marcos. Apputon dakan Juan. Juan can beat/defeat you. Apputon dakan Jose te ong-ongal. Jose will beat you because he is bigger. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: abak. (sem. domains: - Defeat.) 1.3v. identifies the one who defeated someone as winning. Dahdiy nangapput? Who won? maN‑/naN‑ . der. pangapput infl. mangapput infl. naapput infl. nangapput

baal 1comm. messenger; utility man during a rich man’s feast. Hiya nan baal Juan. He is the messenger of Juan. Sim: hon’ag, tud-ak, gitgit. (sem. domains: - Report.) 2trans. to send someone on an errand; to command or order. Baalon dakan e gumattang hi itlog. I am going to send you to buy some eggs. Dakami nan ba-ba-alon Apu Dios an mangitudduh kalina. We are God’s messengers to teach his words. Adi mabaal tun unga. This child cannot be sent on an errand. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Send.) infl. mabaal

Ballihung (sp. var. ballihong) 1prop. a ritual of prestige that shows wealth and status, particularly performed by an unmarried person; involves a feast. [This ritual feast was formerly celebrated to share wealth; a bulul god was considered to be the partner of the unmarried person; occasionally it was performed because no other rituals had been effective in removing the sickness of a child.] Sim: uya-uy, got’ad. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion, 4.2.2 - Social event, - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the ritual feast. Mumballihung hi Jose hi bigat. Jose is going to perform the prestige feast for unmarried people tomorrow. Bumallihung te binugtung. They’ll perform the prestige ritual feast for him because he is an only child. Naligat di bumallihung ad uwani te naginay nuwang ya babuy. It’s difficult to have the ballihung feast nowadays because carabaos and pigs are so expensive. Bimmalihung nan imbabalen da Juan ke Marta ot eyak manayottayo. Juan and Marta held a festival for their child and I danced and danced. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

balnu trans. to throw a rock or clod of soil at something and hit it. Bimmungot nan mittuluk ot ibalnu na nan liblu. My teacher got angry and he threw the book at me. Balnuwon dakah batu. I’ll hit you with a thrown stone. Bumalnu nan mun-ango hin mala-u tah di. The crazy person throws stones if we pass by there. Adi mabalnu te nitalu. It cannot be stoned because its’s hidden. Mahakit di pukol ku te binalnun Juan. My shoulder hurts because Juan threw a rock and hit it. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: wele, boka, tongba, gayang, bon’al, alo, top-’al, wengngak; Sim: tongba, gayang, baladung, bon’al, boka, alo, balabal. (sem. domains: - Throw.)

ban’ong 1comm. lip of ricefield dike which contains the water; projecting edge of ricefield dike sometimes stepping stones are laid for walking on the lip. Niphod mo nan banong nan payo? Is the ricefield dike already fixed? Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Sim: botnge. (sem. domains: - Wall.) 2trans. to build ricefield dikes. Banongan dan nan payo ad uwani. They are going to build the ricefield dike today. Mumbanong da ama nah payon da Juan. Father and his companions are building mud dikes in the Juan’s field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

bayad 1comm. payment for something. Hituwey bayad nan ginattang ku. This is the payment for what I bought. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2trans. to pay for something. Ibayad na nan binokla na hi gawat na. He will use his salary to pay his debts. Adim bayadan nan inalak an tinapay nah tendaan ta kay hidiyey bayad nan pihhun inutang nan munggattang hidin ha-oy. Do not pay for the bread I took from that store so that it will be the payment of the money the storekeeper borrowed from me. Maid di adi mabayadan an utang. No debt will be left unpaid. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to make a payment Mumbayad hi Juan hi bigat. Juan will pay tomorrow. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

binintan nom. the spouse of a remarriage. Hi Maria di binintan Juan. Juan is remarried to Maria. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

bokla₁ comm. for a group of people to work together in a field that belongs to a member of their share-work group. Boklan Juan hi bigat. Juan's field will be worked in tomorrow. Sim: ubbu, ammung, kalu. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

boklog (sp. var. of moklog) sta. to be a short, fat, and stout person. Hi Juan ya naboklog. Juan is short, fat and stout. Sim: pokka, boktot, hotol. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.)

botak trans. to lie-in-wait; to attack unexpectedly from a hidden position. Dehdih Juan an od-odnanay otak an botakonah Pedro. Juan is there with a bolo lying in wait for Pedro. Adika ot maohhan ume te wada man kanu on mangalanan mumbotak nah dalan. Don’t go by yourself because they say that someone who is seeking revenge is going to ambush you. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: bolaad. (sem. domains: - Ambush.)

bud-uk intrans. to blow on embers or fire. Bud-ukam din apuy ta dumalang. Blow on the fire so it will blaze. Binud-ukan Juan nan apuy ya dimmalang. Juan blew on the fire and it blazed. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Sim: hap-ud. (sem. domains: 2.2.1 - Breathe, breath.)

bugbug 1trans. to detach corn kernels from cob; to pick coffee beans from tree. Bugbugom nan gahhilang ta ipakan mun nah manuk. Shell the corn and feed the chicken. Mumbugbug hi Juan. Juan is removing corn from the cob. Bumugbug kah kanon nan gawgawa. Shell some corn for the ducks to eat. Nabugbug mo nan kanon di manuk. The corn for the chicken is already shelled. ‑on, muN‑, ‑um‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: - Take something out of something.) 2detach produce. 3trans. corn cob, i.e. the shelled remains. Amungon yu nadan namugbugan yu ta itungu taku. Gather the shelled-corn-cobs for us to use for firewood. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mamugbug

bukat trans. to open something. Mumbukat hi Juan hi mainum. Juan is opening some drinks. Bumukat kah inumon ta. Open something for us to drink. Binukatana nan kahon ya dakol di pihhuh di. He opened the box and there was much money in it. Bukatan yu nan panto. Open the door. Hi Cora di nangibukat nah panto te uggek dingngol nan kalim. It was Cora who opened the door because I did not hear your voice. Hinaey impumbukat mi nah lata te adi pakabukat hituwen indonak. That was what we used for opening the can because what I am holding cannot open it. Adi mabukatan te nialaddu. It cannot be opened because it is locked. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mangi‑/nangi‑, impuN‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: bughul, lukat. (sem. domains: 7.3.6 - Open.)

