Search results for "alak"

‑in‑₂ num. this infix encodes plural for the noun roots meaning woman, babai, and man, lalaki, and some cardinal numbers. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was many women dressed in the Ifugao skirt. (sem. domains: - Noun affixes.)

alak 1comm. irrigation canal. Maid di liting nah alak. There’s no water in the irrigation canal. Mibakilang kanuh Abe nah alak ot kanana kanuy “Aday, aday, aday, aday. According to him, he lay down in the ditch and he said “Ow, ow, ow, ow.” Sim: paluk, boy’a, kanal. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) 2trans. to build an irrigation ditch. <With this affixation the agent-subject is fronted and cross-referenced.> Hi Jose di mangalak hitu. Jose wil build the canal here. maN‑/naN‑. der. mangalak

balakibak comm. 1sapwood; the part of a tree between the bark and heartwood; may be used for firewood. Unnaon an itunguy balakibak di kaiw ta ahi nan hogatna. First, use the sapwood section for fuel before the heartwood sections. Sim: hogat. (sem. domains: - Plant product.) 2bark of a tree or piece of wood. Kaanon da nan balakibak nan kaiw te nadunut. They’ll remove the bark of the wood because it’s rotten. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bulalakki comm. refers to handsome young men in the Ifugao Hudhud epics. {literary} (sem. domains: - Appearance.)

dalakan comm. a tree variety of second class wood, medium-soft. may be used for walling; as firewood it sparks too much to be considered good. [The wood may be used for walling but as firewood, it sparks too much to be considered good.] Adi maphod di dalakan an itungu te mumbubuti. Dalakan is not good firewood because it sparks. Dalakan di inhaad dan dinangal. They used the dalakan-wood for floor joists. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

galak comm. the dregs of coffee or tea; the sediment of coffee or tea. Iwelem nan galak nah aldattan. Throw away the dregs of coffee through the back door. (sem. domains: - Beverage.)

katalakan di bulan (n. ph. of bulan) comm. new moon. Umala da allama na katalakan di bulan. They catch crabs during the new moon. (sem. domains: - Moon.)

lalaki comm. a human male; may refer to an adult male or child. Hana ken ong-ongal ya hidiyey appit di lalaki. The side with the bigger head is supposed to represent the man. Nan lalaki ya hi Luis ya hi Julie nan babai. Luis was the boy and Julie was the girl. Deket hanadan lalakiy kumayat on kay nakalakka. When the older boys were the ones who climbed, it seemed so easy. Syn: ginnid. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female.) der. makilalaki infl. linalaki

linalaki (infl. of lalaki) comm. the plural form of male. Nagibbu keh tuwe ya ahida naamung nadan linalaki iiban nan humagabi After this, the male relatives of those performing the Hagabi gather together Nakabbayuy numbayun nadan linalaki. Those boys pounded (rice) very well. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

makilalaki (der. of lalaki) comm. to be fond of men; refers to a woman who pursues men; man chaser. maki‑.

malakapat comm. a tree variety that has cotton-like fiber covering the seeds; the fiber is used to stuff pillows; kapok tree. [The seeds of the kapok tree are removed and the cotton-like fibers covering them is used for stuffing pillows.] Immala dah malakapat ot kapyaon dah pungan. They got the fiber of the malakapat-tree and made it into a pillow. Sim: kapok, bulak; Syn: bulak. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

mangalak (der. of alak) trans. to build an irrigation canal. Sim: mamatung.

matalak (infl. of talak) pass. to be lost. Unudon yu nan gulding ta adi matalak. Follow the goat so that it will not be lost. ma‑/na‑.

mumpalakpak di inga (id. of inga) an idiom meaning that a person is very happy (lit. ears are clapping).

natalak di bulan (bulan) comm. new moon (lit. the moon is lost). (sem. domains: - Moon.)

natalak di nomnom (id. of nomnom) an idiom referring to the feeling of panic (lit. mind is lost).

palak intrans. 1to moan or groan; to cry out in pain and say anay; to make noise from grief or pain, with or without tears. Pumalak hin ihakit nah indani. He will moan later because of the pain. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Cry, tear.) 2to groan; aspect is durative. Mumpalak nan golang te kinalat di ahu. The child is crying out with pain because a dog bit him. Waday dingngol nan mumpalak. He heard groaning. muN‑/nuN‑.

palakad comm. the rungs of a ladder. Onom di palakad nan tete da. Their ladder has six rungs. Sim: talukad.

palakpak₁ (sp. var. of palekpek) trans. to throw something that sticks on the body or clothes; this is done to tease or for fun. (sem. domains: - Throw.)

palakpak₂ 1comm. the sound made by clapping of the hands. Takon di nidawwi taku ya madngol di palakpak nadan mun-ang-ang-ang. Even though we are far we can hear the clapping of those who are watching. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to strike hands together; to clap. Mumpalalpak da nadan mundongol hi kanta da. Those who heard their song are clapping their hands. Palakpakan taku te maphod di impatibo da. Let us clap our hands because thier show is good. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

talak₁ 1trans. to lose something. Adim talakon nan pihhum. Don’t lose your money. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon ot ya abu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he only loses it. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: buna. (sem. domains: 7.6.3 - Lose, misplace.) 2pass. to be lost. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Unudon yu nan gulding ta adi matalak. Follow the goat so that it will not be lost. ma‑/na‑. infl. matalak

talak₂ (sp. var. tolak) comm. any motorized vehicle; car; truck; bus; jeep. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Dandani olas singku ya inla-u da boh diyen intakke da nah talak padin pun-itikid da te nate. It was almost 5:00 o’clock when they passed again, riding in the priest’s jeep going up because he is dead. (sem. domains: - Vehicle.) infl. taltallak

talakdang intrans. 1to ascend toward the sky. Restrictions: traditional religion. Timmalakdang. He ascended. {ritual} ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. 2to ascend toward heaven. [This word is used in the Bible to refer to the ascension of Jesus Christ to heaven.] Indasalana dida hi kipaphodan da ot ipayunan tumalakdang hi langit. (Luke 24:51) He prayed for them for their blessing and then, he left them and ascended to heaven. (sem. domains: 4.9 - Religion.)

talakid 1comm. a woven cane grass mat placed under the granary or used when the floor of the house is the earth. Waday talakid nah alang an damanan ubunan. There is a woven cane grass mat at the granary that can be sat on. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to weave with strips of liana vine; to make a reed mat called talgan. Talakidom nadan paul ta kapyaon takun kultina. Weave the cane grass sticks so that we will use it for a curtain. Tinalakid an paul di kahuyopan mi. We slept on a reed mat. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Weaving baskets and mats.)

walak trans. 1to release hold on something. Iwalakanak mot umeyak. Release me and I will go. Adim iwalakan nan inodnam. Don’t release what you are holding. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Set free.) 2to abandon; to neglect, e.g a rice field, Antipet em inwalak di payom? Why did you abandon your ricefield? i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Abandon.)

walakgi (fr. var. of pulakgi) to shake something off hand.

palekpek (sp. var. palakpak) trans. to throw something that sticks on the body or clothes; this is done to tease or for fun. [This is often done by adults during times of field work. Mud is used, but also pulut-grass is sometimes used.] Bimmoh-ol hi Pedro to impalekpek dan hiya nan puyok. Pedro is angry because they threw mud on him. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Throw.)

pulakgi (fr. var. walakgi) trans. 1to shake off something on hand or other extremity. Impulakgi na nan balaingan an kimmadap hi taklena. He shook off the cockroach that crept on his hand. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: - Shake.) 2to struggle to get free from someone holding one. Mumpulakgi nan babuy handi binobodan da. The pig was struggling to free itself when they tied it up. Pumulakgi nan nabutong hin odnan yu. The drunk will struggle if you hold him. Impulakgi na nadan nandon ke hiya. He shook off those who were holding him. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, i‑/iN‑. Sim: pulki.

boy’a comm. small water conduit; small canal, in a swidden or garden. An waday liting nah boya? Is there water in the water conduit? Sim: paluk, alak, kanal. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

bulak comm. tree, cottonwood variety. Bokon tiempon di bulak ad uwani. It’s not yet the time of cottonwood-trees to bear. Maphod di muntanom hi bulak na aldattan ta waday ahi pangalaan hi kapyaon hi pungan. It’s good to plant cottonwood-trees at ones backyard so there would be something to get for the making of pillows. Sim: kapok, malakapat; Syn: malakapat. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

buna trans. to get lost; to lose one’s way. Gaput uggek ininghaan ad Manila ya eyak bunbunnaon hanadah iibbak. Because I am not familiar with Manila, my companions tried to make me lose my way. Adina tuwali halipat-an nadan iibba na kinali nabuna. He did not watch his companions that’s why he lost his way. Tibom ta adi ka mabuna. See to it that you won’t get lost. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: talak. (sem. domains: - Known, unknown.)

ginnid comm. a male person. Restrictions: Hudhud epics and songs.. Ginnid di imbabalena. Her child is a boy. Syn: lalaki. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female.)

hogat 1comm. the heartwood of a tree; the core wood of a tree. Magangah tuwen kaiw te waday hogat na. This tree is hard because it has heartwood. Sim: balakibak. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2comm. may refer to the annual rings of a tree. 3sta. a matured tree; it has heartwood, meaning it can be made into lumber. Nahgatan nan udyo kinali lingngo da. The mahogany tree is matured, that is why they cut it down for lumber. ma‑‑an/na‑‑an. id. nahgatan

kanal 1comm. a canal, open water channel; mainly for irrigation and drainage. Maid di liting nah kanal te maugo. There is no water in the canal because it’s the dry season. Sim: paluk, boy’a, alak. (sem. domains: - Flow.) 2trans. to build a canal. Kanalan yu nan pingngit di dola yu. Build a canal at the edge of your houseyard. Mungkanal da. They are digging a canal. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Language Of Borrowing: English.

kapok comm. cottonwood tree. Sim: bulak, malakapat. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

mamatung (der. of batung) intrans. to build a stone dam so water will enter an irrigation canal. Mamatung da ta adi matdukan nadan payo. They are building a stone-dam so that the ricefields will not dry up. Sim: mangalak.

paluk 1comm. an irrigation ditch. Waday paluk nah tap-on di payo da. There is an irrigation ditch above their ricefield. Sim: boy’a, alak, kanal. 2intrans. to build or maintain an irrigation system. Eda mamaluk nadan iLinda. The people of Linda are going to build an irrigation ditch. maN‑/naN‑.

