Search results for "amo"

amo jealous. 1.1proc. to be jealous; to be envious. Umamowak ke hiya. I am so jealous of him. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . Sim: ah’ol. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.8 - Jealous.) 1.2trans. to envy someone; the affix cross-references the person that is envied. Inamohan dah Pedro. They were jealous of Pedro. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3rec. for two people to jealously guard the amount of work that each needs to do. Mun-inammo dah ngunu. Neither of them want to do the work./Both of them want the other to do the work. muN‑ ‑in‑.

ayyamon (ayyam) to befriend someone. Ayyamon yu nadan udum an u-unga. Play with/befriend the other children. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.1.1 - Friend.)

baltamo (sp. var. of embalsamo)

dahdin (comp. of dahdi, ke) int. who among; interrogative pronoun form asking for the identification of someone among a group. Dahdin diday panguluwan? Who among them is the eldest? (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words.)

embalsamo (sp. var. baltamo) trans. to prepare a dead body in order to prevent decay for a period of time; to embalm. [In former days, bodies of the dead were not embalmed. Today, it is very important for family members to return home for the burial of any member of the immediate family so embalming a body is important.] Balsamowon da nan nate te ih-od da nah tutulang na. They will embalm the dead person because they are waiting for his siblings. ‑on/in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.3 - Funeral, 2.6.6.5 - Bury.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: balsamar.

gamong comm. a blanket, hand-woven, used for wrapping the dead; one of three classes of woven blankets. Sim: pinagpagan; Sim: lumtong; Sim: napinitan; Sim: bayyaung. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.)

hakmul (sp. var. hakmal) trans. to eat something in big amounts. Nun-ihakmul na nan ihda, kinali gagalan nama-id. He ate the viand in big amounts that’s why it was quickly gone. muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.)

kadakol (der. of dakol) nom. refers to the amount or number of an entity. Nah kadakol di tatagu ya mahapul an halipat-an di pihhu. With the number of people, you have to be careful with your money. Hay kadakol di danum weno gatan di niyug ya nangamung di pinhod. The amount of water or coconut milk depends on what one prefers. Bukalom nan binokbok ya konoknongom di kadakol di punhagmuk mu. Now, crush the binokbok-leaves into powder and estimate how much you need. ka‑. (sem. domains: 8.1 - Quantity.)

kamo (sp. var. kammo) to mix. 1.1bitrans. to combine or mix one thing with another. Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot ihaang mu. You just mix the sugar with the flour and then you cook it. i‑/iN‑ . 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.3 - Mix.) 1.2trans. to mix or combine something, with the focus on the site-object . Kamowam hi dayakkot nan boga. Mix the sticky rice with the other rice. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3sta. to be mixed; refers to a mixture of things. Nungkammo di kinan na kinali mahakit di putuna. What he ate was a mixture, that is why his stomach is painful. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4pass. refers to the two things being mixed together. Eka mikamo didah tatagu. Go and be mixed with the people. Nikamo nan danum nah asukal. The water has been mixed with the sugar. Mahapul an makaikammo nan binokbok. The yeast must be well-mixed with the rice. mi‑/ni‑.

kay wa-el di ihbu na (id. of ihbu) refers to a large amount of urine being excreted (lit. Your urinating is like a river.)

kuwenta 1trans. to calculate or compute the number or amount of something. Deket gagalan madatngan hidiyen toon, mahapul an kuwentaon dat hanan lebbeng nan pamangngad nay bayadana, ta kay natangdanan hi katootoon. (Libiticus 25:52-53a) If that year will arrive soon, they must calculate the right amount of his payment of return so that it is like (he receives) his wages for every year. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) 2comm. the calculated number or amount of something. Hi Jehoiakim an patul di Judah ya binuwisana nadan tatagu, mipuun hi kuwentan di limmu dat wada pamayad nah buwis an ibagan nan patul di Egypt. (2 Patul 23:35) As for Jehoiakim who was king of Judah, he taxed the people based on the calculated amount of their wealth so that there would be payment for the taxes that the king of Egypt asked.

lamon 1comm. the seeds of legumes. Maid ni-an di lamon di bulhe. The beans have no seeds yet. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2comm. edible roots. Wada moy lamon nan gatawwa. The cassava has roots. 3proc. to bear seeds or roots; to bear produce inside pods or husks, e.g. beans, rice. An lumamoy gattuk hi mitanom hitu? Do sweet potatoes that are planted here bear a root-crop? Nalamhanan nan page mo. The rice has grain-seeds now. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 6.2.1 - Growing crops.)

lamot sta. to have an excessive fondness for certain foods. Malamot tun imbabalek hi kendy. My child has an excessive-fondness for candy. ma‑. (sem. domains: 3.3 - Want.)

mamogwa (der. of Bogwa) intrans. the persons performing the exhumation ritual. Mamogwa da Pedro hi hilong. Pedro and his family are going to perform the exhumation ritual tonight. maN‑/naN‑.

mamolta (infl. of molta) pass. to be penalized by fining. Mamolta ka hi tulun babuy. You will be fined three pigs. maN‑/naN‑.

mamongbong (infl. of bongbong) intrans. the person who builds or blocks a waterway. Hi amay namongbong nah guhing nan pukung. Father was the one who blocked the water outlet of the small rice pond. maN‑/naN‑.

ngam-ut 1comm. the total amount or number; all. Kaatnay ngam-ut di inani yu? What is the total of your harvest? (sem. domains: 8.1.5 - All.) 2trans. to take everything; take all. Adim ngam-uton nan balat ta waday kanon nan ibam. Don’t take all the bananas so your sister will have some to eat. Nginam-ut dan am-in nan boga nah tendaan. They took all of the rice in the store. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.)

ngamol comm. the natural jelly-like yellowish substance in ricefields that acts as a fertilizer. Kanan day maphod kanuy ngamol hi tomolan di page. They say the ngamol is good (fertilizer) for the growth of rice. (sem. domains: 6.2.2.3 - Fertilize a field.)

pakat₃ 1comm. an amount someone owes another person in gambling. Waday pakat nah duwan gatut. He owes an amount of two hundred pesos. Sim: utang, gawat. (sem. domains: 6.8.5.3 - Owe.) 2pass. owes an amount in gambling. Napakatan hi hinlibu ot bumtik. A thousand was owed in gambling so he ran away. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

pamol-ag (infl. of pol-ag) comm. a gong stick. Kape di kinapya dah pamol-ag. They used coffee trees for gong-beating-sticks. paN‑. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.)

aladu 1comm. a farm implement used to break up and prepare soil for planting; a plow. [The plow has one blade and one handle attached.] Natupu nan aladu te mabatu nan payoda. The plow became dull because their field is rocky. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2plowing. 2.1trans. to prepare soil for planting by using a plow; the activity itself is in view. An mun-aladu kayu nah payo yud uwani? Are you going to plow your field today? muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. to prepare some specified amount of ground for planting; activity is in view. Umaladu kah puntanman hi gahhilang. Plow an area to be planted with corn. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 3plow soil. 3.1trans. the soil being prepared for planting is in view. Kon aladuwon yu nan payo da? Are you are going to plow their field? ‑on/‑in‑. 3.2pass. the passive form which describes the soil being prepared for planting. Adi maaladu te mabatu. It cannot be plowed because it’s rocky. ma‑. 3.3trans. the plow implement is in view in the preparation of soil for planting. Ialadu yu nan ka-apya. Use the new plow. i‑/iN‑.

ayyam 1recreation time. 1.1intrans. refers to spending recreational time with others; may be used in regard to both children and adults. 2friend. 2.1comm. playmate; friend. Immali nan ayyam ku. My friend came. Syn: gayyum. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.) 2.2intrans. to befriend someone. Ayyamon yu nadan udum an u-unga. Play with/Befriend the other children. ‑on. ayyamon. 3intrans. Adim mo painnay-ayyam te mahapul an mun-istudy kah ustu. You are not going to squander your time because you must study. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) ayyamon der. mangay-ayyam

balol (sp. var. balor) 1comm. refers to the value or worth of something. Kaatnay balol di ginatang mu? How much did you pay (value) for what you bought? (sem. domains: 8.3.7.9 - Value.) 2intrans. to be worth an amount. Mumbalol hi ohan gatut nan ginatang na. What he bought is worth one-hundred pesos. muN‑/nuN‑. 3sta. to be valuable; priceless. Hidiy kahamakan di namahman balituk ya nadan nabalol an batu. That is where pure gold and valuable stones are found. Nabalol di luta. A piece of land is valuable. na‑. infl. balolan

Bert prop. shortened form of a common proper name among the Ifugao, Alberto.

biling₂ trans. to examine something carefully; to search carefully among things in a container or things that are stacked together. Bilibilingona nadan bulawati na te waday punhamak na. He is examining closely his clothes because he is looking for something. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, bidade, binbin. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

dakol 1adj. may refer to either number or quantity; ‘much’ is the English equivalent when referring to mass nouns; ‘many’ is the English equivalent when referring to count nouns. Dakol di ingkuyag muh liting. You poured much water. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Number quantifier. Sim: dakog. (sem. domains: 8.1.3.1 - Many, much.) 2increase 2.1intrans. to increase in number or amount; to multiply. Tuwen dumakol day manuk ku. My chicken’s are increasing in number. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.4.2 - Increase.) 2.2sta. to increase in number or amount. Madakol di gulding taku hin ipaptok taku. Our goats will increase in number if we take care of them. ma‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.4.2 - Increase.) 2.3trans. to increase something in number or size. Dakkolom di indat mun hiya. Give him more. (lit. Increase what you have given him.) ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.4.2 - Increase.) der. kadaklan der. kadakol infl. dakdakol infl. dakkodakkol

dalukduk trans. to scoop up small amounts of something from a small area, usually for disposal; to remove something. Dalukdukom nan utan di ahu ta iwelem. Spade/Shovel up the dog’s vomit and throw it away. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

damuna advpred. 1to delimit time by expressing the simultaneity of two different events; meantime; meanwhile. Um-umbun taku ni-an ta damunay kalutuwan nan kanon. Let us sit while the food is being cooked. Idadaan mu nan panganan ta damunay datngan da. Set the table, while waiting for them to arrive. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5.2.2 - At the same time.) 2to delimit an amount; enough or more than enough; may relate to quantifying space, amount, accomplishment. Damunay ginastum yaden uggem pay ginibbuy adal mu. You spent much yet you still haven’t finished your studies. Damunay nginunum. You have accomplished more than enough. Damunay ginabutam. You cleared enough, a wide space. (sem. domains: 8.1.7 - Enough.)

