Search results for "anga"

aga nangamung boh pidwana (id. of pidwana) idiom. Bye, until next time; Bye, see you again. Agat ume kami, nangamung boh pidwana. We are leaving, see you next time. This expression is used to politely break off a conversation. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.3 - Leave.)

alanganin advpred. predicates the uncertainty of something. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na And the reason he does not stop is he thinks his life would be uncertain. Evaluative.

anga comm. the front part of the head; includes the eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth and chin; face. Inuk-ukbu nay angan inana. She looks exactly like her mother. (lit. She resembles her mother’s face.) Ongal di matanan nakappaldang hi angan akup. An owl has big, round eyes that are close together on its face. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.) id. kay habal di angana id. mumboldang di anga

angaang comm. tree variety with a small trunk; has orange flowers and berries that turn brown, but are not edible. [This was not used for firewood when clay jars were used because it burned so hot it would break the jars.] (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

angang comm. earthen clay jar; usually used as a water container or for the fermentation of rice wine. Waday baya nah angang. There is rice wine in the jar. Sim: galgalit, buhi; Sim: buwod, guling, dale; Spec: hinal-itan; Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

bahhelna (sp. var. ba-helna) comm. refers to the southern part of Kiangan central; the barrios of Amduntug, Antipolo, etc. Nunbaki da apud bahhelna. Our grandfather performed rituals in the places on the other side. Deket kalimana ya dakol di ibahhelnan umalih Poblacion. When it’s Friday many from distant places come.

balangat 1comm. stripes of colors on animals. Mabayak nan balangat nan ahu. The dog’s stripe is white. Sim: dago, batok; Sim: guli-i, balah-ak. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3.5 - Animal color, marking.) 2sta. to be striped. Natalak nan nabalangatan an ahuk. My striped dog is lost. na‑ ‑an.

Balangaw prop. people from a part of Bontok area. [A place mentioned in the Hudhud.] Nikali damdama nan New Testament hi kalin nadan iBalangaw. The New Testament was also translated into the Balangaw dialect. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.8 - Family, clan.)

banga comm. a pot for cooking. Ad-adam nan banga te nakau-uling. You scrub the pot because it is full of soot. Iapin muh ongngal an banga o palyuk ta danumam ya imbang-ot mu. Next, put the rice into a big pot or vat, put water into it and then, put the pot on the fire. Sim: tinapiyan, palhu, palyuk. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) id. nitag-ey banga da

bangad intrans. to return to a place that someone had previously left; usually used to return to residence. Nagibbu dan mangan ot mibangad dah bale da. When they finished eating they returned to their house. mi‑/ni‑. der. kibangngadan

bangal comm. vine-like plant that is jointed. Dih mataguh ina ya mahapul an abun ha-adan hi bangal di gawwan di panopnakan. When mother was alive, the bangal-vine had to be placed in the seedbed. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

barangay comm. a unit of government.

bulangan (der. of bulang) comm. a structure built purposely for cockfighting, in the form of an arena. Imme da nah bulangan te Linggud uwani. They went to the cockpit because it’s Sunday today. ‑an. Syn: bularit.

damanat nangamung (ph. v. of damana, ta nangamung) advpred. 1asserts that something is always feasible; modifies the information in a complement clause. Modality. 2one can always do something. Damanat nangamung an mahuyop ka nah dulung. You can always sleep on the floor. (sem. domains: 9.4.2.1 - Can.)

dangan 1comm. measure of length from thumb to middle finger; a hand-span. Ohan dangan di kadukken tun pintil. The length of this pencil is one span. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) 2trans. to span something; to measure from thumb to middle finger. Danganom hin nganney kaddukena. Measure it to determine its length. Dumangan kah himpulu. Measure ten spans. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

gagangay comm. natural, characteristic of human nature or the situation. Gagangay tuwalih naen e naat. What happened is just but natural. Gagangay nan umat hina te unga ne-an. Naturally he is like that because he is a child. Sim: kapyana. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.1 - Nature, character.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ganga sta. to be hard; durable; referring to wood. Maganga nan tukud di baleda. The post of their house is hard. Maganga nan kaiw an kinapya nah ubunan. The chair he made is from a durable wood. ma‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture, 6.5.3 - Building materials.)

ganganas (infl. of ganas) sta. refers to something that is enjoyable. Naganganas nan sini. The movie was enjoyable.

gangganga 1sta. to be topsy turvy; disorder; disarray; to spread in any direction. Naganggangay buuk na. Her hair is in disarray. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.5.1 - Disorganized.) 2trans. to point at someone by spreading the fingers to mock. [With this gesture, one points his fingers, while turning the wrist continuously, at someone as an act of defiance, mockery, insult or just teasing depending on the occasion.] Adim ganggangaon di taklem. Do not spread your fingers. Panion gumanggah tagu. It is taboo to spread fingers at people. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑.

ginatangan comm. land that was bought in contrast to land that has been handed down through generations. Nan ginatangan an luta di indat dan hiya. The land which his parents bought was given to him. ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 1.2.1 - Land.)

hanga 1advpred. to calculate something as being too much of the actual size or amount; to evaluate something as excessive. Hangaanay in-alin Bugan an bulhe. She thought that Bugan bought too many beans. Evaluative. (sem. domains: 9.3.1.3 - To a larger degree.) 2intrans. to always calculate an amount as being more than necessary. [When the form is used, it tends to express a negative evaluation of the person who does this.] Adika humangahanga. Don’t be always saying that it is too much.

hangal trans. to put whole pieces of something into the mouth. Adim ihangal nan bulintik, aki. Baby, don’t put the marble into your mouth. Nganney inhangal mu? What did you put in your mouth? Umihangal di buwaya. A crocodile can put a whole thing (body) in its mouth. i‑/iN‑. umi‑/‑immi‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: habhab, kamal, mokmok. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

hanganga comm. a tree variety. [ During the ponpon agricultural ritual, the granary is decorated with leaves from this kind of tree.] (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

hangayab sta. for something to have a broad opening. Nahangayab di tokona. His mouth is big./He is so wide-mouthed. na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.2.4 - Wide.)

hawwangan (der. of hawang) comm. the place where someone or something emerges.

Hay humiga maagangan. (id. of higa) A lazy man starves (lit. one who is lazy is hungry). (sem. domains: 5.2.2.5 - Hungry, thirsty.)

Hay mahlu ya adi maagangan. (say. of hulu) The industrious will never be hungry. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

himbatangan comm. afternoon; between 3:00 - 5:00 p.m. is the time referred to. Namahig di atung hanah himbatangan. It is very hot in the afternoon. Himbatangan ke on mungngala day dulduli. During afternoons cicadas become noisy. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.)

humilong di pangang-ang na. (id. of hilong) refers to extreme anger (lit. his seeing is darkened). (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.)

hummangan (infl. of humang) trans. 1to talk together. Maphod di hummangan dan hintutulang. The siblings had a good talk. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5 - Communication.) 2to make an agreement. Hinummangan daka. I made an agreement with you. Nakahhummangan kami kaya mu deyan ad uwani ya adi bo kanu. Together we made a firm agreement but now she went back on it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, naka‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites.

ibangawan (der. of bango) 1comm. bride; the one whose family receives the bride price. Hi tulang kuy ibangawan da bokon ha-oy. My sister is the bride, not me. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. for the groom’s family to bring the engagement pigs to the bride’s family. Ibangawan dah Ana. They will bring engagement animals for Ana. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an.

igitangan (infl. of gitang) trans. to hit someone at the waist area. Igitangam ta matu-i. Hit him at the waist so he’ll fall. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

kalimangan comm. frame of house; house skeleton; framework of any building. Binohwat da moy kalimangan di baleda. They have already erected the frame of their house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

kaspangarigan adjunct. this adjunct modifies a statement that is a specific example of the more general statement that precedes it Nu kaspangarigan ta pinhod mu pay an mumbidbid hi novels ya bidbid mu nadan historical. If, for example, you like to read novels then, read those historical ones. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum ya tawagam hi Pedro. Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money, call Pedro. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.5.8.4 - Show, indicate.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

katom-angan di bulan (n. ph. of bulan) nom. half-moon. Nah katom-angan di bulan ya waday umali. During half-moon, someone will come (sem. domains: 1.1.1.1 - Moon.)

kay habal di angana (id. of anga) his face is wide; broad-faced (lit. his face is like an upland-camote-patch).

kay hamutin mangan (id. of kan) to have a poor appetite; to eat very little (lit. eat like a bird).

kay ka babuy an mangan (id. of kan) You smack your lips while eating. (lit. You are like a pig in eating.)

kay munhabun mangan (id. of kan) eating too fast (lit. like scooping-water in eating).

kay nanganan di ahuy nanganan yu (id. of kan) a table top is very messy (lit. It’s like some dogs have just eaten where you ate.).

kay nanganan di gulding (id. of kan) grass is not well-cut (lit. It’s like it was eaten by a goat.).

kay nanganan di kabayu (id. of kan) grass is not well-cut (lit. It’s like it was nibbled by a horse.).

Kiangan prop. refers to a municipality in Ifugao Province, Philippines. Immali da Juan hitud Kiangan. Juan and his companions came here to Kiangan. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

langaan 1comm. a clay pot used for roasting. Waday langaan yu? Do you have a clay pot for roasting? (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to roast in a clay pot. Ilangaan mu tun in-utum kun dolog. Roast this fish that I wrapped in leaves. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and positon object at site. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.)

langan intrans. to be absent from a regular activity like work, meal, exercise; to miss an activity. Munlanganak nah ubbumi te mahakit di uluk. I’ll be absent from our group work because I have a headache. Adika ongan munlangan an mangan. Don’t ever miss your meal. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.5.3 - Be at a place.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

langaw (sp. var. lango) 1comm. fruitfly; gnat. Dakol di langaw nah bubud. There are many tiny flies on the fermented rice. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2sta. to have fruit flies in or on something. Kanon yu mo an nagogod an makmakkan ta adi malangawan. Eat your sliced fruits so that it will not attract fruitflies. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lita-angan (sp. var. of ta-angan)

maabangan (infl. of abang) pass. a house with rooms for rent. Waday maabangan ad Linda. There are boarding houses in Linda (lit. can be rented). (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

maagangan (infl. of agang) sta. to be hungry. An adika maagangan? Don’t you get hungry? ma‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.5 - Hungry, thirsty.)

mahdol di anga na an idiom that describes someone who does not easily ‘lose face’; someone who is not easily shamed (lit. his face is thick). Mahdol di anga na. He is brazen.

mahin-alangan (der. of alang) sta. a size measure of a ricefield; its produce can fill a normal size granary. Mahin-alangan nan payon Bugan. Bugan’s ricefield produces enough to fill a granary. mahin‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.)

mahoktang di alanga-ang (id. of hoktang) an idiom used to describe the pain and soreness of the throat when someone has been shouting or crying for a long time (lit. throat is detached). Mahoktang di alanga-ang na. His throat is sore.

malaganga comm. snake, white and green poisonous species. Linumbag di kinalat nan malaganga. The part bitten by the malaganga-snake is swollen. Gen: ulog.

mangab-abig (der. of ab-abig) v. to tell a story; a storyteller, refers to someone in particular who tells stories. [In the past, this form sometimes referred to someone who could foretell the future.] Sim: profetas.

mangabak (infl. of abak) intrans. to win, used in regard to court cases, gambling and races. Nangabak hi hinlibu nah tugalan hi Pedro. Pedro won a thousand pesos from gambling. maN‑/naN‑.

mangabal (der. of maabal) trans. to gather beetles generally with the purpose of using them for food. Ekayu mangabal hi hilong ta ihda takuh bigat. Go and get beetles tonight for tommorow’s viand. maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

mangado (infl. of ado) trans. to make rice paddy mounds for planting vegetables during fallow season. Umeyak hi payo te eyak mangado. I’ll go to the field to make paddy mounds.

mangaiw (der. of kaiw) trans. 1to gather firewood. Mangaiw da nadan u-unga ad uwani. The children are going to gather firewood now. maN‑/naN‑. 2traditionally referred to a class of people who were contracted to provide firewood. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao (Sense #2)

mangako (infl. of ako) trans. refers to one who steals; thief. Nah kadakol di tatagu ya mahapul an halipat-an di pihhu te wadaday mangako. With the number of people, you have to be careful with your money because there are those who steal. maN‑/naN‑.

mangalak (der. of alak) trans. to build an irrigation canal. Sim: mamatung.

mangalana (der. of ala) nom. an extended meaning of the root meaning to ‘get something’; the person who seeks revenge by prowling at night. Wadaday mangalanan numbotak ad Baguinge. There were prowlers waylaying in Baguinge. Uggan da mangalana didan ammod taku. Our ancestors usually went out hunting for revenge (at night.) Tumakut day tatagu an bumudal nah hilong te hay mangalana. People fear going out at night because of the people who hunt to revenge. maN‑.

