Search results for "aki"

‑in‑₂ num. this infix encodes plural for the noun roots meaning woman, babai, and man, lalaki, and some cardinal numbers. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was many women dressed in the Ifugao skirt. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.2 - Noun affixes.)

aki 1comm. very strong jealousy of someone’s advantage. [Someone would rather throw away or destroy something than to let it be for another’s advantage; this type of jealousy is considered to be worse than the imut-type.] Namahig di akin Allaga. Allaga is jealous of others well being. 6B Characteristic of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.8 - Jealous.) 2sta. to be selfish, jealous. Maka-akin hinag-on. He is such a selfish neighbor. ma‑, makaC‑.

akid comm. an invented excuse; reason for something; alibi. Hay pangiakidanan ugge immali ya mahakit kanuy uluna. His excuse for not having come is that he had a headache. pangi‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.7.5.4 - Defend against accusation.) der. immakid

alebet intrans. 1to rain in heavy steady drops. Mun-alebet di udan. There’s a steady downpour. (raining cats and dogs) Umalebet di udan kinali umanamut taku. The rain is going to be strong so let’s go home. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 1.1.3.3 - Rain.) 2to have too much seepage from mud dikes and slopes of ricefield, plants do not grow well. Mun-alebet nan banong kinali naghang. The mud dike is seeping that’s why it’s eroded. muN‑/nuN‑.

angit intrans. to look for trouble; to invite trouble; court trouble; to ask for it. Mun-angit hi Tomas. Tomas is looking for trouble. Nabutong ad nakugab ya mun-angit markadu. He was drunk yesterday and he was courting trouble. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: ila-ila. (sem. domains: 4.1.6 - Disunity.)

baki 1comm. ritual, Ifugao sacrificial rite. [The traditional religion has many rites and rituals, all are classified under this generic name.] (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2nom. the shaman-priest who performs the baki. <Although the prefix muN- derives a verb, the form functions as a nominal reference, referring to the person who performs the ritual. > Mungkama-id da mo nadan nakaginnilan mumbaki ya wada ke bo ya naka-am-amma da mo ya adida mo pakabbakiy tatagud uwani te hay pangulug da mo ke Apu Dios. Priests who perform the baki ritual are becoming few and if there are any they are very old and many people nowadays don’t perform the baki because of their faith in God. Gulat na nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the believers in God become ill, there would be no more baki-priests. muN‑ . 3sta. refers to the deities or ancestors invoked in a ritual and are the recipients of the sacrifice offered. Mabaki nadan ammod na. His ancestors are invoked in the ritual. der. Mabaki der. mumbaki

bakilang 1intrans. to lie down on back; recline on back. Naka-atuwak ta pinhod kun mibakilang. I am so tired so I want to lie down. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: bakne, puku, baktad. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 - Lie down.) 2trans. to make someone lie down. Ibakilang mu nan mundogo nah kama. Make the sick person lie down on the bed. i‑/iN‑.

Bakin di pitti prop. a ritual that is performed to stop a plague. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

baking₁ sta. a deviated big toe which is in-born. Nabaking nan am-amma-an nan am-ama. The old man’s big toe is crooked. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.3 - Finger, toe.)

baking₂ trans. to bend something. Bakingom nan gulipu ta ihingngi nad da-ul. Bend the pipe so that it will face towards the lower elevation. Bakingon yu nan gumok. Bend the iron bar. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. Sim: bak’uy, yaku, banguy, killu. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

balakibak comm. 1sapwood; the part of a tree between the bark and heartwood; may be used for firewood. Unnaon an itunguy balakibak di kaiw ta ahi nan hogatna. First, use the sapwood section for fuel before the heartwood sections. Sim: hogat. (sem. domains: 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.) 2bark of a tree or piece of wood. Kaanon da nan balakibak nan kaiw te nadunut. They’ll remove the bark of the wood because it’s rotten. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bullaki comm. man; gentleman; a tall, fair and handsome man. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Nan bullaki di mangadangadan nah a-apo da. Its always the male character who’s named in their stories.
Sim: guwapu.

dakig (sp. var. dakkig) 1comm. door bar or bolt. Ihaad mu nan dakig nan panto. Place the door bar. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to close a door or window. Idakig mu nan panto. Close the door with the bar. Dakigam nan panto. Close the door. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) infl. mundakig

diwol 1trans. to shake something back and forth horizontally. Idiwol nan gulding nan alad. The goat shook the fence. i‑/iN‑. 3E Move object directionally. Sim: wat’ang, wagot, wowod. (sem. domains: 7.3.1.3 - Shake, 7.2.2.8 - Move back and forth.) 2intrans. the shaking of something. Mundiwol tun bale yu. Your house shakes. Dimmiwol nan kaiw ot iang-ang ku ya wada on bulangon. The tree shook and when I looked, there was a monkey. Mundiwwolan nan bale dih kimmolyog. The house was shaking during the earthquake. muN‑/nuN‑ ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ ‑an.

Hagoho di hakdol di kakinadangyan a ritual to protect the health and wealth of a family. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony.)

hakit 1intrans. to have pain, emotionally or physically; to ache; to be hurt. Humakihakit di uluk nah himbatangan. My head aches every afternoon. Munhakit di uluk. My head is aching. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.5.6.1 - Pain.) 2trans. to feel bad emotionally; have ill feelings towards someone. Hakitok nan inat mun ha-oy. I feel bad about the thing you did to me. Dakol di hakihakitok ke he-a. I have a lot of hurt feelings toward you. Makahakkit di nomnom Malya te ittay di in-anamut da. Malya was very sad because there were only a few crabs which they took home. ‑on/‑in‑, maka‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.4.2 - Feel bad.) 3trans. for some part of the body to pain a person. Pumalak hin ihakit nah indani. He will moan later because of the pain. i‑/iN‑.

immakid (der. of akid) v. a sign or omen event that is the reason for not doing something planned or expected. Uggeyak imme nah pangayak te immakid di apgun nan manuk. I didn’t go where I had planned because the omen of the chicken’s gall bladder was bad. ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.6 - Prophecy.)

impaki- TACR. this prefix encodes past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or a group of objects. Impakidawat na nan papel nah basket. He received the paper inside the basket with the other. Impakiala da am-in nadan ngunut da ya limmu da. They got all of their household items and their property. Sim: paki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

iwal trans. to loosen by shaking, e.g. teeth, stones. Adika gumadigadit te maiwal nan tilya. Don’t be moving the whole time because the chair will become loose. Iwalom nan batu. Shake the stone loose. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

kabullaki nom. beauty of male; fairness of male; handsome male. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.8.1 - Beautiful.)

kay ta makiboklan nuwang (id. of bokla) We two are working hard for wages. (lit. It’s like we two are joining to work with a carabao.)

kiyaki intrans. 1to be itchy. Mungkiyaki ke ya gug-uwan. If it is itchy, scratch it. Kimmiyaki nan nabigi ya ugge na inilay atona. The spot which rubbed against the worm became itchy and he did not know what to do. Makiyaki tun odog ku. My back is itchy. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: gatol, ngatol. (sem. domains: 2.1.4 - Skin.) 2(fig) to have an intense desire to kill; itching to kill. Opya taku te mungkiyakiy taklena. Let’s keep quiet because his hand is itching (lit. wants) to kill somebody. general: The sentence example expresses something that might be whispered to another person when a person holding a knife or bolo is seen, and that person cannot be pacified. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.3.1.8 - Lust.)

kukak (sp. var. kokak) intrans. the croak of a frog. Mungkukak nadan bakbak nah wa-el The frogs in the creek are croaking. muN‑, ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 1.6.4.3 - Animal sounds.)

laki comm. a male quadruped; male animal. Nun-impa nan babuy ku ya oha ya abuy laki. My pig gave birth but there was only one male. Sim: bulug. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female.)

lakitdi adv. refers to a time duration, one condition or event will last as long as another that is specified.; as long as. Om, lakitdi waday yahyak ya hiya an Dios kuy dayawok. Yes, as long as I have breath, he is my God whom I will worship. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

lalaki comm. a human male; may refer to an adult male or child. Hana ken ong-ongal ya hidiyey appit di lalaki. The side with the bigger head is supposed to represent the man. Nan lalaki ya hi Luis ya hi Julie nan babai. Luis was the boy and Julie was the girl. Deket hanadan lalakiy kumayat on kay nakalakka. When the older boys were the ones who climbed, it seemed so easy. Syn: ginnid. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female.) der. makilalaki infl. linalaki

linalaki (infl. of lalaki) comm. the plural form of male. Nagibbu keh tuwe ya ahida naamung nadan linalaki iiban nan humagabi After this, the male relatives of those performing the Hagabi gather together Nakabbayuy numbayun nadan linalaki. Those boys pounded (rice) very well. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

Mabaki (der. of baki) 1prop. deified culture heroes who lived in the past and whose exploits are recounted in the Ifugao Hudhud epics. 2comm. the deities who are invoked and offered sacrifices in a ritual. Iniknogan da nadan mabaki. They offered meat sacrifices to the gods. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki: (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

mahakit di nomnom. (id. of nomnom) to have hurt feelings or to be troubled (lit. painful mind). Mahakit di nomnom na. She has hurt feelings.

mahakit di panibo (id. of tibo) to have the appearance of feeling hurt (lit. painful appearance). Mahakit di panibo. He looks as though he has hurt feelings.

maki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; the object referent is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Paddungnay naatu kan nakibuttikan hi tatagu mu ahi namam-a moy inatum ten makibuttikan kah kakabayu. (Jeremiah 12:5b) It’s like you were tired joining in racing people but you would be more tired if you joined in racing horses. Sim: maki-, naki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maki-₁ mod. this prefix encodes a participatory concept; it indicates that the agent subject is participating with others in an action or activity; non-past tense. Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Hinumang inada, “Te ume kayu moh iskul. Maki-e kan manong mu. Their mother answered, “Because you are going to school. You will go with your brother.” Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake to join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. Sim: naki-; Sim: maki- -an, naki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maki-₂ mod. (fig) this prefix encodes the meaning of being fond of the referent of the noun to which it is prefixed. Makibalat nan imbabalek. My child is very fond of bananas. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

maki-e (infl. of e) trans. to go with someone; to accompany someone. Maki-e ka manong mu. You will go with your brother. In-abulut da ot maki-eh Butale. They agreed that Butale could go with them. maki‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.)

makibabai (der. of babai) sta. refers to a man who is fond of the company of women, is attentive to them and may pursue them; may be considered a ladies’ man or a womanizer. maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.3.3 - Love.)

makibale (der. of bale) sta. to live with people who own a house. Makible dan dakayu te naghob nan abung da. They will live with you in your house because their house burned down. maki‑.

makibokla (der. of bokla) 1comm. a class of people who work; working class. Dakol day makibokla ad uwani mu maid di mangngunu. There are many workers now but there is no work. maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people.) 2intrans. to join in earning wages. Eyak makibokla ad baliwon. I am going to earn a living in the lowlands. maki‑.

makigubat (infl. of gub’at) intrans. to participate in armed conflict; join in fighting in a war. Man-uket takutan di Ippangyol nadan iKiangan ya natuled dan makigubat. The reason the Spaniards were afraid of the people of Kiangan is that they were brave to fight. Ot e makigubat da David ke dida. (2 Samuel 21:15b) And so David and his soldiers went to fight them. maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.3 - War.)

makiha-ad (infl. of ha-ad) trans. to live with someone. Maid di udum makiha-ad ke dakami. There was no one else who lived with us. Hi Talakka ya hiyah diye makiha-ad ke dakami. As for Talakka, she was the one who lived with us. maki‑. (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.)

makihal (der. of kihal) sta. to have a relapse in sickness. Adika ni-an mungngunu te makihal ka man. Do not work yet because you will certainly have a relapse. ma‑. Sim: gid’u, bognat. (sem. domains: 2.4 - Body condition.)

makiinhikkadan (id. of hikkad) sta. (fig) to be insistent; lit. to brace feet against the ground. Makiinhikkadan hi Juan. Juan is being insistent.

makilalaki (der. of lalaki) comm. to be fond of men; refers to a woman who pursues men; man chaser. maki‑.

makina comm. machine; engine. Napa-i nan makina nan tolak. The truck’s engine is destroyed. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: maquina.

makinlum nom. four little pigs given by the buyer as part of a contract between a buyer and seller.

makipatte (infl. of pate) intrans. to participate in a serious fight. Adika e makipatte te eka man ot maniboh kateyam. Do not be fighting with anyone because you will only be looking for your death. maki‑.

makitaguttagu (der. of tagu) sta. to live as a human. Takon di ma-ma-idan ta muden ta makitaguttagu ta. Even though we have nothing, we exist and live as people do. maki‑ CVCV‑ C‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

mumbaki (der. of baki) comm. traditional religious practitioners; those who perform the traditional religious rituals. Hi ke apun di ya ohan mumbaki. My grandfather was a traditional religious practitioner. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

mundakig (infl. of dakig) intrans. to close oneself in. Binoh-olan da ot e mundakig nah kuwarto. They scolded her so she closed herself inside the room muN‑/nuN‑.