dikhal split wood. 1.1trans. to split wood. Dikhalon yu nan udyo. Split the narra-wood. Dinikhal na nan ongal an kaiw. He split the big log. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: giha, gihgi, potw’ak. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 1.2trans. to split with a component of manner, place, or instrument in view. Idikhal mu nah dola. Split the wood in the yard. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. to split wood with a durative activity in view. Mundikhal hi Jose hi itungu. Jose is splitting firewood. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. to split wood involving a partitive component, i.e. split a limited amount; some. Dumikhal kah itungun da apum. Split some wood for your grandparents’ firewood. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.5trans. to split wood with the component of contrasting the agent with others. <Morphophonology: The final consonant of the prefix maN- assimilates to the point of articulation of the initial consonant of the root, and then, reduces that consonant.> Manikhal ka. You split wood. maN‑/naN‑. 1.6trans. to split wood for a beneficiary. Indikhalan Juan nan nain-ina. Juan split wood for the old woman. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 1.7pass. refers to wood that will be split or has been split. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. ma‑/na‑.

dogap 1trans. to treat impartially or indifferently; to act in a way that does not differentiate among people. Idgap da kanuy pangibalohan da nah iKiangan. They do not differentiate among the people of Kiangan in taking revenge. Inidgap day ayag an adi umat nah waday imbitasyon an ammuna nadan nidattan an ume. They did not differentiate in their inviting of people, unlike when there are invitations and only those who receive them may go. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.7.9.1 - Impartial.) 2vary an action or activity. 2.1trans. to change or vary an activity ; to vary an action or activity without differentiating. Adim dogapon di pakikanam. Don’t eat at just anybody’s house. (randomly selected) Dogapom di ubunam. Why don’t you find a permanent seat and quit jumping from seat to seat. (check) morphology: dogapon ‑on ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 2.2pass. to be non-discriminate; varied. Nadgap di ngunuk. I have work that is varied. Nadgap di inayagan da. They called for just anyone. Nadgap di kalkalyom. You are talking of various topics.

doldol trans. 1to encroach on land boundary by extending. Indoldol inana nan poppog di luta da. His mother encroached on the land of their neighbor. i‑/iN‑. 3E Move object directionally. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 2(fig) to extend something such as a discussion or story; to continue. Aka-, umubuubun taku ke ya mungkadoldol di ittolya ya mange ot ya abuy olat. Well, as long as we keep sitting and extending our stories, the hours will just go by. mungka‑. 3to extend the amount of usable land. Kaatna ahan di maalam nah em doldolon. How much can you get anyway from extending it? (refers to a land) ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.7 - Extend.)

dotal 1nom. an area of land that is very flat and level, usually located among mountains; a valley. 2trans. to make something level; to make flat. Dotalom. Level it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 3intrans. a level surface. Hidih nundotal di pangiha-adam ta adi muntiggitigging. Place it on that leveled place so that it won’t be unsteady. Nuntitigging di lutah tun adi umat hi udum an boblen nundodotal. The land here is steeply tilted unlike the land in other places where it is level. Nundotal di payo mi. Our field is level. nuN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.2.2 - Rough.) der. nundotal

dubli trans. to do something twice; to double the amount of something. Dubliyon yuy idat yu. Give double the usual. Indubli nan e immala kanona. He doubled the food that he got. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

Dulnuan prop. a common proper name among the Ifugao; name of male or family name.

dumdum trans. to increase number or amount by adding more. Idumdum mu nah wada nah payo. Add it to the ones in the fields. Kalyom ke dida ta dumduman da tun hinamal. Tell them so that they will add more to this rice. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 8.1.4.2 - Increase.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

gakod (sp. var. takod) 1comm. anything used for tying, e.g. vine, rope, cord. [Vine is commonly used for bundling; cord and rope are commonly used for tying an animal.] Nakaan nan gakod di gulding ot bumtik. The tethering rope of the goat was removed and it ran away. Dukkeyom nan gakod na. Lengthen its rope. Sim: bobod, kawad. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool.) 2tie something. 2.1trans. to tie an animal to a fence, post, or stake. Igakod mu nan nuwang nah posten di alad. Tie the water buffalo to the post of the fence. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men get a long branch and they securely tie the hagabi bench there. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2.2trans. to place a tie on or at a specified place; the site-object is cross-referenced. Gakodan yu nan hukin di babuy ta adi bumtik. Tie the feet of the pig so that it will not run away. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.3trans. to tie a specified number or amount of something. Gumakod kah duwan manuk. Tie two of the chickens. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2.4trans. to tie with a specified type of tie. Hay wakal di punggakod mu nah tingting. Use the vine to tie the sweet potato leaves. Al-an da wakal an ahida punggakod nah hagabi ten magibbu. They get vine to use in tying the bench to a pole when it’s completed. puN‑/impuN‑.

gisay trans. to fry food in small amount of oil. Athituy aton: Mamangulu ya igisay amput ya danggu hi manteka. This is how to cook it: First, saute the garlic and onions in cooking oil. i‑/iN‑. 3D Move an object with a resulting change of state. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.)

gumawat (infl. of gawat) intrans. to incur debts; to borrow a specified amount of money. Gumawat kah hinlibu ta igattang takuh mahapul. Borrow an amount of one thousand so we can buy our needs. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.5.3 - Owe.)

hagabi 1comm. (prim) a bench belonging to rich people; a carved and decorated bench, with carabao head figures at each end. Waday inang-ang yuh hagabi? Have you seen a hagabi-bench? Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished. Sim: Ang-ang. 2comm. the name of a ceremony which signifies wealth and prestige. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Cultural note: There is a great amount of feasting, drinking and dancing during this prestige ritual. The playing of gongs and dancing may take place for five or six nights. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 3intrans. to perform the prestige ceremony. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi-ceremony. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 4.5.6.1 - High status, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) der. himmagabi

halohalo 1comm. a snack mixture of ice, sugar, milk and some ingredients like camote, banana, coconut, sweetened beans, and other ingredients suitable to mix. Naimas di halohalo immam-ana hin tialgo. Halohalo is delicious, especially in the summer. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2intrans. to have a snack of halohalo. Munhalohalo taku hi himbatangan. We will have a snack of halohalo this afternoon. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

hanga 1advpred. to calculate something as being too much of the actual size or amount; to evaluate something as excessive. Hangaanay in-alin Bugan an bulhe. She thought that Bugan bought too many beans. Evaluative. (sem. domains: 9.3.1.3 - To a larger degree.) 2intrans. to always calculate an amount as being more than necessary. [When the form is used, it tends to express a negative evaluation of the person who does this.] Adika humangahanga. Don’t be always saying that it is too much.

hipuk₂ 1comm. wine that has been diluted with water and sugar. Adik pinhod an inumon di hipuk. I don’t like to drink diluted wine. 2trans. to dilute wine with water and sugar in order to increase the amount. Hipukam ta hidiyey ahi taku panguddidiyon. Dilute by adding water and sugar to the rice wine and we can use it for the last drink. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.3 - Mix.)

hukyab trans. to hide something by putting it under something or among other things. Ihukyab mu nan pihum nah bulwatim ta adida akawon. Hide your money among your dresses so they won’t steal it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: hukhuk, hulbuk. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

hulbuk trans. to hide something among things found in a field or forest. Inhulbuk ku nan boka nah kad-an di aba. I hid my camote digger under the aba-plant i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: hukyab, hukhuk. (sem. domains: 7.6 - Hide.)

idat 1to give. 1.1trans. to give something. Idat mun am-in di pinhod na. Give him all that he wants. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: idawat. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 1.2trans. to give something to someone; the person to whom the thing is being given is referentially prominent. <The recipient is cross-referenced by the affix.> Idatam hi kanona. Give him something to eat. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hi dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka a small piece of meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 1.3trans. to give an amount of something; the important component is an unspecified amount of a specified thing to be given. Umidat kah pihhu ta botosan daka. Give out some money and we will vote for you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.4trans. the one giving money is contrasted with others, and referentially prominent. Hiyay nangidat hi pihhuk. He was the one who gave me money. mangi‑/nangi‑. 2sta. to be generous; refers to someone who freely gives to others. Makiddat hi Juan. Juan is very generous. infl. mangidat infl. midatan

ittay (sp. var. itay; sp. var. ittang; sp. var. kittay) 1adj. small; little, evaluative measure of size, extent or amount. Ittay tun inalak an boga. The rice I brought is a small amount. Ittay tun hinamal, munhaang ka pay. The rice is not enough for us, cook some more. Umeeley ka hi ittay. Move a little further. Ittay di indat mun hiya. You gave him a small one only. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.1 - Small.) 2trans. to decrease in size, extent or amount. Ittayon yu di idat yu. Give them small amounts. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 8.1.4.3 - Decrease.) 3proc. to become small as a process. Umittay nan boga. The rice will become few. (lit. become small) ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. inita-itay der. kaittay infl. it-itay infl. kait-itayan

kay habal di angana (id. of anga) his face is wide; broad-faced (lit. his face is like an upland-camote-patch).