talukad 1comm. the footholds on trees and mountain slopes. Waday talukad nan niyug kinali nalakan kayaton. The coconut tree has footholds along its trunk that is why it is easy to scale. Sim: palakad. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2trans. to notch a tree trunk or mountainside for footholds. Talukadam nan niyug ta waday aton an mangayat. You notch a foothold on the coconut tree so that it can be climbed. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

‑on TACR. 1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on

abbat 1comm. a nearby place. 1.1comm. a nearby place of the same elevation as the reference point; neighborhood. Umeyak hidid abbat. I will go there (nearby place). Immeh abbat na. He went to the nearby place. (sem. domains: - Near.) 2trans. to go to a particular or specified nearby place. Iabbat kuh balen da Kunde. I will go to Kundeh’s house. Tipet umanab-abbatan ka? Why are you going back and forth nearby. In-abat da nan bilau. The runos were taken nearby. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to go from one house to another; making the rounds of houses nearby. Mun-abbatanak hi balen di tutulang ku. I frequently go from one sister’s house to the others. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to go to or be at a nearby place. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngu bungubun mangabbat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices nearby. maN‑.

ablan comm. the loom for weaving; refers to all of the separate pieces. [Formerly, women did a lot of weaving as the grain was ripening so that everyone would have new skirts and loin clothes when people joined together for harvesting and celebrating.] Maid day mun-abol ad uwanin dakol te natalak day ablan. Not many weave today because the looms have been lost. Part: uluwan, lolottan, gul-unnan, baliga, hikittan, kalabig. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.)

aday interj. the expression of sudden or acute pain. Mibakilang kanuh Abe nah alak ot kanana kanuy “Aday, aday, aday, aday. According to Abe, he lay down in the ditch and he said “Ow, ow, ow, ow.” Aday, nan hukik. Ouch, my foot. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ahigaud (comp. of gaud, ahi) nom. a phase of the agricultural cycle; plowing of ricefields to prepare for planting; the plowing is done by hand using wooden spades. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahigaud. The men have much work during the plowing season. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language.

aka adjunct. expression that questions the reason for something; implies surprise, denial and doubt; a why expression. Aka? Kon ha-oy di nangala? Why? Was it me who got it? Aka- maid ot di inalak. Why, I did not get anything. Interjection. (sem. domains: - Markers of emphasis, 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ako trans. 1to steal something from someone. Adiyu akawon nan manuk. Don’t steal the chicken. Eda immakoh mahapul da. They went to steal some of their necessities. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring something toward agent. (sem. domains: - Steal.) 2the person who steals; the thief is cross-referenced by the affix. Inakhupan Santiago nan lalakin e nangako nadah manuk na. Santiago caught the man who stole his chicken. Hiya ya mangakon unga. He is a child who steals. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mangako

alad 1comm. fence; enclosure of ground. Napa-i nan alad taku. Our fence was destroyed. Inyapana nah kad-an di alad. He jumped into a place near the fence. Sim: iya, luhud. (sem. domains: - Fence, wall.) 2intrans. to build a fence. Mun-alad hi Jose. Jose is building a fence. Umalaka hi lappao ta pun-alad ku. Get some Jerusalem artichoke so that I can use to make a fence. Umalad kah pukungan di gawgawa. Fence a space for a duck pen. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to focus is on what is used for building a fence or what is being fenced. Ialad mu nan bilau. Use the canegrass for in building a fence. Aladon yu nan dola. Build a fence around your yard. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 4pass. to be fenced. Naaladan nan ek pangidalanan. The way I will pass by is fenced. ma‑/na‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

alal 1sta. to be dizzy from chewing betelnut or smoking strong tobacco. Naalalak nah mimmak. I felt dizzy after chewing betelnut. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.4 - Body condition.) 2intrans. to cause someone to become dizzy. Umalal nan indat mun moma. The betelnut you gave causes dizziness. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ambabala comm. gemmed puffball mushroom, edible, medium size, violet in color; grows in clumps in ricefield or in and around piled ricestalks; delicious flavor, similar to yellow Jack O’lantern. Inalak nan ambabala nah pingkol ot ihdak ya makahhong-o. I got the mushrooms from the mound and ate them and they were delicious. Gen: uung. (sem. domains: 1.5.4 - Moss, fungus, algae.)

atuwingwing intrans. to visually survey an area; to look around apprehensively; apprehensive surveillance, turning head back and forth, side to side. Mun-atuwingwing nan lalaki ot ahi hunggop nah bale. The man looked around apprehensively before entering the house. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: wingi, liggu, balungango. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

aw’it₂ trans. to get someone; to bring someone. Awiton yu tun unga ta adi kumga. Take this child along so he will not cry. Deket umali ka ya umawit kah lalaki ta odnana tun ohan sakun tabuyug. When you come, you bring a boy along to carry this sack of pomelos. Maid di maawit an mumbalbal. There’s no one who can be brought along/hired to do the laundry. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

awa 1comm. a natural or man-made pass between mountain ridges or trees in which a net is placed for a trap for bats. Dimmatong nah awa ot mun-iyatu. He reached the trap site and there he rested. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap bats with a net. Inawa da datuwe. They used a net trap to catch these. Adi maaway eruplanu. An airplane cannot be caught in a bat-net-trap. i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: tawang, hikit. 3intrans. to trap. Imme nadan linalaki dih hilong an e mun-awa. The men went last night to trap (bats). muN‑.

balangat 1comm. stripes of colors on animals. Mabayak nan balangat nan ahu. The dog’s stripe is white. Sim: dago, batok; Sim: guli-i, balah-ak. (sem. domains: - Animal color, marking.) 2sta. to be striped. Natalak nan nabalangatan an ahuk. My striped dog is lost. na‑ ‑an.

bang-al 1comm. hips and upper buttocks. Ong-ongal di bang-al di binabai mu hay linalaki. The hips of women are bigger than those of men. Nan babai an ittay di bang-al na an mumpaligat an muntungo. The woman who has small (narrow) hips will have difficulty in childbirth. Hanada ken aammod ya adida pihday bang-al di babuy hi u-unga te hay kanan da ya adida maam-ama weno main-ina ya humakit di bang-al da. The old folks prohibit the young people from eating the hip part of the pig because they say they will suffer backache if they do. Sim: tim-uy, tipa. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2sta. to have wide hips. Namag-al hi Jose yaden lalaki. The hips of Jose are wide yet he is a man. na‑.

bangbang trans. to spade soil; to dig soil to plant; loosen soil for planting. Bangbangom nan habal ta ahi taku tanman hi bulhe. You till the soil in the swidden and we will plant it with beans. Nalakan mabangbang nan luta te mayam-o. The soil can be easily spaded because it is soft. Mumbangbang da hi tanman dah danggu. They are tilling a spot to plant spring onions. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: baung, gaud, pala, huklay. (sem. domains: - Plow a field.)

bangga trans. to bump into something; to crash into something. Adim ibangga nan talak. Do not bump the car into anything. Mabangga ka hin adim tibon di dalnom. You will bump into something if you don’t look where you are going. i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog. infl. mumbangga

bangiw trans. to turn something towards another direction; to divert towards another direction. Bangiwom nan ubunan hidi ta adi mihani nah dalanon. You turn the chair to that side so it won’t block the passage. Adi mabangiw nan talak. The vehicle cannot be turned. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.3.5 - Turn something.)

bat’u 1comm. stone; rock, generic. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu. I remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Um-umbun nah tap-on nan ohan ongal an batu. She was sitting on top of a big rock. spec: dulmug, muling, talugtug. (sem. domains: - Rock.) 2sta. to be rocky, refers to ground that is full of rocks. Mabatu nan luta da. Their land is full of rocks. Mabatu nan habal da. Their camote patch has lots of rocks. ma‑. 3use rocks. 3.1trans. to lay rocks for a path or road. Batuwan yu nan dalan/kalata. Place stones/rocks on the road/path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.2trans. to throw a stone or rock. Adim ibnal nan batu. Do not throw the stone. der. binattu

bayad 1comm. payment for something. Hituwey bayad nan ginattang ku. This is the payment for what I bought. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2trans. to pay for something. Ibayad na nan binokla na hi gawat na. He will use his salary to pay his debts. Adim bayadan nan inalak an tinapay nah tendaan ta kay hidiyey bayad nan pihhun inutang nan munggattang hidin ha-oy. Do not pay for the bread I took from that store so that it will be the payment of the money the storekeeper borrowed from me. Maid di adi mabayadan an utang. No debt will be left unpaid. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to make a payment Mumbayad hi Juan hi bigat. Juan will pay tomorrow. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bayongyong (sp. var. of bayungyung) comm. bamboo tube used for storage of salt, binokbok ‘native yeast’ or for gathering coffee beans. Napnuy bayongyong Talakka hi kape. The bamboo tube of Talakka is full of coffee beans. [Larger than the allawin-bamboo tube.]Sim: allawin. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

bilibili trans. to look closely at something; inspect. Bilibiliyok nadan tulun lalaki ya maid pinhod kun dida. I inspected the three men and I didn’t like any of them. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bidade, binbin, biling. (sem. domains: - Examine.)

boble (sp. var. bable) 1comm. village; town; province; country; refers to any territorial group of houses, and accompanying buildings. Adi dumatong di talak hi boble mi. No vehicles can reach our village. Sim: probinsiya. (sem. domains: - City.) 2intrans. to settle in a village; to live in a place; the village or place is prominent in a context. Boblayan yu nan muyung. Make a settlement in the forest. Adi maboblayan te nidawwiy liting. It is not suitable for a settlement because water is far away. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.) 3intrans. residing in a place; refers to those who are living in a village or area. <Morphology: mumboble> 4comm. refers to the residents of a specific village. <Morphology: bimmoble> ‑imm‑. der. bimmoble der. mumboble

bohong (sp. var. bohang) comm. the inside of a building or vehicle; interior of a building. Munhihhilong nah bohongnan nan bale. The inside of the house is dark. Ya tinibok nah bohong nan talak an impahuyop da nan natuwik nah dulung. And I saw the stabbed person inside the jeep lying on the jeep’s floor. Sim: baw’ang. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

bol’e 1sta. tiredness; fatigue; usually refers to muscle fatigue. Mable ka ke ya mun-iyatu ka. If you are tired, rest. Nableyak an uumbun. I am tired of sitting down. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging (from a tree). ma‑/na‑, naka‑ C. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: atu. (sem. domains: 2.4.4 - Tired.) 2proc. to be in the process of becoming tired. Mungkable ak te neligat tuwen ngunu. I am becoming tired because this work is hard. mungka‑/nungka‑. infl. mun-ible

bolwang comm. a plant with a trunk and large stem with brown furry bark. [Boys use the large stem for the trunk of the carabao and place cane for the legs of the carabao figure; then, they attack the figure with bamboo knives.] Hay ke linalakin u-unga ya pumbalinon dah nuwang nan pikiyokon di bolwang. Boys make carabao-like figures from the stem and unopened leaves of the bolwang-plant. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.)