mangali day bibiyo (id. of bibiy’o) refers to fair-complexioned and fair-haired people (lit. the fairies are coming). [Generally thought of as referring to Americans.]

mangalibutnu comm. tree variety, used for posts.

mangan (infl. of kan) intrans. to eat. Mangan taku. Let’s eat. Mangan taku ta ume kayu. Let’s eat so that you can go. maN‑/naN‑.

manganggigiya (der. of anggigiya) intrans. to gather anggigiya beetles. Eda manganggigiya hi bigat. They are going to gather anggigiya-beetles tomorrow. maN‑.

mangapput (infl. of apput) intrans. to win in a competition. Mangapput ka hin ip-iphod mu. You will win if you do it properly. maN‑/naN‑.

mangapya (infl. of kapya) trans. refers to the person who makes or builds something. Indanit mala-uy kaatnan toon ot mangapyay gubilnuh kalatah di. Some years passed and then the government built a road there. maN‑/naN‑.

mangat (infl. of at) trans. to do something; the agent-subject is topicalized. <This particular form of at is used when the discourse requires the agent-subject to be in the pre-verb position.> Kon waday laing yun mangat nah ipangunuk? Do you have the skill to do my work? Hanan tagu ya tobalonan mabayadan an mangat hi gaga-iho. That person, he will accept payment to do bad. maN‑/naN‑.

mangattip (der. of attip) intrans. to gather dragonfly nymphs. Eda mangattip da aman ina. Father and mother are going to gather dragonfly nymphs. maN‑/naN‑.

mangatublu (der. of atublu) intrans. becoming a pullet. Hay mangatubluy ibaki da. They will sacrifice a young pullet in their ritual. maN‑.

mangay-ayyam (der. of ayyam) nom. refers to either party in an engagement relationship; fiancé or fiancée.

mangayyuding comm. black crow; eats corn by breaking off an ear and flying away with it; emits a wak-wak-wak sound. Kinan di mangayyuding nan inhabal kun gahhilang. The crows ate the corn I planted in the swidden-plot. Sim: ban’ug, halagma, butbut, gawwang; gen: gawwang. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.)

matangad (der. of tangad) pass. to be respected (lit. looked up to)

mumboldang di anga (id. of anga) an idiom with the meaning of being angry (lit. face is flushing).

munhawwangan (infl. of hawang) intrans. to roam around with no destination in mind though the activity is distributed through many locations. Munhawwangan day u-unga te maid nan mittulu da. Children are roaming around because their teacher is not around. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an.

munhuhummangan (infl. of humang) rec. a reciprocal action; to converse; to carry on a conversation. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nah wa-el, inang ay waday munhuhummang. After awhile, he was approaching the creek, oh my, there were voices conversing. muN‑ CV‑ ‑an/nuN‑ CV‑ ‑an.

nangabak (infl. of abak) trans. refers to the one who wins in gambling or card games.

nangadi sta. to be sterile, of animals. Nangadi nan babuy mi. Our pig is sterile. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.)

nangadol (der. of adol) to have a muscular body. Nangadol nan imbabalena. His son has a muscular body. (sem. domains: 2.4.1 - Strong.)

nangamung hi Gallman pred. a phrase that referred to the American military governor, Jefferson D. Gallman (1905-1911), indicating his responsibility for judgment and decisions on disputes. {hist} Lourdes S. Dulawn: Ifugao Culture and History

nangamung₁ adjunct. 1uncertain; come-what-may attitude about what is unknown or undecided. Nangamung hin matuluy. We’ll see if it will push through. Nangamung hi bigat We’ll see what will happen tomorrow. Attitudinal. 2may also be used as a polite way to refuse an invitation or proposal for an action or activity. comp. ta nangamung

nangamung₂ 1advpred. to be responsible for something. Adi kayu madanagan, ha-oy di nangamung. Don’t worry, I’m the one responsible. Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back (be responsible) and he should let me know. Manner. Sim: uk’od. 2trans. to be responsible for accomplishing something, even if it requires taking a risk. Inangamungan day nitaguwan da takon naligatan da. They are responsible for their own lives, even if they are hardshipped. i‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.)

nangappit (appit) v. a grammaticalized verb used to mark the direction of a place; in the direction of. Immeh Jonah e-elen di bobleh nangappit hi timilan algo ot e um-umbun hidi. (Jonah 4:5a) Jonah went outside the village in the direction of the sunrise (east) and went to sit there. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.)

nangapput (infl. of apput) trans. identifies the winner in gambling, a debate or a game. Dahdiy nangapput? Who won? maN‑/naN‑.

nangatang (infl. of gatang) trans. buyer, the one who has bought something. Hiyay nangattang nah lutan Bugan. He is the one who bought Bugan’s ricefield. Kaatnay nangatang mun nah payo? How much did you pay for the field? maN‑/naN‑.

natangan sta. first time experience. Kay natangan mangang-ang nadah duddutin muntayyapan. It was as though it was the first time she had seen dragonflies flying around.

nganga comm. unclear speech; can produce sounds, but can’t pronounce words correctly; to be dumb, i.e. inability to speak. Adi maawatan di pinhod na te nanganga. One can’t understand what he wants because he can’t talk properly. Ya hin kananat manganga ta adi pakakalit maid di innunan mumbaki And if he cannot speak, then there is no one who can say the rituals and prayers. ma‑/na‑. Class 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.5.4.4 - Mute.)

nitag-ey banga da (id. of banga) an idiom meaning that someone is late to an event or activity (lit. their pot was placed high, implying that it takes a long time to cook).

pangabak (der. of abak) comm. winnings; refers to the money won in gambling. Kaatnay pangabak yu? How much are your winnings? paN‑. Syn: pangapput. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.)

pangal comm. the cartilage and bony structure surrounding the mouth; jaw, chin. Dinnuntuk da di pangal na ot mipangel di gunit na. Somebody socked his jaw and his bone was dislocated. Sim: pahung. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.)

pangali (infl. of kali, paN-) v. to think. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.)

panganan (der. of kan) nom. a place for eating; a dining room, a table or a designated area outdoors during feasts. An umustu taku tuh panganan? Are we enough at this table?

pangapput (der. of apput) nom. the winnings in gambling. Ongal di pangapput na handi hilong. His winnings last night were big. Syn: pangabak. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.)

pangat (der. of at) 1nom. refers to a custom, a particular way of doing something. Athituy pangat di ibaliwon. This is the way lowlanders do things. Athituy pangat di aammod dih done. This is a custom of our ancestors. Sim: e-e, pangi-e. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2comm. facility or skill; know-how; the means to do things. Maid di pangat da. They do not have the means to do things. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

pangayan (infl. of e) 1intrans. used as a greeting, hello, literally means ‘where are you going’. Daanay pangayam? / Pangayam? Where are you going? paN‑ ‑an. 2trans. a form used to topicalize the place one is going. Hay pangayan da ya ad Lagawe. The place where they are going to is Lagawe.

pinnangan (der. of kan) nom. to feel like eating; having an appetite. Ad-adiy pinnangan hin waday kala. There is no appetite when one has thrush. paN‑ ‑inn‑.

pun-ib-ibat nangamung (id. of iba) an idiom referring to a lifetime partner, wife or husband (lit. to companion forever).

Renata prop. the proper first name of a Belgian nun; one of the first to serve in Kiangan. [The Belgian nun, Renata, was much-loved by the people. She is remembered for her long-time service to the people and her compassion for them.]

Sentral prop. the name of the elementary public school in Kiangan, Ifugao.

Ta malinggop di kitaguwam mahapul an maduplalan di pangalam (say. of linggop) In order to have a peaceful life you must acquire your possessions honestly.

ta nangamung₁ adv. the time concept related to an event, activity or action that continues ‘up to the time of’ specified in the sentence. Miha-ha-ad dah nah muyung ta nangamung di magibbuy hagabi. They camp in the forest until the Hagabi is finished. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) ph. v. damanat nangamung

ta nangamung₂ (comp. of nangamung) conj. implies that one person is always responsible for a specified activity. Ha-on ta nagamung di mumbalbal. I’m always the one doing the laundry. Sim: ta inggana, kanayun, latta, nanong. (sem. domains: 8.4.7 - Continue, persevere.)

ta-angan (sp. var. lita-angan) comm. house yard space farther away than the main house yard. Ena inwele nan lugit nah ta-angan. He went to throw the dirt in the space further from the main house yard. Sim: ayugu, aldattan, dola.

tabangawon comm. a tree variety, used for studs, posts, etc. Tabangawon di tukud nan bale da. Their house posts are of tabangawon-wood. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

tangad 1trans. to look up at something. Tangadom ke nan bulan. Look up at the moon. Itangad mud tap-o ta ang-angom din bulan. Look up at the top and you will see the moon. Matangad. It can be seen by looking up. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4E Perceptiion and Cognition. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.1 - Look.) 2trans. (fig) to look up to someone; to respect. Tangadom peman te kadangyan kanu. Respect him for he’s said to be rich. ‑on/‑in‑. 3intrans. to lay face up. Dinuntuk da ya nuntangngad. They socked him and he laid face up. muN‑/nuN‑. der. matangad id. ittangtangngad na id. tangadon

tangadon (id. of tangad) an idiom meaning to respect someone (lit. to look up to) (sem. domains: 3.2.5.9 - Approve of something.)

utangan (infl. of utang) trans. to borrow money from a particular person or source. Maid di inilak utangan. I do not know of anyone who will loan money (from whom I can borrow money). ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

wadat nangamung di madam-ot hi pagona (id. of pago) an idiom implying that there is something that is always problematic (lit. there is something that is heavy forever in his chest). (sem. domains: 3.4.2 - Feel bad.)

wangawang trans. to spread news; to disclose a secret; to declare to the public. Inwangawang da an waday ahawam hitu. They spread the news that you have a wife here. Niwangawang an nate ka yaden dehtu ka an makattagu. The news spread that you were dead and yet, here you are, very much alive. i‑/iN‑, ni‑/mi‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: 3.5.2.1 - Report.)

Alla prop. name of a mountain west of central Kiangan. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.1 - Mountain.)

Amduntug prop. a barrio/village south of Kiangan. Deket wada tah tud Awwa ya mauhdungan di Amduntug hi South ya mauhdungan di Hulungan ya Nagacadan hi North. Anyone who is in Awwa is overlooking Amduntug to the South and overlooking Hulungan and Nagacadan to the North.

Baguinge prop. a baranggay/barrio of Kiangan. IBaginge tun kadwak. My companion is from Baguinge. (sem. domains: 4.6.7.4 - Community.)

balikongkong comm. 1a reed variety. Dakol di balikongkong an tinummol nah payomi. Plenty of reeds grew in our field. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2refers to an upper area of Kiangan.

kaiw 1comm. the generic word for tree. Muntanom kah kaiw ta waday ahim kaiwon. Plant trees so you’ll have something to get for firewood. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2comm. refers to wood which has been logged. Waday tendaan di bulwati, apatut, makan, kaiw ya gumok. There are stores for clothes, shoes, food, lumber and hardware. Damanan udman di hukbung na ta humdol ne gat-unam hi kaiw Then, put something slightly heavy like a piece of wood, (sem. domains: 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.) 3sta. to be wooded; refers to a forested area; may also refer to the western part of Kiangan, the Tinoc area. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place. i‑ ma‑. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.6 - Forest, grassland, desert.) der. kaiwon der. mangaiw infl. ka-ka-iw

makaiw comm. 1refers to the western part of Kiangan; refers to the Tinoc area, also referred to as the Kalanguya area. Imme dad makaiw. They went to the western part of Kiangan. 2from the Tinoc area. [Some people consider this term as derogatory.] Kon imakaiw hi amam? Is your father from the Tinoc area? i‑.

aldattan comm. yard; the area surrounding a house; the spot where water falls from the eaves; front yard. Immaliy olwang hi aldattan mi. The overflowing water from the river came into our front yard. Sim: ayugu, dola, ta-angan. (sem. domains: 6.5.1.4 - Yard.)

ayugu comm. 1shady area under overhanging roof. Sim: aldattan, dola, ta-angan. 2may refer to the place where rain drips off a roof forming channels and rivulets.

balah-ak sta. to be spotted, e.g. black and white spots on animals. Nabalah-akan nan ahuk. My dog is spotted. na‑ ‑an. Sim: guli-i, balangat. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3.5 - Animal color, marking.)

ban’ug (sp. var. bannug) comm. hawk. [If it flies up higher by circling and talking, it is a dopal omen, meaning it will not rain for a long time.] Intayap nan banug nan impa. The hawk flew away with the chick. Falconiformes; Bureo Jamaicensis Sim: halagma, mangayyuding, butbut, gawwang. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.)