konong₂ trans. to estimate the amount of something. Bukalom nan binokbok ya konoknongom di kadakol di punhagmuk mu. Crush the binoknok leaves into powder and estimate how much you need to sprinkle. (sem. domains: 3.2.2.3 - Evaluate, test.) infl. konoknong

kotkot trans. to chew uncooked food; rice, corn, camote and soft bones. Kotkoton di gando nadan gattuk hin adiyu italu. The rats will eat the sweet potatoes if you do not hide them. Kinotkot na nan gahhilang nah habal te naagangan. He chewed the corn in the swidden plot because he was hungry. Itikod mun mangotkot hi boga. Stop chewing rice-grains. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. Sim: kutmu, ngatngat; gen: galgal. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.1 - Bite, chew.)

kudang (sp. var. kulang) 1sta. to be insufficient; inadequate; not enough; lacking. ma‑. Measure quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.7.2 - Lack.) 2to be insufficient. 2.1trans. to cause something to be insufficient or inadequate in amount or number. Kudangona nan indat mun igattang nah boga. He thinks the amount you gave him to buy rice is insufficient. Ustu nan ihaad ku mo kinudangan Maria. What I placed is enough but Maria removed some of it (made it insufficient). ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.1.7.2 - Lack.) 2.2intrans. for something to be insufficient with the implication that the insufficiency is due to agentive mishandling. Kumudang tun indat mu. What you gave is not enough. Deke on kumudang di kilon nan gatas an in-alim. Sometimes the milk that you bring is lacking in weight. Mungkudang nan in-aliyun kaiw. Something is missing in the lumber you brought.(count not right) ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3sta. to be insufficient, in amount or number. Makudang di pihuk an immed Manila kinali uggeyak gimmatang hi pinhod ku. I did not have enough money when I went to Manila and that’s why I didn’t buy what I wanted. 3adj. to be immature in reference to legumes. Kudang nan bulhe na yaden pinuga na. His beans are immature yet he harvested them. infl. makudang

mang-uhan intrans. to fall short of expectations, e.g. to be less than the expected amount. Mang-uhan nan abuy an ginatang yun dida. The pig you bought from them is smaller than for the amount paid.

mumpundogo (der. of dogo) intrans. for many people to be sick at once; sickness is distributed among a group of people; like an epidemic. Waday mumpundogo ke dida. There were many sick among them. mumpuN‑.

mumpunggattang (infl. of gatang) intrans. to buy and sell; implies the buying and selling business is distributed among many agents; merchants. Kimmadangyan nadan mumpunggattang hi kabobboble. (Revelation 18:3c) The merchants of the world have become rich. mumpuN‑.

mungki- TACR. this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action; non-past tense. Datuwe kan duduplanu ya mungkakalpu da mungkidadawwin boble. These airplanes come from faraway places. Mungkitalu nadan allama ya umipit da hin eda howngon di baleda. The crabs hid and pinched the children’s hands when they reached inside their holes to get them. Sim: nungki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ngatngat trans. to crunch raw vegetables; camote, onions, cucumber, etc. Pinpinhod nan ngatngaton di gattuk. He likes to crunch raw sweet potatoes. Ngumatngat ka nah gattuk ta adika makaaggangan. Crunch some of the sweet potato so that you will not feel so hungry. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: kutmu, kotkot. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

nundotal (der. of dotal) nom. an area of land that is very flat and level, usually located among mountains. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.3 - Plain, plateau.)

nungki- distr. 1this prefix encodes the distribution of a feature or property over a number of objects. O-ongal ya nungkitatag-e day babaleh tu. Houses here are big and tall. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action. Gagala ya ahi mipae nadan nungkikalabut. (Isaiah 51:14a) Soon those imprisoned/captured will be released. Sim: mungki-.

pakyaw 1comm. contract system for labor. Pakyaw di ngunun di gabut nan payo. They cut the grass of the field by contract. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2v. to work on a contract basis. Pakyawon da di gayon nan garden. They will contract to hoe the field. Dahdiy numpakyaw nah iskul? Who did the labor contract for the school? ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.6 - Hire, rent.) 3trans. to buy large amount of something by contract, i.e. wholesale. Pakyawom nan igattang nan amput. Contract to buy all of the garlic she is selling. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

panu₂ trans. to mediate and settle differences between and among people; to arbitrate. Ipanum nadan hintutulang. Settle the differences between the relatives. He-ay mangipanu ke dida te he-ay donglon da. You will be the arbiter. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.8.4.4 - Negotiate.)

pukdit trans. 1to get attention by touching briefly with fingers; light tap or touch with the finger, usually index finger. Pukditam ta iang-ang nah tu. Touch him so that he will face here. Ipukdit muh odog na ta itibo nah tu. Touch him briefly on the back so that he will face here. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5C Goal-oriented sites. Sim: dukwit; Sim: pultik. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.1 - Touch.) 2to touch briefly with amorous intent. Adina pinhod an mipaldang ke Pedlo te mamukpukdit. She does not like to sit beside Pedro because he touches with amorous intentions. maN‑/naN‑.

puN-₁ 1dervN. when this prefix is affixed to a verb, the result is a nominalized clause that expresses the manner or reason for an action or activity. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na. And the reason he does not stop is that his thinking is, his life would be uncertain. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.) 2distr. this prefix encodes the distribution of an action among plural objects. Ya himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. And the raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. They passed some small huts with small people living in them.

rasyon comm. rations of food; a measured amount of food. [There were missions to distribute food after WWII and into the 60’s.] Em alan nan rasyon taku. Go and get our ration. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: English: ration.

talub (sp. var. salub) 1comm. a measure of about six cubic inches or equal to six big sardine cans. Sim: hopa, ganta. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) 2trans. to measure with a container that can equal the amount. Talubon yu nan boga. You measure the rice. Muntalub dah kape. They are measuring the coffee. Tumalub kah boga ta alan tulang mu. Measure some rice for your brother to take along. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

tapat 1comm. the interest on a loan. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money.) 2trans. to name the interest amount. Tapatan tah hinggatu nan banhok. I will give interest of a hundred on what I will borrow. Itapat kuy ohan kinlum. I will give interest of one piglet. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑.

tubung comm. a section of bamboo used as a container for salt or broken pieces of rice: sometimes used as a container for cooking camote stems and leaves, meat, or pounded crabs with banana blossoms by placing near a fire. Haadam nan tubung hi boga. Fill the bamboo container with rice. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

tuntun trans. to elicit truth, a word used in religious rituals; the ancestors determine among themselves who is responsible for causing sickness among the living. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Riituals for Man and Rice Culture)

utangon (infl. of utang) trans. to borrow a specific amount of money or some specified money. Utangok hituwen indat mun ha-oy. I will borrow this money you gave me. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.8.5 - Borrow.)

ah’ol intrans. to be envious; to be jealous. Adika umahoahol. Do not always be jealous. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: amo. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.8 - Jealous.)

bayyaung (sp. var. bayyaong) comm. a native woven blanket, black with red and white stripes; rich man’s blanket. [Formerly, only the rich used a bayyaung-blanket; it was used as a carrying-blanket and for special occasions when men wore it thrown over the shoulders with the middle hanging over chests.] Em ihap-e nan bayyaung apum. Go dry the blanket of your grandfather in the sun. Eda gumatang hi bayyaung ta ieda nah nate. They will buy a blanket for the dead. Sim: gamong. (sem. domains: 5.3.4 - Clothes for special occasions.)

lumtong comm. a blanket woven for the dead. Sim: gamong. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.)

napinitan comm. a kind of blanket woven for the dead. Sim: gamong.

pinagpagan comm. a blanket for the dead. Sim: gamong.

ado₂ (sp. var. adaw) trans. to get cooked food, root crops and vegetables from a pot; to dish up cooked food. Adawom nan gattuk. Dish up the camote. Umado ka nah ihda. Dish up some viand. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/ bring objects toward agent. Sim: bano, ak’ud, haklung, hoklad; Sim: bak’uy. (sem. domains: 4.5.4.3 - Serve.)

agalin 1pass. to transfer; a process of change. Adim ikamo nan maingit an bulwati nah mabayak te maagalinan. Do not mix the red dress with the white because the color will transfer. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3.6 - Change color.) 2trans. for one person to influence another, particularly used in a negative sense. Hay gaga-ihon tagun takon di ohana ya mabalin an agalinana nadan udum. A bad person, even if he is the only one, can influence others. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.4.2 - Use a person.)

aklib trans. to scatter things while searching for something; to get things and scatter them, mostly done by children when parents have put things up or away. Tipet umanaklib kayu? Why do you keep searching among things and scattering them. Nganney anaklibon yu? What are you always searching for? ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.)

alino 1comm. tree variety, has bark fibers which are used for bundling; the fibers are slippery; the trees chosen are the long straight ones. Immeh aman e immalah alinoh muyung. My father went to get alino-bark from the forest. Sim: bulyu. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree, 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.) 2intrans. to get alino-tree fiber. E mangalino da amah pamobod. Father and his companions are going to get alino-fiber for tying. maN‑/naN‑. 3trans. string made from alino-tree fiber. [The alino-tree fiber is soaked in water and drained. If steeped properly, the fiber is white; if over-steeped, the fiber turns black.] Impamtok mi nan inalino da ama. We used the alino-string which father made for binding. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.)