naki- participatory. this prefix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; it cross-references the agent-subject; past tense. Hi Mariay nakiali ke ha-on. Maria came with me. Nakiatuwak damdama handih nakingunuwak. I was also tired when I joined in working. Nakitanom hi ama na ke dakami. His father joined in planting with us. Sim: maki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

naki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; past tense; cross-references the object referent. Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Sim: maki-, maki- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ngayo intrans. 1to headhunt; headhunter. [The civil government outlawed headhunting.] Kanan day mungngayo di Ipugaw. They say that the Ifugao are headhunters. muN‑. 2to go on a headhunting expedition; to join a headhunting expedition. Eda mungngayo ad baliwon di ammod handi. In the old days, our ancestors went to the lowlands to headhunt. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.1 - Kill.)

paki proc. for rice wine to become over-aged, rice wine that tastes sour or bitter; wine that has not been opened retains its original taste. [Old folks will drink it with red pepper and salt.] Pimmaki nan baya. The rice wine became aged and sour. Pumaki nan baya hin udman hi liting nan bubud. The rice wine will taste bitter if you add water to the fermented rice. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes.

paki- TACR. this prefix encodes a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or group of objects; non-past tense. Pakipaem hituwe ke ina. Could you send this to mother (include it along with other things)? Pakialiyom hi ina. Let mother come along (include her with others). Iha-ang mun tuwen dotag ya pakiha-ang mu nadan gunigunit. Cook this meat and cook it along with those bones. Pakiala day kinadangyan diyen boble. They will also get the wealth of that village. Sim: impaki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paki- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references a site-object. Pakidammuwak ke he-ah bigat. I will meet with you tomorrow. Ad Kiangan di ek pakitendaan. Kiangan is where I will also sell. Dahdi nan pakihumhumangan mu. Whom are you talking with. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paki- -on caus. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references a patient-object. Namam-a te kanan hanadan iibanay adida mo paki-ayon hi pidwana. What was even worse was her brothers told her that she could not come with them again. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

paki-ki-ayan (der. of e) trans. to interact with others. paki‑ki‑ ‑an.

pakid ( pakkid) 1) comm. a long stick with a hook at its end. Kapyaom pakid nan ohan hapang di kape. Make one of the coffee tree branches into a hook. [This type of stick is used for getting fruit from trees, it is used to pull a branch toward the picker.](sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2) trans. to hook with a stick. Pakidom din hapang din kape ta pugaon ta. Hook the branch of the coffee tree so we can gather its fruit. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

pakiukmun di dilak (id. of ukmun) an idiom meaning that the food is delicious (lit. my tongue will be swallowed with the food).

pangieyan (sp. var. pangiayan) (infl. of ie) trans. a place where something or someone is taken. Ad Lagawe di pangieyan yu nah mundogo. Lagawe is where you should take the sick person. pangi‑ ‑an.

pinhod kuy nakilut (id. of kilut) an idiom requesting rice wine (lit. I want murky liquid, i.e. sediment is stirred up).

Pong-a prop. a ritual performed to break a cousin relationship in order to marry. [Persons of consanguinity relations are prohibited from marrying because the marriage is considered incestuous. The relationship can be broken by this ritual in which a pig is butchered and eaten in a distant relative’s house. Then, the marriage can take place. This was primarily practiced by the wealthy who wanted to keep family property and possessions within the clan.] Nakikan hi Pong-a. He ate with others in a Pong-a ritual. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.)

takidil sta. to stay close to something or someone. Mitatakidil kan ha-oy. You are always standing close to me. Mitakidil kan ha-oy ta adi daka damaon hanadah u-unga. You stay close to me so those children won’t hurt you. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.2 - Near.)

takin trans. to bring along. Itakin mu nan otak mu. Bring along your machete. Muntaktakin kayuh otak ta punggaat yu. Bring along your machetes for cutting the grass. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: tabin, kawin. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

talakid 1comm. a woven cane grass mat placed under the granary or used when the floor of the house is the earth. Waday talakid nah alang an damanan ubunan. There is a woven cane grass mat at the granary that can be sat on. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to weave with strips of liana vine; to make a reed mat called talgan. Talakidom nadan paul ta kapyaon takun kultina. Weave the cane grass sticks so that we will use it for a curtain. Tinalakid an paul di kahuyopan mi. We slept on a reed mat. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 6.6.4.2 - Weaving baskets and mats.)

wakilat 1trans. to scatter, as in littering carelessly. Bimmoh-ol ot iwakilat na nadan ngunut hi bale da. He got angry and then scattered the things in their house. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: dulmun, galut, gam-ut. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.) 2intrans. to scatter things. Munwakilat ka ke ya hupliton daka. If you scatter things, I will whip you. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: wahit.

yaki intrans. to cough. [This type of cough is usually due to asthma or tuberculosis rather than a cold.] Munyakih apu. Grandfather is coughing. muN‑/nuN‑. 1E Physiological functions. Sim: tibi, ngiyo. (sem. domains: 2.5.6 - Symptom of disease.)

pakkid (pakid) trans. to hook the legs around something Pakkidom nan hapang ta adika mag-a. Hook your legs around the branch. Ipakpakkid din ungay hukina di hukin di lamesaan. The boy is hooking his legs around the table’s leg. Adik pinhod an makihuyop ke he-a te pumakkid ka. I do not like to sleep with you because you will hook your legs on me. Munpinnakkid dan mahuyop. They hook their legs around each other when they sleep. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ ‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.5.2.1 - Link, connect.)

abbat 1comm. a nearby place. 1.1comm. a nearby place of the same elevation as the reference point; neighborhood. Umeyak hidid abbat. I will go there (nearby place). Immeh abbat na. He went to the nearby place. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.2 - Near.) 2trans. to go to a particular or specified nearby place. Iabbat kuh balen da Kunde. I will go to Kundeh’s house. Tipet umanab-abbatan ka? Why are you going back and forth nearby. In-abat da nan bilau. The runos were taken nearby. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to go from one house to another; making the rounds of houses nearby. Mun-abbatanak hi balen di tutulang ku. I frequently go from one sister’s house to the others. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to go to or be at a nearby place. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngu bungubun mangabbat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices nearby. maN‑.

abono₁ 1intrans. to work without pay, free labor. Mun-abono kayu. You will work for free. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class . Sim: baddang, tulung, dang-a. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2trans. to pay for something for someone, making it free for them. [If the payment is offered without being requested, it will not be reimbursed.] Abonowam ta ahik bayadan. Pay for me and I will pay you later. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

ahihopnak (comp. of hopnak, ahi) nom. season for sowing rice seeds; making seed beds. Ahihopnak yaden ugge naaladu nan payo. It is the season to sow rice yet the field is not yet plowed. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ak-ak 1trans. to separate thread; pull apart without breaking as in separating thread; untangle. Ak-akom nan tinayum. Separate the threads of your weaving. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.) 2intrans. to separate the strands of thread, rope. Mun-ak-ak hi tulang na. Her sibling is separating thread. Umak-ak ka nah linubid. Unwind some strands from the rope. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

alamanu intrans. to shake hands in agreement. Nakialamanu dan dakamih pangipatib-an dan abuluton dakami. They shook hands with us to show that they accepted us. maki‑/naki‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.)

alluwang 1comm. culvert made of bamboo, fern trunk, or large palm trunks. 2trans. to make a channel for water by making culverts. Mangalluwang dah bigat te makleng di intanom da. They are going to get water tomorrow by making culverts because thier plants are almost withered. maN‑. Sim: tulaluk.

apo reiterate in speaking 1.1intrans. to tell, reiterate a story; to tell something several times; to reiterate out of anger or displeasure all the things one has done. [To reiterate can be considered either good or bad depending on the situation. It is sometimes used to make the hearer feel how indebted he is to the speaker.] Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. mun‑. Sim: duti. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.2.6 - Repeat.) 1.2trans. to say something in particular repeatedly In-apoaponay namaddanganan dakami. He reiterated all the help he gave us. i‑/iN‑.

ayyog intrans. to mumble. Mun-ayyog nadan am-ama. The old men are mumbling. general: This refers to louder mumbling than ayyong. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: goh-om, ayyong. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

baag 1trans. to belittle someone by making disparaging remarks. Ibaag daka hin adika mun-hannot hi bulwatim. They will make disparaging remarks if you don’t change your clothes. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to affect recipient. 2sta. refers to someone who is always making disparaging remarks. Ad-adiy eta makabbaag. It’s not good to be one who is always making disparaging remarks. Makabbaag boppo din baket. That old woman always makes disparaging remarks. maka‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

bah-ing sta. the sickness of a baki-priest caused by violating the rules for the performance of ceremonies [When performing baki ceremonies the baki priests are to refrain from eating certain legumes and shellfish.] Nabah-ingan hi Dulnuan te nunhidah bulligan ya itab. Dulnuan lost his power (baki power) because he ate 3-cornered beans and peas. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

bakle 1comm. rice cake or candy made of glutinous rice; usually made at the end of harvest during Thanksgiving celebration; wrapped and cooked in banana or rattan leaves. Pinay-an dah niyug nan binakle. They put coconut in the rice cake. Waday iggattang da nah Sabadu hi binakle. They sell rice cakes during Saturdays. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to make rice cakes. Mumbakle da hi bigat. They are going to make rice cakes tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use a specific kind of rice for making rice cakes. Ibakle da nan dayakkot. They are going to make rice cakes out of the glutinous rice. i‑/iN‑. 4participatory. to attend a harvest thanksgiving celebration. Etaku makibakle ad Nagakadan. We’ll go to Nagakadan to join the harvest thanksgiving. maki‑/naki‑. 5comm. a ritual celebrated at the end of rice harvest. Na keh ahibakle ya dakol di umalin bumaddang an mangapyah binakle ta nalutu ke ne waday punhahanggaan nadan nakibakle hi pun-am-amlongan da. When it is thanksgiving time, many come to help make rice cakes so that they will be cooked and presented for the happiness of those coming to join in the thanksgiving celebration. Sim: Alawag. comp. ahibakle der. mumbakle infl. binakle

banneeng intrans. to sleep with parents; children under 5 years old do not sleep separately. Ongal kamo kinali adika makibanneeng hi ammod mu. You are big now therefore you should not sleep with your parents. maki‑. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

bilau (sp. var. bilao) comm. arrow grass; runos; canegrass, used for staking plants and for fences. Adika ume nah mabilau te waday ulog. Do not go to the place with many runos because there are snakes. Sim: katlubung; Sim: paul. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

biling₁ comm. a game of flipping coins or cards. [Names regarding winner or loser depends on th picture on either side of the coin, e.g. a person or wing on the one centavo piece.] Naapputak nah biling. I was defeated in the heads or tails game. Mumbibiling nadan u-unga. The children are flipping cards. muN‑, maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.)

biyag 1comm. life. Pumhod di biyag hin waday dinol ke Apu Dios. Life will be better if we put our trust in God. Te mama-id key manuk ya hidiyey poppog di biyag nah punnomnom na. Because without chickens, he thinks that would be the end of his life. Sim: nitaguwan. 2sta. to be alive; to live. Mabiyag kaya nadan intanom mu. Those you planted will definitely live. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. 3nom. refers to making a living; supporting oneself and dependents. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. puN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. biyagon der. mabiyag der. mumbiyag

bohwang 1trans. to speak frankly; speak openly. Ibohwang ku mo nan podhok an kalyon ke he-a. I will frankly tell you now what I want to say to you. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2pass. to speak audibly and clearly; enunciated speech. Adi mibohwang di kalina te nakapuy. His speech is not audible because he is weak. mi‑/ni‑.

bokab’ok (sp. var. bokbok) trans. to debate seriously; to argue. Nganney ibokabok yu, ammod ku? What are you arguing about, my elders? i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.4 - Speak with others.)

bokla₂ 1trans. to work for wages or other needs. Boklaok nan ginawat kun boga. I will work for the rice I borrowed. Kaatnay binoklam nah em nakiboklaan? How much did you earn where you went to work (lit. joined in earning)? ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: ganal, tangdan, ngunu, suweldu. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2intrans. to join in earning. Eyak makibokla ad baliwon. I am going to earn a living in the lowlands. maki‑/naki‑. der. makibokla id. kay ta makiboklan nuwang

bola₁ 1comm. ball; anything round used as a ball. Makaddam-ot nan bola an nigyang ke ha-on. The ball that hit me was so heavy. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.) 2intrans. to play with a ball. Mumbola kayun Jose ta eyak munha-ang. Play ball with Jose while I go and cook (rice). Ayagam nan ibbayu ta makibola. Invite your friend to play ball with you. muN‑/nuN‑, maki‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

Bolnat prop. ritual for the taking of seedlings from the seedbed, November-December. Cal: Lukat, Pudung, Loka, Ugwid, Bolnat, Kulpi, Hagophop, Paad, Pokol, Ingngilin, Tuldag, Ponpon, Takdog, Kahiu, Hikgut, Apui. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

bolwa 1comm. a relatives’ share of the meat sacrificed during a ritual. [The share is proportionate to the proximity of kinship relations with the feast celebrant.] Sim: appit. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, 8.1.6.1 - Part.) 2trans. to share the meat sacrificed during a ritual. Bolwaon dah bigbigat nan nate. They will butcher animals to be shared by the relatives tomorrow. Hituwen dotag di binolwan amam. This meat is your father’s share. Bolwaon yu nan dotag ta mun-iingngo nah iibam. Share the meat so that your relatives will have equal shares. Nakibolwa te iibana dida. He got a share of meat because they are his kinsmen. ‑on/‑in‑, naki‑.

bulang 1comm. a cockfight. Waday bulang hi Sabadu. There will be a cockfight on Saturday. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2trans. cocks fighting. Mumbubulang da hi bigat. There is going to be a cockfight (lit. cocks will fight) tomorrow. Em ibulang tun baud ku. Take this cock to fight. E makibulang hi Sabadu nadan iMabbalat. Those from Mabbalat will go to the cockfight on Saturday. Bumobboh-ol hi Vicente te hinnatkon di nangibulang hi poltana nah bulangan. Vicente is very mad because somebody else had his cock fight in the cockpit. muN‑, i‑, maki‑, nangi‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. bulangan

bunut₁ comm. hairlike string from bangi palm, used for making raincape on the bango backpack. Bunut di ingkapya da nah bango. They placed bunut-mesh on the backpack. (sem. domains: 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.)

dalikan 1comm. hearth stones; fireplace, three stones set in a triangle to serve as the place for setting the cooking pot in a fireplace in an Ifugao house. Iphod mu nan dalikan ta adi katinnu-i. Fix the hearth stones so that they will not be unstable. (sem. domains: 5.5 - Fire.) 2trans. to use in making a hearth. Idalikan yu nadan muling. Make a hearth using the river stones. Tulun hintutulang nangdon tuh luta. (dalikan) (riddle) Three relatives hold earth. (hearth)(riddle) i‑/iN‑.