dang-a 1comm. labor that is voluntary; volunteer work; to help do anything. Dang-an Juan ad uwani. Now is the time to go and help Juan with his work. Sim: baddang, tulung, abono. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2trans. to work without pay; voluntarily. Dang-ahon da nan ubun di kaiw hi bigat. They will volunteer to carry the wood tomorrow. Pidang-ak nan magolgol hi bale. I’m having (people) voluntarily saw wood for my house. ‑on/‑in‑, pi‑. 3intrans. to work voluntarily. Mundang-a dad uwani. They are working voluntarily today. muN‑/nuN‑.

danug 1comm. a forceful punch. Nal-ot di danug Juan. Juan’s punch is strong. Gen: duntuk. (sem. domains: - Power, force.) 2trans. to sock someone; to punch someone. Danugon daka hin mungngohe ka. I will sock you if you are being obstinate. Adim danugon nan ibam. Do not punch your brother. Halipat-an yu te dumanug nan nabutong. Be careful because the drunk punches. Uggek pinatnaan an nadanug. I have never experienced being socked. Linumbag nan nadanug. Th spot which was punched is swollen. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

daw-e₂ to hit. 1.1trans. to hit someone on any part of the body. Bumtik ka te daw-eyon dakan tulang mu. Run because your sibling will hit you. Pundaw-e da nan golang. They were hitting the child. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 1.2trans. expresses the idea that the agent is one who characteristically hits others. Adiyak pe ume te dumaw-e hi Juan. I will not go because Juan will hit me. Adi kayu mih-up ke hiya te dumaw-e. Do not go near him because he will hit you. 1.3trans. expresses the manner of hitting. Adim idaw-e nan taklem. Do not hit him with your hand.

di₁ lk. 1the di form has an allomorph y that links the existential, demonstrative and adjectival predicates and interrogative pronouns to the other constituents of the clauses. Waday duwan tulang Pedro mu nate da. Pedro had two brothers but they died. Nganney oras di punlukatan nan tendaan yu? What is the hour of the opening of your store? Daanay pangipab-unam hanadan bisitam? Where will you let your visitors sit? 2the di form links a preposed clausal constituent to the predicate and remaining constituents of the clauses. Hi Juan di mangigakod nah ahu. Juan will be the one to tie the dog.

dikhal split wood. 1.1trans. to split wood. Dikhalon yu nan udyo. Split the narra-wood. Dinikhal na nan ongal an kaiw. He split the big log. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: giha, gihgi, potw’ak. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 1.2trans. to split with a component of manner, place, or instrument in view. Idikhal mu nah dola. Split the wood in the yard. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. to split wood with a durative activity in view. Mundikhal hi Jose hi itungu. Jose is splitting firewood. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. to split wood involving a partitive component, i.e. split a limited amount; some. Dumikhal kah itungun da apum. Split some wood for your grandparents’ firewood. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.5trans. to split wood with the component of contrasting the agent with others. <Morphophonology: The final consonant of the prefix maN- assimilates to the point of articulation of the initial consonant of the root, and then, reduces that consonant.> Manikhal ka. You split wood. maN‑/naN‑. 1.6trans. to split wood for a beneficiary. Indikhalan Juan nan nain-ina. Juan split wood for the old woman. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 1.7pass. refers to wood that will be split or has been split. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. ma‑/na‑.

dinalman comm. a big wine jar with dragon designs on the sides. Kinailan da nan dinalman te imbangon Juana tuh umalin bulan. They brewed rice wine in the dinalman-jar because it’s the betrothal of Juana this coming month. Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

disipulos 1comm. disciples. Himpulut duwa nan disipulos Jesus. Jesus had twelve disciples. 2intrans. to disciple someone. Nundisipulos Jesus da Juan ke Pedro. Jesus discipled Juan and Pedro. muN‑/nuN‑.

dool intrans. to become or to be retarded or stupid. Adim oggan patnaan an mummarihwana te dumool. Don’t ever try using marijuana because it will make you stupid. Hinae tuwali nan abunay butong an inilam ta deyan nadool ka mo ahan. That’s what you get for only knowing how to get drunk, now you have become retarded. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Stupid.)

drama 1comm. drama. Kabigabigat on mundongngol hi drama nah ladyu hi Juana. Everyday Juana listens to the drama on the radio. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2intrans. to playact. Mundrama nan unga handi hinuplit da. The child was playacting when they spanked him. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

dul’ig 1trans. to move something aside. Duligom ke nan ubunan, wada man di nitalud dalom. Move the seat, there’s something hidden underneath it. Duligom nan kaban ta waday dalanon. Move the box aside so there will be a passageway. Idlig mu di nan ubunan. Move the bench that way. Madlig ka ya- ta makib-unak ke he-a. Move over so I can sit by you. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: gonad; Sim: bakwet. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2intrans. an agent moves. Eta tuwali madlig on mahapul an mitakke ta kinali ongal di umeh piliti. Every time you move you have to ride, that is why a big amount goes for fare. Madlig ka, Juan, ta waday atok. Move aside, John, so that I can do something. ma‑/na‑. infl. dumlig

dumpu intrans. to be possessed by a spirit. Dinumpuh Juan ad Poblacion. Juan was possessed in the Poblacion. ‑um‑/inum‑. (sem. domains: - Demon possession.)