bongwa 1trans. to cut in half long, hard objects crosswise. Bongwahom nan kaiw ta alak bongwa. Cut that wood so that I can get half of it. Adi mabongwa. It cannot be divided/cut. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut, 7.8 - Divide into pieces.) 2trans. to cut off a part of a whole; may not collocate with string or cloth. Bumongwa ka nah pinah-on mu. Cut a part from that which you are carrying. 3comm. part of; a portion of objects such as wood, iron; portion of body. Nan bongwan di tabla di alam. The other half of the wood is the one you get. Alam di ohan bongwa nah em binongwan tinapay. You get a part of the bread that you divided. der. nunbinnongwa

bonyag₂ intrans. 1to twinkle; to shine in the dark. Mumbonyag day bittuwon hi kabunyan. The stars are twinkling in the sky. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2to light up and shine. Bumonyag nan bilid te inapuyan. The mountain will be lighted up because they burned it. Impadilag na talak ya bimmonyag nan dola. He switched on the vehicles lights and the yard was lighted up. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

bote 1comm. refers to any bottle container. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place something in a bottle. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria bottled the paint that we had left-over. Umeyak ked Solano on binoten mantekay gattangok te nalaklaka. When I go to Solano I buy bottled cooking oil because it is cheaper. nuN‑ i‑, ‑in‑.

bumah-el intrans. to go to the other side of a boundary or barrier. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak muntutun-ud. It is frightening to cross the street because there are so many vehicles lined up.

bumalal comm. one who buys a mortgage. E bumalal hi payo ad baliwon. He is going to buy mortgaged-ricefields in the lowlands. Bumalalak te waday pihhuk. I will buy the mortgage because I have money. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Buy.)

butli 1comm. penis. Waday butli na kinali lalaki. He has a penis, hence he is a boy. Sim: luhi, utin, butu. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2sta. to have a penis. Nabutliyan kinali lalaki. He has a penis, hence he is a boy. na‑ ‑an.

buwag trans. to uproot plants or trees. Buwagon nan puwok nan tupaya. The storm will uproot the papaya-tree. Bimmoh-olak ke hiya te imme ot ena punbuwag hanadan impatanom lakay ku. I got angry with him because he went and uprooted all those which my husband had planted. Binuwag Jerry hanan abukadu te nakah-nid. Jerry uprooted the avocado because the plants were crowded. Nadan kaiw an tinummol nah natigging ya nalakan mabuwag. The trees that grow on the slope are easily uprooted. Handin immalin nal-ot an udan ya dibdib di gapunah nabuwagan am-in nan intanom kun balat. The cause of the uprooting of all the banana-plants that I planted was the strong rain and wind that came. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑, ma‑, na‑ ‑an. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Uproot plants.)

C1 this form symbolizes the gemination of the first consonant of the root word; when it co-occurs with the prefix paka-, it intensifies the ability of the agent-subject to perform something very well or completely. Dimmin-ong ta pakaddonglona ya impidwanan bon pimmalak an palak di babai. He was quiet so that he could carefully listen and the groan of a woman was repeated. Sim: pakaC1-.

CV(C)-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant functions to intensify the meaning of a predication. <Morphophonology: The modal form reduplicates the first syllable of a root. For that reason, the syllable pattern of the root dictates whether the reduplicant form is CV- or CVC-.> Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is very dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to finish it (lit. make it very good) . (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

CV(C)CV-₂ asp. 1this aspectual reduplicant encodes an habitual or constant aspect. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You are always awake to join in gambling because your gambling goes on day and night. Adina itikod nan mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear would be constant that he might die anytime. Wadan ustu moy bidbibidbid hi novels I think it’s time to put away the constant reading of novels (sem. domains: 8.4.2 - Take time.) 2to do something continuously over a durative period of time. Tobatbalona diday bagol ya aammod ta dumalay-up da ta hay idatong di hagabi ya maphod dan am-in an hin-am-a ya ta dumakol di babuy da ya manuk da. He continuously calls on the gods and his ancestors to witness the arrival of his hagabi-bench so that with its arrival, it will bring along good health for his family and the increase (become many) of their pigs and chickens. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngubungubun mangabat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were voices continuously mumbling.

CV1C2 1intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable, CV(C), and the medial consonant of an adjective noun root is the form of the morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahiga-ud. The men have more work during the plowing season. Hi Luis an ong-ongal ya himpuluy toona ya hi ke Julie ya onom. Luis, the older (lit. bigger), was ten years old and Julie was six. Mu dakdakol di kaapputan ta maahinut ot ya abun am-in. But one loses more times than he wins such that eventually, everything will be lost. 2dim. refers to something smaller than the norm; this reduplication form encoding this meaning co-occurs only with nouns.

CVC- dim. this reduplicant expresses the meaning of small size; it co-occurs with nouns; diminutive. Waday dakol di ka-kaiw hi bale mi. There are many bushes (small trees) by our house. Pina-i na nan taltalak an indat ku. He destroyed the toy truck that I gave him.

dadag destroy. 1.1trans. refers to the destruction of concrete objects; may also refer to people or their reputations; to ruin; to destroy; to damage. Adim dadagon nan intanom ku. Do not destroy what I planted. Wada boppoy ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whatever toy that I buy, you destroy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object . (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 1.2pass. the passive form refers to the state of being damaged or destroyed, without an agent. Madadag am-in di nitanom te itotool nay udan. All the plants will be damaged because it keeps raining. Nadadag nan ingkail ku te makudang di inha-ad kun binokbok. The rice wine I prepared is ruined because I did not put enough yeast into it. ma‑/na‑. 1.3mod. expresses the facility with which an undergoer-object can be put into a condition or state; easily destroyed. Kadinaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. ka‑ ‑inn‑. 1.4nom. the derived noun refers to the concept of destruction. Hay tumbuk di kadadagan di dakol an tagu. It is gossip that is the destruction (reputation) of many men. ka‑ ‑an. 1.5trans. to destroy, with an added component of having the ability to do this. Dumadag hi bale nan puwok an umali. The storm that is coming can destroy houses. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

dagami 1comm. dried stalks of rice. Ha-adam hi dagami nan puyok ta adi madanglol. Place rice stalks on the mud so (the path) will not be slippery. Takon di munnanong nan dagami ot nalakan matanok. Just let the rice stalks remain, anyway, they easily become soft (and decay). Hay ke uung ya mabalin an tummol hi dagami. Mushrooms can grow in rice straw. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2trans. to place rice straws with location in view. Dagamiyan yu nan balen di babuy. Place rice straws in the pigpen. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

dakol 1adj. may refer to either number or quantity; ‘much’ is the English equivalent when referring to mass nouns; ‘many’ is the English equivalent when referring to count nouns. Dakol di ingkuyag muh liting. You poured much water. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Number quantifier. Sim: dakog. (sem. domains: - Many, much.) 2increase 2.1intrans. to increase in number or amount; to multiply. Tuwen dumakol day manuk ku. My chicken’s are increasing in number. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Increase.) 2.2sta. to increase in number or amount. Madakol di gulding taku hin ipaptok taku. Our goats will increase in number if we take care of them. ma‑. (sem. domains: - Increase.) 2.3trans. to increase something in number or size. Dakkolom di indat mun hiya. Give him more. (lit. Increase what you have given him.) ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Increase.) der. kadaklan der. kadakol infl. dakdakol infl. dakkodakkol

dalom₁ (sp. var. dalum) 1to sue. 1.1intrans. to sue; to report. Mundalom ka te natalak nan nuwang mu. Report it to the authorities that your carabao is missing. Mundalom da te inako yu nan nuwang da. They are going to sue you because you stole their carabao. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Accuse, confront.) 1.2trans. to sue someone. Idalom daka hin adim kalyon di makulug. You will be sued if you do not tell the truth. Edaka idalom te iningotanak hi otak. I will sue you because you were about to strike me with your bolo. i‑/iN‑. 2comm. a case filed in court. Waday dalom dan he-a. They have filed a case against you in court. (sem. domains: 4.7.4 - Court of law.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: darum.

danggu 1comm. onion. Mun-agub di toko ten kanon di ugge nalutun danggu. The mouth smells when uncooked onions are eaten. Nalakay danggun tummagu. Onions grow easily. Sim: sibuyas. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to add onions to food for seasoning. Dangguwan yu nan ihda. Place onions in the viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

dapig trans. to change shape by pressing; to flatten. Dapigom nan kapyaom an tinapay. Flatten the bread you are to bake. Mangapya kah gampa mu dapigom ta nalaka an miagtu. Make a gampa-basket, but make it flat so that it’s easy to carry on the head. Nadapig di nangat mu yaden kanak di mukkolom. You made it flat, yet I told you to round it. Hay nadapig an batuy ialim hitu. Bring a flat stone here. Mungkadapig nan uluna. Its head is becoming flat. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

daplal 1comm. payment to a native priest that can either be money or in kind, e.g. bolo. [This payment is only for certain rituals.] Hinggatut di daplal na. The native priest’s fee was a hundred pesos. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2intrans. to pay the fee to the native priest for a ritual. Impibakik di munlabi ya dinaplalak hi himpulut liman pihu. I had the munbaki ritual performed and I gave a priest’s fee of fifty pesos. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

daw’o sta. to be easily used; ready-to-use. [The use of the word implies that there is a short time component that results in efficiency.] Kudukdul na bo nan taldinat di em alan ta nadadawon na-ala ot ya indadaan ta mangan nganne. It’s better if you get sardines because they are easily prepared, just put them on a plate (lit. prepare) and eat them. Alak tun bolpen ta nadawo puntudok. I’ll get this (type of) ballpen because it’s always ready to write. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: - Efficient.)

deke on (comp. of deke, on) conj. marks an event or action that is contingent or dependent on another action or event. <This is a compound of the conjunction deke and the linker-determiner on.> Ya initpoitpol kuy potang nah mapat-al ya kotol nah hilong ya deket on matukatukalak. I have endured the heat of the sunshine, the cold at night and whenever I have been staying awake. Bokon ha-on nan tagun deke on bumtik ta e mitalu. I am not the kind of person to run away in order to be hidden. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations, - Condition.) comp. deke on peman

diye dem. that one; refers to someone or something that is away from both speaker and hearer; shortened form of hidiye, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns. Ya kanan diyey “Eyak umayag hi talak.” And that one answered “I’ll call for a jeep.” hidiye

dohdo press down. 1.1trans. to press down long grass, done with hands or feet. Dohdohon yu nan dalnon da. Press down the grasses where they will pass. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile actions. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 1.2pass. for grasses to be pressed down. Nalakan mahamak nan e mitaluh mahlok te mainnilay kad-ana hin un-unudon nan nadohdon holok. It’s easy to find someone who is hiding among the grasses because it can be determined by following the grasses that have been pressed down. ma‑/na‑. 1.3trans. to press down with a distributive action. Pundohdon nan nuwang nadan nitanom. The carabao is pressing down/stepping-on the plants. puN‑.