batok 1comm. stripes; streaks; printed design. Sim: dago, balangat; Sim: lihha. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.4 - Pattern, model.) 2sta. to be striped; to be tattooed. Nabatokan di taklena. Her arms are tattooed. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

buhi comm. generic term for wine jar; considered heirlooms. Nabuwe nan buhi mi. Our wine jar was broken. Sim: galgalit, angang; Spec: angang, buwod, guling, dale, dinalman. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

bularit comm. a cockpit, small mini-cockpit. Wada ni-an di bularit ad Pico. There used to be a small cockpit in Pico. Syn: bulangan. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

butbut₂ comm. reddish hawk with gray and white neck; eats mice, snakes, and young birds. Inibtiibtik di butbut nan impan di manuk ku. The hawk has been snatching and flying away with my chicks. Sim: ban’ug, halagma, mangayyuding, gawwang. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.)

buwod comm. clay jar, usually used for drinking water. Matuning di liting nah buwod. The water in the clay jar is cold. Sim: angang, guling, dale; Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

dago comm. a pig with brownish stripes; any animal with stripes. [A dago-pig is easy to find when it’s lost because of its color.] Maphod di ang-ang di dago immam-ana hin mataba. A brownish-pig has a very nice appearance especially if it is fat. Sim: balangat, batok. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

dola comm. refers to the area around and outside of a building; yard; outside. Ekad dola. Go outside. Munhigid kad dola. Sweep the yard. Mihaynod ya mun-aallodah dayakkot an nidadaan nah dola. Next is the free-for-all throwing of rice at each other which has been readied and placed in the yard. Sim: ayugu, aldattan, ta-angan. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

e-e comm. 1customs; traditions; ways of doing things. Athituy e-en di ibaliwon. These are the ways of lowlanders. Hituwey e-en di aammod taku handi. This is the way of our forefathers long ago. Sim: pangat, pangi-e. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2characteristics of a person or thing. Athidi tuwali di e-ena. That is really his nature.

galgalit comm. a native wine jar with flower figures. Ikail mu nah galgalit. Ferment it in the jar. Sim: buhi, angang. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

gawwang comm. a bird that preys on chicks and small birds; a crow or a hawk. [The bird makes a wak, wak sound.] Kinan di gawwang nan impan di manok. The crow ate the baby chicken. Sim: ban’ug, halagma, mangayyuding, butbut; spec: mangayyuding, bannug. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.) id. kay gawwang

guli-i 1comm. a stripe or spot. Sim: balangat, balah-ak. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.8 - Pattern, design.) 2sta. to be patterned; to have a pattern, e.g. spotted or striped. Naguli-iyan hi mangitit nan bulwatina. His shirt is spotted with black. Maingit naguli-in nan bulwatik. My shirt was striped with red. na‑ ‑an, na‑.

guling comm. a small but costly rice wine jar. [The jar is used only for rice wine; it is particularly used in the dawat and palat di bagol rituals.] In-abbana nan guling an napnuh baya. She carried on her back the small jar full of ricewine. Sim: buwod, angang, dale; Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

habhab intrans. to eat something greedily. Nun-ihabhab na nan tinapay te nakaaggangan. He ate the bread greedily because he was so hungry. Hay ke babuy ya ihabhab nan mangan. The pig eats greedily. nuN‑ i‑, i‑/iN‑. Sim: hangal, kamal, mokmok. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.4 - Manner of eating.)

halagma comm. hawk species, brown spotted with white on the breast. Intayap nan halagma nan impan di manuk. The hawk flew away with the chick. Sim: ban’ug, mangayyuding, butbut, gawwang. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.)

hinal-itan comm. a type of wine jar. Gen: angang. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

kamal (sp. var. kamel) trans. 1to stuff mouth full. Mangan ka ke ya adim ikamel nan makan. When you eat do not fill your mouth. Nun-ikamal na nan dotag. He stuffed his mouth full with meat. i‑/iN‑, muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: hangal, habhab, mokmok. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2to feed by putting food inside another’s mouth. Pakamalam tun golang hi ittay an dotag. Feed this child by putting a piece of meat in his mouth. pa‑ ‑an.

kanayun adv. implies an habitual aspect of an action or event; always. Kanayun an maid di tagu hi bale da. Always, there is no one in their house. Time. Sim: ta nangamung, ta inggana, latta, nanong. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.)

kapyana (der. of kapya) 1advpred. refers to the way things are traditionally or by nature. Nakahillong mo ya kapyanan maid pay hi Juan an dumdumattong. It was already night, in spite of that fact, Juan hadn’t come yet. Kapyanah tuwe. This is customary. Kapyana tuwalin waday punhahallaan di tagu mu takomboy athina ya ip-iphod yun munhuhummangan. It’s natural to have differences between people but even if that’s the case, you should discuss differences diplomatically. Manner. Sim: gagangay. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.1 - Nature, character.) 2nom. the natural characteristic or essence of something. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature.

latta adv. always. He-a latta di gumulugulu. You are always the one causing trouble. Time. Sim: ta nangamung, ta inggana, kanayun, nanong. (sem. domains: 8.4 - Time.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

mamatung (der. of batung) intrans. to build a stone dam so water will enter an irrigation canal. Mamatung da ta adi matdukan nadan payo. They are building a stone-dam so that the ricefields will not dry up. Sim: mangalak.

mokmok trans. to fill the mouth with food. Imokmok mu nan hinamal an natdaan ot ittay. Fill your mouth with the cooked rice that's leftover, it's a small amount. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: hangal, habhab, kamal. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.4 - Manner of eating.)

nanong₁ 1intrans. to continue unchanged over a period of time; to remain the same. Adika munnanong an muttatyu na. You will not continue to be his servant. Mahapul an munnanong kayun mumbobleh di. It is necessary that you remain living there. Munnanong ka ni-an hitu. Remain here for a while. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: ta nangamung, ta inggana, kanayun, latta. (sem. domains: 7.2.7.2 - Stay, remain.) 2advpred. modifies an event, expressing that it is unchanging over a period of time. Ingganad uwani ya nanongnan mumbaki ama takon di nun-iskul handi. Until now, my father continues to be (is still) a pagan priest even though he has gone to school. Ya nanongnan dehdin ang-ang-angok nan bibiyon deh hinangngab ku. And I could still see the fairy standing in front of me. ‑nan. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.) 3advpred. to continue forever unchanged; always. Munnananong hi Apu Dios an wada. God will exist forever and ever. Adi munnananong an waday tiempok. I will not always have time. muN‑ CV‑. infl. nunnanong

pahung comm. the bony lower structure of the face; jaw. Mahakit di pahung na te dinuntuk da. His jaw is painful because they hit him. Sim: pangal. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.)

palhu comm. a small frying pan with handle; a skillet. Ulaham din palhu ta ipulituk tun dolog. Wash the frying pan so I can fry this fish. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Sim: tinapiyan, banga, palyuk. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.3 - Cooking utensil.)

palyuk comm. a large cooking utensil; a vat. Usaron di palyuk hin dakol di iha-ang. One uses a vat to cook a big amount. Sim: tinapiyan, banga, palhu. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.3 - Cooking utensil.) id. kay palyuk di inga na

pangi-e (der. of e) nom. refers to the way of doing things; customs; culture. Hay ke pangi-en di ammod ya bakiyan day mumpundogo. The custom of our ancestors was to perform rituals for the sick. Mahapul an iunud takuh pangi-en Apu Dios. We must follow the ways of God. pangi‑. Sim: e-e, pangat. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.)

ta inggana (comp. of inggana) adv. continuing forever, unless a point in time is specified. Hiya di ap-apu taku ta inggana. He is our lord forever. Time. Sim: ta nangamung, kanayun, latta, nanong. (sem. domains: 8.4.2.3 - Forever.)

tinapiyan comm. the largest cooking pot; a vat. Tinapiyan nan palhu da. Their cooking pot is of the largest class. Sim: banga, palhu, palyuk. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.3 - Cooking utensil.)

uk’od (sp. var. okod) advpred. to assume responsibility for a decision or task; to be given responsibility; depends on someone to take charge of things. Ukodak an mibangngad. It’s up to me to come back. He-ay ukod ke hiya. You are responsible for him. Ukod ka, umeka weno adika. It’s up to you whether you go or not. ‑an. Manner. Sim: nangamung. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) infl. iukod

ulog comm. snake, generic term. [Snake bites are believed to be caused by an ancestor spirit sending the snake with a message. ] Makattakutak hi ulog. I’m so scared of snakes. Spec: bu-wit, malaganga, ngunguy. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.) id. hunggop di ulog hi bale yu

hangdel comm. a chair for the corpse that is put under the house during the period of mourning. Syn: haludag. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) Language of Borrowing: Ayangan.

ihapit (infl. of hapit) trans. to talk in a certain dialect or language. Ihapit nah kalin di iBontoc. He talks in the Bontoc dialect. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) Language of Borrowing: Ayangan.

ipugo₁ comm. 1native rice. [This rice variety is planted on wetland; it requires 5 to 6 months of growth before it can be harvested. According to an oral legend, this rice variety was first planted on a hill called Imbiday, near Kiyangan by hunter-brothers, Ballituk and Kabbigat.] Mahong-o nan ipugo mu nan wagwag. Native rice is more delicious than the lowland-rice. Ipugo nan intanom mid uwani nah payo. The rice we planted now is the native-vairety. Sim: bulkitan, tinoon; gen: bog’a. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1 - Food from plants.) 2human being. [May also refer to someone from the hills, ipugo.] 3refers to the Ifugao people. [Used in the Ketema and Bonwe rituals.] Oral Literature of the Tuwali Ifugao in Kiangan by Manuel Dulawan.

‑an‑ asp. this infix encodes an aspect that expresses the concept of an action done repeatedly; frequently; iterative; co-occurs with punctiliar aspect affixes. Kumanoga din golang. The child is always crying. Nala-uy opat an oras hi nakihanummanganan da ya numpahpahmokan da nah bibiyo. Four hours passed while they negotiated and pleaded again and again with the ‘bibiyo’. Umanay-ayyam da nah dalan. They always play on the path. Mahanilngan nah dalan. Night always overtakes him on the road. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes, 8.1.1.3 - Number of times.)

‑an₂ TACR. this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; it encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with a site semantic role. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on the books Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. Wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut nunhituwan mid Longnga. There was a person who saw him and helped him to return to where we were staying in Longnga. Sim: ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑in‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross references the direct object; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 5 verbal roots. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Dinulhukak nan apuy te nalutu di kanon ta. I extinguished the fire because our food is cooked. Sim: ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2when this circumfix co-occurs with verbal root classes other than Class 5, the affix cross-references a specific site-object. Uhup nan tinaddogak hidi. I stood there for a long time. .

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

aamm’od (infl. of ammod) comm. 1elders; ancestors; forefathers. [The traditional religion has been based on beliefs handed down by the Ifugao ancestors.] Hanadan aammod takuy nangapyah payo handih done. It was our ancestors who made the rice fields long ago. Hay pangi-e takud uwani ya nipuun hi pangi-en di aammod taku handi. Our ways today are based on the ways of our ancestors. Apu, damanan tontonom hanadan aammod ku? Grandfather, can you trace my ancestors? (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2those who give birth to next generation; parents. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was evidently not in good health. So he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place.

aba 1comm. a variety of an edible starchy root crop; taro; tuber. Munhibak kah aba ta kanon taku. You boil some aba-tubers for us to eat. Pinhod kuy nihibak an aba. I like boiled aba-tubers. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to gather tubers. Etaku mangaba. Let’s go and gather aba-tubers. maN‑/naN‑.

abak trans. to compete with someone. 3H Conversive action process. 1.1defeat. 1.1.1trans. to compete with the focus on the ‘defeat’ component. Abakon dakan Juan. Juan will/can defeat you. Abakok nan mittulu I can defeat the teacher. Pangabakom nan pihhuk te bayadam ten ipaabak mu. Make my money win because you will have to pay it back if you lose it. Adika piabbak. Don’t let yourself be defeated. Inabakak ke Pedroh tugal. I lost to Pedro in gambling./Pedro defeated me in gambling. ‑on/‑in‑, pi‑, ipa‑. Sim: apput. 1.1.2sta. to be the one to lose; loser. ma‑. 1.2trans. to win 1.2.1trans. to win something; usually used in relation to gambling. Kaatnay inabak mun dih hilong hi tugal. How much did you win last night in gambling. Man-u te deket nangabak di tagu nah tugal ya mun-an-anla. It might be that when one wins in gambling he is happy. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 1.2.2nom. winnings. [The word may be used in a communication situation: 1. winning in a debate 2. being more articulate than another.] Kaatnay pangabak yu? How much are your winnings?/How much did you win? Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. pangabak infl. maabak infl. mangabak infl. nangabak

abang 1comm. rental. Ongal di mapihhu da nah abang di tatagu. They get big money from the rentals of the people. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.6 - Hire, rent.) 2trans. to rent. Abangan mi nan balen Mike. We will rent Mike’s house. Abangan da nan daulon yu. They will rent the space under-your-house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented actions. 3trans. to rent. An mun-abang kayuh balen da Bayawon? Are you renting in the house of Bayawon? Adida pinhod an umalah mun-abang. They do not want to have anyone rent it. Kaatnay pun-abang yu ohan bulan? How much are you renting it for one month? muN‑/nuN‑/puN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. maabangan

abbat 1comm. a nearby place. 1.1comm. a nearby place of the same elevation as the reference point; neighborhood. Umeyak hidid abbat. I will go there (nearby place). Immeh abbat na. He went to the nearby place. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.2 - Near.) 2trans. to go to a particular or specified nearby place. Iabbat kuh balen da Kunde. I will go to Kundeh’s house. Tipet umanab-abbatan ka? Why are you going back and forth nearby. In-abat da nan bilau. The runos were taken nearby. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to go from one house to another; making the rounds of houses nearby. Mun-abbatanak hi balen di tutulang ku. I frequently go from one sister’s house to the others. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to go to or be at a nearby place. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngu bungubun mangabbat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices nearby. maN‑.