allaga 1comm. red ant species. Waday allaga nah mangga. There are red ants in the mango tree. Sim: bubuwit, ad-ading. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2intrans. to gather red ant hives Etaku mangallaga ta ikamo taku tuh dotag. Let’s go and gather red ant eggs and mix them with this pork. maN‑.

am’o bathe 1.1trans. to bathe someone or something, e.g. a child or dog Amohom na ahu. You bathe the dog. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 5.6.2 - Bathe.) 1.2ref. to bathe oneself. Etaku mun-amoh wangwang. Let’s go to bathe in the river. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day. muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions.

ambule advpred. No wonder!; So that’s why!; an exclamation of understanding the reason for something. Immeyak ad da-ul. Maid hi Josephine ot ibagak. E numboka, ambuley maid hidi. I went downtown. Josephine wasn’t there so I asked about her. She went to dig camote, that’s why she wasn’t there. Evaluative. Sim: kinali, hana mon. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.)

amping (sp. var. app’ing) trans. 1to slap the face. Iamping ku tun taklek. I’ll use my hand in slapping. Eka piamping. You are letting yourself be slapped. i‑/iN‑, pi‑. Sim: apap. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to slap; the person slapping is highlighted rather the one being slapped. Mamolta day umamping hi tagu. Those who slap people will be fined. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

anad trans. to peel vegetables before cooking; knife is used, also used of peeling fruit like papaya. Anadam nan gattuk. Peel the camote. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Sim: uki. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2.1 - Remove shell, skin.)

apapet comm. green, bitter gourd; resembles a shriveled cucumber; both its fruit and leaves are edible. [Usually mixed with eggplant to make the favorite Ilocano recipe pinakbet.] Hay apapet di id-um hi itlug. Add egg to bitter gourd. Mikamoy bungan di apapet hi itlug. Bitter gourd fruit can be mixed with eggs. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.)

arina 1comm. flour Arina nan ingkamo na nah ihda. It’s flour that she mixed with the viand. Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot ihaang mu. You just mix the sugar with the flour and then you cook it. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to put flour on something. Arinaan yu nan ipulitu yun balat. Place flour on the bananas you are going to fry. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: harina.

ayod 1comm. a hammock-style cradle used for babies and small children. Ihaad mu nan kuyat nah ayod ta mahuyop. You put the child in his hammock-cradle so that he will sleep. Iyayong mu nan ayod. Swing the hammock-cradle back and forth. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2intrans. to use a hammock-cradle for a baby or for carrying a sick person to a doctor or hospital. Mun-ayod kayun tulang mu. Use the hammock-cradle with your sibling. Iayod mu nan golang ta mahuyop. Place the baby in the hamoock-cradle so he will sleep. Iayod yu nan mundogo. Use the hammock-cradle to carry the sick person. mun‑, i‑.

ayyuding 1comm. a guitar-like instrument made of bamboo, four strings made of thin strips of bamboo. Ayyuding di ay-ayyamon na. His plaything is a bamboo guitar. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 2intrans. to play the stringed instrument. Mun-ayyuding ka. Play the guitar. muN‑/nuN‑.

badbad trans. to unwind something; to disentangle something; to unravel something. Badbadom nan gakod di babuy. Unwind the tie of the pig. Mumbadbad kah pamobod. Unwind some for tying. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2.4 - Remove, take apart.)

Bahawit prop. a place in Lagawe along the Ibulao River. Eda nun-amod Bahawit. They went to take a bath at Bahawit.

bakag 1comm. the bones of an exhumed person. [The bones are wrapped in a blanket for the exhumation rites bogwa.] Eda inalay bakag amana ta mamogwa da. They went to take his father’s bones so he’ll have the exhumation rite performed. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2sta. the skeleton of a person; no flesh left. Nabakag mo nan gunit te nala-u moy hintoon nipalpu dih natayana. There is no more flesh on the bones because it’s already more than a year after his death. na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: gun’it. (sem. domains: 2.1.6 - Bone, joint.)

bakug sta. to be cooked inadequately; partially cooked due to poor firewood or negligence of the cook; usually rice and root crops. Nabakug nan hinamal te adi dumalang nan itungu. The rice is badly cooked because the firewood won’t burn. Nabakug di inhaang Maria. The rice that Maria cooked is not well cooked. Paka-apuyam ta adi mabakug nan gattuk. Put enough fire so the camote will not be badly cooked. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 5.2.1 - Food preparation.)

balyag 1comm. basket used for carrying sweet potatoes, carried on back with head strap. Napnuy balyag nah gattuk. Her basket is full of sweet potatoes. Sim: kaba, gampa. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use the headstrap basket. Mumbalyag ka te eka mumboka. Get the basket because you are going to dig camote. muN‑/nuN‑.

bangka₁ 1comm. the card dealer; the banker in a gambling game. Nangabak nan bangka. The dealer won. Makakulluk nan bangka kinali nunggugulu da nadan muntutugal. The man who deals the cards is a crook so there was trouble among the card players. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to bankroll a gambling game. He-ay mumbangka ot dakol di pihhu. You will bankroll the gambling game, anyway you have a lot of money. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.5 - Pay.) 3trans. what is used to bankroll a gambling game. Ibangka yu nan pihhun inapput yu. Use the money you won to bankroll a gambling game. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: banco.

bangko₂ 1comm. bank, a financial institution. Inhaad nay pihhu na nah bangko. He placed his money in the bank. Waday ittay an pihhuk nah bangkod Lagawe. I have a small amount of money in the bank at Lagawe. (sem. domains: 6.8.5.3 - Owe.) 2trans. to place money in the bank. Em ibangko nan pihhum ta adi map-u. Go and bank your money so that it will not be spent. Ibangkom nan binoklam. Put your wages in the bank. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to bank money. Mumbangko ka ta mahapul mu ke on em inala. Bank (your money) so that if you need it you can just draw some out. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

banneeng intrans. to sleep with parents; children under 5 years old do not sleep separately. Ongal kamo kinali adika makibanneeng hi ammod mu. You are big now therefore you should not sleep with your parents. maki‑. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

bat’u 1comm. stone; rock, generic. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu. I remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Um-umbun nah tap-on nan ohan ongal an batu. She was sitting on top of a big rock. spec: dulmug, muling, talugtug. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.2 - Rock.) 2sta. to be rocky, refers to ground that is full of rocks. Mabatu nan luta da. Their land is full of rocks. Mabatu nan habal da. Their camote patch has lots of rocks. ma‑. 3use rocks. 3.1trans. to lay rocks for a path or road. Batuwan yu nan dalan/kalata. Place stones/rocks on the road/path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.2trans. to throw a stone or rock. Adim ibnal nan batu. Do not throw the stone. der. binattu

batil₂ trans. to mix by beating something like an egg. Batilom nan itlug ta ikamom nah gattak. Beat the egg and mix it with the milk. Mumbatil hi Maria. Maria is beating eggs. Bumatil kah itlug ta ikamo ta tuh gattak. Beat an egg so we will mix it with this milk. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.5.3 - Mix.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bidung 1trans. to blow air into something; to inflate something. Mumbidung nadan u-ungah bola. The children are inflating balls. Bumidung kah duwan balloon. Inflate two balloons. Bidungom nan kabuut ta ay-ayyamon nadan u-unga. Inflate the pig’s bladder so the children can play with it. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑, ‑um‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 2.2.1 - Breathe, breath.) 2pass. to be blistered; to be swollen. Nabidung nan naatungan hi taklena. The burn on my hand is blistered. Nabidung nan angan nan am-aman mundogo. The face of the sick old man is swollen. ma‑/na‑.

bikal comm. bamboo, vine type. Hay bikal di pamobod taku nah atop di abung. The bikal-vine bamboo is what we will use for tying the roof of the hut. Sim: ugo; Gen: kawayan. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

bila comm. taro variety; bigger than aba variety. [This taro variety is good for pigs’ food, but the root bulbs are good for human consumption after boiling.] Mabilah nae ot ahi matanoman hi gattuk. That was planted with bila-tubers before camote were planted. colocasia esculenta Sim: pihing. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

bilok sta. to be damaged, of tuber, caused by insects; cannot be eaten. Nabilok tun gattuk kinali mapait ya munhamhamuy. The camote is damaged that is why it's bitter and smelly. ma‑/na‑. Sim: ngalodngod, galo, bun-o. (sem. domains: 6.2.1 - Growing crops.)

bol’ad 1trans. to remove clothes; to be naked. Boladam nadan u-unga ta mun-amo da. Take off the clothes of the children so they can bathe. Adik mo pinhod an ma-operate te boladan dita. I don’t like to be operated on because they remove all our clothes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: baduy. (sem. domains: 5.3.8 - Naked.) 2intrans. to become or be naked. Mumbolad kayun u-unga ta mun-amo kayu. Children remove your clothes, and take a bath. Numbobbolad nan u-unga ya immen nah kalata. The child was naked and he went to the street. muN‑/nuN‑.

bong-o intrans. to select rice seeds for next planting season; this is done during harvesting. Hi Mattima di mamong-o hin mun-ani da. Matima will be the one to gather rice grains for seedlings during the harvest. Adi kayu ni-an mun-anih na te ugge nabong-o. Don’t harvest there yet because the good grain has not been selected and bundled. maN‑/naN‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

bungubung comm. 1a distant place, farthest place from the center of a village. [This word usually refers to Julongan-towards Tinok side.] Nalpu nadan aamod ku bungubungna. My forefathers came from a distant place. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.1 - Far.) 2from a distant place. Dakol day ibungubung nan nakipasyal. There are many people from the distant places that came to visit. Dakayu ken ibungubung na ya makiapu kayu tuwali hantudah ipoblacion ta ne adi kayu munnanong hidi. Those of you who live the farthest should intermarry with those from the poblacion (center) so that you won’t stay there. i‑.