dukke (sp. var. duke) 1adj. long; to have a specified linear extent or duration. Andukke bo kaya nan ginatang mun linubid. The rope that you bought is long. Andukkedukke nan buuk din lalaki. The man’s hair is very long. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a long branch or pole and to this, they tie the hagabi-bench. aN‑. Dimension quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.2 - Long.) 2trans. to lengthen. Dukkayom nan punlubid mu. Make the rope you are twining long. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Extend.) 3proc. to become long as a process without an agent. Paputul mu nan buuk mu ot dumukke damdama. Have a haircut because your hair will become long again, anyway. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kadukke id. andukkey taklena infl. andukke infl. kadukkayan

dungpal trans. to bump into; crash into; to run-over someone or something. [The word is often used to refer to a head-on collision of vehicles.] Dungpalon dakayu hi talak hin nah kalata di pun-ay-ayyaman yu. You will be run over by vehicles if you play in the streets. Indungpal na nan tolak na nah mangga. He crashed his car into the mango tree. Nidungpal nan tolak nah loba. The vehicle crashed into the slope. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: dungpup. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) Language of Borrowing: Ilocano: dungpar.

dungpup trans. 1to punch someone. Adika kumalikali te dungpupon da man di tokom. Don’t keep on talking because they will punch you in the mouth. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to bump into; to crash into; for a vehicle to run over someone or something. Dungpupon dakan talak hin nah kalata di pun-ay-ayyayan mu. A truck will run-over you if you play in the street. Nidungpup nan lugan nah ongal an batu. The vehicle bumped against the big stone. ‑on/‑in‑ mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: dungpal.

gaud 1comm. spade with a long handle; used for soil and fieldwork. Nan gaud di pangaan mun nadah holok. Use the spade in removing the grasses. Doltakom hi gaud nan makakkulhin lamut. Thrust your spade into the hard root. (for the purpose of cutting it) Sim: baung, bangbang, pala, huklay. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to use long-handled spade to remove something such as stones from a site or to prepare a site for planting; to spade. Gaudom di batu ta iwelem. Spade away the stones and throw them away. Em gaudan di payo taku. Go to spade our field. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4A Change structure of object. (sem. domains: - Plow a field.) 3intrans. to till the soil in the ricefield by use of the spade; durative activity. Munggaud dad uwani hi payon Pedlo. They are spading the field of Pedro today. Inilam an munggaud hi payo? Do you know how to spade a ricefield? Munggaud day liman linalaki nah payo. Five men are tilling the soil in the ricefield. muN‑/nuN‑. comp. ahigaud

gayyang comm. any black fowl; usually a chicken. Natalak nan gayyang an poltan ku. My black rooster is lost. (sem. domains: - Bird.)

goma 1comm. rubber substance; may be used to refer to the tires of vehicles or other things made of rubber. Hannotam nan goman di talak. Change the tire of the vehicle. Waday goman apatut mu? Do you have rubber shoes? (sem. domains: - Vehicle.) 2intrans. to wear rubber shoes or boots. Munggoma ka hi bigat te napipitok nan dalan. Wear rubber shoes tomorrow because the path is muddy. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

guhu intrans. to be irritated due to anger or frustration. Gumugguhu-ak kediyen lalaki. I’m irritated with that boy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: - Angry.)

ha-oy (sp. var. ha-on) pers. I, first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the form is preposed before the verb and functions as a topicalized agent-subject; the form is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Ha-oy mangipaali nah talak hitu. I will have the truck come here. Ha-oy ke ya handih wada ak ad Linda hi balen nan iban aman nih-adak I am the one who was in Linda staying at the house of my father’s relative at that time. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

hakit 1intrans. to have pain, emotionally or physically; to ache; to be hurt. Humakihakit di uluk nah himbatangan. My head aches every afternoon. Munhakit di uluk. My head is aching. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: - Pain.) 2trans. to feel bad emotionally; have ill feelings towards someone. Hakitok nan inat mun ha-oy. I feel bad about the thing you did to me. Dakol di hakihakitok ke he-a. I have a lot of hurt feelings toward you. Makahakkit di nomnom Malya te ittay di in-anamut da. Malya was very sad because there were only a few crabs which they took home. ‑on/‑in‑, maka‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.4.2 - Feel bad.) 3trans. for some part of the body to pain a person. Pumalak hin ihakit nah indani. He will moan later because of the pain. i‑/iN‑.

halud trans. to try to win the favor of someone of the opposite sex; to court someone; to woo a person. E makihalud hi Dominic ad Pico. Domimic is going to woo somebody in Pico. Haludom hi Talakka ot tobalon daka. Court Talakka and surely she will accept you. Hinalud na mu uggena timbal. He courted her but she did not accept his proposal. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑/naki‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

ham’ak trans. 1to look for something; to search. Hamakom nan natalak an nuwang. Look for the lost water buffalo. Humamak kah babai ta malahin ka. Look for a girl so that you will marry. Eyak manamak hi ngunu. I am going to look for a job. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: anap. (sem. domains: - Look.) 2refers to having found something that was looked for. Himmamakak hi dakol an pihhu. I found much money. ‑imm‑.

hanah (han) dem. the; that; a demonstrative pronoun belonging to Set 2; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific person, place, time or thing. Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. The place where they walked, they passed some small huts with small people living in them. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hantuh (tuh, hi, han) dem. when, future; then, future; demonstrative pronoun belonging to Set 2; refers to a future time when an event is expected to happen. Hantuh aliyan da ya piayag daka. When they will come, I will send for you. Kanan apunay ahina idattan hi ligaluna hantuh madatngan an algon di nitungawana. His grandfahter promised to give him a gift on his next birthday. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahiga-ud. The men have more work when it is plowing season. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) hantudah

hi ohhandi (n. ph. of ohhandi) day after tomorrow. n. a noun phrase consisting of a determiner and noun referring to the day after tomorrow. Ilistam tun alak ta ahik idat hi ohhandi. List the things I get so that I will pay the day after tomorrow. Hi ohhandiy ahim aliyan. You come here the day after tomorrow. Hi ohhandi di ayan takud Lagawe. We are going to Lagawe on the day after tomorrow. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.)

hidi (fr. var. dih) dem. demonstrative pronoun, Set 4; there; over there; away from both speaker and hearer. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the initial consonant ‘h’ attaches to that word, the vowel ‘i’ is dropped and di remains alone.> Umeyak hidi. I’ll go there. Daana, hidih nakiddawwi? Where, there far away? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) comp. atbohdi comp. athidi comp. athidiy comp. dehdi comp. deyahdi comp. wadahdi der. ihdi der. kihdiyan ph. v. dedah di

igud 1comm. something used to scrub the skin, a pebble, a piece of cloth, etc. Madangi tun igud an inalak hi wangwang. This pebble for rubbing which I got from the river is smooth. 2trans. to rub or scrub skin with an instrument to clean off dirt. Igudom di odog ku aga. Please rub my back. Igudom di dikam. Rub off your dirt. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.6.2 - Bathe.)

ilista (der. of lista) trans. to have credit in a store; to make a list of charges in a store. Ilistam tun alak ta ahik idat hi ohhandi. List down the things I get and I will pay it the day after tomorrow. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Owe, 6.8.7 - Accounting.)

iltu intrans. to sense, through intuition, something that cannot be perceived in one’s immediate environment. An uggem iniltun waday matmattalak nah pihum? Didn’t you ever sense that some of your money is lost? Kon uggem iniltun waday at-atton nan inayam an adi maphod? Did you not sense that your spouse is doing something that’s not good? Miltuy boh-ol inam ke ha-on. Your mother’s anger towards me can be sensed. (is obvious) ‑in‑, mi‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: - Instinct.)

inal-ala adjunct. a contrastive expression; to be more so; but as for. Immeh Mary ot gumatang hi ittay an asukal, inal-alak ot an maid di ginatang ku. Mary went to buy a little sugar, but as for me, I did not buy any. Inal-ala nan ha-oy. Even more so if I’m the one. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Markers of emphasis.)

inay-aw (inay) adjunct. expression of surprise, can be positive or negative. Tinibom hi Bugan an e nanayo yaden nabutong. Inay-aw tipet maid di baina. I saw Bugan dance and yet she is drunk. Oh my, why doesn’t she have any shame? Inay-aw, nakagganas man! Wow! What a wonderful time we’ve had! Inay-aw, tumakutak, indae ya matalak da! Oh my! I’m so afraid they’ll get lost. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ittay (sp. var. itay; sp. var. ittang; sp. var. kittay) 1adj. small; little, evaluative measure of size, extent or amount. Ittay tun inalak an boga. The rice I brought is a small amount. Ittay tun hinamal, munhaang ka pay. The rice is not enough for us, cook some more. Umeeley ka hi ittay. Move a little further. Ittay di indat mun hiya. You gave him a small one only. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.1 - Small.) 2trans. to decrease in size, extent or amount. Ittayon yu di idat yu. Give them small amounts. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Decrease.) 3proc. to become small as a process. Umittay nan boga. The rice will become few. (lit. become small) ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. inita-itay der. kaittay infl. it-itay infl. kait-itayan

ka- -inn- mod. 1this circumfix encodes the modal concept of something that can be easily done; facility; describes the state or condition of something that facilitates an action or process. Kadinnaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. Kaginnabyon nan luta. That soil can be easily hoed. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2encodes the modal concept of someone who has a tendency toward emotional or physical affects. Kabinnungot hi amana ten nabutong. His father tends to be angry when he is drunk. Kadinnoggoh inana. Her mother tends to be sickly.

ka- CV- this prefix combination encodes the tendency to become the characteristic expressed in the root or the tendency to go through a process. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. That cup is breakable (easily broken). (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ka-₁ 1nominalizer. this prefix nominalizes an adjective or verb. Handih kaittay na ya ammunay Clinic an wadad Kiangan. When he was young/little, there was only a clinic in Kiangan. Nah kadakol di tatagu ya mahapul an halipat-an di pihhu With the large number of people, you have to be careful with your money. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even very dangerous/frightening to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.) 2dervN. the affix renominalizes a noun, changing the meaning. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu I remember that when we were children (lit. childhood), there were big rocks beside the same spring Nipalpun dih kagolang na inggana kediyen kimmat-agu ya maphod di pangi-ena. From the time of his childhood until he was a young man, his nature was good.