abbung trans. to cover for protection or shelter, e.g. mosquito net, leaves to cover small plants. Inabbungana nan anga nah panyuk. He covered his face with a handkerchief. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) der. ab-abbung

abigon (der. of abig) trans. to foretell or prophesy a particular event. [This word, as well as the past tense form, inabig, are frequently used in the Old Testament to refer to the prophecies given by God to the prophets.] Kon gulat nat inila day wadah nomnom ku ya wada ot an impainilak ke diday eda abigon hi tatagu ta ipatikod da didan mangat hi gaga-iho. (Jeremiah 23:22) If only they had known what was in my mind, I would have made known to them what they should prophesy so that they would have caused them to stop doing evil. ‑on.

abuy (der. of abu) exispred. a substitutionary form of an existential predicate that asserts a restriction by referring to the only one or only thing that qualifies in relation to the statement being made. Dadiye ya abuy Ippangyol an niha-ad ad Kiangan. They are the only Spaniards who stayed in Kiangan. Kediye ya pitu ya abuy kinnanan littalit. Those seven were the only bats that he trapped. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.1 - Exist.)

ad nakugab (n. ph. of nakugab) adv. yesterday. <Inflected form kugaban for topicalization of the time with delimiter abu.> Ad nakugab di immaliyak. I arrived yesterday. Ad kugaban ya abuy nangang-angak ke hiya. It was only yesterday that I saw him. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.)

ad ohhandi (n. ph. of ohhandi) adv. day before yesterday; one day ago. Ad ohhandiy nangayana. The other day is when he went. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.)

ad-ad trans. to clean by rubbing, e.g. metal objects; to scrub; to polish; brush teeth. Ad-adam nan banga ta makaan nan uling na. Scrub the pot so that the soot will be removed. An inad-adam di bab-am? Did you brush your teeth? Adi maad-adan nan banga. The pot cannot be scrubbed clean. Iad-ad mu nan lampahu. Use the coconut husk to polish. (the floor) ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.7.5 - Rub.)

ad-addi (der. of adi) advpred. expresses a negative evaluation; displeasing manner; inappropriate; bad; improper. Ad-addiy nangat na. He did it badly. Ad-addiy punggibogibok ku. I don’t feel well. Mangad-addi nan indat mun bulwati. The dress you gave is ugly. Evaluative. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.7.1 - Wrong, unsuitable.)

ada-din (sp. var. inda-din) 1comm. boiled rice. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Igammal day ada-din ot ahida lumahun. They ate the cooked rice before they went out of the house. {literary} (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to cook rice. Mangada-din/Mun-ada-din da. They are cooking rice. muN‑, maN‑.

adinadama (comp. of adi, nadama) negpred. predicates that an action or event cannot be done or cannot happen; it is impossible. Adinadama bon magatang. It cannot be bought. Adinadaman eda umed uwani They can’t possibly leave now./It’s impossible for them to leave now. Adinadaman hituy pangatan mi. It is impossible that this is what we’ll do. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.9 - Impossible.)

adn’iman adv. now. [This form is likely borrowed from another dialect of Ifugao.] Restrictions: Hudhud. Adniman di pangaliyan Dinulawan. It is today that Dinulawan will come. {literary} Time. Syn: ad uwani. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

ado₁ trans. to remove grasses from rice paddy and pile against the dike to make paddy mounds during the fallow season; used for planting vegetables. Umeyak hi payo te eyak mangado. I’ll go to the field to make paddy mounds. maN‑. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.) der. inado infl. mangado

adod-’on₁ intrans. rumbling sound, referring to earth when there’s strong thunder. Mun-adod-on peman di pangat di kidul. The earth rumbles due to the thunder. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

ag-agan advpred. modifies a verb by adding a continuing aspect. Deket ag-agan mu mangat hi ga-ga-iho ya madismaya inam. If you continue to do bad things, your mother will be dismayed. Time. Sim: tuluy. (sem. domains: 8.4.7 - Continue, persevere.)

ag’a adjunct. 1a polite expression; please; excuse me. {This is a polite expression that can be used to soften a request or demand; also, it can be used to excuse oneself from an event or communication situation.} Idat yu agah tuwe ke Maria? Will you please give this to Maria? Agak, apapon daka? Agam, ten pinhod mu. Shall I go ahead and slap you? Go ahead, if it pleases you. Aga ta mangmangngeyak pe. Excuse me, I’m going ahead. Agat ek aton hanan ngunuk ta magibbu. Excuse me, I will go to finish my work so that it will be done. Aga, nangamung boh pidwana. There now, till next time. Aga, di inalam ad Manila. Please (let me see) what you got in Manila. Aga ke ta ha-oy di muntudok. Move away so I’ll (be the one) to write. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.) 2expression that means to go ahead and do something or continue action. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. Agam, deket pinhod mun makie ya mundadaan kah pihhum ta deke ya imme ta. Go ahead. If you want to join in going, save your money so that we can go. (sem. domains: 3.5 - Communication.) der. agannat

aga₂ adjunct. an interjection expressing the idea of acceptance; okay. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. Okay now, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. Aga abuna man ad uwanin nangang-angak pun-apuyan an nakapya. Okay, it’s surely only today that I have seen a fireplace that is made. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.)

agahil 1comm. crab, small species found in creeks. Waday agahil nah wa-el. There are crabs in the creek. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to catch and gather crabs. Etaku mangagahil. Let’s go and catch crabs. maN‑/naN‑.

agang hungry. 1.1sta. to be hungry; non-agentive cause of hunger is exertion, work, time. Maagangan da nadan mungngunu. Those working will be hungry. Naagangan te ugge nangan dih biggatna kinali immanamut hi gagala te maal-aliwot hi inagang na. She was hungry because she didn’t eat breakfast; that’s why she went home early because she was feeling dizzy from her hunger. Idadaan yu ta mangan da te naagangan da. Prepare (the food) so that they can eat because they are hungry. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6A Physiological states. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.5 - Hungry, thirsty.) 1.2proc. to become hungry; the process is in view. Immagang. I have become hungry. Umanamutak te imma-agang. I’ll go home now because I have become very hungry. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. maagangan

Agba 1prop. a ritual usually performed to find the cause of an illness, or to find out who stole something that has been lost. Hay aton da ya mundinol dah Agba. What they do is trust the divination ritual. Sim: Ketema, Pakko. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.6 - Prophecy, 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony.) 2intrans. to perform the agba ritual. Hiyay mun-agba ta mainila hin dahdiy nangako. He will be the one to perform the agba-ritual so that the thief will be known. Immen e numpaagbah Bugan te waday nangakoh pihhuna. Bugan went to have the agba-ritual performed because someone stole her money. {ritual} muN‑/nuN‑, mumpa‑/numpa‑.

aggudung 1comm. snail, long, edible, conical-shape; lives in rice fields and rivers. [The shells of the snails are burnt and pounded as lime for betelnut chewing.] Eyak umalah aggudung nah payo. I will go to get some snails in the rice field. Sim: hiyok, kullipaw. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to gather snails. Eyak mangaggudung. I am going to gather snails. maN‑/naN‑.

ah’a (sp. var. ahh’a) adjunct. expression of disapproval; expression of disagreement; expression of refusal. Aha! Mangan kayut ahiyak mangan hi bale. No. You go ahead and eat, I’ll eat at home. Aha, tipe bo anhan ta em boh-olan. Oh come on, why do you have to scold her? Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ahawa 1comm. spouse; husband; wife. An ahawam nan mittulu mi? Is our teacher your spouse? Syn: inayan. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.2.1 - Husband, wife.) 2trans. to marry. Mangahawaak tuh umalin toon. I will get married this coming year. maN‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: asawa.

ahhing intrans. to assault or abuse someone alternately, may be verbal or physical; to take turns assaulting. Nun-aahhingan dan dinuntuk nan mangako. They took turns in hitting the thief. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

ahikotolan (comp. of kotol, ahi) nom. cold season during the months from November to February. Mabuut bo nadan bulhe hanatuh ahi kotolan. The beans will be moldy during the cold season. Oh-oha day munhawwangan te ahi kotolan. There are very few roaming around because it’s the cold season. Dakol day mate nah ahikotolan, namam-a nadan aam-ama ya iin-ina. Many die during the cold season, especially old men and old women. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

ahu 1comm. refers to any type of dog. Kinalatak nah ahu yu. Your dog bit me. Takutan di mangalanay ahu. A dog frightens raiders. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.1 - Mammal.) 2trans. to get possession of dog. Iahum tun ahuk. You get my dog as your dog. i‑/ iN‑. 3intrans. to care for/raise a dog(s). Mun-ahu taku. Let’s raise a dog. muN‑/nuN‑. id. kay ahu infl. a-ahhu

aka adjunct. expression that questions the reason for something; implies surprise, denial and doubt; a why expression. Aka? Kon ha-oy di nangala? Why? Was it me who got it? Aka- maid ot di inalak. Why, I did not get anything. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.6.3.2 - Markers of emphasis, 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

akasya 1comm. acacia tree or wood. Pinaot na nan akasya. He carved the acacia wood. Nakahhappangan tun akasya. This acacia tree has many branches. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2sta. to be full of acacia trees. Maakasya nan muyung. The forest is full of acacia trees. ma‑.

akhup 1trans. to overtake someone; to catch up with; come upon someone. Gal-an yun mundallan ta akhupan taku dida. Walk faster so we will overtake them. Inakhupak didan munlinillinih bale da. I came upon them cleaning their house. Gal-am ot wadan akhupam hi baleda. Hurry so you might catch up with them at their home. Mahmok ka ot kuman ugge nangakhup ke hiya. It’s a pity that you missed her (didn’t overtake her). ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, maN‑/naN‑. 5C Goal oriented site. Sim: lah-i. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2intrans. to meet someone. Ahi ta mun-akhup hidi. We will meet there. muN‑/nuN‑.

ako trans. 1to steal something from someone. Adiyu akawon nan manuk. Don’t steal the chicken. Eda immakoh mahapul da. They went to steal some of their necessities. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring something toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.8.9.1 - Steal.) 2the person who steals; the thief is cross-referenced by the affix. Inakhupan Santiago nan lalakin e nangako nadah manuk na. Santiago caught the man who stole his chicken. Hiya ya mangakon unga. He is a child who steals. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mangako

alabat intrans. to interrupt a conversation. <The prefix maN- is the only affix allowed.> Mangalabat ka. You are interrupting. maN‑. Sim: bibyang. (sem. domains: 7.2.7.1 - Stop moving.)

alak 1comm. irrigation canal. Maid di liting nah alak. There’s no water in the irrigation canal. Mibakilang kanuh Abe nah alak ot kanana kanuy “Aday, aday, aday, aday. According to him, he lay down in the ditch and he said “Ow, ow, ow, ow.” Sim: paluk, boy’a, kanal. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) 2trans. to build an irrigation ditch. <With this affixation the agent-subject is fronted and cross-referenced.> Hi Jose di mangalak hitu. Jose wil build the canal here. maN‑/naN‑. der. mangalak

alambri 1comm. barbed wire. Aladam hi alambri nan kudal. Fence the ranch/pasture land with barbed wire. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.) 2trans. to fence with wire. Alambrian yu nan kudal. Build a barbed wire fence around the pasture land. Naalambrian nan dolada. Their yard is fenced with barbed wire. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3intrans. for someone to fence an area. <With this affixatrion, the subject -agent is fronted and cross-referenced.> Hiyay mangalambri nah kudal. He will be the one to fence the pasture land with barbed wire. maN‑/naN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

alana 1comm. the person who seeks revenge by prowling at night. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.5 - Revenge.) 2trans. to prowl to take revenge; hunt people for revenge; avenge; revenge seeker. [A relative of the victim of a murder goes out at night to look for someone to kill, especially a relative of the one who killed his family member.] Eda mangalana nadan iiban nan pinate da. The relatives of the slain victim are going to prowl the night to seek revenge (lit. seek the one they will kill). maN‑.