butod 1comm. a vine that is used to bundle rice; a climbing vine with nodes around the palm. Handih done ya usalon day butod an pamobod hi page. In the olden days, they used butod-vine to bundle rice. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to get vine and make strips for bundling rice grains. maN‑.

buyyako comm. the flower of cane; big, round puffy flower head; every type of canegrass has this flower including sugar cane. Adiyu ay-ayyamon nan buyyako te makamata kayu. Don’t play with the flowers of cane because you will get sore eyes. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

dahda trans. to peel something with a knife; to remove skin of fruit or vegetables with knife; to peel. Dahdaham nan gattuk. Peel the camote. Mundahda kayuh gattuk ta ihaang taku. Peel some camote for us to cook Dumahda kayu nah bingkaan apu yu. Peel some of your grandmother’s sweet potatoes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2.1 - Remove shell, skin.)

dalnat sta. to be lukewarm, referring to a liquid. Madalnat an danum di pun-amon tun unga. The baby will be bathed with lukewarm water. Dumalnat nan liting hin adim apuyan. The water will become lukewarm if you do not fix the fire. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.4 - Hot.)

danghe comm. sleeping board. Matuning di udyo an kapyaon hi danghe ya namom-a ten kotol. Narra-wood made into a sleeping board is cool, and it’s worse when it is cold (weather). (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.)

datong₂ trans. to report something. Indadatong nadan nalpuh boble yu an wada da kanun dakayuy munhahannu. There are some from your place who have reported that there are some among you who are quarreling. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: 3.5.2.1 - Report.) infl. datdatong

ditdit trans. to hammer something to make it flat, e.g. metal, or in the work of blacksmithing. Dinitdit Ramon nan gumok ot makapyah otak. Ramon hammered the iron flat and made it into a bolo. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

diyat open eyes. 1.1trans. to open eyes. Diniyat Bugan nan matanah namodwongana. Bugan opened her eyes wide in surprise. Diyaton yuy mata yu ta tibon yu. Open your eyes wide so you will see it. Adi madiyat di matana. Her eyes cannot be opened. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2intrans. to open the eyes wide, appearing to stare at something. Pundiyat nay matana. She was opening her eyes wide./She was staring. puN‑. 1.3nom. to have eyes opened. Mahakit di ek pundiyatan hi matak te nakamataak. It is painful when I open my eyes because I’m having sore eyes. puN‑ ‑an.

dohdo press down. 1.1trans. to press down long grass, done with hands or feet. Dohdohon yu nan dalnon da. Press down the grasses where they will pass. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile actions. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 1.2pass. for grasses to be pressed down. Nalakan mahamak nan e mitaluh mahlok te mainnilay kad-ana hin un-unudon nan nadohdon holok. It’s easy to find someone who is hiding among the grasses because it can be determined by following the grasses that have been pressed down. ma‑/na‑. 1.3trans. to press down with a distributive action. Pundohdon nan nuwang nadan nitanom. The carabao is pressing down/stepping-on the plants. puN‑.

dul’ig 1trans. to move something aside. Duligom ke nan ubunan, wada man di nitalud dalom. Move the seat, there’s something hidden underneath it. Duligom nan kaban ta waday dalanon. Move the box aside so there will be a passageway. Idlig mu di nan ubunan. Move the bench that way. Madlig ka ya- ta makib-unak ke he-a. Move over so I can sit by you. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: gonad; Sim: bakwet. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2intrans. an agent moves. Eta tuwali madlig on mahapul an mitakke ta kinali ongal di umeh piliti. Every time you move you have to ride, that is why a big amount goes for fare. Madlig ka, Juan, ta waday atok. Move aside, John, so that I can do something. ma‑/na‑. infl. dumlig

dulni trans. to dilute by pouring cold water into hot water; to add cold water to pigs’ hot food. Dulniham nan niinit ta pun-amom tuh golang. Pour cold water into the hot water so you can bathe the baby in it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.3.4.1 - Cold.)

eta pers. we-two; the form is a compound of the marker e and the second person, dual personal pronoun, a member of Set 1 and Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb and encodes the subject grammatical relation. Eta tuwali madlig on mahapul mitakke ta kinali ongal di umeh piliti. Every time you (we-two) move, it is necessary to ride so that’s why a big amount goes to fares. Kudukdul nay takon di nawotwot ta mu ta makangngun-unud tan APU DIOS, mu nan eta kadangyan yaden dakol di kabulubulunan. (Proverbs 15:16) It is better even if we are poor but really follow the LORD than that we are rich and yet have many troubles. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

galip trans. to slice something finely. Galipom nan danggu. Slice the spring-onions. Mungalip dah mikamo nah ihda. They are slicing (spices) to be mixed with the viand. Gumalip kah duwan amput. Slice two cloves of garlic. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ganatgat sta. to be chewy; describes the characteristic of certain foods or something that is not thoroughly cooked. Maganatgat tun ugge nakallutun gattuk. This half-cooked camote is chewy. Maganganatgat di ugge naiyad an niyug. Ungrated coconut is chewy. ma‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

gastu 1comm. expense. Dakol di gastu an umeh iskul. There are many expenses in going to school. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.5 - Pay.) 2trans. to spend money to cover an expense. Adiyu gastuwon am-in nan pihhu yu. Do not spend all of your money. Gastuwan dakan tulang mu hin ume ka mun-iskul. Your brother will spend for you when you go to school. Munggastu ka hi ongal ta ahi miphod nan balem. You will spend a large amount of money before your house will be finished. Gumastu ka nin hi duwan gatut ta ahika dumatong ad Baguio. You will spend around two hundred before you reach Baguio. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.7 - Spend.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: gasto.

gatan comm. liquid milk-like substance in coconuts; coconut milk. Hay kadakol di danum weno gatan di niyug ya nangamung di pinhod. The amount of water or coconut milk depends on what one prefers.

gatawwa comm. cassava; manioc. Ingkamo da nan balat nah gatawwa ot bayuwon da. They mixed the banana with the cassava, then they pounded it. Sim: kahoy. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.)

gikgik 1comm. mushroom, small variety that grows on rotten wood. Pinhod mun ihday gikgik? Do you like to eat gikgik- mushrooms? (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to gather this kind of mushroom. Etaku manggikgik hin etaku mangaiw ta waday ikamoh pihing. Let us go and gather mushrooms when we go to gather firewood so that we will have something to mix with vegetables. maN‑.

gipgip (sp. var. gapgap) 1trans. to slice something. Em gipgipon nan patatas. Go, slice the potatoes. Munggipgip kah aba ta kanon di babuy. Slice the taro for the pig’s food. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2comm. a slice of something. Oongngal di gipgip nan gattuk. The camote slices are big. Nan gipgip nadan gattuk di ipakan mun nadah gawgawa. The slices of the sweet potato are the things you feed the ducks with.

gohgo trans. to cut into fine pieces, e.g. vegetables, leaves. Gohgohom nan gattuk. Cut the camote into pieces. Munggohgoh tingting hi ina. Mother is cutting the camote leaves into pieces. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

gulid 1comm. a skin disease, e.g. scabies or fungus. Gimmatang hi agan di gulid. He bought medicine for scabies. Sim: gaddil. (sem. domains: 2.5.2 - Disease.) 2sta. to have a skin disease. Nagulid hi tulang na te pininghan an mun-amo. His brother has scabies because he seldom bathes. ma‑.

ha-ang (sp. var. haang) 1to cook. 1.1trans. to cook food. Nganney inha-ang mu? What did you cook? Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot ihaang mu You just mix the sugar with the flour and then you cook it. i‑/iN‑. Class 3D Move object with resulting change of state. Sim: bang-ot, apin. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.) 1.2intrans. the activity of cooking is in view, rather than the specific thing being cooked. Munha-ang kah ihda. You cook viand. 1.3trans. to cook in a particular utensil. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used to cook, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. pangi‑ ‑an . 2nom. cooking. <The circumfix puN- -an derives a nominalized form.> Hay bangan nakai-ustuy hukap nay maphod an punha-angan hi pihing. A well-covered pot is best for cooking gabi. puN‑ ‑an. der. hina-ang infl. mana-ang

hanadah (nadah) dem. those; the plural form based on hanah, a member of Set 2 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific group of people or things. Daanay nangipaayan da hanadah dakol an tagu. Where did they send all those people? Ta hidiye nan lebbengnan munpasalamat dan APU DIOS gapuh ongal pamhod na ya gapun dakol hanadah umipamodwong an inatnan kiphodan da. (Psalm 107:15) Therefore, it is right that they thank God for his great love and for those many miracles he did for them. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hidog trans. to hide oneself; to conceal oneself. Inhidog nah tubtubuwan. He hid himself among the plants. i‑/iN‑.

hintaguwan nom. 1refers to a related group of people; lit. one-group-of-people. Adi ka umogon an bumaddang te bokon kayu hintaguwan. Don’t be selfish in helping because you’re not related. Adi mahapul an eyak tangdanan te konak hintaguwan. I don’t need to be paid because I belong to your group. hiN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2refers to anyone who is not a part of the local group of people. Dakol di hintaguwan an nakiboblen dakamid uwani. There are many foreigners living among us today.

hipdut trans. to cut a string or cord; to sever string or cord. Hipdutom tun tinulid. Cut this string. Ihipdut mun nah gawwana. Sever it at the middle. Humipdut kan nah wakal ta pamobod. Sever some of the vine so we can use it for binding. Mahipdut nan linubid te nadunut. The rope will break because it is rotten. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: hoktang, kohat, pogtang, puttut. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

hong-o 1sta. to be delicious; refers to cooked food or wine. Deket ingkamo nan Vetsin nah ihda on mahong-o peman. If the Vetsin (MSG) is mixed up with the viand, it is indeed very delicious. Mahong-oy baya da. Their wine is delicious. Makahhong-oy inhaang mu. What you cook is very delicious. Mahong-oy uung. Mushrooms are delicious. ma‑, makaC‑. 6D Descriptives. Syn: imas. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.) 2trans. to enjoy a delicious taste. Hong-owonay iha-ang Maria. He enjoys the delicious food that Maria cooks. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

hothot trans. to tighten by binding, squeezing or twisting. Hothotom di pamobod mu nah hukin di babuy. Tighten the tie on the pig’s feet. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: hithit. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.5 - Actions of the hand.)

hukhuk 1trans. to hide behind someone or something. Tipet ihukhuk mun inam? Why do you hide behind your mother? i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: hukyab, hulbuk. (sem. domains: 7.6 - Hide.) 2pass. to be hidden or sheltered. Binumtik nan manuk ot nihukhuk nah maholok. The chicken ran away and hid itself among the grasses. Eka mihukhuk dih gulun. Go hide yourself in the cogon-grass. mi‑/ni‑.

huktu trans. to pull out something that is embedded or enclosed., e.g. a machete enclosed in sheath, ax embedded in wood, spade embedded in ground. Nahuktu nan lamon di battikul. The snail flesh was pulled out. Adim tagan di tatawa te mahuktu nan alangaang mu. Don’t laugh so much because your throat might be jerked out. (joke) ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: huknut. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.)

immipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative concept; it co-occurs with emotion verbal roots and cross-references the causer-agent-subject; past tense. Immipaamo ka. You caused me to be jealous. Immipatakut ka. You caused me to be afraid. Sim: umipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

init trans. to heat liquid or food. Iinit mu nan danum. Heat the water. Nainit mo nan liting. The water is hot already. Mun-init kah pun-amon tun golang. Heat water for the bath of this child. Initom nan liting inggana bumayakbak. Heat the water until it boils. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 5.2.1 - Food preparation.)

insurans comm. insurance. Mungattang hi insurans hi Tamok. Tamok sells insurance. (sem. domains: 6.8.4 - Financial transaction.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

inti comm. sugar lump; hardened sugar cane juice. Pinpinhod di u-ungay inti. The children love to eat the sugar-cane-candy. Umaom nan inti ta ikamo nah dayakkot an kay asukal. Melt the sugar-cane to mix with the sitcky-rice like sugar. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

iy’ad 1comm. coconut grater. Waday iyad da Marne te dakol di niyug da. Marne owns a coconut-grater because they have many coconuts. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to grate coconut meat. Iyadon yu tun niyug ta ikamo taku nah binakle. Grate this coconut so that we will mix it with the rice cakes. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2 - Steps in food preparation.)

kaan 1removal of something. 1.1trans. to remove something. Kaanom nan lugit hi bulwatim. Remove the dirt on your dress. ‑on/‑in‑. Class 4D Release, remove, detach object. Sim: longdada. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.) 1.2trans. to remove part of a substance with the partial component in focus. Kumaan ka nah dotag da Pedlo. Remove some from the meat of Pedro. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3trans. to remove part of a substance with a directional component in focus. Ikaan mu nah bokalaok. Deduct it from my wages. i‑/iN‑. 1.4trans. to remove part of a substance with a site component in focus. Kaanan yu nan pah-onok te madam-ot. Remove some of what I’m to carry because it’s heavy. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2removal of something. 2.1nom. to remove oneself from a job; resignation. Namodwong nah em pungkaanan. She was surprised at your resignation (lit. removal). puN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.2.7.1 - Stop moving.) 2.2nom. the removal of something. Takon ad uwani ya hay pangaan hi dogoy pangipuunan di dakol an tataguh pangulug da. Even today, healing (lit. removal of sickness) is the foremost reason that many people have faith. paN‑.

kallat 1comm. rubber band. Nan kallat di pamobod mu. Use the rubber band for tying it. Sim: bayyabe, lattik, laddi. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool.) 2trans. to place rubber bands on something. Kallatam nan papel ta adida miwahwahit Bind the papers with rubber bands so that they will not be scattered about. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

kamli trans. to crush cooked food into small pieces by squeezing with hand, for feeding dogs or pigs. Kamlikamliyom nan hinamal ya gattuk ne ahim ipakan nah ahu. Crush the rice and camote together before you give them to the dog. Adim kamliyon nan gattuk eno. Don’t crush the camote, okay. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Syn: kame. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

kangeb trans. to bite into food; to bite off pieces of food. Kinangeban di gando hanan intaluk an gattuk. The rats bit a part of the camote I hid. Tipet athituy ang-ang na an kay nakangekangeban. Why does it look like it has been bitten on all sides? Takon di pustisuy bab-am ya pun-ikangeb ot. Even if your teeth are false, just bite with them. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an + CV(C)CV‑, puN‑ i‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.1 - Bite, chew.)

kangkong 1comm. vegetable, water grown; similar to yam tops. Nan kangkong di ikamom nah dotag. Mix the kangkong-vegetable with the pork. Sim: petchay; Sim: wombok, petchay, buttata, gatgatang. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2intrans. to gather kangkong leaves. Mangangkong ka ta ihda taku hi bigat. Gather some kangkong-leaves for us to eat tomorrow. maN‑.

katagutagu (der. of tagu) comm. refers to all of mankind. Gulat na te hay nahlagan di katagutagu ya hi Noah, adi ot nahalman an nunhihinnatkon di katagun hantudan katagutagu hantuh tap-on di luta. Supposedly because mankind descended from Noah, there should be no great difference in stature among all the people on the surface of the earth. ka‑ + CV(C)CV. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

katam 1comm. a tool for smoothing wood; a plane. Alam nan katam ke Domingo. Get the plane from Domingo. Sim: tapilya. (sem. domains: 6.7.1 - Cutting tool.) 2trans. to smooth wood with a plane. Katamom nan udyon tabla. Smooth the mahogany board. Kinatam na nan poste. They smoothed the post. Mungkatam dah dulung. They are smoothing floor boards. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ke hiya (n. ph. of hiya) pers. him, her, it; third person, singular pronoun; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns; the members of this objective set are not cross-referenced by the verbal affix. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Umamowak ke hiya. I am so jealous of him. Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back and he should let me know. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help him. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

kediyen (kediye) dem. that; the form is based on kediye, a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns and the linker an. Kediyen himbatangan ya imme nan talak Pamolka ot mada-idai ya mungkibangngad an panaspasana That afternoon, Famorca’s jeep went and after a while, it returned going very fast. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. That is all I have heard about that case. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu I remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

kikkiho 1comm. white spots on skin; skin fungus, tinea flava. Waday kikiho hi bagang na. He has skin-fungus on his neck. (sem. domains: 2.5.2.2 - Skin disease.) 2sta. to have skin fugus. Nakikkiho te tumakut an mun-amo. He has skin-fungus because he is afraid to bathe. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State.

kuhipit intrans. 1for a dog to be scared and have its tail between its legs. Mungkukuhipit nan ahun Boy handi nala-uh tu. The dog of Boy had its tail between its legs when it passed by here. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4 - Afraid.) 2(fig) to be shy; timid. Mungkukuhipit day aammod ten mikamkamo dah nungkaadalan. The old folks are shy when they are among the educated. muN‑/nuN‑. infl. mungkukuhipit

kullipaw (sp. var. kulippo) 1comm. shellfish species, edible; found in creeks and ricefields. Mumpa-pait di kullipaw. The kullipaw-shellfish is a bit bitter. Sim: hiyok, aggudung. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to gather kullipaw-shellfish. Mangullipaw ka ta mangan ikamo taku nah tanghoy. Gather the kullipaw-shellfish so that we will add it to the water cress. maN‑/naN‑.

kultud trans. to snap off young shoots or leaves, usually with fingers, the thumb and forefinger. Kultudom nan haping nan ba-at. Snap off the twig of the guava. Eka mangultud hi uhiyok di tingting ta ihda taku. Go and snap off some camote tops for our viand. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.8.4 - Tear, rip.)

kunde 1comm. weed which is edible. Ingkamo da nan kunde nah manuk. They mixed the kunde-weed with the chicken. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1 - Food from plants.) 2intrans. to gather kunde weed. Eka mangunde ta waday ihaang taku. Go and get kunde-weed so we have something to cook. maN‑/naN‑.

kutkutubbe 1comm. an edible water beetle; brown, about the size of a fingernail; hard to chew. Nakamhan hi kutkutubbe nadan gingan in-alin Juan. There were some kutkutubbe-beetles among the shellfish brought by Juan. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2intrans. to gather kutkuttubbe beetles. Mangutkutubbe da hi ihda. They are gathering kutkutubbe-beetles for food. maN‑/naN‑.

kutu 1comm. lice that infests humans, particularly found in hair. Ad-adi waday kutu. It’s not good to have lice. Dimmakol di kutuk te uggeyak nun-amo. My lice have increased because I haven’t been bathing. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2trans. to remove someone’s lice. Kutuwan daka ad uwani ta ha-oy po hi bigat. I will remove your lice now and you will also remove mine tomorrow. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something.