kaCV- mod. to have a tendency toward certain behavior or have the characteristic encoded in the root. <The prefix ka- requires the cooccurence of the CV- reduplication to encode the ‘tendency’ modal concept. > Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. The cup is breakable. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

kaha comm. the body of a vehicle. Maphod nan kahan di talak na. The body of his car is beautiful. Sim: adol. (sem. domains: - Vehicle.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

kalampaag intrans. clanging sound produced by ill-adjusted joints of mechanical contrivances. Mungkalampaag nan talak te mungkalatiyan mo. The vehicle produces a clanging sound because it is already rusty. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kallakal 1comm. mole cricket; edible, burrows in the earth. Tumakutak hi kallakal. I am afraid of crickets. Waday mihdan kallakal. There is an edible cricket. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2trans. to gather edible crickets. Mangalakal da nadan u-unga handi munggaud nadan ammod da. The children were gathering crickets when their parents were spading the fields. maN‑/naN‑.

kalub 1comm. refers to the lid of containers such as pots or baskets; a cover. Natalak nan kalub di banga. The cover of the pot was lost. Sim: huk’ap, hukbung. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to cover a container, a pot or basket. Kalubam nan banga. Cover the pot. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kamatis (sp. var. kamatit) comm. tomato. Nalakay kamatis ad uwani. Tomatoes are cheap these days. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

kanan to say. 1.1trans. a quotation form meaning say, said, tell, or told. Kanan day deke mo kanu ta pidwana ya adida makie. They said that the next time they would not join the group. Om, an kanan min Mayor. We told the Mayor yes. Speech Verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 1.2trans. a quotation form meaning thought, wish. Kanak hi nomnom kuy “Makamman-un dida te kay nakalakka. I said to myself, “It’s good for them because it seems easy.” Handi immingleyak mo ya kanak di nalakan lumah-un. Then, I got tired and thought it would be easy to go down. (sem. domains: - Think about, 3.2 - Think.)

kaput trans. 1to repair things made of rattan; may be generalized to repair other things. [Repairs are usually made with strips of rattan.] Ingkaput da nan napain gampa. They repaired the head-basket with rattan vine. Paputam nan pahiking. Repair the back pack with rattan. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2to tie something using rattan strips. Dahdiy adi bumoh-ol an ingkaput ku nan panton di balen di manuk on eyak ume on naubad di kaput na. Who wouldn’t get angry, I tied the door of the chicken house and when I went, it was untied. Kinaputan Mariah uwe nan karton yaden binukatan yu pay. Maria tied the carton with rattan and you still opened it. Pun-ikaput yun am-in hanadan carga te mangali nan talak. Tie all the baggage, the truck is coming. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else.

karga 1comm. baggage, sack, anything considered to be cargo carried on a vehicle. Ad-adiy nangiha-ad na nadah karga. He didn’t place the baggage in an orderly way. Iphod muy pangiha-ad mu nadah karga. Place the baggage nicely (lit. make good the placement of the baggage). (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to load baggage or other cargo on vehicle. Ikargam nan bulhe nah talak. Load the beans in the truck. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Language of Borrowing: Spanish: carga.

kattog adjunct. 1expression of a feeling of uncertainty; also, there can be a sense of futility based on the inability to fulfill expectations or the futility of an action; uncertainty. Hituwe kattog di midat mi. This is only what we can give. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You may think that what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Unsure.) 2expresses a feeling of disappointment; unfortunately. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented with just following her brothers.

ke danae (n. ph. of danae) dem. those; the plural form of the kenae member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Ya ammunay linalakin mangan ke danae. (Numbers 18:10b) Only men can eat those things. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

kediyen (kediye) dem. that; the form is based on kediye, a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns and the linker an. Kediyen himbatangan ya imme nan talak Pamolka ot mada-idai ya mungkibangngad an panaspasana That afternoon, Famorca’s jeep went and after a while, it returned going very fast. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. That is all I have heard about that case. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu I remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

kilut trans. to stir up sediment in a liquid and cause it to become murky. Adiyu kiluton nan liting ta mumbalbalak. Do not stir the water (and make it murky) because I am going to launder clothes. Kinilut da nan liting ad tap-o. They made the water above murky. Nakilut nan liting ad Ibulao te immudan ad Hungduan. The water in Ibulao River is murky because it rained in Hungduan. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. Sim: kibul. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) id. pinhod kuy nakilut

kudukdul 1advpred. for something to be better or preferable to another thing to which it is compared. Kudukdul hin mungngunuwak te adiyak mundogo. It’s better if I work because I don’t get sick. Mu indani ya pimmalak bo ot nomnomonan kudukdulnay umanamut. But after awhile, she groaned again and so he decided it would be good to return home. Evaluative. (sem. domains: - To a larger degree.) 2trans. to prefer a specific action over another. Kudukdulok di umanamut mu nan eyak mun-iyan hitu. I would prefer to go home than to overnight here. Pakudukdulok di mundaldallan mu hay um-umbun. I prefer to walk about rather than to be sitting down. ‑on/‑in‑, pa‑ ‑on. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: - Choose.) 3proc. for something to improve; become better. Kimmudukdul di giknak handi tinibo daka. My feeling became better when I saw you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.)

kugit trans. to circumcise. Iek tun imbabalek ta kugiton da nah wa-el. I’m bringing my son to be circumcised in the creek. An inilan nan inayam an mungkugit? Does your husband know how to circumcise? Imme da nah wa-el ot pungkugit na nadan linalaki. They went to the river and he circumcised the boys. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑, puN‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kuling₂ 1sta. to have a high-pitched voice; for one’s voice to become high-pitched. Makuling di kalin Winston yaden lalaki. The voice of Winston is high-pitched and yet he is a boy. Deke on kumuling di kalim. Sometimes your voice becomes high pitched. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to sing with a high pitch. [This would be particularly true when a man sings falsetto.] Mungkankanta kayu ya maimatun di boses mu te kulkullingom. You were singing and your voice could be recognized because you were singing in a high pitch. (lit. making voice high-pitched)

lak-ay (sp. var. lak-e) trans. to lift up someone or something. Immalih Talakka ot lak-ayonak ot ieyak hi bale. Talakka came, lifted me and carried me into the house. Imme ot ena lak-ayon di oha. She went over and picked one up. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: - Lift.)

lak’a 1sta. to be easy to do or perform. Nalakan munbayuh kape. It is easy to pound coffee. Kon nalaka? Adik ot pe lakaon. Is it easy? I don’t take it to be easy. na‑. Sim: hin-unu. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.) 2adjectival predicate. to do something easily. Laklaka-on itagge nan batu. He lifts the stone easily. ‑on/‑in‑. 3cheap. 3.1sta. to be cheap; inexpensive. Nalakay bulhe te dakol. Green beans are cheap because there’s plenty of them. na‑. 3.2proc. to become cheap. Limmaka nan igattang dan liblu. The book they are selling became cheap. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lakay 1comm. old man. Daan nan lakay? Where is the old man? (sem. domains: - Man.) 2comm. may be used to refer to a husband. Daan di nangayan lakay mu? Where did your husband go? Opp: bak’et. (sem. domains: - Husband, wife.) 3comm. nickname for a baby boy. (sem. domains: - Child.) 4proc. to become an old man. Limmakay di tibo na te makanginnum. His looks became like that of an old man because he is a heavy drinker. Nalakay moh ama. Father is already an old man. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: - Old person.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

logom 1advpred. refers to a random thing or person involved in an action, may refer either to the agent or the thing acted on. Logom nadi on inalak. I took things randomly. Nalgom/Nalogologom di kalyom. You talk just anything/nonsense. Nalgom di tagu an humgop hi balen di kandidato. Just anyone can enter the house of the candidate. Hay ke bo pihhu ya adi nalnalgom on ginatang. And as for money, don’t just spend it on anything. ma‑/na‑. Manner. Sim: kumpulmi. (sem. domains: - Intend.) 2trans. to do something randomly and hastily with the focus on the action itself, not the modification. Logmona ha-ad hi pihhuna. He just puts his money anywhere/carelessly. Ilgom nay pangibalowana hanadah hintutulang. He will not just randomly revenge it among the relatives. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. infl. nalgom

lolottan comm. loom bar; a supporting bar inserted between the warp threads so that the thread will not part or be entangled. Natalak nan lolottan di ablan ku. The lolottan-bar for my loom is lost. Whole: ablan. (sem. domains: 8.6 - Parts of things.)

lumlum trans. to get something stuck in mud, e.g. a vehicle. Adim ilumlum nan talak te maid di manguyud. Do not get the vehicle stuck in the mud because there is no one to pull it. Nilumlum nan tolak. The vehicle was stuck in the mud. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ma-idon (der. of maid) trans. an agent causes something to cease to exist. [This verb is most commonly used in the Bible. God is the agent who is able to cause things to cease to exist.] Mu takon di athidi ya adik ma-idon nakitobbalak ke didat adik dagdagon didan am-in. (Libiticus 26:44a) But even though it’s like that, I will not cause my covenant with them to cease to exist and so I will not destroy all of them.

magatang (infl. of gatang) 1pass. for something to be bought. Maid di magatang hi ihdad uwani te nahilong. There is no food to be bought now because it is already night. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Buy.) 2sta. to be affordable; can be bought. Magattang hinae te nalaka. That can be bought because it is cheap. ma‑.

makiha-ad (infl. of ha-ad) trans. to live with someone. Maid di udum makiha-ad ke dakami. There was no one else who lived with us. Hi Talakka ya hiyah diye makiha-ad ke dakami. As for Talakka, she was the one who lived with us. maki‑. (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.)

mamiN- adj > advpred. this prefix encodes a non-past tense and multiplies by the number it is attached to making the adjectival cardinal number into a verbal form. <Derivation: The prefix derives an adverbial predicate from an adjective.> Oltom an munpalakpak ne inalam on espadat iwahiwam hi maminduwa weno mamintulu. (Ezekiel 21:14a) Shout as you clap your hands, then get a sword and wave it two or three times. Sim: namiN-. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.)