alayyon (sp. var. alayyun) 1comm. spinach variety; glabrous herb of goosefeet family, utricular (pouch) fruit. Dakol di alayyon nah pingngit di payo. There is plenty of spinach at the sides of the ricefields. Chenopodium Sim: amti. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather spinach. Eda mangalayyon nadan u-unga. The children are going to gather spinach. maN‑.

alba trans. to gather fallen fruit; something that most people don’t want to do. Pinhod mu upe ahan manga-alba hi nag-an mangga. You like to pick up fallen mangoes. maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

algo₁ comm. during sunlight time; day. [The meaning of this form is no doubt related to the identical form with the gloss ‘sun’. The time unit ‘day’ relates to the time period from sunrise to sunset.] Ihap-em nan paeh udum an algo te adi mahap-ayan hi hin-algo ya abu. Dry the palay again some other day because it can’t be dried in just one day. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Hi kadwan di algo ya humamuy moy bubud. On the second day, the fermenting rice gives out its peculiar smell. Hituwen algo di kanan dah Ang-ang. This day is called Ang-ang. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) comp. hin-algo der. maal-algo id. gagala on immey algo infl. kaalgoalgo

ali 1come. 1.1intrans. to move from a place thought of as ‘there’ by a speaker or hearer, to a place thought of as ‘here’; to come. Umaliyak ot hi baleyu ta ialik tun binakle muden immali ka. I was about to come to your house to bring these rice cakes but then you came. Immalih ina an nalpu nah indoggan di bale. Mother came from behind the house. 2A Movement, from one place to another. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2intrans. progressive aspect of come. Mangali amam. Your father is coming. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. Later on, he was approaching the er...creek, he saw..there were voices conversing. maN‑/naN‑. 2trans. to bring; come with something. <The prefix set, i-/iN-, cross-references the object being brought.> Iali yu nan babuy hi andani. Bring the pig later. In-ali dah ka-anin pagey. They brought newly-harvested rice. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

alin’u sta. tingling of teeth and numbness of gums; usually felt after eating sour fruit. Naalinuy bab-ak an nangan hi mangga. My teeth had a tingling sensation after eating the mangoes. Umalinu nan ugge nal-um an mangga. Unripe mangoes cause tingling of the teeth. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.5.6.1 - Pain.)

alina 1comm. flour. Eka gumattang hi alina ta mangapya tah tinapay. You go to buy flour and we will make bread. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to place flour on something. Alinaam nan ihaang mun ihda. Place flour on the food you are going to cook. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: arina.

alino 1comm. tree variety, has bark fibers which are used for bundling; the fibers are slippery; the trees chosen are the long straight ones. Immeh aman e immalah alinoh muyung. My father went to get alino-bark from the forest. Sim: bulyu. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree, 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.) 2intrans. to get alino-tree fiber. E mangalino da amah pamobod. Father and his companions are going to get alino-fiber for tying. maN‑/naN‑. 3trans. string made from alino-tree fiber. [The alino-tree fiber is soaked in water and drained. If steeped properly, the fiber is white; if over-steeped, the fiber turns black.] Impamtok mi nan inalino da ama. We used the alino-string which father made for binding. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.)

alittu (sp. var. alistu) 1adv. quickly. Alittun mungngunu. He works quickly. (implies he is industrious) Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.8.1 - Quick.) 2advpred. to do something quickly. <The adverbial predicate governs the action with the affix cross-referencing the verbal action object.> Alittuwan yun mungngunu. Work fast. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Time. Sim: gagala. 3intrans. to move quickly. Immalittu da te mangali nan ap-apu da. They moved quickly because their leader was approaching. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: alistu.

allaga 1comm. red ant species. Waday allaga nah mangga. There are red ants in the mango tree. Sim: bubuwit, ad-ading. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2intrans. to gather red ant hives Etaku mangallaga ta ikamo taku tuh dotag. Let’s go and gather red ant eggs and mix them with this pork. maN‑.

allama 1comm. crab Dakol di allama an inala mi nah wangwang. We got many crabs from the river. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to gather crabs Etaku mangallamah hilong. Let’s go and gather crabs tonight. maN‑. id. kay ka allama

alluwang 1comm. culvert made of bamboo, fern trunk, or large palm trunks. 2trans. to make a channel for water by making culverts. Mangalluwang dah bigat te makleng di intanom da. They are going to get water tomorrow by making culverts because thier plants are almost withered. maN‑. Sim: tulaluk.

almot 1to feel upset 1.1intrans. to feel or show bad feelings about something that is said or done. Adika umalmot hi pangalyak ketuwe. Don’t resent what I’m going to tell you. um/imm . (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.) 1.2intrans. to be feeling resentful or peeved. Mun-al-almot te ugge naunud nan pinhod nan maat. He is feeling peeved because the way he wanted something done was not followed. muN/nuN. 2C Emotion and sensation. 2trans. to be upset or peeved about something, with the source of the feeling in focus. Almotanay ongal an kalik. She is peeved at my loud voice. ‑on/‑in‑.

alog sta. to have a cold. Adik pinhod an maalog mu natinaak ad nakugab kinali waday naalogak. I don’t want to have a cold but I got wet in the rain yesterday, that’s why I have a cold. Kakon-anay naalogana? When did he get the cold? Ahialogan ad uwani te mangayyokay moma. It’s the time for colds now because the betelnut palms are blooming. ma‑/na‑, na‑ ‑an, ahi‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

alubyag 1trans. to comfort in time of sorrow; to console. Alubyagom hi inam te oha ka mon wada. You console your mother because you are the only one around now. Maal-alubyag hi inana. Her mother is consoled. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. Sim: al-aluk, anawa. (sem. domains: 4.4.4 - Respond to someone in trouble.) 2intrans. to try to obtain someone’s favor. Mangal-alubyag bo te waday pinhod nan ibaga. He is trying to be in your favor because he wants to ask for something. maN‑ + CV(C). (sem. domains: 4.4.1 - Prosperity.)

aluminum comm. aluminum Aluminum nan banga na. Her pot is aluminum. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.3 - Metal.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

ama 1comm. refers to a man who has biologically produced a child; used in reference to one’s own father. Mauleh ama. Father is kind. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonio. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, told him. Syn: papa. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1.2 - Father, mother, 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2comm. term used in addressing one’s biological father or the respectful address of a man who is older, within the generation of one’s father. Ama, daaanay pangayam. Mister, where are you going? (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1.6 - Uncle, aunt, 2 - Person.) 3trans. refers to the action of a man in adopting or treating someone as his child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. der. ama-on der. am-ama der. hin-ama der. hin-am-a der. mungka-am-ama der. naka-am-ama

aman 1comm. a bet; a wager. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2trans. to bet; to wager. Umaman kayu. Place your bets. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. someone who bets for someone else. Nangapputak mu indat kuy udum ke hiya te in-amananak. I won but I gave him some because he was the one who bet for me. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

amayyu (sp. var. ammayu) 1comm. domestic animal; referring to cows, carabao, pigs. [Generic term for all larger mammal-like animals. The Ifugao consider these as the only animals.] Sim: aggayam. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to raise animals, take care of cows, carabao Mumbabuy takun mangatang. Let’s raise pigs to sell. muN‑/nuN‑. 3comm. have an animal as a pet. Tipet hay ahuy pun-amayyum? Why make a dog your pet? puN‑.

amb’un trans. to gang up on someone; to attack someone as a group. Pun-aambunan dah tulang ku ot ek baddangan. They were ganging up on my brother so I went to help. pun‑ ‑an, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ambaballuka adjunct. an expression of giving over or implying an unwillingness to debate an issue. Ambaballukan unga an tinaynan di aammod na! Poor child who was left by his parents! Ambaballuka uggek ingngunu ya ugge. Never mind whether I did the work or not. Ambaballukay mangan eta ot. Let’s go, I’ll give-up eating (for now). Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.6 - Attitude.)

aminul 1intrans. to salivate; mouth watering, especially. when induced by sour food, delicious food, or when hungry. Mun-am-aminulak handi tinibok nan mangga. My mouth watered when I saw the mango fruit. Mun-am-aminul nadan u-unga te inang-ang dakan mangan hi mangga. The childrens’ mouths were watering because they saw you eating mango. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.) 2trans. to swallow something; swallow something without chewing by allowing saliva to soak it first before swallowing. Aminulom nan agam ta waday atom an pumhod. You swallow your medicine so that you will get well. ‑on/‑in‑.

amit intrans. to climb or scale houses, trees, stonewalls; to climb expertly. Nan mun-ammitan di ayagan yun mangala nah littuku. The one who loves to climb is the one you call to gather the rattan fruit. Mun-amitan nan tagu nadah niyug. The man climbs from coconut tree to coconut tree. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. Sim: kayat, kallehke. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.4 - Move up.)

ammuna advpred. restricted to being the only thing or action of its kind and no other. Handih kaittay na ya ammunay Clinic an wadad Kiangan. When he was young, there was only a clinic in Kiangan. Ammunay inuinum di tagan yu. You just only drink (liquor) continuously. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.3.3 - Unique.)

ammung 1comm. a group that pools their money, and then, gives loans to members. Nadan imarket ya mundadammudah kabulabulan ta punhuhummanganan day panggep nan ammung da. Those from the market place gather once a month to talk about their cooperative venture. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: ubbu, bokla, kalu. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money, 4.2.1.7 - Crowd, group.) 2trans. to contribute money to a cooperative group. Iammung ku tun hinggatut. I will give this one hundred pesos as my share capital. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 4.1.2.1 - Working relationship.)

amti 1comm. a bush variety with berry-like tiny fruit; the leaves are edible. Adik pinhod an munhidah amti. I don’t like to eat amti. Sim: alayyon. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to gather amti-leaves for eating. Etaku mangamti hi ihda taku. Let us go and gather amti-spinach for our viand. maN‑.

an₂ int. interrogative marker; question marker. <This is the yes - no question marker; asks for confirmation; may optionally compound with all question words as a proclitic.> An waday boga? Is there any rice? Andaanay nangayam? Where did you go (towards)? An hinaey ihumang mun ha-oy? Is that your answer to me? “An inilam an mangipaptok?” kanan bon inaonan hi Magappid. “Do you know how to take care of it?” Aunt Magappid said. comp. antipe

anangnga 1comm. rain-cover made of palm leaves (sem. domains: 1.1.3.3 - Rain.) 2trans. to wear a rain-cover. Mun-annanga ka te mun-udan. Wear a rain-cover because it is raining. muN‑.

andaan (daan) int. interrogative pronoun; where. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. If where ever now there is even a little money found, hide it until some day when you might need it badly. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words.)

ang-ang 1to look. Sim: tibo, buya. 1.1trans. to direct one’s eyes in order to visually perceive something. Ang-angok di manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Uggan mu ang-ang-angon din niha-ang ta ek ang-angon din golang. Once in a while, look at what is being cooked so that I can go and see how the baby is. Sim: buya. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2trans. to spend time looking for someone or something, a durative activity is in view. Mun-ang-ang kah ibbam. Look for a companion. muN‑/nuN‑. 2comm. the appearance of a person or thing. Maphod di ang-ang nan pinaot na. The appearance of his wood carving is good. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.8 - Appearance.) infl. maang-ang

antak 1comm. string beans; long variety, about 8-16 inches in length. Andukkey day antak an nitanom nah habal. The string beans planted in the forest swidden plots are long. gen: bulhe. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to go and gather string beans, usually with the purpose of selling at the market. Eda mangatak hi igattang da. They are going to gather string beans for them to sell. maN‑.

ap-apat comm. fern, generic term; there are both edible and inedible varieties. [The fern fronds may be tied on the stomach of a new mother to help her expel any clotted blood which is causing after-birth painful contractions of her uterus.] Eyak immalah ap-apat ot pangaga dah aliwan Rose. I went and got the fern and they treated Rose’s after-birth pain with it. Humani nan ap-apat. Those big ferns block our view. Filicinae Sim: appaku, paggalat. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

apayo 1comm. fish and crab trap with sharp bamboo prongs pointed inward so fish cannot squeeze out; placed at a point where water exits a rice terrace. Apayoy mahapul hi pangalah yuyu nah payo. A fish trap is needed to be able to get Japanese fish from the field. Ihulbuk mu nan apayo nah dolya. Set the fish trap along the wall of the field. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to use a fish trap for catching fish E nangapyoh Juan. John went to catch fish using the apayo-trap. maN‑/naN‑. Sim: hingihing.