Dangli 1prop. a funeral ritual, generally performed by the wealthy, aristocratic Ifugao. pt: hablag. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2comm. animals butchered during a wake with baki funeral rituals. Nuwang di Danglin nan nate. A carabao is the animal butchered during the wake. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice.) 3trans. to provide sacrificial animals during the wake of a relative. Dangliyan dah inada. They will produce the necessary animals for the wake of their mother. Kababain mo ahan hin adika pakadanglin amam. It is particularly shameful if you cannot afford your father’s funeral ritual. (i.e. produce the minimum number of animals to be butchered) ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

dayakkot (sp. var. of dayyakot) 1) comm. rice, sticky variety; glutinous rice, used in rice cakes, candy and wine-making. Maid di dayakkot kinali uggeyak nungkail. There’s no sticky-rice, that’s why I did not make wine. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume... These are needed in the making of wine: ordinary-rice, glutinous-rice to be mixed with the ordinary rice... Syn: diket. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2) trans. to add or mix sticky rice. Dayakkotan yu nan boga ta yumam-o hin mihaang. Place some glutinous-rice in the regular-rice so it will be soft when cooked.

duhdu₁ comm. a chisel for making grooves in wood. [The chisel is three to four inches wide and 6 inches long with wooden handle.] Nan duhdu di numpaot na. He used the chisel for making grooves in carving. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.)

duti trans. to tell the same stories and events repeatedly. Idutidutinay numbaddanganan ha-on. She is always repeating stories about how she helped me. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: apo; Sim: dunge. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.2.6 - Repeat, 3.5.1 - Say.)

giman sta. to take a personal interest or show concern about something. Adika makigimgimman hitu. You have no business here. maki‑ CVC‑ ‑an. Sim: bibyang. (sem. domains: 3.4.1.4 - Interested.)

gopa₁ 1comm. a ritual speech performed by a rich man; the manner of speaking is rapid and continuous with a loud voice. Andukke di gopana. His speech is long. (sem. domains: 3.5.2 - Make speech.) 2intrans. refers to the rich man who performs the gopa speech. ‑um‑. infl. gumpah

gub’at 1comm. war; refers to a violent, armed conflict. [Within the history of Ifugao, this word when used alone usually refers to World War II.] Waday dawdawwatonah pensiyon te tindalu handih gubat. He is receiving a pension because he was a soldier during the war. Dakol di nate handih gubat. Many died during the war. Waday duwan gubat an impala-u taku mo. We have already experienced two wars. (lit. we have been caused to pass through) Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.) 2wage war. 2.1intrans. to wage war. Munggugubat da ad Vietnam. They are at war in Vietnam. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. the information focus is the people upon whom a war is being waged. Gubaton ditaku nadah gaga-ihoy nomnom da. The evil-minded will wage war on us. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.3trans. the information focus is on those who will be involved, i.e. participate in waging war. Inamung nan am-in nadan tatagunan damanan makigubat. He gathered all the people who could join in waging war. maki‑. der. mangubat infl. makigubat

hadak 1trans. to say something to clarify or to simplify; to speak truthfully. Ihadak muy ustu. Tell the truth. Haddakom nan intalum. Bring out what you have hidden. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: uh-u. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.) 2pass. what is being said is clear, understandable. Mihadak moy kalim gayam. I see, your talk is clear now. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.)

halud trans. to try to win the favor of someone of the opposite sex; to court someone; to woo a person. E makihalud hi Dominic ad Pico. Domimic is going to woo somebody in Pico. Haludom hi Talakka ot tobalon daka. Court Talakka and surely she will accept you. Hinalud na mu uggena timbal. He courted her but she did not accept his proposal. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑/naki‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

hamul 1comm. a feast. Waday hamul ad Tuplac te waday nunkasal hidi. There is a feast in Tuplac bcause there is a wedding there. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat, 4.2 - Social activity.) 2to participate in a feast. 2.1trans. to eat at a feast. [There are taboos about eating at certain types of feasts, e.g. a funeral feast of someone who has been killed by being stabbed.] Panion hamulon di nateh matadom. It is taboo to partake in the food when the person died from something sharp. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.2participatory. to join in feasting. Adiyak e makihamul. I will not go to the feast. maki‑/naki‑. 3continuous feasting. 3.1intrans. to feast continuously. Kabigabigat on nangin-innum da ya nunhahamul da nah muyung. Every day these men feast and drink in the forest. nuN‑ CV‑. 3.2caus. to be the one who gives a feast; cause people to feast. Mumpahamulak kinali umali kayuh ohhandi. I will sponsor a feast that is why you come the day after tomorrow. mumpa‑/numpa‑.

hanggik trans. to intimidate by scolding; to bully; loud disputation with mutual reproach. [Hanggik gives the idea that the one being scolded is smaller or weaker than the one scolding and so is intimidated; hong-ak is simply to scold in a loud voice.] Adim katog ihanggik nan ibam an babai. Have pity, don’t scold your sister. Nun-ihanggikak ke ina te hay nunhanggikak ke he-a. Mother had been scolding me because I bullied you. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: hong-ak, hingal, bugtak. (sem. domains: 4.8.4.1 - Rebuke.)

hannu 1comm. a dispute; a quarrel; a contention. Waday hannun da Tomas ke Pablu. Tomas and Pedro have a dispute. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.6 - Debate.) 2intrans. to have a disagreement that results in an argument. Munhannu da te hay payo. They quarrel because of ricefields. Tipet munhannu kayun hintulang? Why do you quarrel with your brother. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.6.2 - Quarrel.)

hapid 1comm. betel-pepper vine; leaves or the vine are used in chewing betelnut. [This vine is sturdy and climbs trees. People climb the trees to gather the leaves.] wh: mom-on; Sim: dalopdop, hinga, biyen. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2trans. to place or use betel-pepper leaves with other chew ingredients. Panapid mu nan kinayat tulang mu. Use the betel nut leaves that your brother climbed to get. Makihapidak aga. Please let me have a betel-pepper leaf. paN‑, maki‑.

haut 1trans. to deny or disclaim something, what is denied is cross-referenced. Ihaut na an hiyay nangako. He denies that he was the one who stole. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.3.2 - Tell a lie.) 2intrans. to deny or disclaim something. Tipet munhaut ka? Why do you deny it? Waday nangang-ang an hiya di nangako nah gawgawa yaden namahig di punhaut na. Someone saw him steal the duck yet he vehemently denies it. muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑.

higi trans. to winnow; to separate unhusked rice from husked rice, by shaking and moving the winnowing basket in a circular motion. Higiom ta tumapo day ota. Shake the container so that the unhusked rice will come to the top. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: yapyap, taop. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2.1 - Remove shell, skin.)

holyat 1comm. the wedding celebration final day, celebrated on the night of the uya-uy, following the gotad, may also refer to the last day of the hagabi celebration. Holyat hi Sabado. The holyat-celebration is on Saturday. wh: uya-uy. (sem. domains: 4.2.2 - Social event, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to celebrate the uya-uy marriage ceremony on the final night. Holyaton dah Sabado. They will have the celebration on Saturday. Etaku makiholyat. Let’s go join in the celebration. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑/naki‑. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

hong-ak trans. to reprove; scold someone harshly; a loud shouted rebuke or reproach; insulting profane talk. Adim ihong-ak nan golang te mungagayonggong. Do not reprove the child because he is trembling. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: hanggik, hingal, bugtak. (sem. domains: 4.8.4.1 - Rebuke.)

hud’ul trans. to report about someone, usually done secretly; the report may be something that one has heard and repeated to another party; to betray. Inihdul Judas hi Jesus. Judas betrayed Jesus. Deket tiempon di politika ya dakol di munhudul. In times of politics there are many betrayers. Adi maphod di eta munhudul. It is not good for one to betray others. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.7 - Betray.)

huggi intrans. to argue or fight with others. Munhuggi da bo nadan hintulang. The brothers are fighting again. Ag-agam ka! Makihuggi kah am-in. You are too much! You fight with everybody. muN‑/nuN‑, maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight.)

hugmuk trans. to spread something over an area, e.g. spreading binokbok 'yeast' in making rice wine. [In the case of spreading the binokbok yeast over the rice for rice wine, the yeast is first crushed in the hand.] Hugmukan apum tun mikail kinali em ayagan. Your grandfather will spread the yeast on the rice to be fermented; that's why you go and call him.. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.3.7.3 - Spread, smear.)

humang to answer or converse. 1.1to answer a comment or question. 1.1.1intrans. to answer; to reply. <The infix gives prominence to the action of answering.> Nomnomom on ahika himmumang. Think before you answer. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.5.1 - Answer, 3.5.1.5 - Ask.) 1.1.2trans. to answer. <The prefix cross-references the object, the words used to answer.> An hinaey ihumang mun ha-oy? Is that your answer to me? “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. “You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. “Om, mama” inhumang nadan iimbabalena. “Yes, mama,” the children answered. i‑/iN‑. 1.1.3trans. to answer someone. <The object is cross-referenced with either the person or his words having referential prominence.> Ek ot humangon mu uggek te tinibok an bimmoh-ol. I was about to answer him but I didn’t because I saw that he was angry. Humangom nan kinalina. Answer what he said. ‑on/‑in‑. 1.2trans. to converse; talk together; to make an agreement. Munhummangan kayu. You converse with each other. “Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami,” kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Nakihummangan hi uncle ot magibbuy nunhummanganan da ot tumayan kamih di. My uncle spoke to him about his woodcarvings and when they finished their conversation, we left there. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. Later on, he was approaching the er...creek, he saw...there were voices conversing. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an, maki‑ ‑an/naki‑ ‑an. infl. hummangan infl. munhuhummangan

hungngil trans. to contend with or resist; may refer to physical fighting between animals, but only words are used when contending with people. Maid di ohan tagun e makihungngil hi pinhod na ke hiya. No one can oppose what he wants (or him). Makihungngil nan babaih ina na. That woman is contending with her mother. maki‑/naki‑. (sem. domains: 4.1.6 - Disunity.)

huyye intrans. to lie down carelessly as when one is tired; sprawl out. Inhuyye na nah maholok. He laid down on the grass. general: Lambrecht in his Ifugaw-English dictionary defines this word as taking a squatting position. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 - Lie down.)

iken comm. nickname for an old man; folklore name; name of makibaki ‘one who performs rituals’. Timmatawah iken an hi Amtalao. Old man Amtalao laughed. (sem. domains: 9.7.1.6 - Nickname.)

imo 1trans. to forbid the eating of snails after a baki ritual. Iimon nan mumbaki di mangan hi battikul. The Ifugao shaman forbids eating snails. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2intrans. to abstain from eating certain food when certain rituals have been performed. Mun-imoh Dulnuan te numbaki. Dulnuan will not eat (snails) because he performed some rituals. muN‑/nuN‑.

innun advpred. the way of doing something; course of action or decision-making; the means for doing something. Maid innun an e mungngunu te maid di mun-adug. There’s no way to go and work because there is no one to babysit. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan-prayer for him. Hay nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. ‑an. Manner. Sim: aton. (sem. domains: 9.5.1.4 - Way, manner.)

itit intrans. squeaking sound of rats. Mun-itit nadan gando nah atop. The rats in the roof are squeaking muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: 1.6.4.3 - Animal sounds.)

iwang comm. refers to the period of ricefield preparation including weeding, making mulch mounds, mending dikes, spading and transplanting. [This period lasts 4-5 months.] Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

kabbaung comm. earthen substance used for making ceramic beads, e.g. attake necklace. (sem. domains: 8.3.6 - Made of, material.)