maN- 1TACR. the prefix encodes a non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized subject-agent; it co-occurs with Classes 4 and 5 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The N in the form symbolizes a nasal that assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant. If the first consonant of the root is followed by the ‘o’ vowel, the vowel will also be reduced.> Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Da Juan ke Maira din mange. It’s Juan and Maria who are passing by. Sim: naN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2asp. the prefix encodes a present continuative aspect; it co-occurs with roots that have an innate punctiliar aspect. Manatong kami nah ohan bale ya namodwongak an nanibo nah ohan lalaki. As we were arriving near one of the houses, I was surprised to see a man. Hay kalyona ya, kediyen hilong an manganamut, an gawan mon di hilong... He explained to us that the night before while he was on his way home at about midnight... (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

man-u 1adjunct. to be fortunate; for something to be good for someone. Man-un ditaku te mangan takuh mumpitlu hin-algo yaden dakol day agun maid kanon da. Good for us because we can eat three times a day when there are many who have no food at all. Kanak hi nomnom kuy “Makamman-un dida te kay nakalakka. I said to myself, “It’s really good for them because it seems easy.” Evaluative. (sem. domains: 4.4.1 - Prosperity.) 2advpred. something is possible, but is not certain; modifies the main clause; implies that it would be a good thing. Man-u te deket nangabak di tagu nah tugal ya mun-an-anla. It might be that when one wins in gambling he is happy. Modality. (sem. domains: - Possible.) comp. man-uke comp. man-upo

mu₂ pers. 1you; second person, singular pronoun; member of Set 1 non-cross-referenced subject. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, the initial consonant of the pronoun attaches to the verb, and the vowel ‘u’ is dropped.> Nganney itanom mu? What will you plant? Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, you heed my advice. Hi Rosa di ang-angom. Rosa is the one you should look for. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2your; second person, singular, possessive pronoun. <Morphophonology: When a possessed noun ends in a vowel, the initial consonant of the pronoun attaches to the noun, and the vowel ‘u’ is dropped.> I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Mun-awis kah ibbam. Persuade your friends. An napai nan talak mu? Has your truck broken down? (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

mumbitkol (id. of bitkol) ref. to commit suicide by strangling oneself. Numbitkol nan lalaki. The man strangled himself. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Kill.)

mumpa- -an trans. this circumfix encodes a causative agent-subject with the cross-referencing of a site-object; non-past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Ot mundasalak ke he-at mumpabaddangak, APU. (Psalm 30:8) And so I prayed to you so that you will help me, LORD. Mundongol kayun papatul ya dakayun aap-apu te ikantaak hi APU DIOS an Dios Israel ya mumpagangowak hi pundayaw kun hiya! (Hanadan Huwes 5:3) You kings and you leaders listen because I will sing a song to the Lord God, the God of Israel and I will play music in my honoring of him. Sim: numpa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

muN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp.

mungkimkimit (infl. of kimkimit) intrans. to twinkle, e.g. stars, a blinking light. Mungkimkimit nadan bittuwon ad kabunyan. The stars in the sky are blinking. Mungkimkimit nan dilag nan talak. The truck's lights are blinking. muN‑/nuN‑ CVC‑.

na-₁ sta. this prefix co-occurs with stative-process verbal roots and encodes a completive aspect. Nalakan mabutong. It is easy to get drunk. Natukal di tatagu te hay ngalan di munla-un tatagu. The people were sleepless because of the noise of passers-by. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man (because of his gambling). Sim: ma-; Sim: ma-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

nakaC1- mod. this prefix is an intensifying modal affix; past tense. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a very loud noise when it is about to land. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Sim: makaC1-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ngalub comm. succulent ricefield weed. Nalakan magabut di ngalub. The ngalub-weed can easily be uprooted. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

ngubu 1comm. indistinct sound of voices of people heard from a distance. Dingngol kuy ngubungubu da. I heard their voices from a distance. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. to hear voices from a distance. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngubungubun mangabat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices.

numpa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent and cross-references that person; past tense. Hi Maria di numpabayu. Maria had rice pounded. Dahdiy numpataluh libutan? Who had the pouch hidden? Nan hakit nay numpapalak ke ha-on. It’s the pain that made me groan. Sim: mumpa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

numpi- adj > advpred. this prefix is affixed to cardinal numbers to derive an adverbial predicate that means to do the action or activity expressed in the main verb the number of times encoded in the cardinal number; past tense; multiplier. Numpitluy nundasalak ke Apu takut kaanonah tuwen ligat ku...(2 Corinth 12:8) Three times I prayed to our Lord to remove my hardship... (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes, - Number of times.)

og’a₁ 1trans. to drop something. Inggana nan banga ot maphik. He dropped the pot and it broke. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 2to fall. 2.1intrans. to lose balance and fall off or fall down. Mun-oga kah na hin mipinggit ka. You will fall off there if you stay on the side. An pinatnaam di mag-ah nitag-e? Have you ever fallen from a high place? Impakakkag-an nan dibdib nah nihap-e. The wind caused all the clothes in the clothesline to fall. muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: balintuwag, lotwad, tu-un, uhbung. (sem. domains: - Fall.) 2.2pass. for an inanimate thing or animal to fall off or down. Nag-a day bungan di mangga te maid udan. The mango blossoms fell off because there has been no rain. Nag-a nan nuwang ot mate. The carabao fell off and it died. ma‑/na‑. 2.3trans. refers to something falling; the place where it falls is in view. Daanay nag-ahan nan talak? Where did the truck fall off? Adida mag-ahan nadah batun mungkakag-a. They can be safe from the falling pieces of rocks. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

oha bo (fr. var. oha pay) (comp. of oha, bo) advpred. used to add an additional argument or reason in discourse; furthermore; another thing is. Nihallay nangipatakan nah kaiw. Oha pay ya nunyaku nan kaiw. You nailed the wood in the wrong place. Furthermore, the wood is crooked. Makaphod hituwen ihda. Oha bo ya nalakan iha-ang. This viand is very good. Another thing, it is easy to cook. Mathematical. (sem. domains: - And, also.)

olas₂ (sp. var. olat; sp. var. oras) comm. a single period of time defined by two 12-hour periods in one day; hour. Dandani olas singku ya inla-u da boh diyen intakke da nah talak padin pun-itikid da te nate. It was almost 5:00 o’clock when they passed again, riding in the priest’s jeep going up because he is dead. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) der. hin-olas der. inolas

ongal (fr. var. ongag) 1adj. describes something which is large in size; big. Eta tuwali madlig on mahapul an mitakke ta kinali ongal di umeh pulit. Every time you move you have to ride, that is why a big amount goes for fare. Ongal di matanan nakappaldang hi angana. It has big, round eyes that are close together on its face. (refers to an owl) Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big.) 2become large in size. 2.1proc. refers to the process of becoming larger in size. Umongal nan manuk hin panganom hin mumpitluh ohan algo. The chicken will become big if you feed it three times a day. Mungkaongal ka. You are becoming big. Immongal ka mo gayam ya timmag-e ka pay. You have become big now and you are tall, too. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mungka‑. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.) 2.2sta. to be large in size. Naongal nan ek intanom. My plants grew big. Naongal nan bale da. Their house is big. Mangan ka ta maongal ka. You eat so you’ll grow big. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big, 8.2.1 - Small.) 2.3trans. to cause to become big. Iongal na nan inumonan gattak. It will become big because of the milk it is drinking. i‑/iN‑. ongngal der. mangong-ongal der. ong-ongal der. ongnga-ongngal n. ph. ongal di bulan

ot ya abu (comp. of abu) 1adv. expresses a strong quantitative concept, totally, absolutely, wholly. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon ot ya abu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he loses all of it. Limiting and maximizing. 2adjunct. expresses an intensity of feeling or attitude, particularly with either commands or requests; in context, there is usually a rejected alternative of an activity or action involved; absolutely. Idatan yu ot ya abu didah kanon da ya inumon da. You must absolutely give them what they will eat and drink. Hay itugun kun he-a ya tumungo ka ot ya abu. As for my advice to you, it is absolutely take a rest day. Wada da nan munhona ta kanan di bumaddang da yaden mungkulkullawing da ot ya aabu ta mid-um di dam-ot da. There are those naughty ones who instead of helping carry the load, hold on to the pole and swing from one side to the other, thereby absolutely adding to the load. Attitudinal. 3adv. expresses the idea of a singular purpose. Umali ka ot ya abut baddanganak. Come for the singular purpose of helping me./Come just to help me. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.)

otak 1comm. large single-edged knife tool, used in agricultural tasks, splitting wood, etc.; bolo An inalam nan otak? Did you bring along the bolo? Matadom nan otak mu. Your bolo is sharp. Sim: hinalung, kulukul, uwa. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2intrans. to bring along a bolo. Nun-inotak an e nanibo nah natalak an nuwang. They brought along thier bolos to look for the lost carabao. muN‑ iN‑/nuN‑ iN‑. id. kay hubil di nuwang di otak id. Maid di hilbin di adi tumadom an otak.

paddapadda₂ trans. to use a broken stick as a pointer to locate a lost thing during a ritual. Paddapaddaon da nan natalak an pang-o. They will look for the lost gold-necklace with the broken-stick method. {ritual} ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

paggalat 1comm. edible fern variety. Mahong-o di paggalat an ihda. Fern-grass is delicious as a viand. Sim: ap-apat, appaku. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to gather edible ferns. Mamaggalat hi Talakka hi ena igattang hi bigat. Talakka is gathering edible ferns which she will sell. maN‑/naN‑.

pakaC1- mod. this prefix functions as an intensifying modal for Class 4 verbal roots. Dimmin-ong ta pakaddonglona ya impidwanan bon pimmalak an palak di babai. He was quiet so that he could carefully listen and the groan of a woman was repeated. Hiya ke ya pakappinhod da aman inana ya hi apunan hi Dulnuan. He really loved his father, mother and grandfather Dulnuan. Mu hay pakappinhod nan kanon ya hay da munlumiin bunga. But what it really likes best is sweet fruit. Sim: C1. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

paktiw 1comm. pepper, small red and green variety. Umalak ka nah paktiw hidin nah alad. Get some pepper near the fence. Syn: hili. (sem. domains: - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to place or use pepper on food. Paktiwam nan ihda mu tibom ta adi makikkan nadanu-unga. Place pepper on the food but see to it that the children will not eat from it. Mumpaktiw damdama yaden golgollang. He uses hot pepper also, yet he is still a child. Ipaktiw da nan ihda an dotag. They will dip the meat in hot pepper. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. id. kay napaktiwan di tipam

palat di oban (comp. of oban) comm. a pregnancy ritual performed to prevent abortion or miscarriage; literally means the handle of the baby-carrying-blanket. [This is done for the first child; the father’s kin give the oban 'baby-carrying-blanket' that they themselves have made, if possible.] Pun-ingunuday palat di oban te nuntungo moh Talakka. They are performing the ritual for pregnanacy because Talakka already gave birth. (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony.)