apo reiterate in speaking 1.1intrans. to tell, reiterate a story; to tell something several times; to reiterate out of anger or displeasure all the things one has done. [To reiterate can be considered either good or bad depending on the situation. It is sometimes used to make the hearer feel how indebted he is to the speaker.] Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. mun‑. Sim: duti. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.2.6 - Repeat.) 1.2trans. to say something in particular repeatedly In-apoaponay namaddanganan dakami. He reiterated all the help he gave us. i‑/iN‑.

appad 1comm. trap for birds and small animals on the ground. Ihaad mu nan appad nah dolya. Place the bird trap on the untilled part of the ricefield. Sim: hulu, lingon, bawol, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap birds Eka mangappad ta hanake ot ya waday makna. Go make a trap, by chance you might trap a bird or two. Appadon yu nan manuk. Trap the chicken. Anupon weno appadon dat ahi da alan. They hunt or trap the animal to catch it. maN‑/naN‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

appaku 1comm. fern variety; young shoots are edible, they grow in uncultivated land, especially damp areas. Munhida takuh appaku. We will have appaku-ferns for viand. Sim: ap-apat, paggalat. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2trans. to gather fern shoots. Eka mangappaku ta ihda taku. Go gather fern shoots for our viand. maN‑/naN‑.

appit₂ (sp. var. apit) trans. to offer something to a god or spirit. [This may be an extended meaning of the same word form that means ‘to move something in a certain direction’.] Iappit day ohan babuy hi bagol. They will offer a pig to a spirit. Ta hidiye nan nangapya dah dios da an kay impan di bakay ang-ang na ot ianappitan dah aggayam. (Acts 7:41) And so they made their god whose appearance was like a calf and they sacrificed animals to it. i‑/iN‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice.) infl. miappit

apput compete. 1.1rec. to compete in games, discussion, or politics. Mun-innapput da nan hintulang. The two brothers are competing with each other. muN‑ ‑inn‑. (sem. domains: 4.8 - Conflict.) 1.2trans. to defeat an enemy, contestant or competitor. Inapput Aquino Marcos. Aquino defeated Marcos. Apputon dakan Juan. Juan can beat/defeat you. Apputon dakan Jose te ong-ongal. Jose will beat you because he is bigger. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: abak. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.1 - Defeat.) 1.3v. identifies the one who defeated someone as winning. Dahdiy nangapput? Who won? maN‑/naN‑ . der. pangapput infl. mangapput infl. naapput infl. nangapput

apu 1comm. refers to grandparent and siblings of grandparent; grandmother; grandfather; great aunt; great uncle. {The context will disambiguate the specific reference.} Inayagan apun hi Indungdung am-in nadan inap-apu na. Indungdung, my grandmother, called for all her grandchildren. Maan-anlah apuna te tinibo nay hinlun di inap-apuna. His grandfather was very happy because he saw that his grandson was industrious. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2prop. may be used as a respectful address of grandparents as well as anyone of grandparents’ age. Apu, daanay pangayan ina? Grandmother, where did mother go? 3prop. respectful address of older male or authority figure; sir. Wada da Apu Paredes ya Datumanung nah stage. Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanung were on the stage together. (sem. domains: 4.5.1 - Person in authority.) comp. Apu Dios der. inap-apu der. inapu der. mun-apu

apupu trans. 1to carry something at chest area embraced by arms Iapupum tun golang ta apupuwok tun angang. You carry the child so that I can carry this jar. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move object with self. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 2to put arms around another in an embrace.

atag-e (infl. of tag-e) adj. to have a height that is greater than the standard. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought that he was a short man, but when he straightened up, he was tall. a‑/aN‑. Dimension quantifier.

athidi (comp. of umat, hidi) advpred. to compare an event or action; like that; likewise Athidi di inat nan ha-oy. He did like that to me. Athidi an uggeyak damdama nangan. Likewise, I did not also eat. Comparative. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2 - Compare.) comp. athidi bo der. miathidi der. niat-athiddi

athinay (hina, athina) adjectival predicate. it is like that; a comparative adverbial predicate that compares an event or action; like that. Athina di aton dan mangaan. That is the way they remove it. Man tuwali ot maid di bain mu kinali athinay at-attom. The truth is that you have no shame that is why you are doing like that. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2 - Compare.)

attang trans. for two or more people to carry something. [Traditionally, sick people were carried in a woven sling or blanket hanging on a pole carried by two people, one at each end of the pole.] Iattang yu nan hinsakun boga. You two carry the sack of rice. Attangan yu nan kaiw. You two carry the wood. Mun-attang da. They help each other in carrying. In-attang dah ayod nan mundogo. They carried the sick in a hammock. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.)

aw’al trans. to embrace; to hug; to put arms around someone or something. Awalom hi inam ta adi ume. Embrace your mother so that she will not go. Iawal mu nah tukud. Embrace the post. Inawal Joseh amana ot ahina bo awalon hi inanan mungkokkogga. Jose hugged his father after which he also hugged his mother who was crying. Mangali nan mun-ango an umawal. The crazy person who embraces people is coming. Adi maawal te makatabba. She cannot be embraced because she’s so fat. ‑on/‑in, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.1.9 - Move a part of the body.)

ay adjunct. expression of affirmation, usually with the component of an afterthought or insight, oh yes; oh yes, it’s like that. Immimih ina ot kananay “Ay, appaw. Man bokon bibiyoh diye Mother smiled and said, “Oh I see, that isn’t a fairy; Waday ohan ayyo- wadah Pangka an immed Mammangan hi baleda There was one, er..yes, there was Pangka who went to Mammangan to their house. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ayag 1trans. to call for someone or something. Ayagan yu nadan u-unga. Call for the children. Em ayagan ta mangan taku. Go call for him so that we can eat. Umayag kah ibbam. Call for someone to accompany you. Dahdiy immayag ke ha-on? Who called for me? Ot ohan algo, inayagan Malya hanadan iibana So one day, Malya called for her brothers ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 5C Goal oriented actions. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.4.1 - Call, 3.5.1.4.2 - Contact.) 2n. ritual for sickness; during this ritual the shamans shout or call the name of the dead person whose spirit is thought to be causing the sickness; gongs are also sounded as a part of the ‘calling’. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

ayam intrans. for children to play together; for adults to visit. “Daanay nangayaayam? kanan ina. “Where have you been playing?” mother asked. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.)

ayug trans. to melt in fire, e.g. plastic, candle, thin metal, lead. Ayugom tun gakod di banga. Melt this pot’s wire handle. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 5.5 - Fire.)

ba-ang 1intrans. to relieve one’s bowels; to defecate. Mumba-ang da te maid di katilyat. They just defecate anywhere because they don’t have a permanent toilet. muN‑/nuN‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.) 2nom. refers to the place where people defecate. Mun-agub din ba-angan. The place used for defecation stinks.

ba’ud 1comm. fighting cock that is tied or penned; raised purposely for recreational purposes, i.e. gambling. Em panganon nan baud. Go feed the fighting cock. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.) 2trans. tie a fighting cock in order to train. Ibaud mu nan poltan. Tie the rooster for training. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 7.5.4 - Tie.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

baak 1sta. old rice; harvested a year or more ago; rice becomes yellowish. Nabaak nan page mi. Our rice is old. ma‑. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2proc. (fig) to become a spinster; bachelor. Mangahawa ka mot adika bumaak. Marry now so that you’ll not become a spinster. ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

babbong 1comm. a musical instrument; strings of rattan strips are placed over a hole dug in the ground. Nangapya dah babbong nah dola da. They made a babbong-musical instrument in their yard. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 2intrans. to play the babbong-musical instrument. Uggek inilan mumbabbong. I do not know how to play the babbong-instrument. muN‑/nuN‑.

baddang 1trans. to help someone; to aid; to assist. Bumaddang kayun mamah-on nah intungu. Help in carrying the firewood. Eyak bumaddang, atok di damanan atok I will help; I will do what I can. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: tulung, dang-a, abono. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.2 - Help.) 2comm. assistance or help that is given to someone; often it is in the form of money, but it can be general assistance in anything that is needed. Hay oha bo ya nomnomom an ongal di baddang Apu Dios ke he-a ot maischolar ka. Another thing is remember that God helped you greatly to become a scholar. 3trans. to help someone who is specified. Em baddangan nah payo da. Go and help them in their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4trans. to give something, often money, to help someone; what is given is cross-referenced as the grammatical object. Hituwey ibaddang kun he-a. This is what I will give to help you. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. infl. mamaddang

bagguwong trans. to make a bun of one’s hair at the nape of the neck. [Putting the hair in a bun relates to convenience rather than appearance. There is a way of twisting and knotting that is specific to Ifugao hair style.] Bagguwongom di buuk mu ta adina haniyan di angam. Make a bun of your hair so it will not cover your face. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 5.4.3.4 - Hairstyle.)

baginge comm. a fern variety; the stem is used for weaving baskets, chicken coops and hats; it is more durable than rattan. Mangala kah baginge ta mangapya taku hi basket. Get some baguinge so that we’ll make it into a basket. Hay baginge di kapyaom hi kaba. Use the baginge for making baskets. Eka umala nah baginge ta kapyaon dah kulbung. You get some baginge-fern so that they’ll make it into a rice container. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

bahut trans. an omen given by an ido-bird or snake passing across road or path; this indicates that one should not continue with the trip. Nibangad te imbahut di pitpit. He came back because of the omen of the pitpit bird’s song. (pit! pit! pit!) i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.7 - Omen, divination.)

bakbak 1comm. frog. Manling day bakbak ten umudan. The frogs croak when it rains. Nakangalay bakbak nah hilong. The frogs are very noisy especially at night. spec: tokyang, battug, tukak. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.) 2comm. a lot of frogs. Kabakbabakbak di matiboh iggatang dah di. It’s all frogs that can be seen which are sold there. 3trans. to catch frogs. maN‑/naN‑. der. mamakbak id. kay da nadulhukan nan bakbak

bakle 1comm. rice cake or candy made of glutinous rice; usually made at the end of harvest during Thanksgiving celebration; wrapped and cooked in banana or rattan leaves. Pinay-an dah niyug nan binakle. They put coconut in the rice cake. Waday iggattang da nah Sabadu hi binakle. They sell rice cakes during Saturdays. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to make rice cakes. Mumbakle da hi bigat. They are going to make rice cakes tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use a specific kind of rice for making rice cakes. Ibakle da nan dayakkot. They are going to make rice cakes out of the glutinous rice. i‑/iN‑. 4participatory. to attend a harvest thanksgiving celebration. Etaku makibakle ad Nagakadan. We’ll go to Nagakadan to join the harvest thanksgiving. maki‑/naki‑. 5comm. a ritual celebrated at the end of rice harvest. Na keh ahibakle ya dakol di umalin bumaddang an mangapyah binakle ta nalutu ke ne waday punhahanggaan nadan nakibakle hi pun-am-amlongan da. When it is thanksgiving time, many come to help make rice cakes so that they will be cooked and presented for the happiness of those coming to join in the thanksgiving celebration. Sim: Alawag. comp. ahibakle der. mumbakle infl. binakle

bakwet trans. to leave one’s place; to abandon residence; to evacuate during war or epidemic. Numbakwet day iKiangan handih nangalian di Hapon. Long time ago the Kiangan people left their town because the Japanese came. Numbakweton da dadiyen tatagu te waday ipataddog di gubilnu na niha-adan da. The people were told to leave their place because the government was going to put up something where they were residing. muN‑/nuN‑, nuN‑ ‑on. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: dul’ig. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.3 - Leave, 4.3.3.3 - Abandon.) Language Of Borrowing: English: evacuate.

balal trans. 1to mortgage a property, houses or ricefields. [The person who mortgages his property is called the mortgagor.] Ibalal ku nan balemi. I am mortgaging our house. Nibalal din payon da Bugan. Bugan’s ricefields are mortgaged. Bangadok nan imbalal ina. I’ll pay back what mother has mortgaged. i‑/iN‑. 3H Conversive action process. (sem. domains: 6.8.5.3 - Owe, 6.8.4 - Financial transaction.) 2refers to the act of underwriting a mortgage. [The person who underwrites a mortgage is called the mortgagee.] Wada ke ot di pihhuyu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. balalan infl. mangibalal

balango₁ 1comm. fruit flies. Wadaday balango nah nak-ihan an balat. There are fruit flies on the peeled banana fruit. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2sta. to have fruit flies on something. Nabalangawan nan mangga. The mango fruit has fruit flies on it. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

balantina 1comm. eggplant. Muntanom kayuh balantina nah aldattan yu ta waday pangal-an yuh ihda hin-uddum. You plant eggplants in your backyard so you can have something to gather at times. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2sta. to have an area planted with eggplants. Mabalantina nan dola da. Their yard is planted with eggplants. ma‑. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

balin₁ advpred. refers to the possibility of an action or process. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom If possible, you should already prefer to read informative books Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. Adi mabalin nan batu. The stone cannot be overturned. ma‑ . Modality. (sem. domains: 9.4.2.1 - Can, 9.4.4.4 - Possible.) infl. mabalin

baliwon comm. refers to non-mountainous areas; lowlands. Datuwey dayu an nalpud baliwon. These here are the visitors from the lowlands. Ad baliwon di nangayana. He went to the lowlands. (sem. domains: 4.6.7.2 - City.) der. ibaliwon

ballagnut 1comm. hard covering of mango seed. Adim iwelle ballagnut na ta ahik itanom. Don’t throw away the mango-covered seed and I’ll plant it. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2sta. to have the seed cover harden. Maballagnutan nan manga ne ahi pinuga. When the seed cover hardens that’s the time to harvest the mango. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