landuk comm. metal, usually refers to iron or steel. Munggattang hi landuk da Famorca. The Famorcas are selling iron. Syn: gum’ok. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.3 - Metal.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lawod comm. betel-pepper vine bark used for chewing. Ingkamo na nan lawod nah mom-ona. He mixed the bark with his betel chew. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

logom 1advpred. refers to a random thing or person involved in an action, may refer either to the agent or the thing acted on. Logom nadi on inalak. I took things randomly. Nalgom/Nalogologom di kalyom. You talk just anything/nonsense. Nalgom di tagu an humgop hi balen di kandidato. Just anyone can enter the house of the candidate. Hay ke bo pihhu ya adi nalnalgom on ginatang. And as for money, don’t just spend it on anything. ma‑/na‑. Manner. Sim: kumpulmi. (sem. domains: 3.3.1.4 - Intend.) 2trans. to do something randomly and hastily with the focus on the action itself, not the modification. Logmona ha-ad hi pihhuna. He just puts his money anywhere/carelessly. Ilgom nay pangibalowana hanadah hintutulang. He will not just randomly revenge it among the relatives. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. infl. nalgom

lomam 1comm. a being that appears in nightmares. Tumakutak hi lomam. I’m afraid of a nightmare ghost. Sim: bangungut. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2sta. to have a nightmare and experience chest heaviness. Muntigging kan mahuyop ta adika malmam. Sleep on your side so you won’t have a nightmare. 3trans. to be terrified with nightmares. Dakol di patibom ke ha-on hi katatakut ya lomamonak ke he-a. (Job 7:14) There are many things that you cause me to see that are fearful, and you terrify me with nightmares. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4 - Afraid.) id. kay lomam

lugu 1comm. shoots of the squash plant. Ikamom nan lugu nah patani. Mix the squash-shoots with the lima beans. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather squash shoots. Munlugu dah ihda taku hi hilong. They are gathering squash-shoots for our viand tonight. An damanan eyak lumugu nah intanom mu? Could I go and gather the squash-shoots of your plant? Linugu da nan intanom Pablo yaden ugge ni-an bimmunga. They gathered the squash-shoots that Pablo planted yet it had not yet borne fruit. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

lukkuban comm. beetle, edible black species; larvae is called baddi and is also edible; has a sharp ridge on leg area of body. Inamung da nan lukkuban ot ikamo da nah tanghoy. They gathered the lukkuban-beetle and cooked it with the watercress. Sim: ba-i; Gen: anggigiya. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

mahapul it is necessary. 1.1pred. having a need for something. Mahapul kuy ulo. I need a blanket. Nganney mahapul? What is needed? (sem. domains: 8.1.7.3 - Need.) 1.2sta. to be necessary; predicates necessity; it must be; it is needed. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the Hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao and pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. Mahapul an ume ka. You must go. Sim: kinwani, importante. (sem. domains: 9.4.2.3 - Necessary.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: masapul.

mahma trans. 1to inquire; to investigate. Mahmahan hin dahdiy nakabahul ke da naen tulun u-unga. Investigate to see who among those three children is at fault. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. Sim: hanhan. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.5 - Ask.) 2to confirm the truth of something. Namahmahan an nan imbabalek di numbahul. It was confirmed that my child is the guilty one. Hay numbanagana ya namahmah kayun hintutulang an mangibagin naen nun-aammung di tatagu. The result was that you brothers were confirmed to be the ones to have what was contributed by the people. na‑/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.3 - True.)

mamitlu (der. of tulu) advpred. to do something three times. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day. mami‑. Mathematical. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.3 - Number of times.)

maN- 1TACR. the prefix encodes a non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized subject-agent; it co-occurs with Classes 4 and 5 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The N in the form symbolizes a nasal that assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant. If the first consonant of the root is followed by the ‘o’ vowel, the vowel will also be reduced.> Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Da Juan ke Maira din mange. It’s Juan and Maria who are passing by. Sim: naN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2asp. the prefix encodes a present continuative aspect; it co-occurs with roots that have an innate punctiliar aspect. Manatong kami nah ohan bale ya namodwongak an nanibo nah ohan lalaki. As we were arriving near one of the houses, I was surprised to see a man. Hay kalyona ya, kediyen hilong an manganamut, an gawan mon di hilong... He explained to us that the night before while he was on his way home at about midnight... (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

manteka 1comm. cooking oil; lard; animal grease. Adi mungkammoy manteka ya liting. Cooking oil and water do not mix. Athituy aton: Mamangulu ya igisay amput ya danggu hi manteka. This is how to cook it: First, saute the garlic and onions in a good amount of cooking oil. Kanan nan in-inay ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka. The old woman said, I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.3.5 - Cooking oil.) 2trans. to use cooking oil in cooking. Mantekaam nan ihda taku. Use cooking oil in our viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: manteca. infl. mummanteka

mapukailan hi udum an algo (id. of pukail) an idiom expressing the idea that the truth of a situation will be known some day (lit. an obstruction will be pushed away someday). Mapukailan hi udum an algo. The truth will be exposed some day. Mapukailan hi udum an algo nan inat mun nangako. The truth on the amount you stole will be exposed one of these days.

mikap-at (der. of kap-at) sta. fourth in sequential order. Hiyay mikap-at ke dakamin hintutulang. He is the fourth among us in the family. mi‑. 6D Descriptive. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.2 - Ordinal numbers.)

miswa comm. Chinese noodles made from mung beans; Chinese kind of food made of flour; looks like firm threads of flour. Miswa di ingkamo da nah dotag. They mixed Chinese mung noodles with the pork. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: Chinese.

modwong sta. to be amazed; to feel surprise at something unexpected; to be astonished because of something unusual. Namodwong kami hi inat na. We were amazed at what he did. Kay umipamodwong an dakodakkol di umalin makiamu-amung. It’s rather surprising that so many people come to these meetings. ma‑/na‑, umipa‑, mangipa‑. Sim: hong’ang. (sem. domains: 3.4.1.3 - Surprise.)

mohmo 1comm. a big bundle of rice grains. 2trans. to make big rice grain bundles. Adiyu imohmoy pamtok yu. Do not make your rice bundles big. Namohmo di numbotok da nadah page. They made big bundles of rice grains. i‑/iN‑, na‑. 3comm. bundled dried tobacco leafs, around three inches in diameter. Kaatnay himmohmo? How much is a bundle? hiN‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.3.3 - Group of things.) 4trans. to bundle dried tobacco leaves, around three inches in diameter. Aga, ta mohmohon taku tun tabaku. Come, let us bundle these tobacco leaves. ‑on/‑in‑.

mokmok trans. to fill the mouth with food. Imokmok mu nan hinamal an natdaan ot ittay. Fill your mouth with the cooked rice that's leftover, it's a small amount. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: hangal, habhab, kamal. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.4 - Manner of eating.)

molga sta. to feel relief from pain; to be feeling good. Namolgaan handi kinaan da nan oggan humakit an bob-ana. His pain was relieved when they removed his tooth that was frequently painful. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.6.1 - Pain.)

molngo (sp. var. molnga) sta. to be discouraged or dismayed. Namolngo nan imbabalem. Your child is discouraged. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.4 - Disappointed.)

molta 1comm. fine; penalty. Duwan babuy di molta na. His fine is two pigs. 2intrans. to produce a fine; to be penalized. Mummolta kah duwan babuy. You are to produce two pigs for your fine. Mamolta ka hi tulun babuy. You will be fined three pigs. muN‑/maN‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: 4.7.7.2 - Fine.) 3trans. to fine or penalize someone. Moltaon daka nadah ammod na hin adim ituluy. Her parents will fine you if you do not push through with your plans. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.7.7 - Punish.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: multa. der. moltaon infl. mamolta

motge sta. to be happy. Namotge hi Ipin handi immalih Loy. Ipin was very happy when Loy arrived. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 3.4.1.2 - Happy.)

mumbiyag (der. of biyag) intrans. to subsist on something. Gattuk di numbiyag da apu handih gubat. My grandparents lived on camote during the war. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.1 - Exist.)

mumpuN- TACR. this prefix encodes distributive, i.e. there is a plurality of subjects involved in the action, activity, or experience; it cross-references the subject; non-past tense. Waday mumpundogo ke dida. There are many sick among them. Hinanhanan day ngadan am-in nadan mumpungngunuh di. They asked for the names of all who will work there. Sim: numpuN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

muN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp.

mungkukuhipit (infl. of kuhipit) to be shy. [This word is a figurative meaning extension of kuhipit a word that describes a dog with his tail between his legs.] Mungkukuhipit day aammod ten mikamkamo dah nungkaadalan. The old folks are shy when they are among the educated. muN‑/nuN‑ CV‑.

mutog₂ comm. very young coconut meat. [The very young meat of a coconut is mucus-like.] Mutog di lamon nan niyug an ingga da. The flesh of the coconut they dropped is mucus-like. Sim: bitnung.

na-ala (sp. var. naala) advpred. 1without any reason; no other requirement; simply. Na-ala ya dinuntukak. Without any reason he hit me. Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot iha-ang mu. Just mix the sugar with the flour and then cook it. Manner. Sim: bigla, maid maptok, hingkatang, maag. 2refers to an action or happening that is unexpected; suddenly. Na-ala ya inhawwang nah tu. Suddenly he showed himself here.

nam’olwang intrans. to have a miscarriage. Adi lumah-un te namolwang ad nakugab. She will not come out because she had a miscarriage yesterday.

nungka- proc. this prefix encodes the distribution of a process or state over a number of objects; completive aspect. <This prefix generally co-occurs with process-state verbal roots or with passive forms of active verbs.> Nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. Ya nada ke bon kakaiw an sycamore an nungkalngo ya hannotan takuh sedar an kapkaphodan an kaiw. And also as for those sycamore trees that were felled, we will replace them with sedar which is the best tree. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

odon₁ comm. valuable possessions; inheritance. Ha-oy di namoltan hi odon Ama. I inherited the valuable possessions of my father. Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. Sim: tawid, boltan. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.9 - Value, 6.8.1.1 - Own, possess.)

ongal (fr. var. ongag) 1adj. describes something which is large in size; big. Eta tuwali madlig on mahapul an mitakke ta kinali ongal di umeh pulit. Every time you move you have to ride, that is why a big amount goes for fare. Ongal di matanan nakappaldang hi angana. It has big, round eyes that are close together on its face. (refers to an owl) Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big.) 2become large in size. 2.1proc. refers to the process of becoming larger in size. Umongal nan manuk hin panganom hin mumpitluh ohan algo. The chicken will become big if you feed it three times a day. Mungkaongal ka. You are becoming big. Immongal ka mo gayam ya timmag-e ka pay. You have become big now and you are tall, too. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mungka‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.2 - Become, change state.) 2.2sta. to be large in size. Naongal nan ek intanom. My plants grew big. Naongal nan bale da. Their house is big. Mangan ka ta maongal ka. You eat so you’ll grow big. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big, 8.2.1 - Small.) 2.3trans. to cause to become big. Iongal na nan inumonan gattak. It will become big because of the milk it is drinking. i‑/iN‑. ongngal der. mangong-ongal der. ong-ongal der. ongnga-ongngal n. ph. ongal di bulan

ota 1comm. the unhusked rice grains mixed with the husked rice. Dakol di otan nan binayu da. The rice they pounded has many unhusked grains. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to remove unhusked rice grains. Otaan yu nan boga ta ahiyu ihaang. Remove the unhusked rice grains before cooking it. Pun-otaan yu nan nambayu. Remove the unhusked rice grains. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3comm. (fig) refers to someone who is different from others within a group. Kay otan nikamkamo nadah tatagu. He was so prominent (lit. very different) mixed there with people. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2.3 - Different.) id. kay ota

palang 1comm. a wound from a bolo. Ongal nan palang nah odog na. The wound on his back is big. (sem. domains: 2.5.3 - Injure.) 2trans. to cut by striking with a bolo. Palangom nan hapang di akasya te umalih tuh atop di tubuna. Cut the branch of the acacia-tree because the leaves come to the roof. Mumpalang dah kawayan handi mala-u kami. They were cutting bamboo when we passed by. Pinalang Ramon nan kaiw. Ramon struck the tree with his bolo. Mapalang di taklem hin athina di pangdon mu nah otak. Your hand will be cut if you hold the bolo that way. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑ muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. Tactile - Touch contact. 3rec. to wound or kill each other with bolos. Mumpinnallang da lummu nah koltog di luta. They will kill each other with bolos because of a land dispute. muN‑ ‑in‑/nuN‑ ‑in‑. 4v. to attack with a bolo, usually with intent to kill. Etaku tedeyan tuwe nan mun-angon pumalang. Let us go because the crazy man will cut us with his bolo. ‑um‑/imm‑.

palut trans. to mix a liquid with powder as in baking, making dough; to mix water with powdered rice for making rice cakes. Palutom nan binakle hi liting. Mix the powdered rice with the water. Mumpalut dah binakle. They are mixing the powdered rice with water. Ingkamo da nan asukal nah liting ne ahida bo impalut nah binakle. They mixed the sugar with the water then mixed it again with the powdered rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑.

palyuk comm. a large cooking utensil; a vat. Usaron di palyuk hin dakol di iha-ang. One uses a vat to cook a big amount. Sim: tinapiyan, banga, palhu. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.3 - Cooking utensil.) id. kay palyuk di inga na

pikug trans. to make a hollow or depression; to deform something made of metal or plastic; dent, e.g. plastic bottle, tin can, aluminum, etc. Adim pikugon nan lata te miatop. Do not deform the tin because it will be used for roofing. Damana pay an usalon nan napikug an lata. You can still use the tin can that is deformed. Hinaey kapikpikugan mu nan udum an lata. That one was the most deformed among all the other cans. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

pol-ag 1comm. the stick used to beat a gong; made of hardwood like molave or yakal for a strong sound. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 2trans. to beat gong. Pol-agon yu nan gangha. Beat the gong. Dakayuy mamol-ag ta ha-oy di mambab. You be the ones to beat the gongs with sticks and I will be the one to beat with my hands. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: hib-at. infl. pamol-ag

poltan 1comm. rooster. Timmalan-u nan poltan dih mungkabigat. The rooster crowed early this morning. Inulonay dutdut na, inagtunay lamona. (poltan) It uses feathers for a blanket, and carries meat on its head. (rooster)(riddle) Syn: kawitan. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.) 2intrans. to use a rooster for breeding purposes. Bumanowak hi pumpoltan ku te tuwen umitlug nadan manuk ku. I will borrow a rooster for breeding purposes because my hens are about to lay eggs. puN‑.

pudnu trans. to tell the truth; to confess. Ipudnu yu hin dahdiy nangala nah manuk. Tell the truth who among you got the chicken. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.2.4 - Admit.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

puta comm. a whore; a prostitute. Kalyam nan ibam ta adi mikamkamo nah puta. Tell your sibling not to mingle with the whore. general: This word is seldom used in the Ifugao area. (sem. domains: 2.6.2.3 - Sexual immorality.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

ta hidiye nan conj. therefore; for that reason. <This is a phrase consisting of a conjunction, ta, a demonstrative, hidiye and a determiner, nan. It functions as a logical conjunction that connects the following sentence with the sentence that precedes it in context.> Ta hidiye nan lebbengnan munpasalamat dan APU DIOS gapuh ongal pamhod na ya gapun dakol hanadah umipamodwong an inatnan kiphodan da. (Psalm 107:15) Therefore, it is right that they thank God for his great love and for those many miracles he did for them.

talam 1sta. to be cunning or deceitful; to be tricky. Natalam ka. You are deceitful. Nuntalam ot bumtik hi kalabutan. He was cunning and escaped from prison. na‑, muN‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.5.5 - Deceive.) 2trans. to trick or deceive someone. Adiyu talamon te gaga-iho hidiye. Don’t deceive him because that is bad. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact.

tamtam 1trans. to taste something. Tamtamam ya- tun inha-ang ku. Please taste this that I have cooked. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. spec: lan-u. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.) 2pass. for something to have a strong taste. Makattamtam nan ingkamom an Vetsin. The MSG that you mixed with it has a strong taste. makaC‑. 3sta. to be tasty; to have a good taste. Matamtam di ulha an ihda. Wild pig viand is tasty. ma‑. Sim: hangliw. 4trans. to taste, an extended meaning refers to tasting something abstract, e.g. trouble, strength of an antagonist. “Otto- anno tinamtam muy kodhol Lammooy? An makulug an hi Lammooy? Then, er...so did you taste the strength of Lammooy? Is it true that it was Lammooy?” ‑on/‑in‑. 5C Goal-oriented site. der. matamtam

taya₁ trans. to collect liquid by placing a container under outlet. Tayaom nan muntodtod an danum. Collect this dripping water in a container. Itayam tun palanggana nah gulipu ta ulahak tun duyu. Put this basin under the water pipe and I will wash the dishes. Muntaya kah pun-amom. Collect water for your bath. Tumaya kah inumon taku. Collect some water for our drinking needs. Mitaya ka nah gulipu. Put yourself under the pipe. (lit. collect the water on your body, regarding bathing) ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.) id. mitaya ka

tolgan (infl. of tolog) trans. to light a lamp or fire. Andani ya kananay deket mun-amo da, ad uwanin kotol ya tinolgan dah diyet ta paatungona nan dibdib. After a while he said that when they take a bath, now that’s it’s cold, they light it so that it can warm the air. general: This example sentence is excerpted from a text about a kerosene heater. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 5.5 - Fire.)

tudde 1comm. a chute for water; a water spout or conduit, usually made of bamboo, a banana stalk or leaves. Waday tudde nah pingngit nan ongal an batu. There is a water chute at the side of the large stone. Mapmaphod an mun-amon nah tudde. It’s nice to bathe under the water chute. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to place a water chute. Tuddeyon yu nan liting na malpun nah guhing ta waday uggan taku pun-amhan Place a water chute on the rice dike outlet so that we will have a place to take a bath. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object.

tukyang comm. a frog species, very small; cannot really jump making it a snake’s favorite dish. Kinan nan ulog nan tukyang kinali waday mun-itit nah makape. The snake ate the tukyang-frog that is why there is a hissing sound among the coffee plants. Sim: tukak, kuty’ang. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.4 - Amphibian.)

tuma 1comm. lice, especially found in clothing, but may also refer to lice on animals. Adik pinhod an mih-up ke hiya te dakol di tuma na. I do not want to go near him because he has a lot of lice. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2sta. to have body lice. Matumaan ka hin adika uggan mun-amo. You will have body lice if you do not take a bath often. ma‑ ‑an.

tuwalya comm. a towel. Nan tuwalya di pundan-im hin magibbu kan mun-amo. Use the towel in drying yourself after taking a bath. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: toalla.

uban 1comm. gray hair. Nikamkamoy uban nah buuk na. There is gray hair mixed in her hair. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3 - Color.) 2sta. to have gray hair. Naubanan ka. You have gray hair. Mungkaubanan ka. You are becoming gray. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, mungka‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.)

upup trans. to cover the face or mouth with hands. Deket naakhupan kan mun-amo ya hay angam di upupom ta adida inilaon an he-a. If you are caught bathing, cover your face with your hands so they won’t know who you are. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.)

wakal comm. vine, generic term. [The morning glory is referred to as wakal; other vines are generally referred to by specific names.] Nan wakal di pamobod mu. Use the vine to tie it. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

yangyang-od (yang-od) comm. a beetle species that nods head with a clicking sound. Pinpinhod nadan u-ungan ay-ayyamon di yangyang-od Children love to play with the beetle which keeps on nodding its head. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)