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: 3.5.3.1 - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.3.3.7 - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kan 1intrans. to eat, indefinite as to what is eaten. <This root is never used alone.> Mangan taku. Let’s eat. Hin-uddum an adika mangan. At times you don’t eat. Da Pedro ke Ben di nangan hanah inha-ang mu. It was Pedro and Ben who ate what you cooked. maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2to eat. 2.1trans. the food being eaten is specific and cross-referenced. Kanon yun am-in nan ginatang na. Eat everything he bought. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.2trans. to eat a specific food continuously; the food being eaten is cross-referenced. Kanokanona nan inhaad kun tinapay nah basket. He was always eating the bread I placed in the basket. Kanokanon nadan buding nan page. The birds keep eating the palay. ‑on/‑in‑ + CV(C)CV‑. 2.3intrans. to join in eating. Immali da ke nan imbabalek hi baleyu on nakikan da. Whenever my children go to your house they eat there. maki‑/naki‑. 2.4trans. indicates utensil used for eating. Hituwe nan nangikanan min duyu te teyay marka na. This is the plate we used for eating because here is the mark. mangi‑ ‑an/nangi‑ ‑an. 3nom. edible food, usually used for snack, fruit, bread, etc. Imme nah muyung ot e umalah makmakkan. He went to the forest to get some edible food. nganan der. makan der. panganan der. pinnangan id. kay hamutin mangan id. kay ka babuy an mangan id. kay munhabun mangan id. kay nanganan di ahuy nanganan yu id. kay nanganan di gulding id. kay nanganan di kabayu infl. ikan infl. mangan infl. pakan

katkat trans. to search through a pile or container, usually by taking out all the contents somewhat haphazardly. Katkatom nadan luput mu ta hamakom nan pihhu. Search through your pile of clothes and look for your money. Kinakat na nadan batu nah nagden tuping. He searched through the stones in the stonewall that collapsed. Nganney bo tuwaliy punkatkat mun nah? What are you searching for again? ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.6.1 - Search.)

keket intrans. to squeak; to produce squeaking sound, e.g. loose flooring, rubbing of tree branches, rusty hinges of doors and windows. Inumbun nah kama ya mungkeket te madam-ot. He sat on the bed and it squeaked because he is heavy. Kumeket tun bale hin kumolyog. The house will squeak if there is an earthquake. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

kiwang₁ comm. season of rice field preparation: weeding, making of mulch mounds, mending dikes, spading or plowing. [The season begins after the tungo rituals of June or early August.] (sem. domains: 8.4.1.5 - Season, 6.2.2 - Land preparation.)

konnat (sp. var. konna ket) adjunct. if such a thing were to happen; supposing that; to conjecture. Konnat ipatna yun idat yu athidin aggayam nah gobernador, kon umamlong ke dakayu weno kon edakayu baddangan? (Malachi 1:8b) Supposing you try to give an animal like that to the governor, would he be happy with you or would he help you? general: The sentence quotation from the book of the Bible, Malachi, is in the context of God speaking to the Israelites about their sacrificing of defective animals to him. Attitudinal. Sim: hin, deket, nu. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.)

kuhhukuhhu sta. 1to go en masse. Nakuhhukuhhu dan e nanibon meyor. They went en masse to see the mayor. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.5.4 - Move together.) 2to separate and regroup; refers to the breaking up or separating of a group participating in a ritual. [This is often related to the breaking up of the hapad ceremony in the uya-uy marriage ceremony. The group then goes en masse to a relative’s house for further drinking and dancing.] {hist}

kutikut₁ 1comm. an instrument used in making holes in betelnuts to get the inside part, usually a small knife or metal rod. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to drill hole in betelnut or wood. Kutikutom nan moma. Drill a hole in the betelnut. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.5 - Make hole, opening.)

kutyam trans. to whisper; to whisper to each other; refers to the unintelligible sound of loud whispering. Ikutyam mun hiya an umanamut taku. Whisper to him that we will go home. Mungkinnutyam da kinali uggek dingngol di pun-ibaga da. They were whispering to each other, that is why I did not hear what was said. i‑/iN‑, muN‑ ‑inn‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

lagat comm. the second juice of rice wine-making, sometimes thought of as the dregs. [After the first juice has been poured out, the fermented rice may still produce wine and it is called lagat.] Pinhod yun uminum hi lagat? Would you like to drink the second juice of the wine? (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

lait trans. to verbally abuse; to vilify; to utter slanderous things. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.8.2 - Insult.)

lal-a trans. 1to smooth the molded clay in the making of clay pots. Uggek inilan munlal-a. I don’t know how to smooth (a clay pot). muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2.5 - Make.) 2to smooth a surface with the use of sand paper; sand wooden surface. Lal-aom nan pinaot. Smooth the surface of the wood carving with sandpaper. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.5 - Rub.)

laliw intrans. the wish to go with someone you like, e.g. children who want to go with their parents wherever they go. Makilaliw hi Tony ken inana. Tony wants to go with his mother. Nalaliw tuwali. He has that characteristic of wanting to go with people. Adi mumpatibo hin umeka te milaliw bo. Do not show yourself to her when you leave because she will insist on tagging along. maki‑, mi‑, na‑. (sem. domains: 3.3 - Want.)

lamaw trans. to scald an animal by pouring or soaking in hot water to remove hair or feathers. Lamawon yu nan babuy te adida munhida hi nilagim. You remove the pigs hair by pouring hot water on it because they do not eat singed animals. Ilamaw mu nan manuk ta gagalan makaan di dutdut na. You soak the chicken in hot water to make it easier for the feathers to be removed. Malamaw di takem hin mih-up ka nah maatung an danum. Your hand will be scalded if you get it too close to the water. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. Sim: dulhukan. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2 - Steps in food preparation.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lanud trans. to include someone in an activity. Salamat te nakilanudak ke he-a nah meriendam. Thank you for including me in your snack-time. general: One speaker considered this to be a ritual word that is restricted in useage. maki‑/naki‑. Sim: laggat, gappat, hayyup, lak-am, sakup. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.7 - Crowd, group.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: ranud.

linas 1comm. string used as a guide; carpenter’s string, soaked in ink to line wood. Iupol mu nan linas hi tinta. Soak the carpenter's string in ink. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool, 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.) 2trans. to mark wood, making a line using an inked carpenter’s string. Linasam nan tabla ne ahim golgolon. Mark the board with a carpenter’s string before sawing. Munlinas dah talutu. They are lining the logs (by using the carpenter’s string). ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 6.6.3 - Working with wood.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

liwat 1comm. a sin, used in reference to the breaking or violating of God’s law. Adika pumate te liwat. Do not kill because it’s a sin. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.1 - Bad, immoral.) 2intrans. to commit sin. Ugge nunliwat kinali malinggop di nomnom na. He did not commit sin that is why he has peace of mind. Am-in ti tatagu ya naliwat da. All people have sinned. muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑.

Loka prop. ritual for taking the rice seed from the granary, October-November. Cal: Lukat, Pudung, Loka, Ugwid, Bolnat, Kulpi, Hagophop, Paad, Pokol, Ingngilin, Tuldag, Ponpon, Takdog, Kahiu, Hikgut, Apui. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

lokha trans. to detach by prying or breaking loose, e.g. walls, something nailed to a wall; to remove forcefully with hands. Lokhaom nan dingding nan balen di manuk. Pry loose the walls of the house of the chicken. Linokha da nadan atop di bale. They pried loose the roofing sheets of the house. Tibom ta adi malokha nan papel. See that the paper will not be detached. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2.4 - Remove, take apart.)

lophak 1comm. wake for the dead; vigil over a corpse. [The same term is used for the wake of exhumed bones during bogwa ritual.] Imme nah lophak ad Ambabag. He went to the wake in Ambabag. Sim: Bogwa, apuy, katlu. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.3 - Funeral.) 2intrans. to attend a wake. Eyak makilophak ad da-ul. I’m going to a wake down below. maki‑/naki‑.

lukut₂ trans. for those taking a corpse to the grave to stop by a relative’s house along the path to the grave; the people drink and then proceed. Punlukuton da nan nate hi balen da Juan. They will stop with the dead in the house of Juan. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.3 - Funeral, 2.6.6.5 - Bury.)

lumbang comm. a tree variety; one use of the lumber is in making footwear; the seeds cause drunkenness. Kinapya dan dulun did kubi nan lumbang. They made the lumbang-wood into the floor of a chicken coop. Sim: tupak. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

lunglung₁ comm. a plant gathered in clusters, used in making a ceremonial headdress. Umala kah lunglung ta kapyaon takuh kungkung. Get some lunglung-plants for us to make into a ceremonial headdress. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.)

luwa 1comm. tears. Maid di hilbin nan luwam. Your tears are useless. 2intrans. to shed tears with or without making sound. Munluluwa handi hinuplit da. He shed tears when they whipped him. Lumuwa te mahakit di nomnom na. He sheds tears because he feels bad. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.5 - Cry, tear.)

madhu 1v. to flock down towards an area. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Dingngol ken di taguy gangha on madmadhu da. When people heard the sound of gongs they flocked there. 2trans. to favor by taking sides. Antipe peman ta kadhuwan hi Aliguyun? (suppose Aliguyun and Guminigin are fighting and people take sides with Guminigin) Why are you all against Aliguyun?

mamiN- adj > advpred. this prefix encodes a non-past tense and multiplies by the number it is attached to making the adjectival cardinal number into a verbal form. <Derivation: The prefix derives an adverbial predicate from an adjective.> Oltom an munpalakpak ne inalam on espadat iwahiwam hi maminduwa weno mamintulu. (Ezekiel 21:14a) Shout as you clap your hands, then get a sword and wave it two or three times. Sim: namiN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

mangayyuding comm. black crow; eats corn by breaking off an ear and flying away with it; emits a wak-wak-wak sound. Kinan di mangayyuding nan inhabal kun gahhilang. The crows ate the corn I planted in the swidden-plot. Sim: ban’ug, halagma, butbut, gawwang; gen: gawwang. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.)

moma 1comm. betelnut and tree; areca palm. Daan di momam? Aga, ta mummoma ta. Where’s your betelnut? Come, let's chew. wh: mom-on; Spec: ballugu. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2trans. to chew betelnut; to chew betelnut with others is to socialize. An mummoma ka? Are you chewing betelnut? Mimma mi nan moma nah libbutan. We chewed the betelnuts in the bag. Makimma ka nadah tatagu nah malkadu. Chew betelnut with the people in the market. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑/naki‑. (sem. domains: 4.2 - Social activity.) 3comm. a riddle, the answer is betelnut because the ingredients for a chew number three. Nan tulu o opat an hin-aagi an hinumgup na liyang andanit bimmudo da ya maingit da. (moma) Three brothers or sisters that entered a cave, and came out red. (betelnut) der. kimma der. mom-on id. Daan di momam?

motwa trans. to look at; to behold. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Motwaom key adol na! Just look at her body! Dakol day e makimotwah binlan Bugan. Many went to behold the beauty of Bugan. ‑on, maki‑.

mumbakle (der. of bakle) 1intrans. to make rice cakes during the harvest thanksgiving. Mumbakle da hi bigat. They are going to make rice cakes tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. 2trans. to use specific rice for making cakes. Ibakle da nan dayakkot. They are going to make rice cakes out of the glutinous rice. i‑/iN‑.

mumbohat (infl. of bohat) ref. for an animal to free itself by breaking the leash or tethering rope. Mumbohat nan kabayu hin gayangon yu. The horse will free itself by breaking its tether if you stone it. muN‑/nuN‑.

mungkohat (infl. of kohat) ref. to free oneself by breaking a leash or tethering rope. Nungkohat nan baka ot kanona nadan bulhe. The cow broke its tethering rope and ate the beans. Nungkohat nan ahu. The dog freed itself by breaking its leash. muN‑/nuN‑.

munlabi (der. of labi) nom. a metaphorical name used for an unidentified spirit; it is believed that the mibakiyan spirit goes around with a dog at night time; when heard in a vicinity, the tona-an di munlabi ritual is performed to avoid death. muN‑. n. ph. Tona-an di munlabi

munlapu (der. of lapu) nom. the village leader who announces the obligatory rest day following certain traditional religious rituals; the village leader is usually both kadangyan ‘rich’ and a mumbaki ‘shaman’; this leader also has the responsibility for starting all seasonal work in the ricefields.

namiN- MATH. the prefix encodes a past tense and multiplies by the number to which it is attached, making the cardinal number a verbal form. Handih nungkih-up da ya nunyuung hi namimpitu. When they neared, they bowed down seven times. Sim: mamiN-.

nangamung₂ 1advpred. to be responsible for something. Adi kayu madanagan, ha-oy di nangamung. Don’t worry, I’m the one responsible. Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back (be responsible) and he should let me know. Manner. Sim: uk’od. 2trans. to be responsible for accomplishing something, even if it requires taking a risk. Inangamungan day nitaguwan da takon naligatan da. They are responsible for their own lives, even if they are hardshipped. i‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.)

nengneng sta. to be slow in thinking; to lack judgment in making decisions; stupid. Deke on anusam di kinanengneng na. Be more patient with his stupidity. na‑, kina‑. Sim: ung-ung, gunggung; Sim: tabbed; Syn: gunggung. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.4 - Stupid.) languageOfBorrowing: Ilocano.

ngina₁ 1sta. to be expensive; to have a high price. Nguminay bulhe te o-oha. Beans will become expensive because there are few. Nanginay igattang dan abono. The fertilizer they are selling is expensive. Nakanginay migattang ad uwani. What is sold is very expensive now. na‑, ‑um/‑imm‑‑, naka‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.9 - Value.) 2trans. to increase the price of something, making it expensive. Inginanay igattang dan boga. He will increase the price of the rice they are selling. i‑/iN‑. id. nanginay imi na.

palut trans. to mix a liquid with powder as in baking, making dough; to mix water with powdered rice for making rice cakes. Palutom nan binakle hi liting. Mix the powdered rice with the water. Mumpalut dah binakle. They are mixing the powdered rice with water. Ingkamo da nan asukal nah liting ne ahida bo impalut nah binakle. They mixed the sugar with the water then mixed it again with the powdered rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑.

pe₂ adjunct. adds a courteous non-dogmatic tone to making a statement or giving an opinion. Kanak pey kay tubung, mu dumangdang met. As for me, I say it’s like a tube, but it can give heat. Interpersonal. comp. deke pe nin ta comp. mampe

politiko intrans. to be political; pertaining to government affairs or politics. Makipolitika day tatagud Kiangan. People in Kiangan involve themselves in politics. maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.6.6.5 - Politics.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

pula comm. a reddish, brown soil for making pots; clay. Adi tumaguy nitanom te pula nan luta. The plants can’t thrive because the soil is red clay. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.)

puut comm. a very knowledgeable shaman who knows every baki ritual. Hi Guinnilig ad Ambabag di ohan mumpuut. Guinniling in Ambabag is one of the knowledgeable ritual priests. muN‑. der. mumpuut

sini 1comm. a movie; a motion picture. Maphod nan sini an eda inang-ang. The movie they saw was good. Pinhod mu ke bon mun-ang-ang hi sini ya dakol di damanah pangayam. If you want to see a movie, there are many places you can go. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to join in watching a movie. Eyak makisini hi hilong. I will go and watch a movie tonight. maki‑/naki‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: cine. der. siniyan

tab-un trans. to cover grasses or rice stalks with dirt or leaves for the purpose of making compost to be used as fertilizer. Tab-unam hi luta nan holok ta mabuluk. Cover the grass with soil so it will rot. Itab-un mu nan dagamih na ta ahim itanom amput. You bury the rice stalks in the soil before you plant the garlic. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. Sim: tabab. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

tanok trans. to soften by cooking or soaking, particularly related to vegetables. Tanokom nan kolet ta ahim banowon. Cook the cabbage until it is soft and then dish it out. Matanok di punha-ang di iin-ina. Old women cook vegetables to be soft. Nakatannok nan kolet. The cabbage was over-cooked. Tanokom nan buttata te hidiyey pinhod ina. Cook the cabbage until it is soft because that is what mother prefers. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑, naka‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.)

tibo (sp. var. tigo) 1to see. 1.1trans. to see or look at something. Tinibona. He saw it. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice. Iwingim ad Lagawe ta tibom an waday dilag da. Turn your head towards Lagawe and see whether they have lights. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: buya, ang-ang; spec: tokkol. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2trans. to search, looking for something. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ke tuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Manibo dah ohan magangan ongngal an kaiw They search for a large, hard-wood tree maN‑/naN‑. 1.3trans. to look toward a particular place. Itibom hitu. Look this way. Intibon ama nah pottok nan pumpangituludan dan hiya. My father looked in the direction where they were pushing him. i‑/iN‑ . 2trans. to watch over more than one object. Pakitibom tun basket ku. Watch my basket (along with yours). paki‑. 3caus. to cause something to be seen; to show something. Ipatibom. Show it. (lit. cause it to be seen) ipa‑/impa‑. 4pass. something can be seen very clearly; obvious. Hay bahul mu ya makattibo. Your fault can be clearly seen. makaC‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.3.1 - Known, unknown.) der. kitib-anan id. mahakit di panibo infl. makattibo infl. manibo infl. matibo

tobayan comm. a spinning tool for making thread. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.)

tukuk 1to shout. 1.1intrans. to speak with a loud cry or call; to shout usually because of fear or drunkenness, but may also be done to make oneself heard. Muntutukuk da nan tatagu te mungkapuulan di babale da. The people are shouting because their houses are burning. Muntukuk hi Daulayan te timmakut nah ongal an puha. Daulayan is shouting because he was frightened by the big cat. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: tudodan. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.1.1 - Shout.) 1.2intrans. to call loudly once; to give a single shout. Tumukutukuk nan nabutong. The drunk keeps shouting. Tumkuk man hin ipatibom ke hiya nan bigi. She will surely shout if you show her the worm. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2D Vocal sounds, expressing feeling. 2to shout at. 2.1trans. to shout at someone; the person being shouted at is highlighted by the affix. Tukukam nadan u-unga ta adida mun-ay-ayyam nah payo. Shout at the kids so that they will not play in the field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to shout in order to make oneself heard; to relay a message to people within a cluster of houses or even the next village by shouting, e.g. rest day, the first thunder, etc.; the message itself is prominent rather than the loudness of the shout. [Ifugao houses were built in clusters around their fields.] Initkuk dan tungo ad uwani kinali umeyak hi habal. They shouted a message that it is a rest day today so I am going to the swidden plot. Nagibbuy programa ot waday nangitkuk hi daanay epangenan di tatagu. After the program, someone shouted out the places where the different groups will eat their lunch. i‑/ini‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3trans. to cry loudly in a manner that resembles shouting. Itkuk nay koga na. He is crying loudly. i‑/iN‑. 4comm. a loud cry or call ; a shout. Madngol nah bobley tukuk na handi natalak nah muyung. His shout could be heard in the village when he got lost in the forest. Sim: ingal.

tukyang comm. a frog species, very small; cannot really jump making it a snake’s favorite dish. Kinan nan ulog nan tukyang kinali waday mun-itit nah makape. The snake ate the tukyang-frog that is why there is a hissing sound among the coffee plants. Sim: tukak, kuty’ang. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.4 - Amphibian.)

tulpuk comm. 1flour resulting from pounding rice for making rice cakes, has no moisture. Nal-ot di pumbayu da kinali dakol di tulpuk nan mibakle. There is a lot of powder in the rice they are pounding for rice cakes because they pound it strongly. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2refers to flying dust or powder. Imbukat na nan liblu ya dakol di tulpuk. He opened the window and dust flew about.

tupak₁ comm. a tree variety; the lumber is used in making footwear; the seeds cause drunkeness. [The Ifugao originally did not wear footwear.] Bumutong di buwan di tupak. The seeds of the tupak-tree casue drunkeness. Sim: lumbang. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

ubbu 1comm. a work-sharing system. Ad uwani di ubbu da. Today is their share-work. Sim: ammung, bokla, kalu. (sem. domains: 4.2.1 - Come together, form a group.) 2trans. to pool resources for someone. Ubbuwon da hi Juan ad uwani. They will share their resources for Juan today. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑, paki‑ ‑on. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 4.1.2.1 - Working relationship.) 3intrans. to do share work; take turns in helping each other in farm work. Mun-ubbu da ama nah payon Bugan. My father and the rest are doing share-work in Bugan’s field. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.6 - Participate.) 4v. to join others in working; usually means taking turns in working in each other’s rice fields. Pinhod mun makiubbu? Do you want to join in share-working? Pakiubuwom nan imbabalem. Have your son join in share-working. maki‑/naki‑, paki‑ ‑on. der. mun-uubbu

udum₁ trans. 1to add condiments or other food to what is being cooked. Ta mamangulun ipulitu ta deket nage-geengngan hi ittay ne inid-um di amput ya danggu And fry first until it is brown and add garlic and onions. Ne inid-um di sagpaw an tinapa weno sardinas. Then, add tinapa or sardines. i‑/ini‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it with something else. 2to increase; to add to; to include. <Morphology: The maki- prefix expresses a participatory activity; the reduplication expresses the habitual aspect> Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye.. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon otyaabu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he loses it. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. i/iN, an/in‑ ‑an, maki CV(C). (sem. domains: 8.1.4.2 - Increase.) der. hin-uddum infl. mid-uman

ula trans. to wash, e.g. hands, feet, dishes, other parts of the body. Ulaham nan puyok hi hukim. Wash the mud off your feet. Mun-ula ka. You wash (your hands). Mangula kah duyu. Wash some of the dishes. Pakiulam di taklen tulang mu. Wash the hands of your sisters also. Iulam nan hinagob ku. Use the water I got for your washing needs. ‑an,/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, paki‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 5.6 - Cleaning.)

utut₂ 1comm. the normal sound of breaking wind; fart. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions, 2.3.2.2 - Sound.) 2intrans. to expel intestinal gas; to break air. Umtut ka ke ya ume kad dola. If you break air, go outside. Mun-uutut yaden taganah kakan. He is farting while he is eating. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. 3trans. to expel gas with a site-object cross-referenced by the affix. Ume-ele kah na te tumaddog ke man ya ututan daka. Move away from there because if he stands he will fart on you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

bak’uy₁ trans. to bend something. Bakuyon da nan gulipu ta umeh baleda. They will bend the pipe so it will go to their house. Bumakuy ka nah gumok. Bend some of the iron bars. Nabakuy di gaud na. His spade is bent/crooked. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: yaku, baking, banguy, killu. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

bakne trans. to lie down. Ibaknem nah daulon. Lie down under the house. Mibakne ka hin ad-adiy gibok mu. Lie down if you’re not feeling well. i‑/iN‑, mi‑. 3I Direct action toward object. Sim: bakilang, puku, baktad; Syn: idda. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 - Lie down.)

baktad trans. to lie down, Imme an bumaktad te nundogo. She went to lie down because she is sick. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: bakilang, bakne, puku. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 - Lie down.)

banguy sta. for something to be bent. Nabanguy ik-ikingngan ku. My little finger is bent. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: bak’uy, yaku, baking, killu. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.5 - Bend.)

bognat sta. to experience a relapse after sickness. Adika e mungngunu te mabognat ka man. Do not go to work because you might have a relapse. Adika ni-an mumbalbal te mabognat ka te kattungom. Do not wash clothes yet because you just gave birth and you will have a relapse. ma‑. Sim: gid’u, makihal. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

bulug comm. 1male carabao; bull carabao. Gumattang keh naen tagu hi nuwang on bulug di gatangona. Whenever that person buys a carabao, he buys a male. Sim: laki. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2(fig) a stocky male person. Ipipah-on yun hiya nan bulhe takon ot bulug. Let him carry the beans anyway he is stocky. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big.)

dulmun 1comm. refers to things lying about in disorder; discarded things; litter. Higidom din dulmun. Sweep away that litter. Sim: galut, gam-ut, wakilat. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.) 2intrans. to litter. Adi kayu mundulmun. Don’t be littering. muN‑/nuN‑.

galut any type of litter. Sim: dulmun, gam-ut, wakilat.

gam-ut 1comm. litter. Sim: dulmun, galut, wakilat. (sem. domains: 5.6.1 - Clean, dirty.) 2intrans. to scatter dirt or litter. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.)

gatol intrans. to feel an itchy sensation on mucous membranes or skin causing a desire to rub or scratch. Munggatol nan kinan min pihing. The pihing-vegetable we ate is itchy in my throat. Gimmatol di odog na te nabubudu. His back became itchy because of the nettles. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. Sim: kiyaki, ngatol. (sem. domains: 2.3.5 - Sense of touch.)

gid’u sta. to have a relapse when sick; to feel weak and dizzy. Adika ni-an mungngunu te magidu ka man. Do not work yet because you might have a relapse. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: bognat, makihal. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

ginnid comm. a male person. Restrictions: Hudhud epics and songs.. Ginnid di imbabalena. Her child is a boy. Syn: lalaki. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female.)

guwapu adj. handsome; good-looking man. Guwapu nan inayan Maria. Maria’s husband is good-looking. Qualifier. Sim: bullaki. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.8.1 - Beautiful.)

hogat 1comm. the heartwood of a tree; the core wood of a tree. Magangah tuwen kaiw te waday hogat na. This tree is hard because it has heartwood. Sim: balakibak. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2comm. may refer to the annual rings of a tree. 3sta. a matured tree; it has heartwood, meaning it can be made into lumber. Nahgatan nan udyo kinali lingngo da. The mahogany tree is matured, that is why they cut it down for lumber. ma‑‑an/na‑‑an. id. nahgatan

kawin trans. to take along someone or something. Ikawkawin daka ad Lagawe hi bigat. I will take you along to Lagawe tomorrow. Mikawkawin hidiyen ungan inana. That child is always with her mother (lit. continually taken along). i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3F Move something alond with oneself. Sim: tabin, takin. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.)

killu 1intrans. to curve or be curved, e.g. a road. Nungkillukilluy dalan taku. Our road is curving. Nakillu nan kalata. The road is curved. Adi makillukillu nan kalata. The road is not curving. muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: bak’uy, yaku, baking, banguy. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.5 - Bend.) 2trans. to bend something with the resulting appearance of being curved. Killuwom nan gulipu. Bend the pipe. Makillu nan gulipu hin tumaddog kah na. The pipe will be bent if you stand there. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ngatol intrans. to be itchy; itchiness caused by certain plants, especially taro sap. Mungngatol di aba. The taro causes itchiness (when the sap touches the skin). muN‑. Sim: kiyaki, gatol. (sem. domains: 2.5.2.2 - Skin disease.)

ngiyo₁ 1comm. refers to a lung disease such as tuberculosis or asthma; the main meaning component relates to having breathing problems. Wady dogonan ngiyo. She is sick with asthma. Sim: tibi, yaki. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.) 2intrans. to have breathing difficulty, such as episodes of asthma. Waday imbabaleyok an mungngiyo. I have a niece who has asthma. muN‑/nuN‑.

puku intrans. 1to lie or sit down curled up with knees close to chest. Mumpuku day aam-ama te maktol da. Old men lie curled up because they are cold. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: bakilang, bakne, baktad. (sem. domains: 7.1 - Posture.) 2to sit with hands covering the head which is bent down toward knees; to cower; to cringe.

tabin trans. to take something with one in whatever direction one is going. Ahim itabin nan uppig mun napnuh tabaku. Take your rattan purse filled with tobacco. Itanabtabin mu tun hakbat mu yaden ma-ma-id di mihudu. You always take your backpack but it’s always empty. i‑/iN‑. Sim: kawin, takin. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

tibi₁ 1comm. tuberculosis. Waday tibi nan kinali athidy uk-uk na. He has tuberculosis, that is why his cough is like that. Sim: ngiyo, yaki. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.) 2intrans. to be sick with tuberculosis. Muntibi yaden taganah lukut. He is sick with tuberculosis yet he keeps on smoking. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: T.B. tuberculosis.

wahit trans. 1to scatter or spread something deliberately. Adiyu iwahit nadan papel nah ubunan. Do not scatter the papers on the chair. Mun-wahit da bo nadan imbabalem nah dola. Your children are scattering things in the yard again. Miwahit nadan papel hin dumibdib. The papers will be strewn if the wind blows. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: wakilat. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.) 2to scatter something with the site prominent and cross-referenced by the affix. Wahitam nan dayakkot hi asukal. Spread sugar on the glutinous-rice. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

yaku 1trans. to bend hard objects like nails, wire, steel bars. Yakuwom nan baddong. Bend the wire. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: bak’uy, baking, banguy, killu. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 2pass. for something to be bent. Nayaku nan baddong. The wire is bent. ma‑/na‑.

Bag’ol 1prop. the Ifugao gods, deities and spirits in general; many sub-classes exist. Deket mumbaki da ya idawatan da nadan bagol hi babuy. If they perform the baki they sacrifice pigs to the gods. Idawat da nadah bagol di kalyon da nah pumbakiyan da. They offer the gods what they say in their rituals. Tobotbalona diday bagol ya aammod ta dumalay-up da. He is invoking the gods and his ancestors so that they will bless (him). (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2intrans. to perform the bagol ritual. Mumbagol da te mundogoh amana. They are performing the bagol ritual because his father is sick. muN‑/nuN‑. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture) der. mumbagol n. ph. hambal di Bagol

dintagan (dotag) comm. refers to meat. Restrictions: ritual word. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

dumalay-up intrans. come near or approach. Restrictions: Ritual word. Syn: mih-up. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

ginumta trans. 1for a spirit to have bitten someone to indicate a need [This word is related to rituals, usually involving a sacrifice, that are intended to counteract events caused by the bite of a spirit.] {ritual} Syn: kimmalat. 2to have caused something. {ritual} Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

Halupe prop. a class of gods that charm and are persuasive; believed to be friends of men and therefore, are thought of as being capable of mediating between men and other gods. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

makalun comm. a messenger to and from the gods and spirits. {ritual} (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki. Makalun di Bagol

Makalun di Bagol (makalun) prop. messenger gods, a class of gods thought to be messengers of other gods. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

Maknongan₂ (der. of konong) comm. a class of gods in the traditional religion that deserve sacrifices and offerings. [Usually thought of as the gods of reproduction; the Supreme God, a concept accepted by the Ifugao following the introduction of Christianity.] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Mana-haut prop. a class of gods that are believed to be deceivers. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Matungulan prop. this name refers to a class of Bagol gods that require offerings to pay them so that they will not bring evil or sickness; gods to be appeased. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

mina-iho (sp. var. na-iho) comm. ritual language for referring to anything evil or bad; may be related to the common language word gaga-iho. Restrictions: ritual word. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.1 - Bad.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

Mun-anup an Bakbakayyawon prop. a class of gods that are believed to hunt for men’s souls. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Ritiuals for Man and Rice Culture)

Mungkontad di Bagol prop. a class of supernatural beings who are thought to be the messengers of other gods in the traditional religion; they are believed to appear in dreams with messages from the gods; they are invoked in rituals as messengers and mediators. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Nabugbugan di Ido prop. a class of gods that are considered to be very evil by the Ifugao. Syn: Nangga Ido. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Nambal hi Bagol prop. deified men and women from whom the gods appeared to demand recognition; those who received the gods. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Nangga Ido prop. a class of gods that are considered to be very evil by the Ifugao. Syn: Nabugbugan di Ido. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) Loudes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

Nungkutu prop. the name given to those who taught the Ifugao their religious rituals, particularly those related to the rice agricultural rites and rituals. Loudes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture)

tuntun trans. to elicit truth, a word used in religious rituals; the ancestors determine among themselves who is responsible for causing sickness among the living. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Riituals for Man and Rice Culture)

‑an‑ asp. this infix encodes an aspect that expresses the concept of an action done repeatedly; frequently; iterative; co-occurs with punctiliar aspect affixes. Kumanoga din golang. The child is always crying. Nala-uy opat an oras hi nakihanummanganan da ya numpahpahmokan da nah bibiyo. Four hours passed while they negotiated and pleaded again and again with the ‘bibiyo’. Umanay-ayyam da nah dalan. They always play on the path. Mahanilngan nah dalan. Night always overtakes him on the road. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes, 8.1.1.3 - Number of times.)

‑an₁ dervN. this suffix derives a noun from a transitive verb. Ekami makidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go and meet them in Lagawe because their arrival place is definitely there. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. Nagibbu ke, ikuyag mu tun nabinokbokan hi lopohhan ya ihukbung mu. After this, pour the rice into the fermentation container (lit. place of fermentation) and cover. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat.

‑on TACR. 1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on

abunadi (comp. of abuna) advpred. a compound that expresses the idea that time and effort have been invested in accomplishing a task with little or no result; enough already, don’t bother with more effort. Abunadi ya mun-oonan. Don’t bother anymore, it’s just taking up space. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

adal trans. to learn; generally refers to a formal mode of learning rather than the traditional mentoring or modeling mode. Adalom an munha-ang. You should learn to cook. Mun-an-anlah inadan nangngol an dakol di inadal da. Their mother was happy to hear that they had learned so much. Man-uke kanak hidiye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.2.2 - Learn.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: aral. infl. adalon infl. maadal infl. naadalan

adalon (infl. of adal) trans. to learn something in particular. Man-uke kanak kediye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.2 - Learn.)

aday interj. the expression of sudden or acute pain. Mibakilang kanuh Abe nah alak ot kanana kanuy “Aday, aday, aday, aday. According to Abe, he lay down in the ditch and he said “Ow, ow, ow, ow.” Aday, nan hukik. Ouch, my foot. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

adin-abu (comp. of abu, adi) advpred. to the greatest degree, describing only negative circumstances; very; extremely. <Morphology: abu as a compound with the negative, adi, takes the maximizing absolutive of abu and adds a negative extremity notion and functions as a predication.> Adin-abuy hakit tun nag-od. My cut is unbearably painful. Adin-abuy paminhod nan hiya. She loves him very much. Modality - Intensive. (sem. domains: 9.3.1.3 - To a larger degree.)

adol comm. 1physical body with all its parts. Mahakit di adol ku. My body aches. Oha bo ya mahmok di adol. One more thing is that you should pity your body. Indani ya magibok nan mahakit am-in di adol na, ya nakakkaktol. Later, he felt pain all over his body and he began to feel the cold. Sim: kaha. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2trunk of tree. Nadunut di adol nan akasya. The trunk of the acacia tree is rotten. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was big so I had to hang from a branch. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) der. nangadol

ag’a adjunct. 1a polite expression; please; excuse me. {This is a polite expression that can be used to soften a request or demand; also, it can be used to excuse oneself from an event or communication situation.} Idat yu agah tuwe ke Maria? Will you please give this to Maria? Agak, apapon daka? Agam, ten pinhod mu. Shall I go ahead and slap you? Go ahead, if it pleases you. Aga ta mangmangngeyak pe. Excuse me, I’m going ahead. Agat ek aton hanan ngunuk ta magibbu. Excuse me, I will go to finish my work so that it will be done. Aga, nangamung boh pidwana. There now, till next time. Aga, di inalam ad Manila. Please (let me see) what you got in Manila. Aga ke ta ha-oy di muntudok. Move away so I’ll (be the one) to write. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.) 2expression that means to go ahead and do something or continue action. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. Agam, deket pinhod mun makie ya mundadaan kah pihhum ta deke ya imme ta. Go ahead. If you want to join in going, save your money so that we can go. (sem. domains: 3.5 - Communication.) der. agannat

ahi₁ 1asp. future time aspect verb auxiliary when co-occurring with a non-past tense verb; there is also a modal component, i.e. a determination or an intention to act or a certainty that something will happen component. {This form is used primarily in clauses expressing time sequences having purpose or prediction.} <This form occurs before the verb; pronouns become enclitics> Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaippaptok am-in. Perhaps the next time, it will be well-planned. Ahitaku bo ume. We shall go again. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangmung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2asp. encodes a sequential aspect of events encoded in the verbs when co-occurring with past tense verbs; before. <Occurs preceding the second event verb in a sentence.> Ne dinanuman ta ingganay lumuwag ya ahi inha-ad nadan udum an midum. Then, add water and bring to boil before adding the other ingredients. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It is night before it comes out to fly around. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a pagan priest has to perform a ritual to make him well (before he will be well). comp. ta ahi

ahigaud (comp. of gaud, ahi) nom. a phase of the agricultural cycle; plowing of ricefields to prepare for planting; the plowing is done by hand using wooden spades. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahigaud. The men have much work during the plowing season. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahilai (comp. of lai, ahi) season for the removing of the old leaves of rice plants. nom. season for removing old leaves of rice plants. Munbaki da te ahilai. They are performing the ritual because it is the season for removing the old leaves. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language.

ak’i comm. little girl; child, used as vocative. [It is used when addressing a little girl who is closely related or one who is very dear to the speaker.] Makakeh tu aki. Come here, dear little girl. Aki, adika kumga. Child, do not cry. Sim: i-inggi. (sem. domains: 2.6.4.2 - Child.)

akaw adjunct. expression of dismay or disappointment; good grief; oh no. Eka ke ibagan Sakai hin mabalin an makilugan takuh kotsa da. Akaw, adiyak te bumainak. Would you go and ask Sakai if we can ride with him in his car? Oh no, I will not because I would be embarassed. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ako trans. 1to steal something from someone. Adiyu akawon nan manuk. Don’t steal the chicken. Eda immakoh mahapul da. They went to steal some of their necessities. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring something toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.8.9.1 - Steal.) 2the person who steals; the thief is cross-referenced by the affix. Inakhupan Santiago nan lalakin e nangako nadah manuk na. Santiago caught the man who stole his chicken. Hiya ya mangakon unga. He is a child who steals. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mangako

alak 1comm. irrigation canal. Maid di liting nah alak. There’s no water in the irrigation canal. Mibakilang kanuh Abe nah alak ot kanana kanuy “Aday, aday, aday, aday. According to him, he lay down in the ditch and he said “Ow, ow, ow, ow.” Sim: paluk, boy’a, kanal. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) 2trans. to build an irrigation ditch. <With this affixation the agent-subject is fronted and cross-referenced.> Hi Jose di mangalak hitu. Jose wil build the canal here. maN‑/naN‑. der. mangalak

alangngaang comm. throat; esophagus. Makakakiyakiy alangnga-ang ku. My throat is very itchy. Mahakit tun alangnga-ang ku. My throat is painful. (sem. domains: 2.1.1.4 - Mouth.)

alawa trans. 1to meet an omen bird on the way; the bird crosses over the path. Inalawan nan pitpit ot ibangngad na. He met an omen-bird so he returned. Uggeyak imme ad Bilong te inalawaak hi ido. I did not go to Bilong because the omen-bird crossed my path. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.7 - Omen, divination.) 2to cross someone’s path; to meet someone on the road who stops you from going your intended way. Inalawaak ke Felisa ot maki-eyak ke hiya. Felisa crossed my path and so I went with her. Alawaom hi Idad ta kumdo kah moma. Block (with arms) the path of Idad so you can ask for betelnut. ‑on/‑in‑.

alikudukud 1comm. sound of stamping feet, done in anger or vexation. Sim: alidogdog, anikdul. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. rumbling noise of thunder. Mun-alikudukud di kidul an kay da mumpupuddug hi kabunyan. The thunder made a rumbling noise as if there were people running after each other in the sky. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 1.1.3.6 - Lightning, thunder.) 3intrans. to make a rumbling noise from stamping feet, e.g. children running around the house. [Ifugao houses are built off the ground so that running feet create a reverberating sound.] Mun-alikudukud/Umalikuddukud day u-unga. The children are making a stamping noise. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1D Sounds.

almas (sp. var. armas) 1comm. refers to weapons that are largely used in wars. 2intrans. to be armed with weapons. Nun-almas dat makigubat. They are armed so that they can join in war. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.)

alongaang intrans. gurgling sound of liquid poured out of a narrow necked container. Mun-alongaang nan pun-ikuyag dan liting an malpun nah aluwog. The water being poured out of the bamboo tube is making a gurgling sound. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

aluguug comm. throat; gullet; pharynx; Adams’ apple. Mungkiyakiy aluguug ku. My throat is itchy. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.)

aluk 1trans. to speak comfort; to console. Mahakit di nomnom na te nateh inana; eka ta em al-alukon. She is sad because her mother died; go to console her. Al-alukom nan golang te mungkokkogga. You comfort the child because he is crying. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. (sem. domains: 4.4.4 - Respond to someone in trouble.) 2trans. to coax; to persuade by presenting nice agruements. Ena al-alukon hi amana ta mungkodo boh pihhu. He’s going to persuade his father and then he’ll ask him for money. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.4 - Peace, 3.3.3.3 - Persuade.) 3intrans. to do something to please someone. Nganne atom an mun-al-aluk ke hiya. What will you do to please her? muN‑/nuN‑. infl. al-aluk

amung 1trans. to gather scattered things; to pile things together. Amungon yu nadan nag-an papel. Gather the papers which fell. Umamung kah bilau ta punlagim taku. Gather some cane sticks for us to use in singing. Mun-amung dah batu nah wangwang. They are gathering stones in the river. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: bingil, bungul, alimungmung, kampeg, panu. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.) 2pass. for people to gather in a group Maamung takuh tuh hilong ta ahi taku makilophak. Let’s assemble here tonight before we go for the vigil. Adi kayu maamu-amung hina ta amungon yu ot ya abu tudan holok. Don’t just be assembling there, but instead gather all these grasses here. Wada day naamung an tatagu nah kalata. There are people gathered in the street. ma‑/na‑.

amunna adv. to be unique in number of characteristics. Maid di udum an makiha-ad ke dakami amunna nadan duwan golang an imbabalek ya nan inayak. There were no others living with us, only my two small children and my husband.

an’ay (sp. var. aray) 1adjunct. Ouch!; an outcry of pain. Anay! Mahakit nan natwik ke ha-oy. Ouch! The injection hurts. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 2intrans. to continue to cry out with pain. Mun-anaanay handi nag-a. He kept on crying out when he fell. muN‑ CV(C)CV‑.

andani₁ (sp. var. andai) 1interval of time. 1.1advpred. predicates the idea of waiting for a short period of time. Andani ta munhannotak. Wait so that I will change my clothes. Indani ke ta ahi taku umeh andani. Wait a moment; we will go in a short time. (sem. domains: 8.4.2.1 - A short time.) 1.2adv. a short while; a moment; a short time; a little later. Deket hi andani ya umali ka. You come later on. Andani ya nagibbu nan baki hiyam ta himpuluy oras nagibbu. Later on, the baki-ritual was finished....nine to ten hours finished. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5.2.1 - After.) 2adv. every now and then Kadaidai on umen e uminum. Every now and then he goes to drink.

anikdul intrans. to make a pounding noise on floor or walls, often done by children playing. Tipe bot mun-anikdul day u-unga? Why are the children making all that noise? Umanikdul da nadan u-unga hin ipukung yu dida. The children will make noise if you lock them up. muN‑, ‑um‑. Sim: alidogdog, alikudukud; Sim: kudu. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

apap 1trans. to slap someone on the face. Apapon daka hin mungngohe ka. I’ll slap you if you are obstinate. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile actions. Sim: amping. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2comm. a hit with the open hand. Mahakit di apap nan ha-oy ot apappok bo damdama. His slap hurt me so I also slapped him.

Apu Dios (comp. of apu, Dios) comm. the Christian God; the Lord God. Hi Apu Dios di nangidinolana. He entrusted it to God. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug Apu Dios ke ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of those believing in God would become ill, maybe there would be no more pagan priests. Syn: Maknongan. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

atuwingwing intrans. to visually survey an area; to look around apprehensively; apprehensive surveillance, turning head back and forth, side to side. Mun-atuwingwing nan lalaki ot ahi hunggop nah bale. The man looked around apprehensively before entering the house. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: wingi, liggu, balungango. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

aw’it₂ trans. to get someone; to bring someone. Awiton yu tun unga ta adi kumga. Take this child along so he will not cry. Deket umali ka ya umawit kah lalaki ta odnana tun ohan sakun tabuyug. When you come, you bring a boy along to carry this sack of pomelos. Maid di maawit an mumbalbal. There’s no one who can be brought along/hired to do the laundry. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

awa 1comm. a natural or man-made pass between mountain ridges or trees in which a net is placed for a trap for bats. Dimmatong nah awa ot mun-iyatu. He reached the trap site and there he rested. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap bats with a net. Inawa da datuwe. They used a net trap to catch these. Adi maaway eruplanu. An airplane cannot be caught in a bat-net-trap. i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: tawang, hikit. 3intrans. to trap. Imme nadan linalaki dih hilong an e mun-awa. The men went last night to trap (bats). muN‑.

ayok-ok intrans. to make a bubbling sound. Mun-aayok-ok di hina-ang na. What she is cooking is making a bubbling sound. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

bag’a trans. 1to ask something. Ot piayag dah ama ot ibaga dan hiya hin nganney aton da. And so they called for father and they asked him what they should do. Ituluy kun ibaga tun wadah nomnom ku. I will continue to ask this that is in my mind. Waday nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering it to them. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. Sim: kodo, pakada. (sem. domains: 3.3.2 - Request, 3.5.1.5 - Ask.) 2to tell something. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonion kananay deket mabdang ke. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, told him that if it was roaming spirits. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) bagbaga-an infl. mamagbaga

bag’ang comm. refers to the whole neck. Andukke nan bagang di manuk. A chicken’s neck is long. Waday kimmalat hi bagang ku te makiyaki. Something bit my neck because it’s itchy. spec: tongod. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.)

Bagabag prop. a town in northern Nueva Viscaya. Ad Bagabag di pakimalketan nadan kompradol hi nating. It is in Bagabag where the vegetable vendors buy and sell. (sem. domains: 4.6.7.1 - Country.)

baginge comm. a fern variety; the stem is used for weaving baskets, chicken coops and hats; it is more durable than rattan. Mangala kah baginge ta mangapya taku hi basket. Get some baguinge so that we’ll make it into a basket. Hay baginge di kapyaom hi kaba. Use the baginge for making baskets. Eka umala nah baginge ta kapyaon dah kulbung. You get some baginge-fern so that they’ll make it into a rice container. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

bagtutu trans. to carry someone straddling the neck; carry someone astride shoulders and the neck. [Before coffins were used for burying the dead, the body was carried in this manner to the grave.] Imbagtutun ama nan unga ot ume dad abbat an makimma nadah iibana. The father carried the child astride his shoulders and went to the neighborhood to chew betelnut with his companions. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move object with self. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.)

bahhelna (sp. var. ba-helna) comm. refers to the southern part of Kiangan central; the barrios of Amduntug, Antipolo, etc. Nunbaki da apud bahhelna. Our grandfather performed rituals in the places on the other side. Deket kalimana ya dakol di ibahhelnan umalih Poblacion. When it’s Friday many from distant places come.

bakkukul comm. turtle [A turtle can be eaten and also used as a toy.] Waday ohan itaktakinay abung na. (bakkukul) There is one who always carries it’s house whenever it goes. (turtle) Kay ka bakkukul an dumallan. You walk like a turtle. (Slowly or with bent back) general: There is only one kind of turtle in the language area. Terrapene (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.) id. kay ka bakkukul

bakkul₂ 1comm. a bundle of items. In-agtu na nan himbakkul an tabaku. He carried on his head the bale of tobacco. hiN‑. (sem. domains: 8.1 - Quantity.) 2intrans. to make bundles of tobacco. Mumbakkul dah tabaku ta ihap-e da. They are making bundles of tobacco to be dried. muN‑/nuN‑.

bale comm. a building in which people live; place of residence; house. Makaphod tun bale yu. Your house is so beautiful. Hi uncle nan hi Taguiling inimbitar nah bale da te mumbaki da. His uncle, Tuguiling, was invited to their house because they were to perform the baki-ritual. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. They passed some small huts with small people living in them. Sim: kihikugan, abung, allung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) balayyan der. baleyan der. himbale der. makibale der. mumbale

balita 1comm. a metal rod around six feet long with one end pointed and the other end flattened for prying and excavating. Alam nan balita ta hidiyey pundulig mu nah ongal an batu. Get the crowbar and use it to move the big stone. Mungka-ut ta ke ya mahapul di balita. When we dig we need a crowbar. Sim: kabra. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to use a crowbar. Balitaon yu nan luta te makulhi. Use a crowbar in breaking the ground because the soil is hard. Adi mabalita nan ongal an batu. The crowbar cannot move the huge stone. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑.

balnu trans. to throw a rock or clod of soil at something and hit it. Bimmungot nan mittuluk ot ibalnu na nan liblu. My teacher got angry and he threw the book at me. Balnuwon dakah batu. I’ll hit you with a thrown stone. Bumalnu nan mun-ango hin mala-u tah di. The crazy person throws stones if we pass by there. Adi mabalnu te nitalu. It cannot be stoned because its’s hidden. Mahakit di pukol ku te binalnun Juan. My shoulder hurts because Juan threw a rock and hit it. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: wele, boka, tongba, gayang, bon’al, alo, top-’al, wengngak; Sim: tongba, gayang, baladung, bon’al, boka, alo, balabal. (sem. domains: 7.3.1.1 - Throw.)

baluhbu intrans. to move, by slipping out of carrying blanket or embrace, e.g. a small child, a toddler, slips out when cradled in arms or carried with the use of a carrying blanket. Mumbaluhbuh din golang te pinhod nan maki-ay-ayyam dih uunga. The toddler wants to slip out because she wants to play with the children. Inhamad mu nan oban ta adi bumaluhbu nan golang. Tie the carrying-blanket properly so that the child will not slip out. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

bang-al 1comm. hips and upper buttocks. Ong-ongal di bang-al di binabai mu hay linalaki. The hips of women are bigger than those of men. Nan babai an ittay di bang-al na an mumpaligat an muntungo. The woman who has small (narrow) hips will have difficulty in childbirth. Hanada ken aammod ya adida pihday bang-al di babuy hi u-unga te hay kanan da ya adida maam-ama weno main-ina ya humakit di bang-al da. The old folks prohibit the young people from eating the hip part of the pig because they say they will suffer backache if they do. Sim: tim-uy, tipa. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2sta. to have wide hips. Namag-al hi Jose yaden lalaki. The hips of Jose are wide yet he is a man. na‑.

barkada 1comm. refers to friends or companions, generally of the same age; often carries the connotation of a group who regularly socialize eating and drinking. Deke bot mipanggep hi barkada ya nu mabalin ya adik pinhod makibarkada ka. Also, as for barkada-companions, I don’t want you be joining them in their activities. 2trans. refers to the joining in the social life of companions. Adik pinhod an makibarkada ka. I don’t want you always going around with a group of friends

bawol (sp. var. bowol) 1comm. a spring-rod in a trap made of a pliant branch; three types of traps have the spring rod, lingon, appad and balai. Maphod di kapen kapyaon hi bawol te maandong. The coffee tree is good for making spring rods because (the branches) are straight. Sim: appad, hulu, lingon, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to use as a spring-rod. Ibawwol mu nan kape. Use the coffee tree branch as your spring-rod. Bawwolan yu nan lingon. Put a spring-rod on your bird trap. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

bayyube (sp. var. bayube) 1comm. a cane-grass symbol of prohibition; no trespassing symbol. Eyak makimmah balen da Gabina ya numbayyube da ot adiyak humgop. I was going to chew betelnut at Gabina’s house but they had placed the prohibition sign so I did not enter. Adika gumawah na te neyay bayube/pudung. Don’t step into that part for there’s a keep-off sign. Sim: pudung, pile. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2trans. to prohibit an action. Bayubeyan yu nadan page nah pingngit di kalata. Put a keep-off sign on the rice grains along the path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

bidbid intrans. 1to read. Mumbidbid kayu. You read. Bumanidbid hi Jose on ahi na kinaliy mahakit di mata na. Jose keeps on reading; then he complains of eye pain. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.5.7.3 - Read.) 2to read with what is being read highlighted as prominent information. Bidbidon yu nan nitudok. Read what is written. Wadan ustu moy bidbibidbid hi novels. I think you have read enough novels. ‑on/‑in‑.

biddu intrans. to wriggle; to squirm, sometimes done due to back or stomach pains. Mumbiddubiddu te hay hakit di putuna. He was wriggling/squirming because of the pain in his stomach. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.8 - Move back and forth.)

bigla 1advpred. suddenly; for something to come as a surprise, unexpected. Biglay natayana. His death was very sudden. Time. Sim: maid maptok, na-ala, hingkatang, maag. (sem. domains: 8.4.8.3 - Sudden.) 2trans. to do something suddenly, abruptly. Biglaom ken dapaon ta kumaynit. You touch him abruptly so he’ll be surprised/frightened. Binigla nan indakig nan panto. He closed the door abruptly. ‑on/‑in‑. 3sta. to be surprised. Mabigla ka hin kalyok nan tinibok. You will be surprised if I tell you what I saw. ma‑. (sem. domains: 3.1.2.3 - Attention.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

bik-i 1trans. to tear, rip or pull apart cloth or paper. Bik-iyon yu nan tudok. Tear open the letter. Bumik-i ka nah papel. Tear off a part of the paper. Pumbik-i na nan bulwati. She is tearing the dress. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: pinga, hethet. (sem. domains: 7.8.4 - Tear, rip.) 2trans. tear into little pieces; shred. Banik-ihon yu nan tudok ne inwele yu nah kanal. Tear the letter into small pieces and throw them in th canal. Adim banik-iyon nan papel. Don’t tear the paper into pieces. ‑an‑ ‑on/‑in‑. 3pass. for something to be torn. Adim guyudon te mabik-i. Do not pull it because it will be torn. Nabik-i nan pantalon na. His pants are torn. Nabik-i nan bulwatin Bugan nah ena naki-ay-ayyaman. Bugan’s dress got torn when she went to play. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. ma‑/na‑. infl. banik-ihon

bilibili trans. to look closely at something; inspect. Bilibiliyok nadan tulun lalaki ya maid pinhod kun dida. I inspected the three men and I didn’t like any of them. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bidade, binbin, biling. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.3 - Examine.)

bingay 1comm. share of a harvest of rice grain, fruit, coffee beans, etc. [Usually two-thirds of the produce goes to the owner and one-third to the laborer or tenant. Farm inputs are usually provided by the owner of the land.] Idag-um nan bingay nan kon luta. Drop the share of the landowner. Syn: dowa. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, 8.1.6.1 - Part.) 2trans. to give people a share of produce. Bingayon yu nan irik. Divide the lowland rice grain. Biningay da Mara nan page mo. Mara and her side have already divided the rice grain. Maid di mabingay ad uwani. There is nothing to be shared now. Eyak makibingay na inani da. I’m going to have my share of the rice grain that they gathered. Takon di idat yuy bingay ku hanadah ma-ma-idan. You may give my share to those who are poor. Bingayan dakah makan. We will share food with you. ‑on, ‑um‑, ma‑, ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

binhig (sp. var. binhiing) intrans. refers to the thudding sound made by something falling. Bumibinhig nan niyug an pun-oga da. The coconuts are making a thud as they are being dropped (from the tree). ‑um‑/‑imm‑ CV‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

bob-a (sp. var. bab-a) 1comm. tooth. Naibuk tun bob-a kinali humakihakit. This tooth is decayed that is why it keeps bothering you. spec: wolwol; Syn: ngipay. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2intrans. to have teeth growing; teething; toothache. muN‑/nuN‑. der. bob-ahan der. mumbob-a id. kay bob-an di kidul di bob-a n. ph. bob-an di kidul

bog’a (fr. var. bingga) 1comm. uncooked generic rice, milled or husked. Nakattina hanan bogak nah bay-ong. My rice inside the sack was very wet. Pinpinhod ku nan ipugo an boga. I like the native rice. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume, ongal an banga o palyuk, binokbok ya buhi. These are needed in the making of rice wine: ordinary rice, glutinous rice to be mixed with the ordinary rice, a big pot or vat, native yeast and a wine jar. spec: bulkitan, ipugo, tinoon, dayyakot. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2comm. riddle Inihdi ke nan danum hinuy-up na nan danum ya timmaba da. (boga) You put it in water, it sucks the water and becomes fat. (rice) (riddle) 3deriv V. to cook rice with focus on the activity. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They cook rice and make wine. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to get or take rice. Adi umanamut hi John ad uwanin linggu te dakol di bingga na handih immeh di. John will not come home this week because he took much rice when he went there. ‑in‑. der. mabga

Bogwa 1prop. exhumation ritual. [The exhumation ritual is usually done for the purpose of divining the needs of the spirit of the individual; the initiation of the ritual is usually based on the belief that the spirit has notified the living about the need through making a member of the family sick. Before exhumation, a previous divination ritual has determined whose spirit is in need.] Mabogwa tuh toon. His bones will be exhumed next year. Sim: lophak, apuy, katlu. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2trans. to exhume a corpse for another death ritual. Bogwaon dah apuna. They are going to exhume-for-second-burial-rites his grandparent. Mumbogwa dah hilong. They are going to perform the bogwa-exhumation-ritual tonight. Binogwa da din apun Bugan ot mumbaki da ya dakol di kinlong dan babuy. They exhumed the grandparent of Bugan, and then, they performed the baki-ritual and butchered many pigs. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: iapuy. der. mabogwa der. mamogwa

bolwang comm. a plant with a trunk and large stem with brown furry bark. [Boys use the large stem for the trunk of the carabao and place cane for the legs of the carabao figure; then, they attack the figure with bamboo knives.] Hay ke linalakin u-unga ya pumbalinon dah nuwang nan pikiyokon di bolwang. Boys make carabao-like figures from the stem and unopened leaves of the bolwang-plant. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.)

bon’og comm. ribs. Nikuliyak ot mipakpak di bonog ku nah batu ot makahakkit. I slid and my ribs hit against the rock and they are very painful. Mahakit di bonog ku. My ribs ache. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.)

bonga 1comm. the cracks and dead cells on feet. Mahakit di bongak. The split between my toes pains me. (sem. domains: 2.5.2 - Disease.) 2sta. to have a foot disease. Mabonga ka hin adim ulahan nan ukim. You will have a foot disease if you do not wash your feet. ma‑.

bub’ung (sp. var. bubong) comm. roof peak in an Ifugao house or granary usually with a vent at the side which serves as a chimney; the topmost ridge of thatch. Muntudu nan bubung nan abung. The roof of the house is leaking. Kinayat kuy bubung di baleda. I climbed to the peak of the roof of their house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

buhul 1comm. enemy. [Usually an enemy belongs to a kin group that either has killed someone from one’s kin group or who has had a member killed by someone belonging to one’s own kin group.] Maid di buhul da. They have no enemies. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.5 - Revenge.) 2intrans. to have enemies; to have blood enemies. Dakol day numbuhul handi mu nun-aapu da. There are many who were blood enemies before but they had their children marry each other. Nunbinnuhul da Pedro ke Miguel hi maid gapuna. Pedro and Miguel are enemies without a real cause. Adika ot makiapu ke da naen pamilya te nakabuhhulan da. Don’t intermarry with that family because they have many enemies. Adik pinhod an mabuhulan te ad-adi ya maid di amlong. I do not like to have enemies because it is not good and there is no happiness. ma‑ ‑an, naka‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑,. Sim: aw’it.

bukal trans. to crumble; break into small bits. Pumbukal Jose nan pangitanmanah kolet. Jose was breaking-up the soil where he is going to plant cabbage. Bumukal kah pangitanman tuh buwa. Break-up the soil so we can plant this seed. Kon kah-in di pakabukkalon di luta on ahi intanom nan buttata? Is it necessary to pulverize the soil well before planting petchay? Bukalom nan luta ta ahim tanman. Break the soil into smaller bits before planting. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.) der.infl. mabukal

bulak comm. tree, cottonwood variety. Bokon tiempon di bulak ad uwani. It’s not yet the time of cottonwood-trees to bear. Maphod di muntanom hi bulak na aldattan ta waday ahi pangalaan hi kapyaon hi pungan. It’s good to plant cottonwood-trees at ones backyard so there would be something to get for the making of pillows. Sim: kapok, malakapat; Syn: malakapat. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bulan₁ 1comm. moon. Ongal nan bulan. The moon is big/full. (sem. domains: 1.1.1.1 - Moon.) 2intrans. for the moon to shine. Indanit bumulan ta ahi taku ume. Wait for the moon to shine before we go. Bimmubbulan handi hilong. The moon shone brightly last night. Pinaddi min immeh bale da handih bimmulan. We purposely went to their house during a moonlit night. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 3comm. full moon; bright moon. Dakol di makihalud hin bulabbulan. There are many serenading/courting on the nights when the moon is full. Manomnom ku ya bulabbulan dih natayana. I remember he died on a full-moon-night. CV(C)CV‑ C‑. Ambulan bulabbulan natalak di bulan der. bumulan n. ph. kahabonan di bulan n. ph. kaha-alan di bulan n. ph. katalakan di bulan n. ph. katanungan di bulan n. ph. katom-angan di bulan n. ph. ongal di bulan

bulyu 1comm. a bamboo tie, usually for tying bundles of rice. Sim: alino. (sem. domains: 7.5.4 - Tie.) 2trans. to strip bamboo for tying; to make bamboo tying strips. Dakolom di bulyuwom te dakol di maani. Make plenty of bamboo strips as there’s plenty to be harvested. Mumbulyu dah pamtok nah maani. They are making bamboo tying strips for the rice which will be harvested. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) der. binulyu

bungan di palayon (n. ph. of palayon, bunga) comm. acorn. Ganganason di u-unga an mangapyah paddiing hi bungan di palayon. Children enjoy making spinning tops from acorns.

bungubung comm. 1a distant place, farthest place from the center of a village. [This word usually refers to Julongan-towards Tinok side.] Nalpu nadan aamod ku bungubungna. My forefathers came from a distant place. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.1 - Far.) 2from a distant place. Dakol day ibungubung nan nakipasyal. There are many people from the distant places that came to visit. Dakayu ken ibungubung na ya makiapu kayu tuwali hantudah ipoblacion ta ne adi kayu munnanong hidi. Those of you who live the farthest should intermarry with those from the poblacion (center) so that you won’t stay there. i‑.

butli 1comm. penis. Waday butli na kinali lalaki. He has a penis, hence he is a boy. Sim: luhi, utin, butu. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2sta. to have a penis. Nabutliyan kinali lalaki. He has a penis, hence he is a boy. na‑ ‑an.

buttiki 1comm. the calf of the leg. Mahakit tun buttikik kinali intaggek. My calf aches that is why I lifted it up. Adi maphod nan ongngal di buttiki, immam-a na hanadan binabai. It’s ugly to have big calves, more so for a woman. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.2 - Leg.) 2sta. to have a pronounced calf. Nabuttikiyan te dimmanallanan. She has a pronounced calf because she has been walking a lot. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

buyong 1trans. for the wind to cause the motion or movement of something; swaying movement caused by the blowing of the wind. Imbuyong nan dibdib nan apuy kinali nakiaala nan bale yu. The wind blew the fire towards your house, that’s how your house caught fire. Mibuyobuyong nadan tutubu. The leaves are being blown. (swaying movement can be seen). i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: 1.1.3.1 - Wind.) 2sta. to be shaded, area shaded on the ground by the branches of a tree. Nabyongan nan intanom kun petchay. The petchay I planted is shaded by the tree ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

CV(C)₁ asp. 1the reduplication of the first syllable, either CV or CVC, of a verbal root is the morpheme form that encodes the continuative aspect; this aspect expresses a single, uninterrupted continuing activity; continue. Kabigabigat on nangin-innum da ya nunhahamul da nah muyung. Every day these men continue to feast and drink in the forest. Idihhan ta hin mungngangala da ta adi dita donglon ke dida. We will coincide it with when they are continuously noisy so they will not hear us. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed continuing to pick and eat the fruit. Munhaghaggeyak te nikudliyak. I am limping because I slipped. Ot matatpuuk da nah puhung, mundopdoppap dah di. Then, they splashed into the pool, continuing to grapple there. 2expresses a continuative time aspect when co-occuring with roots that have an inherent punctiliar time aspect, but have been derived to have a durative time aspect with the prefix set muN-/nuN-. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli te hidiyey pinghanan ena nakidilagan hi allama. She jumped and screamed because it was the first time she went to catch crabs with a torch. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around