Balog₁ prop. a male name. Nangan moh Balog. Balog ate already. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.)

balud₂ 1comm. refers to someone who has been arrested and placed in jail or prison; a prisoner. Am-in da nadan balud nah baludan ad Tiger Hill ya ongal di babahul da. All those prisoners in the prison in Tiger Hill were charged with serious offenses. Binumtik nan balud. The prisoner escaped. (sem. domains: 4.7.7.3 - Imprison.) 2trans. to imprison; to incarcerate. Ibalud yu nan mangako. Imprison the thief. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site. der. baludan

balun 1comm. a packed meal; provision for subsistence away from home which could be either money or food. Adim kal-iwan nan balun mu hin ume kah payo. Do not forget your packed lunch if you go to the fields. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to prepare food to take with oneself; to take food or money for travel needs. Balunon yu nan natdaan an ihda. Pack the left-over viand for your lunch. Nap-u mo nan binalun kun pihhu. The money I took along was already gone. Mumbalunak ta adiyak maagangan. I will pack a lunch so that I will not be hungry. Mumbalun kah hinamal. Pack cooked rice for your lunch. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

balungango intrans. to raise and turn one's head to see something, usually done in response to sounds that have been heard. Ibalung-angom ke anhan ta ang-angok di angam! Just raise your head so I can see your face. i‑/iN‑. 3G Move body parts directionally. Sim: wingi, atuwingwing, liggu. (sem. domains: 7.1.9 - Move a part of the body.)

ban-ule sta. embarassment related to not sharing what one has. Kababan-uley manganak hi tinapay yaden adida nan inap-apuk. It is embarassing that I am eating bread and my grandchildren are not. (The person should be sharing.) general: Lambrecht, in his dictionary, states that this is a Hudhud word-base, and defines it simply as ‘the notion of embarassment’. Although it may not be restricted to the epic, it may not be used in the common language. ka‑ CV‑. Sim: bain. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.2.1 - Ashamed.)

Banaue prop. Ifugao town. Hanada ken natdaan an Ippangyol ya hi aman Tomas Morado ad Kiangan, hi Beyer ad Banaue, hi Hora ad Bontok ya nan ohan binumtik ad Bambang. The Spaniards who survived were the father of Tomas Morado in Kiangan, Beyer in Banaue, Hora in Bontok and one who ran away to Bambang.

bang-ot 1trans. to put cooking pot over the fire. Ibang-ot mu nan boga. You cook the rice. (implies putiting the rice in a pot and putting the pot on the fire) Ibang-otan yu nadan mungngunu. Cook rice for those who are working. Nganney bang-otan? Nan ong-ongal an bangay bang-otan te dakol kami. What pot shall I cook with? Cook with the big pot because there are many of us. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: ha-ang, apin. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.) 2intrans. to cook food, usually thought of as rice. Mumbang-ot kah kanon hi datuwen tatagu. Cook food for these people. muN‑/nuN‑. infl. mumbang-ot

bangibang 1intrans. the ceremony of revenge; part of the ceremony is what is described as a war dance. Numbangibang day aammod Pedro. Pedro’s relatives performed the war dance. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: git’ak, him-ung. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.5 - Revenge.) 2comm. a rhythm block musical instrument; percussion instrument; the primary use is in the bangibang revenge ritual. Intungu na nan bangibang. He used the bangibang-block for firewood. Sim: gikkong. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 3trans. to perform the revenge war dance ritual for someone who has been killed. Bangibangan da nan pinate dad nakugab. They will perform the wardance for the person killed yesterday. Mumbangibang da nadan iiban nan pinalang da. The relatives of the one slain-by-machete are performing the revenge ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.) 4trans. a ritual performed to drive away rats. [Men form a possession and proceed to the next village, making noise by banging things. Eventually they perform a ritual to curse rats’ spirits.] Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao (Sense #4)

bangka₁ 1comm. the card dealer; the banker in a gambling game. Nangabak nan bangka. The dealer won. Makakulluk nan bangka kinali nunggugulu da nadan muntutugal. The man who deals the cards is a crook so there was trouble among the card players. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to bankroll a gambling game. He-ay mumbangka ot dakol di pihhu. You will bankroll the gambling game, anyway you have a lot of money. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.5 - Pay.) 3trans. what is used to bankroll a gambling game. Ibangka yu nan pihhun inapput yu. Use the money you won to bankroll a gambling game. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: banco.

bannutan comm. hard heavy wood, used to make ladders, house posts. Bannutan di kinapya dan dinangal. They used bannutan-wood for joists. Diospyros Sim: bangtinon. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bay comm. an inlet of the sea containing a body of water contiguous with the sea. Ingkuyukuyugak ot e kami nunhawhawang ad Cubao, Makati, Pasay ya Manila Bay. They accompanied me and we went to Cubao, Makati, Pasay and Manila Bay. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.) Language of Borrowing: English.

bela₁ intrans. to go to an occasion such as a wedding or other celebration. [This word is only used when someone is dressed in Ifugao traditional clothing.] Daanay pumbelaam? Eyak mumbelabelad Kiangan. Where are you going? I am going to Kiangan. muN‑/nuN‑ CVCV‑, puN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.2.2 - Social event.)

bela₂ trans. to remove the top card in a deck and expose the next card in the monte game. Belaon yu ta tibon taku hin dahdiy nangapput. Remove the cards one by one and let us know who won. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

bida 1comm. a story; may refer to a folktale or a more current narrative. Hay bida na ya hiyat nangamung. His story is always the same. Sim: istolya, a-apo, malamala. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story, 3.5.7.2 - Written material.) 2trans. to tell a story. Mumbida ka ta mahuyop da nan u-unga. Tell a story so that the children will go to sleep. Ibidam nan bida an maid poppog na. Tell the never ending story. Wada wadah allama di mibidabidah kau-unga dih done. ‘Once there was a crab’ was a story often told to children long ago. i‑/iN‑, mi‑, muN‑.

bidung 1trans. to blow air into something; to inflate something. Mumbidung nadan u-ungah bola. The children are inflating balls. Bumidung kah duwan balloon. Inflate two balloons. Bidungom nan kabuut ta ay-ayyamon nadan u-unga. Inflate the pig’s bladder so the children can play with it. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑, ‑um‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 2.2.1 - Breathe, breath.) 2pass. to be blistered; to be swollen. Nabidung nan naatungan hi taklena. The burn on my hand is blistered. Nabidung nan angan nan am-aman mundogo. The face of the sick old man is swollen. ma‑/na‑.

biggatna (comp. of biggat, na) comm. refers to the 2-3 hour time period from cockcrow to early morning, about 8:00 a.m.; morning. Umali kah biggatna. Come in the morning. Kottokottol nah biggatna. It’s so cold in the morning. Ohan biggatna ya himmalaman dan nangan. One morning they ate very early. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.) infl. biggabiggatna

biik comm. 1 shared ownership of a pig; a leased pig. Panganom nan bi-ik ta deket naongal ya ahita pinalti. Feed our share-pig so that when it becomes big, then we’ll butcher it. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.) 2piglet. Waluy bi-ik nan babuy. The pig has eight piglets. Sim: kuwong.

bilang 1trans. to count the number of things. Mumbilang ka ingganah hinggatut. Count up to one hundred. Bumilang ka hi himpulun saku. Count ten sacks. Bilangon yu hin kaatnay in-alina. Count how many he brought. Adi mabilang te dakol. They could not be counted because they were many. Ne kaatnay bilang na ten binilang mu metlaing. What is the number if you really counted them. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: numero, uyap. (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) 2intrans. to consider someone as a relative. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.1 - Think about.) 3trans. to evaluate the character or characteristic of something or someone. Imbilangak ke Apu Dios an maphod. God evaluates/regards me as good. Nibilang dan adi malini. They are considered as unclean. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 3.2.2.3 - Evaluate, test.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. mibilang

binnah-el (der. of bah-el) intrans. 1on both sides. Mumbinnah-el nan wang-wang di nangal-an dah batu. They gathered stones on both sides of the river bank. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.5.3 - Both.) 2to be on opposite sides. Mumbinnah-el di imbunan da. They sat on opposite sides. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.6 - Across.)

bintal sta. to be spacious and clear, refers to an area; a clearing. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Nakabbinbintal di agpawan da ad Hananga. How spacious and clear was the entrance to the village of Hananga. nakaC‑. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area, 8.5.4.1 - Vicinity.)

bitu 1comm. a pit trap; a pit. Nangapya dah bitu nah habal. They made a pit-trap in the swiden farm. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap animals using a hole in the ground. Wada key bituwon yu ya idatan dakami. If you trap anything give us some. Ekayu mamitu Go and make a pit-trap. Nabitu nan mangakon dih hilong nah bitun kinapya mi. Last night the robber fell into the trap which we had made. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑, ma‑/na‑.

biyag 1comm. life. Pumhod di biyag hin waday dinol ke Apu Dios. Life will be better if we put our trust in God. Te mama-id key manuk ya hidiyey poppog di biyag nah punnomnom na. Because without chickens, he thinks that would be the end of his life. Sim: nitaguwan. 2sta. to be alive; to live. Mabiyag kaya nadan intanom mu. Those you planted will definitely live. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. 3nom. refers to making a living; supporting oneself and dependents. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. puN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. biyagon der. mabiyag der. mumbiyag

biyug 1comm. soot, black substance resulting from burning. Napnuh biyug nan huguhug. The rack for drying above the hearth is full of soot. Sim: lagit. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.) 2trans. to become sooty. Mangitit hanan pottok nan punha-angan te nabiyugan. That part above the hearth is black because it is covered with soot. Biniyugan nan ittay an dilag nan kamam. The small lamp caused soot on your bed. Ad-adi nan halong an panungu te nal-ot di pumbiyug na. The pine tree is not good for fuel because it is very sooty when burned. ‑an/‑in‑ an, na‑ ‑an, puN‑.

bo adv. 1also; expresses the notion of in addition to something pointing backward. Oha ka bo damdama? Are you also one of them? Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Pinhod mu ke bon mun-ang-ang hi sini ya dakol di damanah pangayam. If you also want to see a movie, there are many places you can go. Additive. (sem. domains: 9.6.1.1 - And, also.) 2again; expresses the notion of repeated action or activity. Agam bo. Do it again. Do-on ta bo tuwali. We should surely divide it again. Adika mo ume bo. Now don’t go again. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.6.1 - Again.) boppo boppubo comp. adi bo comp. atbohdi comp. athidi bo comp. bope

bog’a (fr. var. bingga) 1comm. uncooked generic rice, milled or husked. Nakattina hanan bogak nah bay-ong. My rice inside the sack was very wet. Pinpinhod ku nan ipugo an boga. I like the native rice. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume, ongal an banga o palyuk, binokbok ya buhi. These are needed in the making of rice wine: ordinary rice, glutinous rice to be mixed with the ordinary rice, a big pot or vat, native yeast and a wine jar. spec: bulkitan, ipugo, tinoon, dayyakot. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2comm. riddle Inihdi ke nan danum hinuy-up na nan danum ya timmaba da. (boga) You put it in water, it sucks the water and becomes fat. (rice) (riddle) 3deriv V. to cook rice with focus on the activity. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They cook rice and make wine. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to get or take rice. Adi umanamut hi John ad uwanin linggu te dakol di bingga na handih immeh di. John will not come home this week because he took much rice when he went there. ‑in‑. der. mabga

bokon 1neg. (prim) is not; are not; the negation form for the predicate constituent of an equational clause. Bokon he-a nan emi kalkalyon. It is not you whom we are talking about. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. Kananay “Man bokon mu hi Lammooy man impangang-ang ku.” He said, “It could not be, but I saw him as Lammooy?” Sim: ugge. (sem. domains: 9.4.6.1 - No, not.) 2(sec) a negative feeling or reaction. 2.1trans. (sec) to be annoyed; to feel resentment; to react negatively to something that is said or done. Adim boknon tun kalyok ke he-a. Do not be annoyed about what I tell you. ‑on. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.) 2.2proc. (sec) to feel slighted; to feel hurt. <Inflected form: bumkon> ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.6 - Upset.) 2.3sta. (sec) refers to someone who is exceptionally sensitive to being slighted; inclined to pout or sulk. ma‑. bumkon comp. hin bokon der. mabkon

bokon ke negpred. a negative predicate to express there is an alternative to what has been previously predicated; on the other hand; not that, rather this. Bokon ke, wada nin nangayana. (1Kings 18:27) On the other hand, maybe there is somewhere that he has gone. Atok nin weno bokon ke ya adik bo aton. I might do it or, on the other hand, I might not do it.