dunghul trans. to hit with force; to ram something. Tibom ta adi daka dunghulon nah babuy. See to it that the pig won’t ram you (usually with snout). Idunghul mu nan tukud. Use the wooden post in ramming. Dumunghul nan babuy da Juan. The pig of Juan rams people. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume

gabyon 1comm. hoe. Nan gabyon di pun-amung mu nah lugit. Use the hoe to gather the dirt. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2intrans. to use a hoe to break up ground. Munggabyon da nah garden Juan ad uwani. They are hoeing in the garden of Juan today. muN-/nuN-. 3trans. to hoe a particular piece of ground. Gabyonon da nan ginatangan Pedro. They will hoe the land Pedro bought. -on/-in-. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

gagtoob sta. a banging or crashing sound, e.g. banging of doors and windows. Kimmayat hi Juan ot magagtoob. Juan climbed then fell with a crashing sound. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

gihgi trans. to split wood into kindling or make smaller sizes of wood. Gihgihom tun itungu. Split this firewood for kindling. Munggihgih Juan. Juan is splitting kindling. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: giha; Sim: dikhal, giha, potw’ak. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

hablag intrans. to bring a 3rd-day bereavement gift, particularly the responsibility of the in-laws of the family. [The 3rd day of a death vigil is the day of feasting so that is when relatives and in-laws bring the bereavement gifts.] Himmablag hi Juan dih natayan aman baket na. Juan brought a pig when his father-in-law died. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. wh: Dangli. (sem. domains: - Give, donate.)

habungul 1trans. to grasp or clasp with the hand. Hinabungul Hinayyup di buuk Oltagon te bimmungot. Hinayyup grasped Oltagon’s hair because she was angry. E mapudan hi Juan ya inhabungul na nan holok ot adi apudan. Juan was about to roll down (the mountainside) but he grasped the grass and he did not roll. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Hold.) 2sta. (sec) to be a handful; a cluster or tuft of something that is like a handful. Mahabungul di bungan nan be-et. The guava fruit is in clusters. ma‑. Sim: pulngut.

hayyudut (sp. var. hayudut) 1sta. to be kind, loving or gracious; compassionate. Mahayyudut hi Juan. Juan is kind and loving. general: This word is rarely used by younger speakers. {arch} ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.1 - Good, moral, 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2proc. to become kind. Humayyudut mo te waday mahapul na. She is becoming kind now because she needs something. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to be kind or loving to someone in particular. Hayyudutam di imbabalem. Have a great love for your children. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. mahayudut

hi det. 1a determiner that marks any noun referring to a person, including kin terms and proper names. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘i’ of the determiner is reduced, and the consonant ‘h’ is attached to the preceding word.> Hi Juan di nangidat ketuwe. It was Juan who gave this. Takon maka-atung on kinawot da ta ialo dah ibba da. Even if it’s very hot, they grab it and throw it at their companions. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2marks a definite place that is not a proper noun. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. 3marks an indefinite direct or indirect object noun; the marked noun is not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tawagam hi Tayaban ta bumano kah pihhuna. Call Tayaban and borrow money from him. “Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina,” an kanak bo. “Fairies are kind because they give candy, isn’t that right, mother?” I said again. 4marks an embedded nominalized clause that expresses a reason for a condition or state in the main clause. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling? hantuh hidiye

hidiye (diye, hi) demonstrative. demonstrative pronoun that does not require a co-occurring noun; that over there, definite reference to something, away from both speaker and hearer. Hidiye di balen da Juan. That one over there is the house of Juan. Man-uke kanak hidiye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) hidiyen hidiyey

hidiyey (hidiye) demonstrative predicate. that is; a demonstrative predicate; the form is based on hidiye, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; it co-occurs with the allomorph y of the linker di. The form predicates the existence of something or someone that is away from both speaker and hearer. Hidiyey balen da Juan. That is Juan’s house. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hikop sta. to be spirit-possessed. Nahikopan nan imbabale na. Her child is possessed. Nihkop hi aman Juan ke Maria. The spirit of the father of Juan possessed Mary. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: - Demon possession.)

hingngot (sp. var. hongot) 1comm. engagement to marry, engagement offerings; the main offering is usually three pigs. [The engagement offerings are brought by the man’s family to the woman’s family; the word also refers to gifts, other than animals, such as bundles of wood, and a basketful of malagkit rice with coins placed on top. The animal engagement offerings are specifically referred to as the imbango.] In-eday hingngot Juan ad Bae. They brought Juan’s engagement offerings to Bae. Ine day hingngot Bugan. They brought the animals needed for the marital engagement of Bugan. Sim: Hongot; Sim: bango, Tokop di mom-on. (sem. domains: - Custom, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to give animals and other paraphernalia used in the marital engagement arrangements. Mumpakan he dakel an babuy ta waday ihngot na hin malahin. He is feeding a lot of pigs so that he will have animals to use if he decides to be married. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to bring the betrothal gifts for the engagement ceremony. Munhongot da Juan hi bigat. Juan will bring the animals needed for his engagement tomorrow. Munhongot hi Juan ke Ana. Juan will bring his engagement offerings to Ana. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to bring necessary animals for the marital engagement. i‑ ‑an.

hipngat₂ intrans. to meet unexpectedly; to have a chance meeting. Nunhipngat da Juan ke Tomas nah dalan. Juan and Tomas met each other unexpectedly on the way. Ume ka ad Manila ta kal-ina ot anhan ya munhipngat kayun tulang mu. Go to Manila where we hope you will have a chance meeting with your sister. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.)

hiwwe 1intrans. to separate; to divorce. Munhiwwe kanu da Juan ke Maria. They say that Juan and Maria will separate. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: hi-an. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter, - Divorce.) 2sta. to be separated from a group; to be apart. Nahiwweh tuwen bale. This house is separated from the rest. Pinhod kuy mahiwwey panganan mi. I want our meals to be separate. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives.

hodol₁ sta. to be thick. Mahdol nan ulo. The blanket is thick. Makakahdol nan ulon Juan. John’s blanket is very thick. ma‑, makaC‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.2.3 - Thick.) der. kahodol

hon-at trans. to reseed a previously planted area. Em hon-atan nan bulhe. Go and reseed the beans. E nunhon-at hi Juan hi garden. Juan went to reseed the garden. ‑an/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 6.2.3 - Plant a field.)

hong’ang sta. to be stupefied because of what one sees; amazed. Nahngang handi tinibona hi Juan te pangalina on nate. He was stupefied to see Juan because he thought he was dead. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. Sim: modwong. (sem. domains: - Surprise.) infl. mahngang infl. nahngang

ibbaan (infl. of ibba) trans. to accompany someone. Pinhod mu ta ibbaan daka ke Juan? Would you like for Juan to accompany you? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.)

idat 1to give. 1.1trans. to give something. Idat mun am-in di pinhod na. Give him all that he wants. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: idawat. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 1.2trans. to give something to someone; the person to whom the thing is being given is referentially prominent. <The recipient is cross-referenced by the affix.> Idatam hi kanona. Give him something to eat. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hi dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka a small piece of meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 1.3trans. to give an amount of something; the important component is an unspecified amount of a specified thing to be given. Umidat kah pihhu ta botosan daka. Give out some money and we will vote for you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.4trans. the one giving money is contrasted with others, and referentially prominent. Hiyay nangidat hi pihhuk. He was the one who gave me money. mangi‑/nangi‑. 2sta. to be generous; refers to someone who freely gives to others. Makiddat hi Juan. Juan is very generous. infl. mangidat infl. midatan

iliw sta. to be homesick; to feel lonely or to miss someone. Nun-oppot da Juan ke Maria an maka-iliw dan duwa. Both Juan and Maria miss each other. Mailiw nadah imbabalena ot umanamut. He missed his children so he came home. ma‑, makaC1‑. Sim: ilmu, ingle. (sem. domains: - Sad.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

imbabaleyon (der. of imbabale) nom. 1refers to the child of a sibling; nephew or niece. Hi Juan ya imbabaleyon Pedro. Juan is the nephew of Pedro. ‑on. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.) 2refers to one who becomes a son or daughter through the marriage of one’s child; son-in-law or daughter-in-law.

inap-apu (sp. var. ap-apu) (der. of apu) comm. grandchild; grandchild; grandson; granddaughter. Hi Pedro ya inap-apun Juan. Pedro is the grandchild of Juan. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.)

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ka pers. you; second person, singular pronoun; member of Set 2 subject pronouns; cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Hin-uddum an adika mangan. At times you don’t eat. Joan, deyan ume ka mo ahan tut-uwah college. Joan, you are now finally going to college. Maid ka handi hilong hi balen da Juan. You were not in the house of Juan last night. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

kadwa₁ (der. of duwa) 1comm. companion; chaperone. Hi Juan di kadwa na an umali. Juan will be his companion in coming. Maid di kadwa na hi baleda. He has no companion in their house. Sim: kuyug, ibba. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2trans. to accompany. Kadwaam hi baleda. Accompany him to their house. Ikadwam nan indat kun pantalon. Include the pants I gave. (lit. use it to accompany another one) ‑an/in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.)

kait-itayan (infl. of ittay) adj. to be the smallest in a comparison; superlative small. Nan babuy Juan di kait-itayan. John’s pig is the smallest. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.1 - Small.)

kalata 1comm. road; street. Mangapya da hi kalata an umed Tinoc. They are making a road to Tinok. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to an ant when you are walking along the road. Sim: dalan, kah-on. (sem. domains: - Road.) 2trans. to build a road. Kalataon da nan lutan da Juan. They will build a road along Juans’ land. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object.

kampu (fr. var. pungkampuwan) 1comm. camp. Daan di kampu yu? Where is your camp? (sem. domains: 4.6.7 - Region, 5.9 - Live, stay.) 2intrans. to build a camp; to stay temporarily in someone’s house. Mungkampu da nadan tindalu nah tap-on di wangwang. The soldiers will build a camp above the river. Mungkampu da nadan imbabalen Juan nah balen Pio. The children of Juan will lodge in the house of Pio. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to build a camp or place to lodge temporarily. puN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: campo.

kapyana (der. of kapya) 1advpred. refers to the way things are traditionally or by nature. Nakahillong mo ya kapyanan maid pay hi Juan an dumdumattong. It was already night, in spite of that fact, Juan hadn’t come yet. Kapyanah tuwe. This is customary. Kapyana tuwalin waday punhahallaan di tagu mu takomboy athina ya ip-iphod yun munhuhummangan. It’s natural to have differences between people but even if that’s the case, you should discuss differences diplomatically. Manner. Sim: gagangay. (sem. domains: - Nature, character.) 2nom. the natural characteristic or essence of something. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature.

kastigu 1comm. punishment. Hinae di kastigu na te mungngohe. That is his punishment because he is obstinate. (sem. domains: 4.7.7 - Punish.) 2trans. to inflict penalty for an offense; to punish. Kastiguwon daka hin mangako ka. They will punish you if you steal. Kinastigu da an impikalabut da. They punished him by imprisoning him. Nan huwes di mangastigu ke he-a. The judge will be the one to punish you. Bokon ya abuh Juan an kastiguwon da. It’s not only Juan whom they will punish. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: castigo.

ke₁ (deke) conj. 1if; marks a conditional clause, hypothetical or real. Maid ke hi Juan ya uggeyak immali. If Juan had not been around I would not have come here. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan prayer for him. Wada ke ot di pihhu yu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: - Condition.) 2follows a predicate and marks a time phrase or clause. <The allomorph y of the linker di is an enclitic.> Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Mala-u key duwan hinlingguwan ya damanan hiitom nan baya ta inumon taku! After about two weeks, pour out the wine from the jar and we’ll drink with you. 3when; marks a time clause. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. Nagibbu ke nan kapkapyan di hagabi, kalyon day algoh pangihakyatan da. When the hagabi-bench is completed, they say the day that it will be brought home. (sem. domains: - Clause conjunctions.)

kialigan nom. a comparison of one thing with another; a comparison of a person or something a person does with another. [This word is used frequently in the Tuwali
Bible, particularly in verses that record the comparisons that Jesus used in his teaching.
Ha-oy di kialigan nan maphod an tagun mumpaptok hi kalnero. (Juan 10:14a) I am like the good person who cares for sheep. Sim: mialig. (sem. domains: - Compare.)

Kiangan prop. refers to a municipality in Ifugao Province, Philippines. Immali da Juan hitud Kiangan. Juan and his companions came here to Kiangan. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

kodla comm. an amulet stone; a charm stone. An kulugom di kodla? Do you believe in stone amulets? Binalabog Pedro hi Juan mu ugge niptok te waday kodlan Juan. Pedro threw the spear at Juan but it didn’t hit him because he has an amulet. Sim: kiwil, agayup. (sem. domains: 4.9.4 - Miracle, supernatural power.)

kodo 1to ask. 1.1trans. to ask for something; to beg. Kodowon yu nan adida usalon. Ask for the things they will not use. Hituwey kindok ke Paning. This is what I begged from Paning. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: bag’a, pakada. (sem. domains: 3.3.2 - Request, - Ask.) 1.2trans. refers to repeated begging, on more than one occasion. Adi kayu e kumodokodoh kanon yu te nal-ot pay di adol yu. Don’t be repeatedly begging for food because your body is still strong. Adi ka kumodokodo. Don’t get into the habit of begging. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ CV(C)CV. 1.3trans. this form highlights the person from whom something is being asked. Nungkodoham tuh intanom mun mangga? From whom did you ask for this mango which you planted. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 2sta. to be a beggar; refers to someone who is always asking/begging for something. Nakdo hi Juan te wada key tinibo nan on kumdo. Juan is a beggar because he asks for everything he sees. ma‑/na‑.

komiks 1comm. comics; books of cartoon-type pictures that are humorous or that tell stories. Munbidbid nadan u-unga hi komiks. The children are reading comics. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2advpred. to be funny or comical. Komik nan inat Juan dih indai. The thing Juan did a while ago is funny. Evaluative. Language Of Borrowing: English.

kutkutubbe 1comm. an edible water beetle; brown, about the size of a fingernail; hard to chew. Nakamhan hi kutkutubbe nadan gingan in-alin Juan. There were some kutkutubbe-beetles among the shellfish brought by Juan. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2intrans. to gather kutkuttubbe beetles. Mangutkutubbe da hi ihda. They are gathering kutkutubbe-beetles for food. maN‑/naN‑.

kutlong 1comm. canegrass shoots. Mihday kutlong. The shoots of canegrass are edible. Sim: hobwal. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to gather canegrass shoots. Nangutlong hi Juan te maid id ihda mi. Juan went to gather canegrass shoots because we had no viand. maN‑/naN‑.

lawid 1comm. tiny fishing hooks. Nangapyah lawid hi Juan. Juan made small fishing hooks. (sem. domains: - Fish with hooks.) 2trans. to fish with hooks in the river or creeks. Eka munlawid hi wangwang. Go fish with your hook in the river. Hay dakol di lawidom. Catch many fishing with a hook. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent.

lodlodongngan (der. of lod’ong) comm. the forefinger. Napalang di lodlodongan Juan. The forefinger of Juan was cut. Whole: takle; Gen: gam’at. (sem. domains: - Finger, toe.)

lukut₂ trans. for those taking a corpse to the grave to stop by a relative’s house along the path to the grave; the people drink and then proceed. Punlukuton da nan nate hi balen da Juan. They will stop with the dead in the house of Juan. (sem. domains: - Funeral, - Bury.)

lul-u 1intrans. to bring trouble on oneself because of actions instead of improving one’s life or situation. [Improving one’s life is the expected cultural norm.] Munlul-u ka te itugal mun am-in di pihhu. You are bringing trouble on yourself because you gamble all of your money. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.) 2trans. to prod or urge someone. to make trouble. Adim ilul-u diday tutulang mu. Do not prod your relatives to make trouble. Hi Juan di nangilul-un dakami. It was Juan who urged us to make trouble. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Bad, immoral.)

maandong (infl. of andong) sta. to be fair; to be just in judgment. Inila takun maandong di pangat Apu Dios ya hidiye panginilaan taku an nan tagun maandong di pangat na ya hiyay imbabalen Apu Dios. (1 Juan 2:29) We know that God’s way is just and therefore, we know that the person whose way is just is a child of God. ma‑.

madmad 1comm. invocation of ancestor spirits or gods. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2to invoke gods or spirits. 2.1trans. to recite the invocation; the invocation itself is prominent. Imadmad mu ni-an ta ahi taku mangan. Recite the invocations before we eat. Ot umeh kad-an diyen inhinyero ot waday imadmad na. And so he went to murmur some prayers over him. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Pray.) 2.2trans. to call ancestors or gods for blessing with prominence on who is invoked. Madmadom nadan aammod Juan. Invoke the names of the ancestors of Juan.

makaC2- -an mod. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; non-past tense; cross-references the subject. <The second consonant of the root is geminated.> Kalyok hituwe te ad uwani ya makaawwatan takuy ine-en di pamhod te hidiyey impatibotibon Jesus hi pangi-ena. (1 Juan 2:8b) I say this because now we fully understand the way of love because that is what Jesus continuously revealed by his customary way. Sim: nakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

makiinhikkadan (id. of hikkad) sta. (fig) to be insistent; lit. to brace feet against the ground. Makiinhikkadan hi Juan. Juan is being insistent.

mambab (der. of tobab) comm. drummer, one who plays the lead rhythm in the playing of the gongs; uses a clenched fist and an open palm. Mambab hi Jose ya manayo hi Juan. Jose is drumming and Juan is dancing. maN‑.

maN- 1TACR. the prefix encodes a non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized subject-agent; it co-occurs with Classes 4 and 5 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The N in the form symbolizes a nasal that assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant. If the first consonant of the root is followed by the ‘o’ vowel, the vowel will also be reduced.> Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Da Juan ke Maira din mange. It’s Juan and Maria who are passing by. Sim: naN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2asp. the prefix encodes a present continuative aspect; it co-occurs with roots that have an innate punctiliar aspect. Manatong kami nah ohan bale ya namodwongak an nanibo nah ohan lalaki. As we were arriving near one of the houses, I was surprised to see a man. Hay kalyona ya, kediyen hilong an manganamut, an gawan mon di hilong... He explained to us that the night before while he was on his way home at about midnight... (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

mange (infl. of e) intrans. going, moving at the present point in time. Da Juan ke Maria din mange. Juan and Maria are the ones going. Ya handih mange da ya nakaan hidiyen dogoda. (Luke 17:14b) And when they were going, their sickness was removed. Mun-iya-iyag dan mangmangnge an ito-ol day “He, he, he.” As they go along, the men keep cheering lustily, “He, he, he.” maN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

manung (sp. var. manong) 1comm. older brother. Wadah manung hi bale. My older brother is at home. (sem. domains: - Brother, sister.) 2trans. to have an older brother. Manungon Juan hi Pedro mu adina un-unudon. Pedro is the older brother of Juan but Juan doesn’t obey him. ‑on. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

market comm. a large area of a town with many open stalls selling everything needed in a household. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to the market.

mawada (der. of wada) exispred. 1to be with someone. [This form is used frequently in the Tuwali Ifugao Bible to mean that God or Jesus Christ is with a person as a continuing companion.] Ya hi Ama ya pohdona hiya ya mawada kamin duwa ke hiya. (Juan 14:23-24) As for Father, he will love him and we two will be with him. ma‑. 2something will exist in the future. Patmolonay intanom ta mawaday buwa dan mitanom ya mawaday makan. (Isaiah 55:10b) It will cause the plants to sprout so that there will be seeds to be planted and there will be food.

miathidi (der. of athidi) pass. predicates a comparison of a situation or event to a previous reference; for some action or activity to be compared to what had been done previously; will be like that. Mu hanah mikapitun toon ya miathidi, adiyu ngunuwon. (Exodus 23:10) But during the 7th year, you will not work like that. (refers to field work) Kinali, dakol an toon an niat-athiddih Juan. That’s why Juan had been like that for many years. mi‑/ni‑.

mumbango (der. of bango) 1comm. the groom; the one who brings the engagement requirements for the contract of a future marriage. Hi Juan di mumbango. Juan is the groom. muN‑/nuN‑. 2intrans. to provide the animals for a betrothal contract. Mumbango da tuh umalin linggu. They will bring the engagement animals this coming week. muN‑/nuN‑.

nain-ina (der. of ina) sta. old woman. Indikhalan Juan nan nain-ina. Juan split wood for the old woman.

negosyo (sp. var. negosyante) 1comm. an enterprise; a business. Maphod di negosyo na. His business is good. (sem. domains: 6.9 - Business organization.) 2intrans. to invest in a business. Munnegosyo hi Juan an gumattang hi kape. Juan will invest in buying coffee. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to invest money. Inegosyo na nan indat amanan pihhu. He will invest the money given by his father. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

neh interj. an interjection expressing surprise. “Neh, hi Juan? an kanan Jose. “Naka-anus da met an duwa? an kanana bo. “Oh, is it Juan?” said Jose. “But they are both very kind.” (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ngadan 1comm. name. Nganney ngadan mu? What is your name? Nganne pe nan hamuti an ib-ibbaag nay ngadana? What is the bird that keeps calling its name? Sim: apulidu. (sem. domains: 9.7.3 - Name of a thing.) 2intrans. to go by the name of. Mungngadan hi Pedro nan immali di indai. The one who came a while ago goes by the name of Pedro. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to give a name to someone. Ngadanan dah Juan nan golang. They will name the child Juan. Ingngadanan dah Amlihhew te nangudu. They named her Amlihhew because she is a grumbler. ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 4trans. to name something. Hidiyen kaiw ya nginadanan dah pungkogaan da. As for that tree, they named it 'the place of their crying'. (sem. domains: 9.7 - Name.) infl. ngadanon

ngidlu 1comm. lazy. Namahig di ngidluna. He is very lazy. Sim: inaw, nawadaan, higa, butyug, himmiga. (sem. domains: - Lazy.) 2sta. to be lazy. Mangidlu an adina pinhod an bumaddang. He is lazy so he does not want to help. Makangngidlu hi Juan. Juan is very lazy. ma‑, makaC‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation.

ngohop comm. hope against hope; desire with little hope for fulfillment; usually used with the negative which then means ‘not without hope’. Kayang di ngohop kun manibon nah inap-apuk. How I desire to see my grandchildren. Adi manghop hi Juan an emun-adal. John is not without the hope to go and study. (sem. domains: - Hope.) ph. v. adi manghop

niat-athiddi (der. of athidi) sta. a comparative description of a situation, event or person. Kinali dakol an toon an niat-athiddih Juan. That’s why for many years, Juan was like that. ni‑ CV‑.

nipa- caus. this prefix encodes a non-agentive passive-causative; past tense. Nipaali nadan bulwatim. Your clothes were brought here. Nipae da Pedro ke Juan ot mibangngad dah kad-an nadan iibba da...(Acts 4:23) Peter and John were released and so they returned to their companions... Sim: mipa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

olot 1comm. the state of being strong; strength. Maid olot na te mundogo. He has no strength because he is sick. Sim: kilog, bika, kuhog. (sem. domains: 2.4.1 - Strong.) 2trans. to strengthen something or to strengthen one’s body. Oltom di kalim ta madngol. Make your voice loud so it can be heard (lit. strengthen your voice). Kaatna anhan di inlot mu? By the way, how strong are you? ‑on/‑in‑. 3sta. to be strong. Nal-ot hi Juan. Juan is strong. na-.

ot ahi conj. connects a sequence of events with the second contingent on the first. Hituwey kinalin Juan ke dida ot ahi da umed Manila. This is what John told them before they went to Manila. Coordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

page comm. 1rice kernel with hull and stem; unmilled rice. Bayuwom nan page. You pound the rice. Napnu din alang da Juan hi page. The rice granary of Juan is full of rice grain. Mipatibo an dakol di page da. This shows that they have rice to spare. (sem. domains: - Food from plants.) 2refers to rice plants while in the field. Napai nan page handi dimmalalu. The rice was destroyed when it hailed. der. pagena n. ph. Hongan di page

pahang 1comm. ritual for the dead, the final ritual for seeking the blessing of living relatives. (sem. domains: - Bless, - Religious ceremony.) 2comm. a ritual of thanksgiving or asking for a blessing or help. Ibaki day pahang te mangemangeh nan imbabale da. They will perform the pahang-ritual because their child keeps roaming. 3trans. to ask for a blessing for someone. Pahangon dah Juan te innang an pumate. They will perform a blessing ritual for Juan because he almost killed a person. ‑on/‑in‑.

pakaC1- -on this circumfix is an intensifier and cross-references the object of Class 4 roots. <This circumfix is an allomorph of the circumfix pakaC2‑ ‑on. It co-occurs with roots with the CVC.CV(C) syllable pattern.> Pakabbidbidom ke nan impitudok Apu Dios, maid di kananah malpud Galileen profetas. (Juan 7:52b) Read very carefully what God has caused to be written, there is nothing said about a prophet from Galilee. Hanadan tataguh di ya pakaddonglon day intuttudun Felipe te tinibo day milogron inat na. (Acts 8:6) The people there listened very well to what Felipe was teaching because they saw the miracles that he did. Sim: C2, pakaC2- -on, pakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

pangipa- -an caus. this circumfix has a topicalized agent, a causative agent in the subject position in the clause, and a definite cross-referenced object. Dahdiy pangipaalian da nadah liblu? Who will they have bring those books here? Hi Juan di pangipadikhalak nah ongal an kaiw. Juan will be the one that I will have split the big piece of wood. Sim: nangipa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

paptok 1trans. to care for something or someone; attend to someone. Nahalman di pamaptok kun hiya mu kapyanan makadoggo. I am giving him much care but it is his nature to be sickly. Hi Juan di mumpaptok nah golang ad uwani. Juan will be the one to care for the child today. An inilam an mangipaptok? kanan bon inaonan hi Magappid. Do you know how to take care of it?” Aunt Magappid said. Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaippaptok am-in Perhaps the next time, it will be well-planned (lit. well cared for). Ya gapuh kabaelana ya ipaptok ditaku gapuh pangulug takun Jesus ingganay ipaannung na nan nihwangan taku hantuh kapoppogan di luta. (1 Pedro 1:5) And the reason for the power (of that hope) is he will care for us, based on our faith in Jesus, until he fulfills our salvation at the time of the ending of the earth. Kon adiyu tibon an maid di ad-adih naat ke ditaku te impaptok ditaku ya impangapput ditakun APU DIOS? (1 Samuel 30:23b) Don’t you see that nothing bad happened to us because God cared for us and caused us to defeat them? i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑, makai‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: - Care for.) 2intrans. to raise domestic animals. Mumpaptok kah chickens. Raise chickens. muN‑/nuN‑. infl. mangipaptok

para₁ prep. for; marks a purpose or intended goal. Hituwe ke ya para ke Juan. This is for Juan. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

payagpag intrans. to flap wings; to struggle by flapping wings. Mumpapayagpag din manok. The hen is flapping her wings. Pimmayagpag ya adi pakad-on hi Juan. The chicken struggled by flapping its wings and Juan could not hold it. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: kayabkab. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

pihhu (sp. var. pihu) 1comm. money; cash. Hay ke bo pihhu ya adi nalnalgom on ginatang. And as for money, don’t just spend it on anything. In-eyam hi Juan hi pihhu? Did you take some money to Juan? Sayang di oras ya effort ya pihhu. Your time, effort and money are wasted. Syn: kuarta. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money.) 2comm. monetary unit. Himpulun pihu di ohan kilon boga. Rice costs ten pesos a kilo. 3comm. one peso. Indatan dah pihu ot ume. They gave him one peso and he left. 4intrans. costs a peso each; worth one peso. Duway alak te mamihu damdama. I will get two because they cost one peso each. Mapihu di ginattang nan kindi. She bought candies worth one peso. maN‑, ma‑. der. pihhuwan id. gomgomom tun pihu id. kon kumaliy pihhu?

takpal 1comm. to make a comparison and call someone by the name of something that has a characteristic that is being attributed to that person. Akup di takpal dan hiya te humanawwangan nah hilong. They call him an owl because he keeps roaming around at night. (sem. domains: 9.7.3 - Name of a thing.) 2intrans. to pair a boy and girl and tease them. Itakpal dan ha-oy an napukok nan tagu. They pair and tease me about the short fellow. Intakpal dan hiya hi Juan ya bimmoh-ol. They paired and teased her about Juan and she got mad. i‑/iN‑.

takut 1to be afraid. 1.1intrans. to feel anxiety or dread due to impending danger; afraid. Tumakut hi banig. He is afraid of ghosts. Maid moy udum an Ippangyol an nangipatnan immalin niha-ad ad Kiangan te tumakut da. No other Spaniard ever tried again to come to stay in Kiangan because they were afraid. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. Opp: tulid; Sim: kol-o, kobkob. (sem. domains: - Afraid.) 1.2sta. to be very afraid. Makattakut hi Juan nah ahu. Juan is very afraid of the dog. makaC1‑. 2to fear something. 2.1trans. to fear something with the thing feared cross-referenced by the affix. Takutan di mangalanay ahu. It’s the dog that night prowlers are afraid of. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to cause someone to feel frightened; the affix cross-references the person who is being frightened. Taktakuton da dakayu ya alan day diyen limmu yu. They will frighten you and get your property. CVC‑ ‑on. 3sta. to be frightening; to have characteristics that cause fear. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (lit. frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. kaCV‑. 4comm. refers to the emotion that someone experiences. Adina itikod nan mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He doesn’t stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die anytime. der. katatakut der. matakutan infl. makattakut

tawid 1comm. an inheritance. Nganney tawid muh ammod mu? What is your inheritance from your parents? Sim: odon, boltan. (sem. domains: 6.8.1 - Have wealth.) 2trans. to inherit something. Ambilog nan lutan tinawid na. The land he inherited is wide. Bokon taku met kadangyan ya maid maid di tawidon yuh We are not rich and you have nothing to inherit Timmawid hi Juan hi muyung an ambilog. ‑on/‑in‑,‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent.. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

tilod 1comm. the stinger of an insect. Kinaan Juan nan tilod nan pappahluk ot ipaena. Juan removed the stinger of the wasp and set it loose. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2trans. for an insect to sting. Adika mih-up nah kad-an di pappahluk te tilodon daka. Do not go near the wasps because they will sting you. Itilod da nah matam ta makulap ka. They will sting you in the eye and you will become blind. Abulom te tumilod. Drive it away because it stings. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact.

tistigu 1comm. a witness, particularly related to a lawsuit. Maid di tistigu na. He has no witness. Hi Juan di ohan tistigu nah kasun Pedlo. Juan is one of the witnesses in the suit filed against Pedlo. (sem. domains: - Witness, testify.) 2v. to testify. Muntistigu hi bigat hi Juan. Juan will testify tomorrow. Tistiguwana na maphod an tagu hi Pedlo. He will testify that Pedlo is a good man. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: atestiguar.

tobab 1comm. the name of a gong instrument, used as a percussion instrument for the lead rhythm. (sem. domains: - Musical instrument.) 2comm. a kind of wedding dance, performed to the playing of gongs. Tobab di intayo da. They danced the tobab. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 3trans. to beat a gong with hands, using a clenched fist and an open palm or both hands clenched. Tobabom nan gangha. You beat the gong. Mundukkun hi Juan an muntobab. Juan kneels down while beating the gong. Hi Juan di mambab ta mahaldot. Juan will be the one to beat the gong so that it will be sonorous. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. der. mambab

tu-i (sp. var. of tui) 1) trans. to push something or someone with the result that it topples over; to push over. Ihamad yu nan poste na ta adi tu-iyon nan babuy. Make the post firm so that the pig will not topple it. Tinu-ik nan poste. I toppled the post. Natu-i nan ubunan. The stool toppled over. Intu-in nan tabuyug nah pottok di bale. The pomelo tree was toppled over towards the house. Intuludak ke Juan ot matu-iyak. Juan shoved me and I toppled over. Pangdalam hi nunhina-ob ta adi matu-i. Shore it up on both sides so that it will not fall down. (sem. domains: - Push.) 2) intrans. to totter in walking; to stagger. Muntu-iyan an immanamut te nabutong. He was tottering when he went home because he was drunk.

tudu₂ 1intrans. to teach or train. Muntuttuduh Juana an munha-ang. Juana is teaching how to cook. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 3.6 - Teach.) 2trans. to show; to point out; to teach something specific. Ituddum di dalanon. Show us the way. Naligat an adalon nadan mapmaphod an mitudtudu mu deket nan gaga-iho gagala on inadal di tatagu. Good teaching is hard to learn but as for the bad, people easily learn it. Ituddu nad uwani aton an muntanom. He will teach us now how to plant. Dakami ke ya intuddu day iskul hi sentral ot ume kamihdi. As for us, we were told to go to the Central School, so we went there. Adi maphod nan itudtudum hantudah iibam. What you are teaching your brothers is not good. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to teach a particular person. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Tudduwan ditakun mungkugut. She will teach us how to sew. Adim tuttuduwan tun imbabalek an e munduka. Don’t influence (lit. teach) my child to go roaming around. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal Oriented Sites. id. manuttudu infl. mangituttudu

tulang 1comm. a sibling; brother; sister. Kaatna day tulang mu? How many brothers and sisters do you have. Hi Luisa ya inan di duwan hintulang. Luisa was the mother of two children (lit. siblings) Sim: iba, manang, ag’i, kamang. (sem. domains: - Brother, sister.) 2comm. related to; kin. Hintulang di ammod mi. Our ancestors are kin. hiN‑. 3trans. to relate to someone as a sibling. Tulangom nadan imbabalen Juan. You are related to the children of Juan. ‑on/‑in‑. der. hintutulang infl. tutulang

tungo₂ 1intrans. to give birth. Adi nalakay muntungo. It’s not easy to give birth. Nuntungo hi Maria ya dappil. Maria gave birth to twins. muN‑/nuN‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 2trans. to give birth to a child. Itungo nah baleda nan imbabalena. She will give birth to their child in their house. Mitungo ke nan golang ya ngadanam hi Juan. When the child will be born, name him Juan. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. infl. nitungawan

ubbu 1comm. a work-sharing system. Ad uwani di ubbu da. Today is their share-work. Sim: ammung, bokla, kalu. (sem. domains: 4.2.1 - Come together, form a group.) 2trans. to pool resources for someone. Ubbuwon da hi Juan ad uwani. They will share their resources for Juan today. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑, paki‑ ‑on. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Working relationship.) 3intrans. to do share work; take turns in helping each other in farm work. Mun-ubbu da ama nah payon Bugan. My father and the rest are doing share-work in Bugan’s field. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Participate.) 4v. to join others in working; usually means taking turns in working in each other’s rice fields. Pinhod mun makiubbu? Do you want to join in share-working? Pakiubuwom nan imbabalem. Have your son join in share-working. maki‑/naki‑, paki‑ ‑on. der. mun-uubbu

upu₂ trans. to consume or use up something. Adim upuwon nan ihda te ugge nangan da tulang mu. Do not consume the viand because your brothers have not eaten. Hi Juan di nun-upu nah gahhilang. It was Juan who consumed the corn. Mungkap-u di itungu taku. Our firewood is nearly consumed. Nap-uy pihuk te nigattang hi agah. I ran out of money because it was used to buy medicine. Adim upuhon nan asukar. Don’t use up all of the sugar. Antipe ta gagalan nap-uy ahin? Why was the salt consumed so fast? ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, mungka‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: - Decrease.)

uyyad 1trans. to stretch legs out straight. Uyyadom nan hukim. Stretch your legs. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Extend.) 2intrans. to stretch out legs while sitting or lying down. Nun-uyyad hi Juan. Juan stretched out his legs. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. infl. uyyadan

wano 1comm. a loincloth; a g-string. [The loincloth is still worn for special ceremonies.] In-abol nay wanon nan inayana. She wove the loincloth of her husband. Gen: gamgam; spec: binuhlan. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a loincloth. O-oha moy matibon nunwano. Very few men wearing loincloths are seen now. Iwanom nan binanom ke Lomlom. Use the loincloth you borrowed from Lomlom. Wanowan yu hi Juan te manayo da nah iskul. Help Juan wear the loincloth because they are going to dance in school. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.