pamga (sp. var. pamaga) 1trans. to do without caution; tactlessly or carelessly done. Adim pamga hi kali. Do not be tactless with your words. Impamga nah haad nan payung kinali natalak. She placed the umbrella carelessly, that is why it got lost. i‑/iN‑. 2adv. expresses a limiting concept. Adiyak pakaippol an ek pamgay op-opya. I cannot endure just keeping quiet. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: - Attitude.)

pangipa- -an caus. this circumfix has a topicalized agent, a causative agent in the subject position in the clause, and a definite cross-referenced object. Dahdiy pangipaalian da nadah liblu? Who will they have bring those books here? Hi Juan di pangipadikhalak nah ongal an kaiw. Juan will be the one that I will have split the big piece of wood. Sim: nangipa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

panuyu trans. to blame someone; to accuse someone of being at fault. Impanuyu dan Jose nan natalak an otak. They blamed Jose for the lost machete. Panuyuwon dan hiya nan natalak an pihhu. They blamed him for the lost money. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Accuse, confront.)

paspas advpred. to hurry. Kediyen himbatangan ya imme nan talak ot mada-idai ya mungkibangngad an panaspasana That afternoon, that jeep went and after a while, it returned going very fast ‑an‑ ‑an. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.8 - Speed.)

pattik (sp. var. patik) trans. to be thrown for a distance, e.g. in a collision of big and small objects, the smaller one will be thrown as with a rock that is hit by a passing vehicle and thrown. Mundungpup kayu ke ya ipatik daka te it-itay ka. If you collide with each other you will be thrown because you are smaller. Nidungpup nan talak nah kaiw ya nipatik nan nuntakken golang. The vehicle hit the tree and the child who was riding in it was thrown out. Nipatik on batu tuh kad-ak. A stone was thrown near me. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, muN‑. (sem. domains: - Throw.)

pihhu (sp. var. pihu) 1comm. money; cash. Hay ke bo pihhu ya adi nalnalgom on ginatang. And as for money, don’t just spend it on anything. In-eyam hi Juan hi pihhu? Did you take some money to Juan? Sayang di oras ya effort ya pihhu. Your time, effort and money are wasted. Syn: kuarta. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money.) 2comm. monetary unit. Himpulun pihu di ohan kilon boga. Rice costs ten pesos a kilo. 3comm. one peso. Indatan dah pihu ot ume. They gave him one peso and he left. 4intrans. costs a peso each; worth one peso. Duway alak te mamihu damdama. I will get two because they cost one peso each. Mapihu di ginattang nan kindi. She bought candies worth one peso. maN‑, ma‑. der. pihhuwan id. gomgomom tun pihu id. kon kumaliy pihhu?

pinghana (der. of oha) 1comm. refers to the first day of the week; Monday. Handih pinghana di immaliyak hi bale yu. It was last Monday that I came to your house. piN‑ + na. Syn: Lunes. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) 2adv. refers to the beginning of a period of time or the first instance of an event; first time. Man-u dih pinghana te maphod ka; ad uwani ya makangohhe ka. It was only at the beginning that you were good; now you are proud. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Hidiyey pinghanan pangayan Bugan an e manibon inaonan hi Magappid. It was the first time Bugan went to visit her Aunt Magappid. Time. (sem. domains: - Ordinal numbers.)

pingngit 1comm. border; edge; rim, e.g. bank of river; side of road. Natanoman hi palawer am-in nan pingngit di bale da. The border of their house was all planted with flowers. Nah pingngit di kalatay pun-ay-ayyaman yu te dakol di mala-uh talak. You play at the side of the road because there are many vehicles passing by. Dakol day u-ungan mun-ay-ayyam nah pingngit di Ibulao. Many children are playing at the edge of the Ibulao river. (sem. domains: - Boundary.) 2to put something on the edge. 2.1trans. to bring to put something to the side or edge. Ipingngit mu na talak te waday lumah-un. Bring the vehicle to the side of the road because someone is going to alight. i‑/iN‑. 2.2intrans. to be on the side or edge of a bed, bench, etc. Mipingngit nah kama nan ong-ongal ta tibonay mag-an dakayu. The older one will stay on the outer side of the bed so that he will see that you do not fall.

pipip intrans. sound of a horn; a toot; a beep. Nan talak ya abuy mumpipip. The truck is the only thing that toots. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

pitaka 1comm. a container for holding money; a purse, a wallet, or a billfold. Ihaad mu nah pitakam nan pihhum ta adi matalak. Place your money in your purse so that it will not get lost. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place money into a wallet. Ipitakam nan binoklam. Place your salary in your wallet. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.) 3intrans. to have or use a wallet or purse. Numpitakah inan immeh malket. Mother had a purse when she went to the market. muN‑/nuN‑.

pongot 1comm. any circular ornament for the head; headband; wreath; crown. [The most common concept referred to is that of a piece of cloth tied around the head to hold the hair away from face or for absorbing perspiration.] Nan maingit di pongot na di imbabalen Talakka. The one with a red headband is the son of Talakka. 2trans. to tie cloth around head. Mumpongot ka ta adi mag-ay haniyan nan buuk muy angam. You tie a piece of cloth around your head so that your hair will not cover your face. Ipongot mu nan panyuk. Use the handkerchief for a headband. Pongotam hi tulang mu te adukkey buuk na Place a headband on your brother because he has long hair. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 3A Move and position object at site.

pongpong trans. to hold something tightly; to grasp; to grip, e.g. the handle of a machete, ax, etc. Nganne ahan hinaen popongpongam? What is that you are grasping? Pinongpong na nan otak ot ipalang na nah tongod di nuwang. He held the machete tightly and cut the carabao’s neck. Pakappongpongom ta adi nalakan maplo. You hold it tightly so it won’t be snatched easily. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an, paka‑ ‑on. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Hold.)

puhog comm. navel; refers to the umbilical cord and the abdominal scar where the umbilical cord was attached. Tinalak day puhog ku, kinali nalakan kal-iwwak di nganneh diye. They lost my umbilical cord, that is why I easily forget everything. (sem. domains: 2.1.2 - Torso.) id. mabangngad di puhog na

pukung₁ 1comm. cage; pen. Ambilog di pukungan di babuy da. Their pigpen is wide. ‑an. 2trans. to lock up; to put in cage; to pen up. Ipukung yuy babuy yu ta adi da humubang hi nitanom. You put your pigs in their pigpens so that they will not eat what is planted. Ipukung tun manuk. Cage this chicken. Pukungon yuy manuk yu ta adida matalak. Put your chickens in their cages so that they will not get lost. Impukung da nan inayam te gumulu. They put your husband in jail because he makes trouble. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: kulung. (sem. domains: - Prevent from moving.)

pulding trans. to pluck the strings of a guitar to make music. Puldingok di gitalak nah mungkabigat ta mabangun nan algo. Psalm. 57:8 I will play my guitar at dawn so that the sun will awaken. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch. (sem. domains: - Play music.)

puluy 1comm. direction. Munpa-ed dawa di puluy nan dibdib. The direction of the wind was towards the west. 2trans. to move in a certain direction. <The direction component is so important, it makes the verb transitive.> Nalakan inilaon nan puluyon di dibdib hin waday kaiw an pangiang-angan. It’s easy to know the direction of the wind if there is a tree by which we can see it. Inipluy nadan binabaih kad-an mi. The women came in our direction. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/ini‑.

sala₂ 1comm. dance, generally refers to ballroom dancing. [The word refers to dances that are not native to Ifugao.] Waday sala ad da-ul te waday mungkasal hi bigat. There is a dance down there because there is a wedding tomorrow. 2intrans. to dance. Munsala da Pedlo ke Talakka. Pedro and Talakka are dancing. Sumala ka ni-an ta ahi magawid. Dance for a while before you go home. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to dance with someone; to dance for someone. Isala dakan Pedlo te pihod dakan hiya. Pedlo will dance with you because he likes you. Salaan dakayu. I will dance for you. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

siim 1intrans. to watch closely without being seen; to spy on. Munsiim ta inilanay atona. He is spying on them so that he will know what to do. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 2trans. to watch closely something in particular. Siimmonay pangayan nan lalaki. He keeps watching where the man goes. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

singyal (sp. var. sinyas; sp. var. sinyal) 1comm. a prearranged signal. Hay singyal taku ya duwan adukken ihiw. Our signal will be two long whistles. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2comm. an identifying mark. Waday singyal nah tuktuk na kinali inimatunan da. He had an identifying mark on his head, that’s how they recognized him. 3intrans. to signal. Munsingyal da an umali dah tu. They are signalling that they are coming here. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to place a sign or to signal someone to give a message. Singyalam nan dalan ta adida matalak nan mungkitun-ud. Place a sign on the road so that those who are following will not be lost. Siningyalan da hi krus. They placed a cross-mark. Singyalam dida an wada taku moh tu. Signal them that we are already here. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Change state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

sinyas (sp. var. of singyal) 1) comm. sign; signal. Waday sinyas an nunhummanganan da. They agreed on a signal. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2) trans. to signal someone Sinyasam nadan ibba taku ta ume taku mo. Signal to our compaions that we are leaving now. Isinyas mu an umali da mo. Signal them to come now. 3) intrans. to signal. Munsinyas hi Pedlo ta umalih Talakka. Pedlo is signaling for Talakka to come.

takke 1intrans. to ride on an animal or in a vehicle. Muntakke ka nah nuwang. Ride the carabao. Muntakke dah talak an umed Asipulo. They will ride a vehicle going to Asipulo. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: lugan. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2trans. to mount and sit astride a horse or carabao. Takkayam nan kabayu. Mount the horse. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3trans. for a person or cargo to ride in a vehicle. Itakkem nadan saku nah pingngit di kalata. Load those sacks beside the road. Dakol di damanan mitakke adi ya abuh ginattut mo udum nat linibu pay. Many people can ride and it is not only the hundreds but sometimes by the thousands even. (on an airplane) i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑.

takon conj. a conjunction of concession; although; even; even when; even if; even though. {The conjunction relates a hypothetical concession with an assertion.} Takon di athidi ya opya ka. Although it’s like that, you keep quiet. Takon di hi Pedro ya nahuyop. Even Peter is asleep. Takon nan udidiyan da ya makitentenda. Even their youngest helps in selling. Takon di bimmungot tak pimmaliyak ke ya paka-ikabing nay tugun ku. Even when he is angry, he still heeds me when I talk to him. Makaphod nan buhim te adi malumman di tamtam di baya takon di mabayag an miha-ad. Your jar is good because the taste of the rice wine does not change even if it stays in it for a long time. Takon di bumoh-ol ka ya alak damdama. Even if you are angry, I’ll get it anyway. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: - Concession.)

takut 1to be afraid. 1.1intrans. to feel anxiety or dread due to impending danger; afraid. Tumakut hi banig. He is afraid of ghosts. Maid moy udum an Ippangyol an nangipatnan immalin niha-ad ad Kiangan te tumakut da. No other Spaniard ever tried again to come to stay in Kiangan because they were afraid. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. Opp: tulid; Sim: kol-o, kobkob. (sem. domains: - Afraid.) 1.2sta. to be very afraid. Makattakut hi Juan nah ahu. Juan is very afraid of the dog. makaC1‑. 2to fear something. 2.1trans. to fear something with the thing feared cross-referenced by the affix. Takutan di mangalanay ahu. It’s the dog that night prowlers are afraid of. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to cause someone to feel frightened; the affix cross-references the person who is being frightened. Taktakuton da dakayu ya alan day diyen limmu yu. They will frighten you and get your property. CVC‑ ‑on. 3sta. to be frightening; to have characteristics that cause fear. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (lit. frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. kaCV‑. 4comm. refers to the emotion that someone experiences. Adina itikod nan mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He doesn’t stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die anytime. der. katatakut der. matakutan infl. makattakut

tap-o 1comm. a place of higher elevation; the upper place; a higher place. Ihaad mu nah tap-on di aparador. Put it on top of the closet. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah alak ya wadaday ngubungubun mangabat da. He went to the place above the creek in the irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices. Sim: bagtu. (sem. domains: - High.) 2trans. to place on top of something; to stay on top of something. Hidiye nan nuntap-o. That one has been placed on top. Puntap-owom tun bulwatik. Put my dress on the top. muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑ ‑on.

tatawa 1to laugh. 1.1intrans. to make vocal sounds expressing mirth or ridicule; to laugh. Tipet tumatawa ka? Why do you laugh? Wada key ustun matataw-an ya komboy dahdi ya tumatawa. If there is something worth laughing at, anybody will laugh. Pimmalakpak kami, timmatawa kami, timmaddog kami ya inumbun kami. We clapped, we laughed, we stood and we sat down. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2D, Vocal sounds expressing feeling. Sim: gegek, gigi, titit, bog-ak, halekhek, anggak, albuwang. (sem. domains: - Laugh.) 1.2intrans. to be laughing; durative aspect. Muntattatawa da. They are laughing. muN‑/nuN‑, CVC‑ . 1.3intrans. to laugh with intensity. Nakattatawaak. I was laughing very hard. nakaC‑. 2trans. to laugh at someone or something. Tataw-an da nan inat mu. They are laughing at what you’ve done. Tipet katataw-anak? Why do you laugh at me? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. 3comm. laughter. Makadngol di tatawam. Your laughter can really be heard. Nal-ot di tatawa na. He has a boisterous laugh. 4caus. to cause people to laugh. Mangipatatawa ka. You are funny (lit. cause people to laugh). Agam, patatawam di adol mu. Go ahead, make yourself a laughing stock. pa‑, mangipa‑.

tibom ot advpred. to advise someone to be careful to avoid problems or trouble; to look out. Tibom ot boy pihhum te matalak man. Be careful with your money because it might get lost again. Manner. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.)

tigging 1intrans. to move to or be in a sloping position; to tilt sideways. Muntigging ka. Turn on your side. Nuntigging nan ubunan te andukkey ohan huki na. The chair is tilted because one of the legs is longer. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 8.5.2 - Direction.) 2sta. to be sloping; usually refers to the slope of a hill or mountain. Matigging nan talak te pitok nan godwaan di kalata. The vehicle will tilt because the other half of the road is mud. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.)

togna (fr. var. togya) trans. to frighten; to startle. Tognaom hin mala-u nah mabilau. Startle her when she passes by the canegrass area. Natogna ot iwalakana nan basu. He was startled and let go of the glass. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: bugtak, kaynit. (sem. domains: - Surprise.)

tubi trans. to arrange the marriage of a child. Initbiyak handih kagolang ku mu immongalak ya adik pinhod nan ek nitbiyan. A marriage was arranged for me when I was a child but when I grew up, I did not like the one I was engaged to. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. Sim: mom-on. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) infl. itbi

tubol sta. to be constipated. Nalakaak an matubol./Katinubolak. I easily get constipated. Tumubol di be-et hin tagan hi kakan. Guavas cause constipation if you eat too many of them. ma‑/na‑, ka‑ ‑in‑,‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: - Stomach illness.)

tukal 1sta. to be awake; to stay up late at night. Matukal day tatagu te nangala kayu. People will be awake at night because you are noisy. Natukalak te ekami nakisini. I was stayed up late (lit. was awake) because we went to the movies. Tumukal ka. You caused me to stay awake last night. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 5.7.3 - Wake up.) 2intrans. to stay awake or cause others to stay awake. [People attending a wake often stay up all night.] Muntukal da bo hi hilong te waday nated Ambabag They will stay up late again tonight because their is someone dead in Ambabag. Manukal ka. You are keeping people awake. muN‑/nuN‑, maN‑.

tukuk 1to shout. 1.1intrans. to speak with a loud cry or call; to shout usually because of fear or drunkenness, but may also be done to make oneself heard. Muntutukuk da nan tatagu te mungkapuulan di babale da. The people are shouting because their houses are burning. Muntukuk hi Daulayan te timmakut nah ongal an puha. Daulayan is shouting because he was frightened by the big cat. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: tudodan. (sem. domains: - Shout.) 1.2intrans. to call loudly once; to give a single shout. Tumukutukuk nan nabutong. The drunk keeps shouting. Tumkuk man hin ipatibom ke hiya nan bigi. She will surely shout if you show her the worm. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2D Vocal sounds, expressing feeling. 2to shout at. 2.1trans. to shout at someone; the person being shouted at is highlighted by the affix. Tukukam nadan u-unga ta adida mun-ay-ayyam nah payo. Shout at the kids so that they will not play in the field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to shout in order to make oneself heard; to relay a message to people within a cluster of houses or even the next village by shouting, e.g. rest day, the first thunder, etc.; the message itself is prominent rather than the loudness of the shout. [Ifugao houses were built in clusters around their fields.] Initkuk dan tungo ad uwani kinali umeyak hi habal. They shouted a message that it is a rest day today so I am going to the swidden plot. Nagibbuy programa ot waday nangitkuk hi daanay epangenan di tatagu. After the program, someone shouted out the places where the different groups will eat their lunch. i‑/ini‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3trans. to cry loudly in a manner that resembles shouting. Itkuk nay koga na. He is crying loudly. i‑/iN‑. 4comm. a loud cry or call ; a shout. Madngol nah bobley tukuk na handi natalak nah muyung. His shout could be heard in the village when he got lost in the forest. Sim: ingal.

tumog₂ intrans. to be sleepy, can be seen by the nodding head. Tumanumtumogak te natukalak. I feel sleepy because I stayed awake late. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

tun-ud 1to follow. 1.1trans. to follow someone carrying an object. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented in just following her brothers. Itun-ud ku nan pihhu binanok. I will follow you with the money I borrowed. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Follow.) 1.2trans. to follow someone in a line. Tun-udon taku dida. We will follow them. Natuntun-ud da. They were lined up. ‑on/‑in‑, na‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: haynod. 2intrans. to follow one after the other spatially; to line up; refers to the sequential ordering related to time or space. Muntun-ud kayun umali. You come one after the other. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Muntutun-ud an algon nate day manuk na. Day after day, his chickens died. muN‑/nuN‑.

tungo₂ 1intrans. to give birth. Adi nalakay muntungo. It’s not easy to give birth. Nuntungo hi Maria ya dappil. Maria gave birth to twins. muN‑/nuN‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 2trans. to give birth to a child. Itungo nah baleda nan imbabalena. She will give birth to their child in their house. Mitungo ke nan golang ya ngadanam hi Juan. When the child will be born, name him Juan. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. infl. nitungawan

udum₁ trans. 1to add condiments or other food to what is being cooked. Ta mamangulun ipulitu ta deket nage-geengngan hi ittay ne inid-um di amput ya danggu And fry first until it is brown and add garlic and onions. Ne inid-um di sagpaw an tinapa weno sardinas. Then, add tinapa or sardines. i‑/ini‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it with something else. 2to increase; to add to; to include. <Morphology: The maki- prefix expresses a participatory activity; the reduplication expresses the habitual aspect> Tibom bot adika makidkid-um hi fraternities te maid di hilbin dadiye.. See to it also that you don’t join any fraternity groups because they are useless. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon otyaabu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he loses it. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. i/iN, an/in‑ ‑an, maki CV(C). (sem. domains: - Increase.) der. hin-uddum infl. mid-uman

unol 1trans. to place something inside or between; to stuff into. Unolan yu hi malakapat nan pungan. Stuff the pillow with kapok. Iunol mu nan itlug nah tinapay. Place the egg into the bread. Nganney niunol nah siopao? What is inside of the chinese-bun? i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 2comm. inside part; the core; the stuffing inside. Ginohgo da nan unol di balat ot ipakan da nah babuy. They sliced the core of the banana trunk and gave it to the pig.

unud 1trans. to follow someone or something. Unudon yu nan gulding ta adi matalak. Follow the goat so that it will not be lost. Inunud kun ya immed Ambabag. I followed him and he went to Ambabag. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Follow.) 2trans. to follow the advice of someone; to obey. Unudom di kalyon inam. Follow what your mother says. Adika mangun-unud. You do not obey. Pituy toona yaden makangngun-unud ya makabbaddang. He was only seven years old, yet he was very obedient and helpful. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: - Obey.) 3intrans. to be in agreement; to cooperate; to unite. Mun-uunnudan da nadan tatagu kediyen boble. The people in that village are united. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.1.5 - Unity.) 4intrans. to imitate; to copy. Iun-unud mu nah inat ku. Imitate what I did. i‑/iN‑ CVC‑. infl. mangun-unud infl. maunud

wa-el comm. a small body of running water; a brook; a stream; a creek. Adika ume nah wa-el. Don’t go to the brook. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah alak ya wadaday ngubungubun mangabat da. He went to the place above the creek in the irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices. Sim: baybay, wangwang, lob’ong. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.)

wewet (sp. var. wiwit) intrans. to go fast; to speed. Munwewet nan talak handi nala-uh tu. The truck was going fast when it passed by here. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: - Move quickly.)