bon-ag sta. the start of any sickness usually colds. Adi maphod di maptangan ya maudanan te mabon-ag tah dogo. It is not good to be in the sun and be rained on because we can get sick. Binon-agak boh alog. I’ve just caught a cold again. ma‑, ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: dogo, ganna. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.)

bon’al trans. to throw something, usually stones, with the intention of hitting someone or something. Numbonal ku hanadan gulding an nangan hi page. I threw (stones) at the goats that ate the palay. Ugge mi inilay binumnal ke he-a te dingkug mi nan panto. We do not know who threw (stones) at you because our backs were against the door. Ibnal mu nan od-odnam. Throw the thing which you are holding. Inibnal na nan pakko. He threw the spoon at someone. Bonalom nan manuk ta adi na kanon nan page. Throw something at the chicken so it will not eat the palay. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑inum‑, i‑/ini‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: wele, boka, tongba, gayang, balnu, alo, top-’al, wengngak; Sim: tongba, gayang, baladung, balnu, boka, alo, balabal. (sem. domains: 7.3.1.1 - Throw.)

bong’ang 1intrans. to be foolish, without good judgment, results in inappropriate behavior. Mumbongang bo te nangapput. His behavior will be foolish because he won. Ugge tinugun di aammod na kinali bumongabongang. He was not advised by his parents that is why he is doing foolish things. Bumongang ka hin adim itikod an manginum. You will behave improperly if you do not stop drinking. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: ango, himat. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.4 - Stupid.) 2sta. to be foolish. Nabongang nan e numputting tuh tanom. The one who nipped this plant is foolish. ma‑/na‑.

botak trans. to lie-in-wait; to attack unexpectedly from a hidden position. Dehdih Juan an od-odnanay otak an botakonah Pedro. Juan is there with a bolo lying in wait for Pedro. Adika ot maohhan ume te wada man kanu on mangalanan mumbotak nah dalan. Don’t go by yourself because they say that someone who is seeking revenge is going to ambush you. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: bolaad. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.3.1 - Ambush.)

bud’al 1nom. an exit or opening to go out. Maid di buddalan nan gando. The rat has no exit. ‑an. Sim: buddu, lah-un. 2intrans. to exit; come out; go out. Bumudal kayu ni-an ta liniyan mi tun bale. Go out for a while and we will clean the house. Hinumgop kami nah balen ongal ya ekami bumudal ya hinnatkon di bimmudalan mi. We entered the big house but when we came out we came out from a different exit. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.4.1 - Move out.) 3trans. to bring something out. Ibudal mu nan it-ittalum. You bring out what you are hiding. Adiyu ibudal am-in hanan makan te dakol da pay di ugge nangan. Do not bring out all the food because many did not eat yet. Dahdiy nangibudal bo tuh intaluk an otak. Who brought out again this bolo which I had hidden. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3E Move an object directionally. ph. v. bumudal nah hospital

budak trans. to break into small pieces. Budakon yu nan batu. Break the stone into smaller pieces. Mabudak nan buhi hin mag-a. The jar will break into pieces if it falls. Nabudabudak nan bangan nag-a. The pot that fell was broken into pieces. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.)

bughak 1trans. to spit something out of mouth. Adina pinhod di danum an nadalnat ta imbughak na. He didn’t like the lukewarm water so he spit it out. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: bog-ak, halekhek, anggak, albuwang. (sem. domains: 2.2.3 - Spit, saliva.) 2sta. to laugh loudly and suddenly; pent-up laughter is released. Inang-angak ya nibughak di tatawana. When she saw me she exploded in laughter/suddenly laughed. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.4 - Laugh.)

buh’ug sta. to be satisfied, of hunger; full of food; satiated. Nabhug nan golang kinali adi mo kumga. The baby is full and he’ll not cry anymore. Deket adim pinhod an madittolbo nah hilong ya tibon ta mabhug tuwali. If you don’t want to be disturbed at night, see to it that he is full. Ugge da nangan te nakabhug da kanu. They did not eat because they said they were too full. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological process - State. Sim: punek. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.6 - Satiated, full.) id. nabhug di bolsa na

bukbuk₂ sta. tooth decay; cavity of tooth. Waday nabukbuk hi bab-am? Do you have cavities? Wada key nabukbuk hi bab-am ya pakaan mu te indai ya mainpeksyonan ot indai ya ikate. If you have a cavity, better have the tooth removed or you might get infection and die. Mabukbuk nan bob-am hin mangamangan kah malumii. You will have tooth decay if you keep on eating sweets. ma‑/na‑. Sim: ibuk. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.8 - Decay, 2.1.1.5 - Tooth.)

bulak comm. tree, cottonwood variety. Bokon tiempon di bulak ad uwani. It’s not yet the time of cottonwood-trees to bear. Maphod di muntanom hi bulak na aldattan ta waday ahi pangalaan hi kapyaon hi pungan. It’s good to plant cottonwood-trees at ones backyard so there would be something to get for the making of pillows. Sim: kapok, malakapat; Syn: malakapat. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bulang 1comm. a cockfight. Waday bulang hi Sabadu. There will be a cockfight on Saturday. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2trans. cocks fighting. Mumbubulang da hi bigat. There is going to be a cockfight (lit. cocks will fight) tomorrow. Em ibulang tun baud ku. Take this cock to fight. E makibulang hi Sabadu nadan iMabbalat. Those from Mabbalat will go to the cockfight on Saturday. Bumobboh-ol hi Vicente te hinnatkon di nangibulang hi poltana nah bulangan. Vicente is very mad because somebody else had his cock fight in the cockpit. muN‑, i‑, maki‑, nangi‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. bulangan

buldid 1comm. a bamboo tube which is used by children as a blow gun with kabbaung ‘pieces of earth’ as its bullets. Nangapyah buldid ot buldidon na nan du-uti. He made a blow gun and used it on a dragonfly. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.7 - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to spit out something from mouth with force. Tipet he-a ke ya ibanuldid muy hinamal, deket nabhug ka ya abu mo. You, why do you keep spitting rice out; if you are full, then, that’s enough. i‑/iN‑.

bulduser 1comm. a bulldozer. Bulduser di nangapya tuh kalata. A bulldozer made this road. (sem. domains: 7.2.4.1.1 - Vehicle.) 2intrans. to use a bulldozer. Mumbulduser da hi kalata. They are building a road with a bulldozer. Bumulduser kah puntabab. Excavate some backfill. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to bulldoze something in particular. Buldoseron da nan payo. They will bulldoze the ricefield. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: bulldozer.

bullaki comm. man; gentleman; a tall, fair and handsome man. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Nan bullaki di mangadangadan nah a-apo da. Its always the male character who’s named in their stories.
Sim: guwapu.

bultik comm. tree variety. Magangay bultik. The bultik is a hardwood-tree. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bulwati (sp. var. balwati) 1comm. any clothing worn by men or women. Dakol di bulwati an igattang da. They have many clothes to sell. Gattangom nan bulwati ta ahim ibulwati nah pangayan taku. You buy that dress so that you will wear it to where we will be going. Sim: lubung; spec: suweter, kamahhita. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear clothing. Mumbulwati ka tedeyan kotol. Get dressed because it is cold. Ibulwati yu nan ginattang ina na. Put on the dress her mother bought. Maid di ibulwatik. I have nothing to wear. Nabulwatiyan nan unga. The child is clothed. Nakabbulwati kad uwani. You are so dressed-up today. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, naka‑ C. 3trans. to put clothing on someone. Bulwatiyam nan golang. Get the baby dressed. Duway hongwon, ohay udukon. (bulwati) Two passages for the hands, one for the body. (dress) (riddle) ‑an.

bumangun (bangun) intrans. to get up; to wake up. Humalaman kan bumangun ta panganom nadan manuk. Wake up early and feed the chickens. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

bumkon (bokon) proc. hurt feelings; to feel slighted. Binumkon te ugge da inggatangan hi bulwatina. Her feelings were hurt because they did not buy her a dress. Bumkon hin ibaag yu. She will be irked if you tease her. Adim boknon tun kalyok ke he-a. Do not be irked with what I tell you. (sem. domains: 3.1 - Soul, spirit.)

bunga 1comm. fruit, any kind. Dakol di bunga na. It has a lot of fruit. Mangan hi dakol an bunga. It eats many kinds of fruit. Ohan algo ya ek bo tinangad nan mangga ya mungkap-u moy bungana. Then one day, I went to look up at the mango-tree and its fruit was almost gone. spec: luyyupan. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.2 - Food from fruit.) 2intrans. the process of bearing fruit. Bimmunga di ohan bulan. It bore fruit last month. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 3trans. to be capable of bearing fruits. CV(C)C‑ ‑an. comp. ahibungaan der. bumunga der. bungbunga-an der. mabunga n. ph. bungan di palayon

bungan di palayon (n. ph. of palayon, bunga) comm. acorn. Ganganason di u-unga an mangapyah paddiing hi bungan di palayon. Children enjoy making spinning tops from acorns.

bunog comm. a fruit, edible but a bit sour. Kinan mi nan bunog nah muyung te nakaaggangan kami. We ate the bunog-fruit in the forest because we were very hungry. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.2 - Food from fruit.)

bunut₃ trans. to husk something, especially coconut; to remove coconut husk. Em aga bunutan tun niyug dih dola. Kindly have this coconut husked there in the yard. Mumbunut kah niyug. Remove the husk of the coconut. Gimmatangak hi nabunutan an niyug te naligat an munbunut. I bought a coconut which was already husked because it is difficult to husk a coconut. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2.1 - Remove shell, skin.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: bunutin.

butag₂ comm. old betelnut dried and hardened, may be from a year ago. Magangay butag. Old betelnut is hardened. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

butong 1intrans. to be drunk; to be intoxicated. Mumbutong hi amam. Your father is getting drunk. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.7.2 - Drunk.) 2intrans. to become intoxicated; become drunk. Bumutong di baya. Rice wine is intoxicating. Adi bumutong tun bayam te nadanuman hi liting. Your rice wine does not cause intoxication because water has been added. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to cause someone to be drunk. Binutong Alfred hi Allen te indat nan hiyan am-in nan bayan od-odnana. Alfred was the cause of Allen’s being drunk because he gave him all the rice wine he was holding. Ibutong na nan binoklana. He will use his pay to get drunk. Butongon daka hin adika mangan. It will cause you to be drunk if you do not eat. 4sta. to be drunk. Adik pinhod an mabutong ka te uggem inilay at-attom. I do not like you to be drunk because you do not know what you are doing. Hidin nah bale day nabutongak. It was there in their house where I got drunk. Nabutong day dakol dih kasal dih Linggu. Many were drunk during the wedding last Sunday. na‑, na‑ ‑an. 5trans. focus is on reason for being drunk. Imbutongan Mario di nunhannuwan dan Maria. Mario got drunk because he and Maria argued with each other. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an.

butyug 1intrans. to be pregnant. Mumbutyug te nangahawa. She will be pregnant because she got married. Nabutyugan din babai. That woman is pregnant. Numbutyug man nan babain nungkodoh tabuyug ot idatak. The pregnant woman begged for a pomelo so I gave one to her. muN‑/nuN‑, na‑ ‑an. Sim: himmiga; Sim: inaw, nawadaan, higa, ngidlu, himmiga. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 2sta. any person male or female, with a big belly. na‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: butchug.

buwaya comm. crocodile, alligator. Maid hitud Kiangan di buwaya mu hanadan ken aammod ya kalkalyon day buwaya; toan hin daanay nanib-an da. There are no crocodiles in Kiangan but the old folks talk about crocodiles; I don’t know where they have seen them. Tumakutak hi buwaya te kuman hi tagu. I’m afraid of crocodiles because it’s said that they eat people. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.)

buwe trans. to break; to crack; substance is glass or clay. Tibom ta adim buweyon nan angang. Be careful not to break the jar. Nabuwe nan buhi da. Their wine-jar was broken. Adi dakol di atom te kal-ina ya mabuwe tun buhi. Don’t do anything because this wine-jar might be broken. Bumuwe ka nah butilya ta punggadgad tuh kaiw. Break some of bottles to be used for scraping this wood. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. Sim: puhik. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.)

CV(C)-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant functions to intensify the meaning of a predication. <Morphophonology: The modal form reduplicates the first syllable of a root. For that reason, the syllable pattern of the root dictates whether the reduplicant form is CV- or CVC-.> Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud.