Search results for "ani"

abaka (sp. var. abbaka) comm. 1(prim) hemp. [The plant is exactly like the banana plant except for the fruit which is inedible.] Adi makan di bungan di abbaka. The fruit of abaca is not edible. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.) 2(sec) rope or cord made of hemp. (sem. domains: - Rope, string.)

abul trans. to drive away, e.g. small animals, birds. Abulon yu nadan manuk ta adida kanon nan page. Drive away those chickens so that they will not eat the rice. Imme dan mun-abul hi buding. They went to drive away the rice birds. Dahdiy e mun-abul hi payo ad uwani? Who will go to drive away (the rice birds) in the ricefield today. Eyak mun-abul hi buding hi payo. I am going to drive away the rice birds in the fields. Abulom nan manuk ta adi na kanon nan boga. Drive the chicken away so it won’t eat the rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, dulun, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

ad uwani (n. ph. of uwani) adv. 1refers to the day at the time of the speech event. Ad uwani aliyan ama an malpud Baguio. Today, Father will come from Baguio. Time. Syn: adn’iman. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2refers to the time at hand. Mipalpud uwani ya adik kulkulugon di kalkalyom. Starting now, I will not believe what you say./From now on I will not believe what you say.

ad uwanin toon (n. ph. of toon) adv. refers to the present year. Time. (sem. domains: - Year.)

aggayam 1comm. animal, domestic; quadruped. Dakol day aggayam hituh luta. There are many kinds of animals here on earth. Sim: amayyu. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to raise domestic animals. Maphod di mun-aggayam ta waday ihda. It’s good to raise domestic animals in order to have meat. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.)

ahiani (comp. of ani, ahi) nom. season for harvesting rice. [This is also a time for homecomings, drinking, making rice cakes, and merry-making; months of June and July] Magibbuy ahiani ne ahiyak umali. After rice harvest time, then I will come. Dakol di baya nah ahi ani. There is much rice wine during harvest season. Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani; Gen: ahi; Syn: ahitul-u. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahigabut (comp. of gabut, ahi) nom. one phase of the ricefield agricultural cycle; cleaning the fields of weeds. Mun-uubbu handan tatagu te ahigabut. The people will share-work because it is the season for cleaning the ricefields. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

alanganin advpred. predicates the uncertainty of something. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na And the reason he does not stop is he thinks his life would be uncertain. Evaluative.

alimadduwan comm. soul/spirit of sacrificed animal; the word is used in rituals. Restrictions: rituals. Idawat miy alimadduwan di manuk. We offer the soul of the chicken. Sim: linnawa, espiritu. (sem. domains: - Offering, sacrifice.)

amayyu (sp. var. ammayu) 1comm. domestic animal; referring to cows, carabao, pigs. [Generic term for all larger mammal-like animals. The Ifugao consider these as the only animals.] Sim: aggayam. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to raise animals, take care of cows, carabao Mumbabuy takun mangatang. Let’s raise pigs to sell. muN‑/nuN‑. 3comm. have an animal as a pet. Tipet hay ahuy pun-amayyum? Why make a dog your pet? puN‑.

ammayyu comm. domestic animal; pet. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

ampa (sp. var. ompa) 1comm. tick of cows, carabaos, dogs. Mabaga na ampan nan nuwang. The tick of the carabao is satisfied-full. Sim: kultut. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2sta. to have ticks. Naampaan nan babuy. The pig has ticks. na‑ ‑an.

andani₁ (sp. var. andai) 1interval of time. 1.1advpred. predicates the idea of waiting for a short period of time. Andani ta munhannotak. Wait so that I will change my clothes. Indani ke ta ahi taku umeh andani. Wait a moment; we will go in a short time. (sem. domains: - A short time.) 1.2adv. a short while; a moment; a short time; a little later. Deket hi andani ya umali ka. You come later on. Andani ya nagibbu nan baki hiyam ta himpuluy oras nagibbu. Later on, the baki-ritual was finished....nine to ten hours finished. Time. (sem. domains: - After.) 2adv. every now and then Kadaidai on umen e uminum. Every now and then he goes to drink.

andani₂ (sp. var. of indani)

ani harvest. 1.1trans. to harvest a crop. Maphod di luta dat dakol di aniyon da. Their ground is good so they will harvest much ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: apit. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 1.2intrans. used to refer to the time of harvesting. Hana keh etaku pun-aniyan ya tibon yut maanin am-in nan page. When we harvest, see to it that all the rice is harvested. puN‑ ‑an, ma‑. 1.3n. usually refers to harvesting a rice crop but the word may also be used for harvesting other crops or fruit. comp. ahiani say. Hay itanom mu ya hidiyey aniyom.

anidu intrans. to warm oneself near the fire. Eka mun-anidu nah kad-an nan dalikan. Warm yourself by the hearth. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu. I thought that only a fire (can warm us) and yet even that can can warm us. La-uwanay lulug ya deyan umanidu hin tininggadan da. Its height comes to your knee and yet, it gives heat when they light it. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movment with a directional component. Sim: dangdang. der. pun-aniduwan

anihil₁ comm. chicken breastbone meat, inner part next to bone. Hay anihil di manuk di pinhod kun ihda. The chicken breastbone is what I like for viand. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

anihil₂ comm. a long bamboo ladder. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. {literary} Syn: tete.

anikdul intrans. to make a pounding noise on floor or walls, often done by children playing. Tipe bot mun-anikdul day u-unga? Why are the children making all that noise? Umanikdul da nadan u-unga hin ipukung yu dida. The children will make noise if you lock them up. muN‑, ‑um‑. Sim: alidogdog, alikudukud; Sim: kudu. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

appad 1comm. trap for birds and small animals on the ground. Ihaad mu nan appad nah dolya. Place the bird trap on the untilled part of the ricefield. Sim: hulu, lingon, bawol, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap birds Eka mangappad ta hanake ot ya waday makna. Go make a trap, by chance you might trap a bird or two. Appadon yu nan manuk. Trap the chicken. Anupon weno appadon dat ahi da alan. They hunt or trap the animal to catch it. maN‑/naN‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

aw-aw₁ sta. a dog or pig that eats chickens, ducks or own offspring. Ginogod mi nan ahu te naaw-aw. We butchered the dog because he was a chicken-eater. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

awil 1comm. a gift animal; given to visitors who visit a place for the first time; usually a chicken or a duck. Indattanak hi manuk an awil ku. They gave me a chicken as my gift. Mahapul an waday awil di golang ten pinghanay pangighopan dan hiya nah bale. It is necessary that a gift be given to a baby when she is brought into a house for the first time. Laawon mon Magappid ot idat na ta hidiye moy awil Bugan. Aunt Magappid agreed and gave it to Bugan as a present. Sim: regalo. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) 2trans. to give an animal gift. Awilan dakah manuk hin umanamut kayu. They will give you a chicken as your animal gift when you leave for home. ‑an.

ayup (sp. var. ayum) 1trans. to tame an animal or bird. Ayupon yu nan baka ta nadan u-ungay mangipattol. Tame the cow so that the children will be the ones to pasture it. ‑on‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 6.3.1 - Domesticated animal.) 2sta. for an animal to be tame. Maayup nan babuy. The pig is tame. ma-/na-.

bah-ut trans. for an animal to jerk and free itself from being tied; to yank loose. Imbah-ut nan babuy di gakod na ot bumtik. The pig freed itself from it’s rope and ran away. i‑/iN‑. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. (sem. domains: - Pull.)

bakgit 1comm. teeth, canine, the four pointed teeth next to the incisors; tusks; fangs. Andukke mo nan bakgit nan babuy. The pig’s tusks are already long. Sim: ngut-u, wolwol, bikhal. (sem. domains: - Tooth.) 2sta. to have tusks. Nabakgitan mo nan babuy da. Their pig has already grown tusks. ma‑ ‑an/nz‑ ‑zn.

balah-ak sta. to be spotted, e.g. black and white spots on animals. Nabalah-akan nan ahuk. My dog is spotted. na‑ ‑an. Sim: guli-i, balangat. (sem. domains: - Animal color, marking.)

balangat 1comm. stripes of colors on animals. Mabayak nan balangat nan ahu. The dog’s stripe is white. Sim: dago, batok; Sim: guli-i, balah-ak. (sem. domains: - Animal color, marking.) 2sta. to be striped. Natalak nan nabalangatan an ahuk. My striped dog is lost. na‑ ‑an.

balin₂ (sp. var. ballin) change. 1.1intrans. to change position, generally a reversal; to turn over or upside down. Iwagot muh apu ta mumballin ta adi mundanggok. You shake grandfather so that he’ll change his position and he’ll stop snoring. Makabayyag an mabigat yaden bumalibalinak. Morning is a long time in coming while I toss and turn (trying to sleep). muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.) 1.2trans. to reverse the position of an object. Balinom nan inha-ang mut adi mageeng. You turn over what you are cooking so that it will not be charred. ‑on/‑in‑. 1.3nom. expresses the meaning or interpretation of words or something symbolic. Te kibalinana ya kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longona. Because the meaning is that he is very rich because he butchers many (animals to feed people). ki‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.) der. kibalinana infl. balibalinon

balud₁ trans. to tie a person or animal in order to transport. [In the old days, people were caught and bound for their heads and children were caught and sold as slaves.] Baludon yu nan babuy ta ie takud Lamut. Bind the pig so that we can take it to Lamut. Bumalud ka hi duwan manuk. Tie up two of the chickens. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.5.4 - Tie.) infl. mumbalud

banbanilag (sp. var. banilag) 1comm. flame-like lights which appear, move, multiply and disappear. [It is believed that spirits are roaming around when the lights appear. The appearance of the lights is sometimes like a flame and sometimes like a smoldering torch.] Deket nahilong ya ahi matibo nadan banbanilag nah kawad-an di wangwang. When it is dark, you can see the flame-like appearnace of spirits near the river. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2intrans. to twinkle. Waday mumbanbanilag nah kad-an di ob-ob. There is something twinkling near the spring. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.)

bang’ot trans. for an animal to bite; a portion of flesh may be bitten from the body. Adika mih-up nah ahu te ibangot na man. Don’t go near the dog as it might bite you. i‑/iN‑. Sim: kalat, ngudngud. (sem. domains: - Bite, chew.)

banig 1comm. refers to the disembodied spirit of a dead person; ghost. [Adults use threats about ghosts to make children obey. Ghosts are believed to talk to people and sometimes lead them astray.] Waday banig kediyen bale. There are ghosts in that house. Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2trans. ghost appears; to haunt. Banigon daka hin mateyak. I will haunt you if I die. Bumanig nan nate. The dead will haunt. Binanig dah tulang ku. My brother met a ghost. Adika umeh gawwan di hilong te mabanig ka man. Don’t go in the middle of the night because you might meet ghosts. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

banik-ihon (infl. of bik-i) trans. tear into little pieces; shred. Banik-ihon yu nan tudok ne inwele yu nah kanal. Tear the letter into pieces then throw it into the canal. ‑an‑ ‑on.

banilag (sp. var. of banbanilag)

baningal 1comm. something placed around the shoulders. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to place a shawl or blanket around shoulders and neck.

barkada 1comm. refers to friends or companions, generally of the same age; often carries the connotation of a group who regularly socialize eating and drinking. Deke bot mipanggep hi barkada ya nu mabalin ya adik pinhod makibarkada ka. Also, as for barkada-companions, I don’t want you be joining them in their activities. 2trans. refers to the joining in the social life of companions. Adik pinhod an makibarkada ka. I don’t want you always going around with a group of friends

bay-ak sta. to be an animal with white stomach/belly area. Bay-ak nan babuy da. Their pig has a white belly. ma‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: - Animal color, marking.)

bayanihan comm. a system for sharing the difficult and time-consuming work of ricefield agriculture. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

bol’at comm. the outer covering of the body, man and animals; skin; hide. Kimmudapul di bolat ku te kotol. My skin became dry because it is cold. (sem. domains: 2.1.4 - Skin.) id. kay bolat di banniyay bolat na id. kay bolat di nuwang di bolat na

botyak (sp. var. butyak) trans. to cut open the stomach and/or intestines of animals. Botyakom nan putu ne lininiham. Cut open the stomach and clean it. Hi Jose di mumbotyak nah gulding. Jose will be the one to cut open the stomach of the goat. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bugat 1comm. the content of the large intestine and stomach of grass-eating animals. Adi makan di bugat. The contents of the large intestine of animals can’t be eaten. (sem. domains: 1.6 - Animal.) 2sta. the undigested contents of a ruminant’s stomach. Paka-iwwahwam hinae te nabugatan. You rinse that very well because it has undigested grass. na‑ ‑an.

dalaan (der. of dala) trans. to bleed an animal before butchering. Dalaan ta tun manuk aga! Let’s bleed this chicken, please. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: - Steps in food preparation.)

dandani (der. of dani) advpred. refers to a time concept in which some event or action is about to take place; about to; close to the time of. Dandani an mag-a nan kaiw. The wood is about to fall. Handih dandanin mate ya impaayag amada dida te pinhod nan itugun ke dida. When he was about to die, their father called for them so that he could advise them. Time. Sim: innang. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) infl. nadandani

Dangli 1prop. a funeral ritual, generally performed by the wealthy, aristocratic Ifugao. pt: hablag. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2comm. animals butchered during a wake with baki funeral rituals. Nuwang di Danglin nan nate. A carabao is the animal butchered during the wake. (sem. domains: - Offering, sacrifice.) 3trans. to provide sacrificial animals during the wake of a relative. Dangliyan dah inada. They will produce the necessary animals for the wake of their mother. Kababain mo ahan hin adika pakadanglin amam. It is particularly shameful if you cannot afford your father’s funeral ritual. (i.e. produce the minimum number of animals to be butchered) ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

dani (sp. var. dai) adv. refers to an indefinite time period; never occurs without some form of affixation. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) der. dandani der. kadanidani der. nadandani infl. indani

daut trans. to cut open an animal in order to remove internal organs; gut an animal. Iphod mun dauton nan babuy te kal-ina magogod nan putuna ya mibuka nan kinana. Cut open the pig carefully because the intestines might be cut and the food contents spill out. Dauton yu nan gulding. Cut open the goat and remove the internal parts. He-ay manaut nah gulding. You will be the one to cut open the goat. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut, - Steps in food preparation.)

duldul trans. to lead a pig or any animal including a man with a rope; in the case of leading an animal, the two front legs are tied separately to one lead rope with which the person guides the pig. Nan nanginilan manuldul ya kaya nan pundidihanon an duldulon di opat an babuy. One who knows how to lead pigs can lead four pigs at one time. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

ga-it comm. companion. Immali nan ga-it ku an nalpud Maggok. My companion came from Maggok. Sim: ibba. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.)

gigingnga comm. 1gizzard of fowls. Nan gigingnga di ihdan apum. The gizzard will be the viand of your grandfather. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.) 2testicles of a male animal. Kinaan day ohan gigingngan nan babuy. They removed one testicle of the pig.

golot trans. 1to sever the neck of fowls, dogs, goats, pigs. Golton yu nan babuy. Cut-off the pig’s head. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2to butcher an animal or fowl. Gumlot kayuh duwan manuk ta ihda taku. Butcher two chickens for our viand.

hani 1trans. to put something over or in front of another thing to obstruct; to shield or cover over; to hide from view. Adi haniyan di tamel ten mungkali ta. One should not hide his face from view when talking. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Sim: duklig, hawan; Sim: hawan. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) 2nom. anything used to obstruct view. 3trans. to defend; to take sides with someone; to cover for someone; the focus is on the person being defended. (sem. domains: - Defend against accusation.) 4pass. to be protected by being covered. Ginal-anan tinolgan nadan pumbungbung da ot bumtik an e mihani. After quickly lighting the dynamite sticks, he ran for cover. mi‑/ni‑. der. panani

hanil comm. a reed variety that bears white cottony flowers called buyyako;similar to arrow cane grass. Ginabut ku nan hanil nah payo. I uprooted the reeds in the field. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

Hay itanom mu ya hidiyey aniyom. (say. of ani) to gather the fruit of one’s deeds; reap what you sow. (lit. What you plant is what you will harvest.) [This saying is thought to be borrowed by some speakers of the language.] (sem. domains: 4.4 - Prosperity, trouble.)

hih adjunct. word used to drive carabao and horses away or to urge ridden animals. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ho adjunct. word used to stop a ridden animal. Ho kanam ta umohnong nan nuwang. Shout ho so that the carabao will stop. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

hobang comm. the trail of a wild animal. Inunud nay hobang di babuy ya dimmatong nah habal. He followed the pig’s trail and soon reached the sweet potato plantation. (sem. domains: - Road.)

iba 1relative 1.1comm. sibling or cousin, relative of the same generation. Adugam tun ibam Take care of your brother/sister. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana When a man decides to perform the ‘hagabi’, he must first inform all his relatives. Sim: manang, ag’i, tulang, kamang. (sem. domains: - Brother, sister.) 1.2n. a companion. 2intrans. to be related. Mun-iba da. They are related. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to be related to someone specific. Da Dulawan di ibaon nad Lagawe. The Dulawans are their relations in Lagawe. ‑on/‑in‑. id. pun-ib-ibat nangamung

ibba 1comm. a person who associates with or accompanies another. [ Ifugao generally have companions, both in work and in travel.] Mun-ang-ang kah ibbam. Look for a companion. Dahdiy ibbam an immali? Who was your companion when you came? Sim: ga-it; Sim: kadwa, kuyug. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2trans. to accompany someone, as a companion. Pinhod mu ta ibbaan daka ke Pedro. Would you like Peter to accompany you? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.) der. mun-ibba infl. ibbaan

igot 1comm. a cloth used as a sanitary napkin, used during menstruation. Hinanotana di igot na. She changed her napkin. 2intrans. to use a sanitary napkin or cloth. Adida mo mun-igot di binabaid uwani. Women now do not use sanitary cloths. muN‑/nuN‑.

impa comm. refers to the young of an animal or fowl. [The context will disambiguate the kind of animal or fowl.] Himpuluy impan nan manuk. The hen has ten chicks. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) der. mun-impa

indani (sp. var. indai; sp. var. andani) (infl. of dani) 1adv. refers to some indefinite time, later on. Ahiyak umalih indani. I will be coming later. Ahi kayu umeh indani. You will go later. Ahika umalih indani te indani ya maidak hitu. You come later because I might not be here then. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2advpred. to wait a while, short time; a time interval. Indani ta munhannotak. Wait so that I will change. Indani ta malutut mangan taku. Wait so that it will be cooked then we will eat. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.) 3advpred. all at once. Munhuhummangan da mu indani pe ya bimmungot. They were conversing when all at once he got angry.

ingan di banig comm. a mushroom variety found in trunks of felled or live trees. Mahong-oy ingan di banig and ihda. This mushroom variety is delicious as a viand. Gen: uung. (sem. domains: 1.5.4 - Moss, fungus, algae.)

Ippangyol prop. Spanish; Spaniard. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people.)

kadanidani (der. of dani) adv. frequently. Kadanidani on umen da-ul hi Jose. Jose frequently goes down. Time. (sem. domains: - Often.)

kadwa₁ (der. of duwa) 1comm. companion; chaperone. Hi Juan di kadwa na an umali. Juan will be his companion in coming. Maid di kadwa na hi baleda. He has no companion in their house. Sim: kuyug, ibba. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2trans. to accompany. Kadwaam hi baleda. Accompany him to their house. Ikadwam nan indat kun pantalon. Include the pants I gave. (lit. use it to accompany another one) ‑an/in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.)

kalat trans. to use teeth to cut; to bite. Adika mih-up te kalaton daka man. Don’t go near becuase it will certainly bite you. Kumalat din ahu kinali adi kayu mih-up. The dog will bite that’s why you shouldn’t go near it. Ingkalat nan ahu nah ulpu na. The dog bit him on the thigh. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, i‑/iN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: bang’ot, ngudngud. (sem. domains: - Bite, chew.) infl. kimmalat infl. mungkallatan

kapun 1comm. a castrated animal. Nan kapun an poltan di ilagim taku. The castrated rooster will be the one we will singe. (understood butcher) Nal-ot di kapun an pun-aladuwon. A castrated carabao is strong for plowing. Sim: kubhil, pulin. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2trans. to castrate an animal. Kapunon yu nan nuwang ta pun-aladuwon taku. Castrate the carabao so that we will use it for plowing. Kinapun da nadan manuk. They castrated the roosters. Mungkapun da hi balen da Jose. They are castrating in the house of Jose. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4D Releast, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Castrate animal.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: capon.

kibalinana (der. of balin) nom. the meaning of a figure of speech or obscure saying; interpretation. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan te kibalinana kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longonah nuwang ya babuy. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect from his co-villagers because its meaning is he is very rich because he butchers many carabao and pigs. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.)

kilnat trans. to boil the fat or innards of animals in water. Ingkilnat da nan putun di babuy ot ahida gogodon. They boiled the innards of the pig before they sliced it. i‑/iN‑. 3D Move object with resulting change. (sem. domains: - Cooking methods.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kinwani advpred. necessity; indicates that something is indispensible. Kinwaninay pihhuh pun-adal. Money is a necessity in schooling. Kinwaninay wadaak ta ahim ingngunu. It is necessary that I be here before you work. Kinwaninay ha-oy tuwali. It is necessary that I really be the one. Kinkinwaniy apul ta ahi ta mummoma. Lime is a necessity before we can chew betel mix. Modality. Sim: mahapul, importante. (sem. domains: 9.4.5 - Evidentials.)

kodkod trans. to tie an animal close to a post. Adim ikodkod nan ahu dih tukud. Don’t tie the dog so close to the post. Adika makangohe te ikodkod daka man di tukud. Don’t be foolish or I’ll tie you close to the post. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.4 - Tie.)

kolong 1trans. to butcher by cutting the animal’s neck. Kinlong day tulun babuy handih imbangona. Three pigs were butchered during her engagement. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2nom. to butcher sacrificial animals in a ritualistic manner; ceremonial butchering. (sem. domains: - Offering, sacrifice.)

kona₁ trans. to trap or ensnare an animal or bird. Waday kinna min uldunne. We ensnared a wild rooster. Maid di kon-on taku hin nangala kayu. We will not trap anything if you are noisy. Nakna nan hamuti nah lingon. The bird got caught in the bird-trap. Kediye ya pitu ya abuy kinnanan littalit. There, seven was the total of the bats he had trapped. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.)

kuliton 1comm. a two-wheeled cart pulled by a carabao or cow. Napnu itungu nan kuliton Pablu. The cart of Pablu is filled with firewood. Sim: dalede. (sem. domains: - Vehicle.) 2trans. to use a two-wheeled cart; to place something in a two-wheeled cart. Mungkuliton kayu mon umed Pugol. Use the cart in going to Pugol. Ikuliton mu nadan irik. Place rice-grains in the cart. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑.

kuliwangwang (sp. var. kaliwangwang) 1comm. hind quarter; leg and hip of animal. [This part is usually for the brothers and sisters of the person performing the munhonga ritual.] In-anamut na nan kuliwangwang di nuwang. He brought home the leg of the carabao. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.) 2trans. to butcher an animal and separate the hind quarter from the rest of the body. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

kulud comm. 1refers to a recess in a surface; a furrow; ridges. Dakol di kulud din kaiw. That tree has many ridges. (sem. domains: - Furrow.) 2the backbone of a quadruped. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.)

laba comm. female quadruped; female animal. Kaatnay labah impan di babuy mu? How many female piglets has your sow had? (sem. domains: 1.6.7 - Male and female animals.)

laki comm. a male quadruped; male animal. Nun-impa nan babuy ku ya oha ya abuy laki. My pig gave birth but there was only one male. Sim: bulug. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female.)

lalat 1comm. leather. Kapyaon day lalat hi apatut. They make leather into shoes. spec: da-lap. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.) 2trans. to remove the skin of an animal. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lapa comm. the upper part of the legs of a quadruped; thigh, shoulder. Inalanay lapan di nuwang an kinlong tulang na. He got the thigh part of the carabao that his brother butchered. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.)

lapl’ap₂ trans. to scrape animal skin with a sharp knife after it has been singed. Laplapom nan bolat di gulding ta ihongbam. Scrape the skin of the goat and roast it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of the object. Sim: latlat. (sem. domains: - Steps in food preparation.)

latlat trans. to peel off animal skin; to skin an animal. Latlatom di bolat nan manuk. Peel off the skin of that chicken. Linatlat da nan bolat di gulding. They peeled off the skin of the goat. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: lapl’ap. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut, 6.4.6 - Things done to animals.)

lawanit comm. oil-tempered plywood brand name. Lawanit di dingding da. Their walls are made of lawanit. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

lini trans. to clean an area; to make free from dirt or rubbish; to be clean. Liniham nan dola. Clean the yard. Munlini kayu nah kusina. You clean in the kitchen. Malini nan dola. The yard is clean. Tummol di tanghoy nah malini ya matuming an danum. Watercress grows in clean and cool water. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 5.6 - Cleaning.)

maawatan (infl. of awat) pass. to understand the meaning of something. Kakalikali ka yaden adik maawatan. You keep on talking and yet I don’t understand. ma‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.)

mahakit di panibo (id. of tibo) to have the appearance of feeling hurt (lit. painful appearance). Mahakit di panibo. He looks as though he has hurt feelings.

mailom (infl. of ilom) sta. to be wild; characterizes an animal that is naturally wild or a domestic animal that has become wild. ma‑.

makibabai (der. of babai) sta. refers to a man who is fond of the company of women, is attentive to them and may pursue them; may be considered a ladies’ man or a womanizer. maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.3.3 - Love.)

mama-id (der. of maid) 1sta. for something to disappear; pass out of sight; cease to exist. Mama-id di timol nan ahu hin uggan mu amhon. The fleas of the dog will vanish if you bathe it regularly. (sem. domains: - Exist.) 2trans. to cause to disappear or cease to exist. Tibom te ma-idon da nan impad-on mun pihhu. Be careful because they will make the money you let him hold disappear. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object.

manada trans. to copulate, animals or poultry; to mate with. Manadaon nan poltan nan uppa. The rooster will mate with the hen. Minanadan nan laki nan laban ahu. The male dog mated with the female dog. Nan babuy an mangitit di nummanada nah babuy ku. It was the black pig that mated with my sow. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: puli; Syn: polot. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry, 1.6.4 - Animal actions.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: manada. der. manador

manador (der. of manada) comm. a male animal raised primarily for breeding purposes. Ongal nan manador dan babuy. Their pig for breeding (boar) is big.

manibo (infl. of tibo) trans. refers to a person who sees something. Nun-ang-ang-angak hin wadaday tagun manibon ha-on ya maid ot kumayatak. I looked around to see if there was a person seeing me, and no one was, so I climbed the tree. maN‑/naN‑.

maniger comm. one who manages an enterprise; manager. Hiyay maniger nah bangko. He is the manager of the bank. Sim: maneho. Language Of Borrowing: English.

Manila prop. name of the largest city in the Philippines. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Em hanhanan ten kakon-anay pangayan da ad Manila. Go ask him when they will go to Manila.

manilhig comm. male carabao; bull. Ginatang na on manilhig ta idanglin amana. He bought a carabao-bull and they will do the death-rite-sacrifice for his father. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female, 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

manilonda (der. of tilon) nom. refers to the rite of wringing the neck of a chicken to kill it during a ritual. Cultural note: This is one of the rites that is a part of the ritual for the wedding dance. Both the groom and the bride dance while holding dead chickens. The chickens are killed by wringing the necks. The practical reason for wringing the necks is so that blood will not drip on the clothing while the couple is dancing.

maningit comm. refers to the sun in rituals. Restrictions: rituals. (sem. domains: 1.1.1 - Sun.)

manteka 1comm. cooking oil; lard; animal grease. Adi mungkammoy manteka ya liting. Cooking oil and water do not mix. Athituy aton: Mamangulu ya igisay amput ya danggu hi manteka. This is how to cook it: First, saute the garlic and onions in a good amount of cooking oil. Kanan nan in-inay ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka. The old woman said, I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard. (sem. domains: - Cooking oil.) 2trans. to use cooking oil in cooking. Mantekaam nan ihda taku. Use cooking oil in our viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: manteca. infl. mummanteka

matsora comm. a sterile animal; an animal that can’t bear young. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

maya 1intrans. to be in heat; characteristic of a female animal in heat. Mummaya nan babuy da. Their pig is in heat. muN‑. 2trans. to copulate, of animals. Em banhon nan laki da ta mayaona tun babuy taku. Go and borrow their boar so that it will mate with our sow. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 1.6.4 - Animal actions.)

mekaniko 1comm. machine repairman; mechanic. Mekaniko nan inayana. Her husband is a mechanic. (sem. domains: 6.6.8 - Working with machines.) 2trans. to repair a machine. Mekanikowom nan tolak dan napai. Repair their vehicle which is destroyed. ‑on/‑in‑. 3intrans. to work as a mechanic. Mummekanikoh tulang nad Lagawe. His brother works as a mechanic in Lagawe. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: mecanico.

mianihil sta. to be very close to someone; to be attached to someone. Miaanihil ke inana. She is very attached to her mother. mi‑.

mumbango (der. of bango) 1comm. the groom; the one who brings the engagement requirements for the contract of a future marriage. Hi Juan di mumbango. Juan is the groom. muN‑/nuN‑. 2intrans. to provide the animals for a betrothal contract. Mumbango da tuh umalin linggu. They will bring the engagement animals this coming week. muN‑/nuN‑.

mun-ibba (der. of ibba) intrans. refers to a person who accompanies someone to chaperone. Hiyay mun-ibban he-a. He will be the one to accompany you. muN‑/nuN‑.

mun-impa (der. of impa) trans. to give birth, animal. Mun-impa nan babuy hi bigat. The pig will give birth tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.)

munhithit (der. of hithit) nom. refers to the person who cleans the entrails of large animals that are butchered during a ritual performance. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

nadandani (der. of dani) advpred. refers to indefinite intervals of time related to actions or events. Nadandani on immalih tu. Every now and then, he comes here. Nadandani on ingkiwam ta gagalan mabao. Now and then, stir it (the rice) so that it will cool quickly. Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. ma‑/na‑. Time. (sem. domains: - Sometimes.)

nangadi sta. to be sterile, of animals. Nangadi nan babuy mi. Our pig is sterile. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.)

natalak di nomnom (id. of nomnom) an idiom referring to the feeling of panic (lit. mind is lost).

ngan di banig (fr. var. of balluyak another name for the balluyak mushroom variety.)

ngulungul trans. to cut the neck of an animal to kill for butchering. Ngulungulon taku nan babuy. Let us butcher the pig (lit. cut its neck). ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: gogod. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

opereyt₂ intrans. to run or use a machine, e.g. a chainsaw, a loader. Inilanan mun-opereyt hi chainsaw. He knows how to use a chainsaw. muN‑/nuN‑.

pal-ok v. for animal quadrupeds to give birth. Numpal-ok nan baka dih biggatna. The cow gave birth this morning. Nipal-ok nan impan di baka di Sabaduh. The calf was born last Saturday. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth, 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

palak intrans. 1to moan or groan; to cry out in pain and say anay; to make noise from grief or pain, with or without tears. Pumalak hin ihakit nah indani. He will moan later because of the pain. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Cry, tear.) 2to groan; aspect is durative. Mumpalak nan golang te kinalat di ahu. The child is crying out with pain because a dog bit him. Waday dingngol nan mumpalak. He heard groaning. muN‑/nuN‑.

palun sta. to be leaning; for an upright structure to lean. (sem. domains: - Leaning, sloping.)

panani (der. of hani) comm. 1refers to an object used to obstruct view or to protect by shielding from sight. Hay saku di panani yu nah tawang. Use a sack to obstruct the view from the window. 2riddle. Antipet hay kawayan ya waday pagit na? (Panani nay mangan ke hiya.) Why does bamboo have thorns? (Protection from being eaten.)

panio 1comm. an evaluative and cultural term referring to forbidden things; taboo. Panio nan e makihamul hi numpate. It is taboo to attend a feast for someone who committed suicide. (sem. domains: - Taboo.) 2trans. to treat as taboo. Paniawon day umeh payo hin tungo. They think it is taboo to go to the fields when it is a declared rest day. ‑on/‑in‑.

Pasay prop. name of place in the Manila area. Ad Pasay ke ya hituy kad-an nan punda-ulan di duplanu. In Pasay is where the airport is. (sem. domains: 9.7.2 - Name of a place.)

patani comm. lima beans. Kimmayat nan patani nah alad. The lima beans climbed on the fence. Sim: lawiging. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) languageOfBorrowing: Tagalog.

pattol 1intrans. to graze; to pasture. Immen e numpattol hi nuwang nan imbabalem. Your child went to pasture the water buffalo. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.) 2trans. to pasture animals. Ipattol mu nan gulding. Graze the goat. i‑/iN‑. der. pumpattolan

polot intrans. to copulate, mating of animals. Numpollot nan ahu yu ya nan ahumi. Your dog and our dog mated. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Syn: manada. (sem. domains: 1.6.4 - Animal actions.)

puha 1comm. cat; domesticated animal of the feline family. Hinamak nan imbabalek on puha. My child found a cat. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to own a cat. Alam hituwen puha ta ipuham. Get this cat for your own. i‑/iN‑. id. kay ka puha id. kay matan di puha

puli₂ 1comm. a race or strain of man or breed of an animal. Maphod an puli nan manuk na. The breed of his chicken is good. 2trans. to breed animals. Nan ongal an laki di banhom ta puliyana tun babuy taku. Borrow the large pig so that it will crossbreed with our pig. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: manada. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

pun-aniduwan (der. of anidu) nom. refers to an object that gives out heat. Ya kananay “Pun-aniduwan.” ot to tukabana ot alana nan niha-ad ad dalom. And he said “It’s a heater.” so he uncovered it and got something inside.

sabih interj. a word used to drive away animals.

tangguyub (sp. var. tangguyup) 1comm. an animal horn used as a single note trumpet; used for calling assemblies or sounding alarms. Ipagangom nan tangguyub ta mamanug da nadan tataguh tu. Sound the animal horn so that the people will assemble here. (sem. domains: - Call, - Contact.) 2intrans. to blow the horn. Muntangguyup day ammod dih done. Our ancestors used to blow the animal horn. muN‑. 3intrans. a trumpet instrument. [This is the word used to translate the instrument used to call together people in the Tuwali Ifugao Bible.] Hantuh aliyanan malpuh langit ya wada donglon takuh nal-ot an kalin mun-ayag ke ditaku ya muntukuk bo nan ap-apun di anghel ya midihhan an gumango nan tangguyub Apu Dios. Then he (Jesus) will come from heaven and we will hear a loud voice calling us and a shout from the leader of angels and at the same time the sounding of the trumpet of God.

tanig trans. to take everything for oneself. Tinaniganay kinadangyan ama na. He took all the wealth of his father for himself. Tanigan day makan. They took the food for themselves. Deket waday makan, adi maphod an tanigan. When there’s food, it isn’t good to take all of it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.)

tuging comm. the first feeding of an animal brought home. Hi apu di manuging nah ukkon an in-alik ot adi uggan bumuddu nah hilong. Grandfather will do the first feeding for the puppy I brought home; anyway he seldom goes out at night. maN‑. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.)

udol comm. the gleanings of rice; rice remaining after harvest; unmatured rice grains not harvested during main harvest time. Eyu aniyon nan udol dih payo. You all go and harvest the leftover rice in the field. (sem. domains: - Remain, remainder.)

uwani adv. 1present time; today; now; nowadays. < The determiner, ad or its allomorph, d, must co-occur.> Ad uwani, hagmukam mo. Now you ferment it. Ingganad uwani ya nanongnan mumbaki ama takon di nun-iskul handi. Until now, my father continues to be a pagan priest even though he has gone to school. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 2today n. ph. ad uwani

wayway trans. to tether animals for grazing. Iwayway mu nadan gulding nah pingngit di kalata. Tether the goats to graze along the side of the road. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else.. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

balluyak (fr. var. ngan di banig) comm. a mushroom, violet in color, grows on rotten wood. Uggek tiniboy kanan dah balluyak. I have never seen this so-called balluyak-mushroom. Sim: bul’ung; Gen: uung. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

‑in‑₂ num. this infix encodes plural for the noun roots meaning woman, babai, and man, lalaki, and some cardinal numbers. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was many women dressed in the Ifugao skirt. (sem. domains: - Noun affixes.)

a-ul sta. 1to be unsatisfactory; not good enough; inappropriate; not as it should be; does not meet expectations. Naa-ul nan bulhe. The beans are unsatisfactory. (not young enough nor mature enough) ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Evaluate, test.) 2to be handicapped; born with one arm or leg; dwarfed or short in height; lacking in physical attributes. Naa-ul nan imbabalena. Her child is very short. na‑. (sem. domains: - Birth defect.)

abkiya 1sta. a group of people, birds or animals scatter in different directions usually as a result of fear. Dingngol da nan tinumkuk ot maabkiya da. They heard a shout and so they scattered in all directions. ma‑. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.) 2proc. (fig) each family member chooses to go their own way, resulting in no family unity. Immabkiyay pamilyan Maria te mun-aawit da. Maria’s family have each gone their own way because they are always quarreling. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movment from one place to another. (sem. domains: 4.1.6 - Disunity.)

adi mumbayag (ph. v. of bayag) v. by negating the verb meaning ‘long time’, the concept of short time is expressed. Hay ittolyah dingngol ku handi ya handi dandani mitungo nan tulang ku ya kumananta nan kilkilang nah nih-up hi balemi ot adi mumbayag ya nakatte nan tulang kun golang. The story I heard before is that when it was nearly time for my brother to be born, there was this night bird that always sang near our house, and so the baby died in a short time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.)

ah’in 1comm. salt. Ialim nan ahin ta ahinak tun ihda. Bring me the salt and I will salt the viand. (sem. domains: - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to add salt to something. Ahinan yu nan ihda. Salt the viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3intrans. to give salt to an animal. He-ay mun-ahin nadah baka. You will be the one to give salt to the cows. muN‑/nuN‑. 4nom. salt container. [The tubung bamboo container was formerly used to store salt.] Ihaad mu nan ahin nah pun-ahinan. Put the salt in the salt container. puN‑ ‑an.

ahim adjunct. an expression meaning something will be proved to you, and then, you will understand. Kulpigon dakan ahim. I will hit you and then, you’ll see. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)

alikbu (sp. var. alikbut) trans. to search for and catch something; implies using the hands and feet and also that the thing being searched for is partially obscured, e.g. fish in a pond, an animal in tall grass. Alikbuwon na nan dolog. He was searching for the mudfish. Alikbuwon na nan manuk an nihukhuk nah maholok. He searched for the chicken by parting the grass. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.6.2 - Find.)

alte comm. liver; may refer to the internal organ of humans or animals. [Boys chasing dragonflies say it in frustration when they nearly catch one but it gets away.] Ihaang yu nan alten di manuk ta hinaey ihdan nan golang. You cook the chicken’s liver and that will be the child’s viand. Ibtik muy altem te tuwe da nan mampap ke he-a. Run for your life (lit. liver) because the people coming to catch you are nearing you. (sem. domains: 2.1.8 - Internal organs.) id. ibtik muy altem

amki comm. gray squirrel-type animal with a long bushy tail. Dakol di amkih muyung. There are many squirrels in the forest. Sim: tabaw, amunin. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

amunin (sp. var. ammunin) comm. a wildcat-like animal. Waday inang-ang kuh amunin. I have seen a wildcat. Nan amunin ya mihdih muyung. The wildcat lives in the forest. Sim: tabaw, amki. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

an’up trans. to hunt for animals. Eda mun-anup hi amunin nah muyung. They are going to hunt for a wildcat in the forest. Eda umanup hi ulha. They are going to hunt for wild pigs. Anupon yu nan ulha an numpai nah habal. Hunt for the wild pig that destroyed the swidden farm. Maid di maanup ad uwani. There is nothing to hunt now. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.4.1 - Hunt.)

anap trans. to look for; to search. <Inflected form: In the inflected past tense form, inanap, the meaning is ‘found’.> Em anapon nan otak amam. You go and look for the bolo of your father. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: ham’ak. (sem. domains: 7.6.1 - Search.) infl. inanap

andong 1sta. to be straight; refers to something which has the attribute of being straight, not bent or crooked Maandong nan kaiw. The wood is straight. Maka-andong nan patanong mu. Your cane is very straight. ma‑/na‑, makaC‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: linteg, limpiyu. (sem. domains: - Straight.) 2straighten. 2.1trans. to straighten something. Andongon yu nan linya yu. Straighten your line. Inandong da nan kaiw. The straightened the wood. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 2.2intrans. refers to a reflexive action of straightening oneself. Kalyam nadan u-ungat mun-andong dan tumaddog. Tell the children to stand straight and to straighten their lines. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3trans. refers to a straightening action that quantifies the object being acted upon. Umandong ka nah gumok. Straighten some of the iron bars. 3sta. to be fair or just in judgment. Maandong di nunhumalyan nan huwes. The judge gave a fair decision. (sem. domains: 4.3.1 - Good, moral.) infl. maandong

ane 1comm. an insect that lives in colonies and eats wood; termite. Dakol di ane tuh tukud. There are many termites in this post. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2sta. to be eaten by termites;; termite damage. Maane nan posten di baleda. The post of their house will be eaten by termites. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 7.9.1 - Damage.)

anghiw trans. to bite quickly and slightly; to nip; done by animals. Indaw-e nay taklena kinali inanghiw nan ahu. He put out his hand and so the dog nipped it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Bite, chew.)

angke adjunct. expression of accusation in which one desires a recognition of fault; see there! <Morphology: This may be a compound of a syllable of the word ang-ang meaning ‘to see’ and ke, an adjunct of contrast.> Angke moy inat mu. See what you did? Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

apostoles (sp. var. aposel) comm. apostle; refers to Jesus’ companions in the New Testament. Himpulut duwa nadan apostoles Jesus. Jesus had twelve apostles. Hi Juan di ohan apostoles Kristo. Juan is one of the apostles of Christ. (sem. domains: - Religious person.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

attob 1comm. a trap for animals, particularly wild pigs; a heavy wood beam is connected to a snare with food to attract and when the food is touched, the snare causes the beam to fall on the animal. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap small animals. Attobon yu nan ulha. Trap the wild pig. Naattob nan gando. The rat was trapped. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: ipit.

ay’a adjunct. an expression meaning really true. Wada aya di tulang mun babai? Do you really have a sister? Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - True.)

ayum (sp. var. of ayup) 1) trans. to tame an animal or bird, e.g. a dog, pig, carabao, birds. Ayumon yu nan bulangon. Tame the monkey. (sem. domains: 6.3.1 - Domesticated animal.) 2) proc. refers to the process of becoming tame. Umayum nan ahu hin adim banakdungan. The dog will become tame if you don’t keep hitting it. 3) sta. to be tame, describes an animal that is tame. Maayum day ahuyu. Your dogs are tame.

ayyoka (der. of ayyo) adjunct. an expression meaning ‘what a waste’. Ay-ayyoka nan hinamal an niwele! Oh what a waste, the cooked rice they threw away! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

bad-ung intrans. to struggle to free oneself from restraint, a person or animal. Mumbadbad-ung hi Jose dih pindon da. Jose was struggling when they held him. Bobodan yuy hukin nan babuy ta adi bumad-ung. Tie the feet of the pig so that it cannot struggle. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

bag’i trans. to cut superficially through skin of animal, vegetable, fruit. Bagiyom nan ukin di tabuyug. Cut the skin of the pomelo. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

bahba comm. refers to a bad sign or omen based on the inspection of the bile sac of a sacrificed animal. infl. bimmahba

baknut trans. 1to bite off a part of something Pumbaknutana nan gunit. He was biting off the flesh from the bones. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. puN‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: - Bite, chew.) 2to graze as animals who eat grass.

bakug sta. to be cooked inadequately; partially cooked due to poor firewood or negligence of the cook; usually rice and root crops. Nabakug nan hinamal te adi dumalang nan itungu. The rice is badly cooked because the firewood won’t burn. Nabakug di inhaang Maria. The rice that Maria cooked is not well cooked. Paka-apuyam ta adi mabakug nan gattuk. Put enough fire so the camote will not be badly cooked. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 5.2.1 - Food preparation.)

bal’a 1comm. breathing organ of humans, fowls and animals; lungs. Waday dogonah balana. He has sickness in his lungs. Nittok kanu tuwalih alte na ya hi bala na. They said that he had been stabbed right in the liver and lungs. (sem. domains: 2.1.8 - Internal organs.) 2sta. indicating that something is in the lungs. Nibala nan dogona. His sickness is in his lungs. mi‑/ni‑.

balango₂ 1comm. oxidation in metal; rust. Haitom nan otak ta makaan di balango na. Sharpen the bolo so that the rust will be removed. Sim: lati. (sem. domains: - Metal.) 2sta. rusty. Nabalango nan gulipu. The pipe is rusty. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 7.9.1 - Damage.)

balat 1comm. bananas, generic. Nat-ongan ke nan balat nah habal ne tinabal mu. When the banana in the garden is matured, cut it down. Ad-adiy mipal-um an balat hin ahikotolan te mabatag. It is not good for bananas to be ripened during the cold season because they don’t ripen well, they harden. spec: balangngon, dattok, udding, morado, dippig, lakatan. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.) 2sta. banana plantation. Mabalat nan muyung da. Their forest has lots of banana plants. ma‑. 3sta. The literal meaning of the riddle is that you must cut down the banana stalk to get the bananas. Patayom nih-an di inana ahim ta alan nan imbabalena. (balat) You kill the mother before you can get the child. (banana) (riddle) der. mabalat

balayyan (bale) comm. the placenta of female human or animal. [This can probably be interpreted as the ‘house of the fetus’.] Bimmuddu nan balayyan di gulding. The goat’s placenta came out. ‑an. (sem. domains: - Female organs.)

ballahiwe intrans. to bypass inadvertently; there is a simultaneity component which gives the meaning that two people were in the same place at the same time. Ek damuwon hi Maria ad Lagawe yaden numballah-iwe kami ot ya abu. I was going to meet Maria at Lagawe but we bypassed each other inadverdently. (As I was going, she was coming and we met on the way without knowing.) muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: kalah-iwang.

balunglung 1comm. wooden trough for pigs; may be used for other animals. Ikuyag mu nan gahhilang nah balunglung. Pour the corn into the pig’s trough. Sim: pamaahan. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place inside a wooden trough. Ibalunglung mu nan gattuk. Place the sweet potatoes in the wooden trough. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.)

balutbut intrans. to escape from enclosed place or hand, regarding small animals or fish. Bimmalutbut nan dolog nah allawin ku. The fish escaped from my fish tube. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Move away.)

banglu (fr. var. bangbanglu) 1sta. to be fragrant; aromatic; smell sweet. Nabanglu nan hinamal an nabayu. The pounded rice smells good. Maid di bangluna te nakleng It has no fragrance because it is withered. na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.) 2proc. to become fragrant. Bumanglu nan bulwatim hin balbalam. Your dress will become fragrant if you launder it. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: hayumuhum. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. id. maid moy bangluna

bango₂ comm. 1bride price; the animals for engagement are a required number of pigs, usually three. i‑/iN‑. Sim: hingngot, Tokop di mom-on. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2a betrothal ritual feast for contracting a future marriage. der. ibangawan der. mumbango infl. imbango

banguy sta. for something to be bent. Nabanguy ik-ikingngan ku. My little finger is bent. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: bak’uy, yaku, baking, killu. (sem. domains: - Bend.)

bao₁ sta. to be an abandoned house; describes the state, not the action of abandoning. Pinhod mun e mihdi dih nabaon bale? Do you want to live in that abandoned house? ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

bat’ag sta. 1bananas that are not ripened properly; the bananas develop hard, darkened parts. Mabatag nan nipal-um te kotol. The bananas will not ripen properly because it’s cold. ma‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 2to be dried-up, hard fruit due to improper ripening or insects which suck the moisture; discoloration on skin may be evidence of the condition. Nabatag nan tabuyug an emi kanon. The pomelo we were going to eat is dried-up. general: Normally bananas are the only ones which are mabatag; for other fruit they are described as makuti. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano .

batt’ong (sp. var. batong) 1comm. fishing net. a net used for fishing long ago; no longer used or known today. [A net used for fishing long ago; it is no longer used or known today.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Ugge inilan di tatagu hin nganney tibon di battong. People today do not know what a battong-net looks like. 2trans. to catch in a net; extended meaning Binattong dah Guminnigin. They caught Guminnigin in their nets. {literary} ‑in‑.

batya 1comm. large tub or basin, usually used for doing laundry; may be made of galvanized iron, aluminum or plastic. Maphod di batya an punbalballan. A big laundry tub is good for doing laundry. Sim: palanggan, beysin. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to place something in a big tub. Ibatya yu nadan mabalbalan. Place the clothes to be washed in the big basin. Adi mibatya. It cannot be placed in the basin. i‑/iN‑, mi‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bayag 1sta. a long time. Nabayag di nundalanan mi ot ahi kami dumatong. We walked a long time before we arrived. Adika makabayyag nah pangitud-akak ke he-a te mabayag ka ke man ya tayanan daka. Do not be a a very long time where I will send you because if you stay there long, we will leave you. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: ehem, uhup. (sem. domains: - A long time.) 2duration of an activity. 2.1intrans. for someone to take a long time in doing an activity. Adi mumbayag ya ume da. It will not take long and they will go. Adi mumbayag hidiyen at-attona. He will not continue for a long time in that which he is doing. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. to take a long time in accomplishing a specific task with the task cross-referenced by the affix. Adim baybayaggon nan at-attom. Do not take so much time in what you are doing. Deket waday insapata yu ya mahapul an adiyu baybayaggon. If you have vowed to do something, it is necessary that you do not delay a long time (before doing what you vowed).. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. nabayag ph. v. adi mumbayag

baybay-an (der. of bay-an) advpred. 1to consider something to be one’s responsibility or business; for this meaning, it must be negated. Adim baybay-an muntudok ya itudok mun am-in di problemam. Don’t neglect to write regularly; write anything that bothers you. Manner. (sem. domains: - Think about.) 2to neglect or ignore a situation, responsibility or task. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

bihuk sta. pooled water in ricefield after draining. [The pool will be filled with mud for leveling before the field is planted.] Nabihuk di payomi. Our field has a pool of water. Adita tagan hi ala hi luta nah gawwana te mabihuk. Let us not continue to get earth from the middle because water will pool (there). ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.)

bimmahba (infl. of bahba) comm. refers to a bad sign or omen based on the bile sac of a sacrificial animal.

binol sta. to be twisted, for something like thread to become twisted. Nabinol nan abolona. What she was weaving had twisted threads. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Twist, wring.)

bitu 1comm. a pit trap; a pit. Nangapya dah bitu nah habal. They made a pit-trap in the swiden farm. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap animals using a hole in the ground. Wada key bituwon yu ya idatan dakami. If you trap anything give us some. Ekayu mamitu Go and make a pit-trap. Nabitu nan mangakon dih hilong nah bitun kinapya mi. Last night the robber fell into the trap which we had made. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑, ma‑/na‑.

bob-an di kidul (n. ph. of bob-a, di, kid’ul) comm. an amulet or charm that brings good luck and protection from harm; the literal meaning of the phrase is ‘tooth of lightning’. [The amulet is a black tooth-shaped piece of wood found in trees that have been struck by lightning; the very end of where the lighting penetrated is said to protect the possessor from any harm.] In-uppig na nan bob-an di kidul. He placed his charm in a woven purse. Sim: kiwil. (sem. domains: 4.9.8 - Religious things.)

bod’ang sta. 1to become reddish or yellowish as of vegetables and fruit in ripening. Mabdang nan kamatis. The tomatoes are red. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑inum‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: ingit; Sim: lod’ang, ingit. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 2to blush. Binummdang hi Anna dih kanak di inalana nan libbutan ku. Anna blushed when I said that she took my betelnut chewing bag. ‑um‑/‑inum‑.

bodab’od sta. to be tangled. Uhup an maubad te nibodabod. It will take time to unravel it because it is tangled. mi‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: lipot, libod. (sem. domains: - Twist, wring.)

bodyak sta. to split open so that contents scatter; to burst. Nakal-um nan tabuyug kinali nabodyak. The pomelo was very ripe that is why it burst open. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.)

bong’eg comm. refers to a person who says good or bad words to a plant, animal and it withers or becomes thin; a type of curse. [During feasts, the food of such a person must be carefully prepared and handled so that he will not comment on the food, wine or anything about the feast so that people becoming sick from a curse is avoided.] Sim: idut, dug-a, duhngil, Ayak, Hagoho, gamud, hiblot. (sem. domains: - Curse.)

bonggawak sta. long-necked; said of a person or animal. Kabogbog-akan da te bonggawak. They laughed at him because he was long-necked. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.)

budhan sta. to expose something that has been hidden. Mungka-ut dah kanal ya nabudhan on kahon. They were digging a canal and a wooden crate was exposed. Ngana bo, nabudhan di langkak mu. What can you say, now that your lie was discovered. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Known, unknown.)

buk’a 1trans. to set/let loose; to let go; release; to free; to untie. Ibukam nan ahu ta waday innunan mun-adug tuh bale. Release the dog so it can guard the house. Bukaan yu nadan manuk ta mun-ay-ayyam da. Set the chickens free so they can roam around. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3B Move and release object. Sim: bulus. (sem. domains: - Set free.) 2intrans. an animal frees itself form a pen or from its tethering rope. Numbuka nan nuwang ot ume nah payo. The carabao set itself loose and went to the ricefield. Tibon yu te bumuka nan ahu. Be careful because the dog might free itself.

bul-i sta. for dry soil to be cracked, due to heat of sun and lack of rain. Nabul-iy lutad uwani te tialgo. The soil is cracked now because its summer time. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: okak, potag. (sem. domains: - Soil, dirt.)

bul’uk 1sta. to be rotten, decomposed, decayed. Nabuluk nan inhaang dan ihda. What they cooked for viand is rotten. Nakabulluk ot ahi hamakon hanadan tindalu. It was fully decomposed before the soldiers found it. Bulbulukkan kinali uggeyak gimmatang. It is a little bit rotten that is why I did not buy it. ma‑/na‑, naka‑. Prpcess or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Decay.) 2trans. to let or cause something to rot. Hanada ken iBontoc ya bulukon day dotag ta ahida ihda. The Bontoc people let meat rot before they use it for viand. ‑on/‑in‑. 3v. (fig) to be caused to be evil. Dakamiy kon bahul te binuluk mi. We are at fault because (you) caused us to be evil. ‑in‑.

bulok (sp. var. buluk) sta. to be rotten, vegetables or fruit. Nabulok nadan mangga. The mangoes are rotten. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: dang-o. (sem. domains: - Decay.)

bultu trans. to butcher and sell meat; with every part of the animal in one share; a part of the leg, heart, liver, etc. all pierced and tied together with rattan. Bultuwon da nan gulding. They will butcher and sell the goat’s meat by shares. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: hibal. (sem. domains: - Sell.)

butbut₁ sta. to have small holes in soft things like cloth, dress, plastic, bag, mat. Nakabbutbutan nan pungngunuk an bulwati mu lokolokobak. My working clothes are full of holes but I keep patching them. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, naka‑ C ‑an. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: lokong, uwang, abut, guk-ang. (sem. domains: 7.8.4 - Tear, rip.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

buy’un sta. bent by wind or by the load on it; to sag; to droop; to hang loosely as a line or rope tied at both ends. Nabyun nan kaiw te hay puwok. The tree was bent by the typhoon. Mabyun tun punhablayyan te madam-ot nan ulon nihable. The clothesline will sag because the blanket that has been hung is so heavy. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.5.5 - Spatial relations.)

cabecillas comm. those appointed to oversee ranches during American and Spanish times. {hist} Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

Cubao prop. the name of a city in the Manila area.

CV(C)-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant functions to intensify the meaning of a predication. <Morphophonology: The modal form reduplicates the first syllable of a root. For that reason, the syllable pattern of the root dictates whether the reduplicant form is CV- or CVC-.> Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is very dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to finish it (lit. make it very good) . (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

CV(C)CV-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant intensifies the meaning of an adjective; extremely; very. Hay kibalinana ya kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longonah nuwang ya babuy. The meaning of this is that he is very, very rich because he will butcher many carabao and pigs. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is very wide and there are many, many people. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was very big so I had to hang from a branch. (sem. domains: - To a larger degree.)

CV1C2 1intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable, CV(C), and the medial consonant of an adjective noun root is the form of the morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahiga-ud. The men have more work during the plowing season. Hi Luis an ong-ongal ya himpuluy toona ya hi ke Julie ya onom. Luis, the older (lit. bigger), was ten years old and Julie was six. Mu dakdakol di kaapputan ta maahinut ot ya abun am-in. But one loses more times than he wins such that eventually, everything will be lost. 2dim. refers to something smaller than the norm; this reduplication form encoding this meaning co-occurs only with nouns.

CVC- dim. this reduplicant expresses the meaning of small size; it co-occurs with nouns; diminutive. Waday dakol di ka-kaiw hi bale mi. There are many bushes (small trees) by our house. Pina-i na nan taltalak an indat ku. He destroyed the toy truck that I gave him.

dadal sta. to be mature or ripe, refers to vegetables and fruit. Nadadal mo didan bulligan. Those winged beans are already matured. Nadadal danaen mangga an maphod an iha-ad ta mal-um. Those mangoes are matured which are good to be stocked to be ripened. Madadal da ke ot didan gagallat ya hiya. It is good if those pineapples will be matured. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Spec: luum. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

dadang 1comm. cooked rice that is crusted and browned; found at the bottom of the cooking pot. Idatam nadan u-ungah dadang. Give the children some crusted rice. Pinpinhod di uunga an mangan hi dadang. Children like to eat the crusty rice. Pinpinhod di udum di dadang immam-ana hin maatung pay. Others like very much the crusted rice especially when hot. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2sta. for rice to become crusted and browned. Deket natduk nan hinamal ya kaanon nan mundadalang to abuna nan bala ta madadangan. If the cooked rice is dry, remove the burning wood so that only the coals remain and the rice will become crusted and brown. muN/nuN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6C Process or state of inanimate object.

dagay intrans. 1something goes in and out of a system, e.g. water in and out of a pipe. muN‑/nuN‑. 2(fig) extended meaning related to not listening well, i.e. words go in one ear and out of the other.

dago comm. a pig with brownish stripes; any animal with stripes. [A dago-pig is easy to find when it’s lost because of its color.] Maphod di ang-ang di dago immam-ana hin mataba. A brownish-pig has a very nice appearance especially if it is fat. Sim: balangat, batok. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

dakdakol (sp. var. dakdakkol) (infl. of dakol) adj. a comparative, meaning more than. Mu dakdakol di kaapputan ta maahinut ot ya abun am-in. But one loses more times than he wins such that eventually, everything will be lost. CV.C. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: - To a larger degree.)

dakog 1adj. much; many; a lot. Dakog day tatagud Manila. There are many people in Manila. Number quantifier. Sim: dakol. 2intrans. to become many; to increase. Dumakog nadan manuk mu. Your chickens will became many/increase. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. an active, transitive verb meaning to get many or much of something. Dakogom di alam hi boga. Get plenty of rice. ‑on/‑in‑.

dala 1comm. blood. Dakol di dalan nan manuk. The chicken has a lot of blood. (sem. domains: 2.2.5 - Bleed, blood.) 2intrans. to bleed. Dimmalay olong na. His nose bled. Mundadala nan napalang. The cut caused by the machete was bleeding. Madala nan ginogod dan manuk. The chicken they butchered had a lot of blood. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. 3trans. to bleed an animal in the butchering process. ‑on/‑in‑. 4comm. animal blood mixed with innards and meat cooked to make a dish. der. dalaan der. dinaldalaan id. mumbabayakbak di dalana

dalede 1comm. travois; sledge; sled; usually pulled by an animal like a carabao; does not have wheels. Guyudon nan baka nan dalede. The carabao will pull the sled. Sim: kuliton. (sem. domains: - Vehicle.) 2trans. to transport something on a sled. Idalede yu nan sinakun kape. Take the sacks of coffee in the sled. Mundalede kayun e mangaiw. You will use the sled to go to gather firewood. Mundalede kayu hin umali kayu. You will use a sled when you come. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

dalnat sta. to be lukewarm, referring to a liquid. Madalnat an danum di pun-amon tun unga. The baby will be bathed with lukewarm water. Dumalnat nan liting hin adim apuyan. The water will become lukewarm if you do not fix the fire. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.4 - Hot.)

dam-ot 1proc. to become heavy. Dumam-ot nan inpah-on da. The thing they are carrying will become heavy. Dumam-ot hin naupol. It will become heavy if it is soaked. Dimmam-ot. It became heavy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Heavy.) 2trans. to cause to be heavy. Idam-ot na nan kinana. The food he ate will make him heavy. i‑/iN‑. 3sta. to be heavy in weight. Madam-ot nan karga. The cargo is heavy. Hingkalton mu makaddam-ot. It’s only one-box-full but very heavy. ma‑/na‑, makaC‑. 4nom. weight. Wada da nan munhona ta kanan di bumaddang da yaden mungkulkullawing da ot ya aabu ta mid-um di dam-ot da. There are those naughty ones who instead of helping carry the load, hold on to the pole and swing from one side to the other, thereby adding to the weight.

damana man nin (ph. v. of damana, man, nin) advpred. each word in the phrase has independent meaning, but together they assert that the information in the complement statement is possible or probable. Damana man nin an makulug. It may well be true. Damana man nin an mun-ay-ayyam. He might well play (but I don't know for sure). Modality. (sem. domains: - Possible.)

dammu (sp. var. damu) 1to meet. 1.1trans. to encounter someone in particular; to meet. Em dammuwon hi inam. Go and meet your mother. Dinammuwak nah muyung. He met me in the forest. Hidiy nanammuwanan nadah bumdang kediyen hilong. There is where he had encountered the bumdang-spirit the night before. ‑on/‑in‑ , nan‑ ‑an. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 1.2trans. to meet someone with something; what is being taken is in view. Idammu yu nan payung te mun-udan. Meet him with the umbrella because it’s raining. Mangali ta ahan ya pun-idammum di mahakit an kali. I am just arriving and you are meeting/greeting me with harsh words. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3rec. to meet each other. Nundammu da nah kalata. They met on the street. Dahdiy mundammu ke he-a? Who will meet you? muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. meeting place. Daanay pundammuwan yu? Where will you meet? puN‑ ‑an. 2trans. may refer to meeting trouble or difficulty; may also refer to two inanimate objects being brought together to be adjacent. Tibom ta adim dammuwon ad-adin maat. Be careful (lit. see to it) that you don’t meet with something bad. ‑on/‑in‑.

dang-o₁ sta. to be spoiled, refers to food. Nadang-o nan ihda an in-ali da. The viand they brought was spoiled. Mungkadang-o nan nihaad nah banga. The food in the pot is becoming spoiled. ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: bulok. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, - Decay.)

danglol 1sta. to be slippery. Madanglol nan dalan an umed Linda. The path which goes to Linda is slippery. Madanglol nan manteka nah dulung. The cooking oil on the floor is slippery. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.) 2proc. to become slippery. Dumanglol nan kalata hin umudan. If it rains, the road will became slippery. Ha-adam hi lana nan buuk mu ta dumanglol. Put oil on your hair so that it will be soft (lit. slippery). ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. madanglol

deke bo udot conj. if; marks a dependent conditional clause expressing a continuing situation or action that will probably result in the situation or action expressed in the main clause; the udot form adds a sense of perplexity to the meaning. <This is a phrasal compound of a conjunction deke, an adverb bo and an adjunct udot.> Deke bo udot ya kahinlullokon da ot inila takun adida unudon intugun taku. If they keep pretending to be deaf, then, we know that they will not follow what we advised. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. Sim: deke on peman. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations, - Condition.)

deke on peman (comp. of deke on, peman) conj. affirms that an event or action is contingent or dependent on another action or event; the phrase has an added emphatic meaning component with the addition of peman. <This is a compound of a conjunction, linker-determiner, and an adjunct.> Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. Sim: deke bo udot. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations.)

dipdipu 1comm. a drum instrument.animal skin is stretched over it’s upper end while the lower end is open. [Animal skin is stretched over it’s upper end while the lower end is open.The drum is sounded during the harvest time of the rich as they offer the ritual sacrifices in the granary.] Timbab na nan dipdipu. He beat the drum with his open palms. (sem. domains: - Musical instrument.) 2intrans. to beat the drums. Mundipdipu da te mun-ani da. They are sounding the drums for they are harvesting. muN‑/nuN‑.

dodong sta. to be corroded, the state of a metal being destroyed by rust. Nadodongan hituwen banga. This pot is corroded. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Rust.)

dog-al trans. to send away people; drive away animals, usually done when someone or something is disturbing the peace and quiet. Pundog-al na nadan manuk handi dimmatongak. He was driving the chickens away when I arrived. Dog-alom nadan tatagu nah dola tedeyan manukal da. Send away those people outside because they are keeping me awake. Dog-alom nan ahu. Drive the dog away. Adi madog-al nan baka. The cow cannot be driven away. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, puN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: abul, dulun, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3 - Move something.)

dol-ak 1comm. a poisonous vine or coffee-bean-like poison for use in fishing; the vine is crushed then dried to be placed in the ricefields to catch fish. E immalah dol-ak hi ama. Father went to get the poisonous vine. Sim: ipe, tuba. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to use the vine to catch fish. Eda manol-ak. They are going to catch fish using the dol-ak-vine. maN‑. 3intrans. to use the vine to catch a particular kind of fish. Dol-akon da nadan yuyu nah payo hi bigat. They will put the poison vine in the ricefield tomorow to get the Japanese fish. 4intrans. extended meaning to refer to something that tastes strong and may cause drunkenness. Dumol-ak nan impainum da. The thing they had me drink is strong. Nadol-ak te intaganah inum hi baya. He is drunk because he kept on drinking rice wine. ‑um‑.

don-al sta. dawn. Nadon-al dih immanamutak. It was dawn when I got home. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: mungkabigat. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

dugyun (sp. var. dagyun) trans. to send people away; drive away animals, usually done when someone or something is disturbing the peace and quiet. Dugyunom nan ahu ta umed dola. Drive away the dog so that it will go to the yard. Adi madugyun. It cannot be driven away. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, abul, dulun. (sem. domains: - Send.)

dulun trans. to drive animals or poultry away from a particular area. Dulunom nadan gawgawa ta adida ume nah payo. Drive away the ducks so that they will not go into the ricefield. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, abul, dugyun. (sem. domains: - Drive along.)

dunut sta. to be rotten, refers to wood. Nilubhutak nah dulung da te nadunut. I broke through their floor because it’s rotten. Mungkadunut nan tukud da te matinatina. Their post is becoming rotten because it is always being wet. ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Decay.)

dutdut 1comm. fur of animal. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2comm. feathers. Pakalaggiman yu nan gulding ta makaan di dutdut na. Singe the chicken well so that the feathers will be entirely removed. Kinaanay dutdut nan manuk ot punlikilik nah ingana. He removed the feather of the chicken and used it to clean his ear. 3sta. to have thick fur. Nakaddutdutan nan ahuk. My dog has a very thick fur. nakaC‑ ‑an. 4trans. to remove feathers by plucking. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. dutdutan

espiritu (sp. var. ispiritu) 1comm. spirit. Kon waday espiritun di babuy? Does a pig have a spirit? Cultural note: The traditional religious system involved a belief that animals had spirits. Animals were sacrificed during a religious ritual, and the spirits of the dead animals would then go to other worlds to provide for the spirits of gods, ancestors or dead relatives. Linnawa is the traditional word used to refer to the spirit of a person and to the spirit of an animal that is sacrificed. Sim: linnawa, alimadduwan. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2prop. refers to the Spirit of God. Hay itanuttudu mi ya nalpuh nah Espiritun Apu Dios, kinali bokon hay kinalaing di taguy pundinolan mi, mu nah Espiritun Apu Dios an wadan ditakun mangulug. (I Corinth 2:12) What we are teaching comes from the Spirit of God, that’s why it is not the wisdom of a person that we are trusting, but instead it’s from the Spirit of God who is with us believers. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

gagala on immey algo (id. of algo) Time flies. an idiom meaning that ‘time flies’. Gagala on immey algo. A day goes fast. (sem. domains: - A short time.)

gagaom 1comm. things needed for a ritual or the things to be used in the death of a person; animals for sacrifice are not included. [Some of the things needed are: a binuhlan ‘loincloth’, ulo ‘blanket’ for a man; an ampuyo ‘skirt’, balko ‘belt’ for a woman.] (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2intrans. to place special clothing on a corpse. Nganney pungagaom mu ke amam? How will you clothe your father? puN‑.

gahhid intrans. to paw; moving the feet on the floor or earth, animals or humans. [Older people may refer to disco-dancing by this term.] Munggahhid di hukim. Your feet are always moving. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.)

gakod (sp. var. takod) 1comm. anything used for tying, e.g. vine, rope, cord. [Vine is commonly used for bundling; cord and rope are commonly used for tying an animal.] Nakaan nan gakod di gulding ot bumtik. The tethering rope of the goat was removed and it ran away. Dukkeyom nan gakod na. Lengthen its rope. Sim: bobod, kawad. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool.) 2tie something. 2.1trans. to tie an animal to a fence, post, or stake. Igakod mu nan nuwang nah posten di alad. Tie the water buffalo to the post of the fence. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men get a long branch and they securely tie the hagabi bench there. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2.2trans. to place a tie on or at a specified place; the site-object is cross-referenced. Gakodan yu nan hukin di babuy ta adi bumtik. Tie the feet of the pig so that it will not run away. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.3trans. to tie a specified number or amount of something. Gumakod kah duwan manuk. Tie two of the chickens. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2.4trans. to tie with a specified type of tie. Hay wakal di punggakod mu nah tingting. Use the vine to tie the sweet potato leaves. Al-an da wakal an ahida punggakod nah hagabi ten magibbu. They get vine to use in tying the bench to a pole when it’s completed. puN‑/impuN‑.

galeled trans. to drag or slide something roughly, people or animals. Inggaleled nan in-alih tu. He dragged him roughly when he brought him here. Nigaleledak nah madayyun dalan. I slid roughly on the slope. Odnam nan bulwatim ta adi migaleled. You hold up your dress so that it will not be dragged along the ground. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: guyud, lapdit. (sem. domains: - Pull.)

galo sta. to be blighted; spoiled tubers with bitter taste and smelly; destroyed taste and texture of root crops due to excessive moisture. Munhamuy nan nagalon gattuk. The blighted sweet potato smells bad. Nagalo nan nihibak an gattuk. The boiled sweet potato is rotten. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: ngalodngod, bun-o, bilok. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, - Decay.) infl. nagalo

ganga sta. to be hard; durable; referring to wood. Maganga nan tukud di baleda. The post of their house is hard. Maganga nan kaiw an kinapya nah ubunan. The chair he made is from a durable wood. ma‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture, 6.5.3 - Building materials.)

gatawwa comm. cassava; manioc. Ingkamo da nan balat nah gatawwa ot bayuwon da. They mixed the banana with the cassava, then they pounded it. Sim: kahoy. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

gayad sta. to be hanging low and touching the ground. Nagayad nan bulwatim. Your dress is touching the ground. na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Low.)

gibagib sta. to be eroded, erosion or chipping of pottery. Nagibagib di tokon nan banga. The rim (lit. mouth) of the jar is eroded. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.)

gikod sta. long-lasting food; plenty of food for a long time. Magikod di page da. Their rice is long-lasting. Magikod peman di baya da. Their rice wine really is long-lasting. Munhonga da ta gumikod di page da. They offered sacrifices so that their rice will become long-lasting. ma‑, ‑um‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

gita 1comm. venom, secretion of animals and insects. Waday gitan di gayyaman. Centipedes have venom. 2comm. rabies venom. Waday gitan di natagal an ahu. A mad dog has rabies venom. 3sta. to be venomous; to have venom. Nagitaan nan ulog an nangalat ke hiya. The snake which bit him is venomous. Nagitaan nan ukkon. The puppy has rabies. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

gitok 1comm. grooves, notches or chop marks on wood. Ha-adam hi gitok nan pangipatakan. Place a groove on the spot to be nailed. Syn: gitagit. (sem. domains: 7.7.7 - Mark.) 2trans. to place a groove or notch on something. Gitokom nan kaiw. Place a groove on the wood. (in order to cut) ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 3intrans. to make a notch or groove on wood. <When a noun is incorporated into the verb form, the verb becomes an intransitive verb grammatically though the transitive meaning component is still understood.> Adika munggitok. Don’t place grooves. muN‑/nuN‑.

god’e 1sta. a landslide; to be eroded; the condition of land that has broken away and slid down a mountain or incline. Nagdey Atade handih nalauy duwampuluy toon. There was a landslide in Atade twenty years ago. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate object. Sim: goh’ang. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.) 2trans. to cause a landslide by digging at the lower portion of a slope. Adim godeyon nan kanal te malbong di dola. Do not cause a landslide in the canal (by digging) because the yard will be flooded. ‑on/‑in‑. 3proc. the process of land sliding downward. Gumdey nal-ot an udan. Strong rains cause landslides. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

gulipu (sp. var. gulipo) 1comm. pipe, galvanized iron; water pipe. Maid di liting nah gulipu mi. We have no water in our pipe. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2comm. faucet; water tap. Waday liting nah gulipu. There is water in the faucet. 3trans. to place a water pipe or tap. Gulipuwan yu nan ume nah galden an liting. Place a pipe for the water that goes to the garden. Gulipuwon yu nan otbol ta ie yuh bale yu. Place a water pipe in the spring so that you can bring the water to your house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: gripo.

gutagut (fr. var. gatugat) sta. pockmarks or any rough surface of wood or metal; has many holes on surface. Nagutagut nan kaiw an igattang da. The lumber they are selling has a rough surface. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Rough.)

hablut trans. to catch an animal in a rope trap. Hinnatkon di aton dan manablut hi babuy te ipalat da nan linubid ta ih-od nah gattinon nan babuy ne deke ingguyud da nan linubid ten nahablut ta dopapon da mot bobodan day hukina. They have a different way of catching pigs using ropes because they make a loop and put it at the end of a stick and lay it on the path of a pig, then they pull the rope when the pig has been caught and they catch him and tie his legs. maN‑/naN‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.)

haggiling 1trans. to roll like a wheel. Haggilingom nan pihu ta umed daul. Roll the peso coin so it will go down. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.) 2sta. for something round to roll, e.g. coin, tire. Nahaggiling nan pihuk. My coin rolled. Nataliling nan binting mo. Your twenty five centavos rolled away. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. id. Mahaghaggiling an mange.

hakgud 1comm. horn of animals like carabao, cow, goat. Andukkey hakgud din nuwang yu. The carabao’s horn is long. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.) 2trans. to gore with the horns. Bumtik ka ot te hakgudon daka man nah baka. Better run because the cow will gore you with his horns. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

halokhok trans. to place sharp sticks across a path to prevent animals from passing there. Halokhokam nan dalnon di babuy. Place sharp sticks across the path of the pig ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

halun comm. a grouping of animals on a ranch. e.g. cows, sheep; a herd or flock. Waday ohan halun an baka da. They have a herd of cows on their ranch. (sem. domains: 1.6.6 - Animal group.)

hamad 1advpred. to stabilize by fastening or attaching firmly, permanently, securely; describes structures or ties, but may be extended to abstract ideas such as belief, love, etc. Ihamad mun igakod ta adi maubad. Tie it firmly so that it will not become loose. Inhamahamad kuy pangikawotak ya pangigattinak. I carefully chose strong branches to hold and step on. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a sturdy branch so they can securely tie the hagabi-bench. i‑/iN‑. Manner. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2trans. (fig) extended meaning for non-concrete entities; strengthen. Inhamad da mon mundasal ke hiya. They strengthened their praying for him. i‑/iN‑. infl. nahamad

hana ot ta adjunct. 1an expression of wishing for something; used like an invocation for good; may it be so. Hana ot ta munnananong an wadan ditakun am-in di hayudut an malpun Jesu Kristo an hi Apu taku. (Rom. 16:24) May the grace that comes from our Lord Jesus Christ always be with us all. Hana ot anhan ta pumhod di nomnom na. May it be that his mind will change for the better. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2a good event Hanahana ot kaya an matagu ka. It’s good that you are alive after all. (speaker heard the person was dead) (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 3a subjunctive meaning to have a wish or hope. Hana ot ta umaddu da! May their tribe increase! (sem. domains: - Hope.)

handag trans. to place something by leaning it against something else; to lean something. Ihandag mu nan patanong mu nah tukud. Let your cane lean against the post. Handagan dah batu nan panton di lubuk ta adi malukatan. They leaned a stone on the door of the grave so that it will not be opened. Adika mihandag hi tete. Don’t lean on the ladder. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/ ‑in‑ ‑an, mi‑/ni‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: dangkig. (sem. domains: - Leaning, sloping.)

haphap trans. 1to cut off rough or uneven parts of wood, by chopping action. Haphappam ya tun patanong ku. Cut off the bark portion of my walking-stick. Haphapam nadan pingngit nan kaiw teden makahdol ya madam-ot. Cut off the edge of the wood because it’s very thick and heavy. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2to cut up the carcass of an animal. Haphapon day dotag. They cut the meat. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: - Steps in food preparation.)

hibal 1intrans. to sell butchered meat by shares. Munhibal hi Tomas. Tomas will sell by shares (understood meat). muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: bultu. (sem. domains: - Sell.) 2trans. to sell meat-shares of a specific animal. Ihibal na nan laki da. He will sell by shares (the meat) of their boar. i‑/iN‑.

higup₁ 1intrans. to go into a sheltered place; used more frequently about sheltering animals or things other than people. Deyan umudan, humigup kayu mo. There, it is going to rain, come to the shelter. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) 2trans. to enter into shelter; to shelter something; to bring something inside. Ihigup yu di page. Bring in the rice. Higupon di udan tun batalan mi. The rain comes into our porch. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

hiklop sta. twilight time; evening darkness; dusk. Eka ot te mungkahiklop. You better go because it’s getting dark. Nahiklop mo. Evening darkness has set in. ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

hikug 1trans. (prim) to seek shelter. Maid pundag-uhan da Jose ke Maria ot eda mo kattog mihikug nah abung. Joseph and Mary had no place to stay so they sought shelter in a hut/stable. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 2trans. (fig) to seek help, an extended meaning. Deket maligatan ka, ihikug mun Jesus. Whenever you have hardships, seek shelter in Jesus. i‑/iN‑. 3comm. a shelter especially of last resort. ki‑ ‑an. der. kihikugan

hilamut 1trans. to lick one’s lips. [The licking of one’s lips is often done in anticipation of eating something delicious.] <Morphology: very commonly used as munhilhilamut.> Inang-ang Pedro nan dotag ya munhilhilamut. When Pedro saw the meat, he kept on licking his lips. Hilamutom nan nipakpak hi hubil mu. Lick that which is on your lips. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C). Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2intrans. (fig) to be envious, extended meaning. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Jealous.) id. munhilhilamut

himut trans. to draw the tongue over something; to lick; to lap up water or food with tongue like an animal. Himutan nan ahu nan duyu. The dog licked the plate. Adim himutan di taklem. Do not lick your fingers. Himutam di hubil mu te neyan namag-anan. Lick your lips for they are dry. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Remove object from site. Sim: dildil. (sem. domains: - Bite, chew.)

hiN- -on TACR. this circumfix encodes a non-past modal that adds the meaning of ‘to pretend’ to the verbal root; the suffix part of the circumfix cross-references the object in the clause. <With a statement, rather than imperative, a ka- prefix is also added to the affix combination.> Himbaybayuom nan page. Pretend to be pounding the rice. Kahindongdongollona hi kinalik. He pretends to be listening to what I have said. (sem. domains: 9.4.2 - Agent-oriented modalities.)

hingkakatang (infl. of hingkatang) adv. refers to a very brief time; may also have a meaning component of ‘suddenly’. CV‑. Time. (sem. domains: - A short time.)

hingngot (sp. var. hongot) 1comm. engagement to marry, engagement offerings; the main offering is usually three pigs. [The engagement offerings are brought by the man’s family to the woman’s family; the word also refers to gifts, other than animals, such as bundles of wood, and a basketful of malagkit rice with coins placed on top. The animal engagement offerings are specifically referred to as the imbango.] In-eday hingngot Juan ad Bae. They brought Juan’s engagement offerings to Bae. Ine day hingngot Bugan. They brought the animals needed for the marital engagement of Bugan. Sim: Hongot; Sim: bango, Tokop di mom-on. (sem. domains: - Custom, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to give animals and other paraphernalia used in the marital engagement arrangements. Mumpakan he dakel an babuy ta waday ihngot na hin malahin. He is feeding a lot of pigs so that he will have animals to use if he decides to be married. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to bring the betrothal gifts for the engagement ceremony. Munhongot da Juan hi bigat. Juan will bring the animals needed for his engagement tomorrow. Munhongot hi Juan ke Ana. Juan will bring his engagement offerings to Ana. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to bring necessary animals for the marital engagement. i‑ ‑an.

hodol₁ sta. to be thick. Mahdol nan ulo. The blanket is thick. Makakahdol nan ulon Juan. John’s blanket is very thick. ma‑, makaC‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.2.3 - Thick.) der. kahodol

hodom 1sta. darkness of evening. Eka ot tedeyan mahdom. Go now because it will soon be dark. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It comes out and flies around quietly at night. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: hilong, tapol, labi. (sem. domains: - Night, - Dark.) 2adv. this evening; tonight. Hi mahdom di aliyana. He will come tonight. ma‑. Time. 3adv. last night. Maid dilag dih nahdom. There was no light last night. na‑. 4pass. will arrive late or in the evening; night catches up with someone along the way. Tibom ta adika mahdoman. Be sure that night will not overtake you on the way. ma‑ ‑an. infl. hoddomna infl. mahmahdom

hogat 1comm. the heartwood of a tree; the core wood of a tree. Magangah tuwen kaiw te waday hogat na. This tree is hard because it has heartwood. Sim: balakibak. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2comm. may refer to the annual rings of a tree. 3sta. a matured tree; it has heartwood, meaning it can be made into lumber. Nahgatan nan udyo kinali lingngo da. The mahogany tree is matured, that is why they cut it down for lumber. ma‑‑an/na‑‑an. id. nahgatan

hudngul₁ (fr. var. of tudngul) 1) comm. poles used to prop up things. Kaanom di hudngul na te nihamad mo. Remove the prop because it is already strong enough. 2) trans. to prop up something; to support with props; e.g clothesline, leaning house, branch of tree heavy with fruit, etc. Hudngulom ot nan baleyu te umali man nan puwok ot matu-i. You better prop up your house because the storm might come and it will tumble down. Hudngulam din alang te mangaliy puwok. Prop up the granary because a typhoon is coming. Adim ihudngul di taklem hi pangal mu. Don’t prop up your chin with your hand. (sem. domains: - Link, connect.)

hukit₁ (sp. var. hukkit) sta. 1to be limited in width; narrow. Nahkit tun panto yu. Your door is narrow. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Narrow.) 2for a space to be very crowded; to be full of people; occupied fully; related to being a small or narrow area. Nakakkahkit nan bale mi te itaitay. Our house is very crowded because it is very small. nakaC‑ CVC‑. der. hukkihukit

hulpik₂ 1comm. small spear with two barbs on each side used to catch wild animals. Alam nan hulpik ta etaku mun-anup. Get the hulpik-spear and we will go to hunt. (sem. domains: - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to use the hulpik-spear; to spear. Hulpikom nan bulangngon hin dilagak. Spear the monkey when I shine the light on it. ‑on/‑in‑.

hulu₂ 1comm. a noose trap; a string is placed in such a way as to catch an animal by the feet or by the head. Inha-ad na nan hulu nah dinalan di ulha. He placed the noose-trap where the wild pig passed. Sim: appad, lingon, bawol, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2intrans. to set a noose trap. Eda manuluh amunin. They are going to noose-trap squirrels. maN‑/naN‑.

hungngil trans. to contend with or resist; may refer to physical fighting between animals, but only words are used when contending with people. Maid di ohan tagun e makihungngil hi pinhod na ke hiya. No one can oppose what he wants (or him). Makihungngil nan babaih ina na. That woman is contending with her mother. maki‑/naki‑. (sem. domains: 4.1.6 - Disunity.)

hupuk 1comm. dust. Munhagadak te dakol di hupuk. I’m going to sweep because there’s a lot of dust. Sim: dap-ul, tapuk. (sem. domains: - Soil, dirt.) 2sta. to be dusty. Mahuhupuk di ulum ten umali kah tu. Your head will be dusty if you come here. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects.

huyong sta. dark clouds that appear as a sign of rain. Nahyong di udan. It is about to rain. na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Cloud.)

id-uy (infl. of duuy) trans. to incite or urge a dog to chase someone or an animal; to sic a dog after someone or something. Adim id-uy nan ahum te mahmok din unga. Don’t sic your dog because that child would be pitiful. Id-uy mu nan ahu. Sic the dog to chase it. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.6 - Pursue.)

imbango (infl. of bango) comm. 1bride price; animals for engagement, three pigs are required. In-e day imbangon nan tulang ku ot ume kamit emi bolwaon. They brought the bride price to my cousin so we went to take our share. Tulun babuy di pinalti da nah imbangon Bugan. Three pigs were butchered for Bugan’s bride price. In-e day imbango na. They brought his engagement animals. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2an engagement ceremony; betrothals have historically been arranged for their children by parents anytime from infancy through puberty.

impaki- TACR. this prefix encodes past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or a group of objects. Impakidawat na nan papel nah basket. He received the paper inside the basket with the other. Impakiala da am-in nadan ngunut da ya limmu da. They got all of their household items and their property. Sim: paki-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

iphodan hi kali (id. of pohod) an idiom meaning that someone will say nice things to someone, often meaning to flatter (lit. to fix someone with words). Iphodan hi kali na. He will fix her with his words. (He will say nice things to her/ flatter her.) (sem. domains: - Flatter.)

Israel prop. a country in the Middle East that is the birthplace of two great religions, Judaism and Christianity. (sem. domains: - Country.)

Jesus prop. the founder and foundation of Christianity. (sem. domains: 4.9 - Religion.)

ka- CV(C)CV- comm. this affix combination inflects nouns with the meaning of each and every referent of the noun undergoes the action of the verb. Kaalgoalgo on umeh di. Every day he goes there. Kabulabulan an umali da. They come every month. Kabigabigat on imme da nah Templo ya hi kabalebale an e muntuttuduh mipanggep ke Jesus an hiyah Kriston mangipaptok hi tagu. (Acts 5:42) Every day they go to the Temple and from house to house to teach about Jesus who is the Christ who cares for people. (sem. domains: - Noun affixes.)

ka-₁ 1nominalizer. this prefix nominalizes an adjective or verb. Handih kaittay na ya ammunay Clinic an wadad Kiangan. When he was young/little, there was only a clinic in Kiangan. Nah kadakol di tatagu ya mahapul an halipat-an di pihhu With the large number of people, you have to be careful with your money. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even very dangerous/frightening to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.) 2dervN. the affix renominalizes a noun, changing the meaning. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu I remember that when we were children (lit. childhood), there were big rocks beside the same spring Nipalpun dih kagolang na inggana kediyen kimmat-agu ya maphod di pangi-ena. From the time of his childhood until he was a young man, his nature was good.

ka-ut 1to dig. 1.1trans. to dig a hole. Ka-utan yu nah daul di mangga. Dig a hole below the mango tree. Mange kamid Lagawe ya pungka-utan da hanadan kanal an dalanon di liting. We were going to Lagawe and they were digging the canals for the water to pass. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.6 - Dig.) 1.2trans. the activity or act of digging is in view. Mungka-ut da nadan tatagu hi balituk. The people are digging for gold. Kimma-ut dah uwang nah gawwan di dola da. They dug a hole in the middle of their yard. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3pass. for something to be dug up or a hole to be dug. Naka-utan nan balituk ad Hungduwan handih mo tuwali ot ahi kayu umeh di. The gold at Hungduan had been dug up long before you went there. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 2trans. to dig a hole to bury an animal. Ingka-ut mi hanan ahum an nate. We buried your dog that died. i‑/iN‑.

kaCV(C)- comm. this prefix is affixed to common nouns and encodes the meaning that the action or activity is distributed throughout every place. Nundingngol hi Jesus hi kabobboble. Jesus was heard in every place. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take that letter to all the cities/villages. (sem. domains: - Noun affixes.)

kahoy comm. cassava; manioc. Nunhibak kayuh kahoy? Were you able to boil cassava? Sim: gatawwa. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kakb’og sta. a thudding sound as of something falling; muffled thud. Nag-a nan niyug ya nakakbog. The coconut fell with a muffled thud. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

kalah-iwang (sp. var. kallah-iwang) v. to be bypassed by danger, i.e. kept safe; there is a simultaneity component which gives the meaning that two people or things were in the same place, at the same time. [This prayer is related to a traditional belief that snake and centipede bites are done by the spirits of deceased relatives.] Mikalah-iwang kamih buhul, umik di gayyaman ya ulog. We will be safe (bypasssed) from our enemies and bites of centipedes and snakes. (a traditional prayer) mi‑/ni‑. Sim: ballahiwe. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.)

kalampaag intrans. clanging sound produced by ill-adjusted joints of mechanical contrivances. Mungkalampaag nan talak te mungkalatiyan mo. The vehicle produces a clanging sound because it is already rusty. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kaliwangwang (sp. var. of kuliwangwang) comm. hind quarter; leg and hip of animal. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.)

kallulu comm. a lizard-like animal which adapts its color with its background as a protection; chameleon. Waday kallulu nah mangga. There is a chameleon in the mango tree. Sim: kutkutli, banbanaggo, banniya. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

kalun trans. a ritual word meaning to call to, used in relation to supernatural messengers of gods. Restrictions: ritual. (sem. domains: - Call.)

kanan to say. 1.1trans. a quotation form meaning say, said, tell, or told. Kanan day deke mo kanu ta pidwana ya adida makie. They said that the next time they would not join the group. Om, an kanan min Mayor. We told the Mayor yes. Speech Verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 1.2trans. a quotation form meaning thought, wish. Kanak hi nomnom kuy “Makamman-un dida te kay nakalakka. I said to myself, “It’s good for them because it seems easy.” Handi immingleyak mo ya kanak di nalakan lumah-un. Then, I got tired and thought it would be easy to go down. (sem. domains: - Think about, 3.2 - Think.)

kanon 1nom. any substance that can be eaten, plant or animal, that can sustain life. Himmalaman dan e nungkompay hi kanon di kabayu da. They had gone out early to cut grass (food) for their horses. Hana mon gawgawa di inay-ayyam na ot ingganay linutun inaonan hi Magappid di kanon da. She played with that duck until Aunt Magappid had cooked their food. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to eat something specific. Nangamung di pinhod mun kanon. It depends on what you like to eat. Kinan dan am-in nan ginatang na. They ate everything he bought. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.)

kapya 1make. 1.1trans. to make something; a general term that may refer to any creative act, e.g. building a bench, a house or tanning the skin of an animal to make a backpack. Kapyaom hi ubunan tun kaiw. Make this wood into a seat. Adida ke ihda nan bolat na ya kapyaon dah akbut. When they do not eat the skin, they make it into a backpack. ‑on/‑in‑. Class 4A Change structure of object. (sem. domains: - Make, - Create.) 1.2trans. to make something, patient object is indefinite and the agent subject is prominent. Mangapya tah tinapay. Let’s make bread. Hanada ken maid di happiyo na, nangapya da. As for them, they had no shields; so they made (them). maN‑/naN‑. 2pass. something will be or has been made. Damanan makapyay hagabi an adi mahu-up. The hagabi-figure can be made with no joint. ma‑/na‑. der. kapyana infl. mangapya

kay na inukmun di puhu na (id. of puhu) He is nervous or experiencing panic (lit. It’s like he swallowed his heart.)

kibul 1sta. to have sediment in water. Adim kutiyon nan danum ta adi makibul. Don’t stir the water so that the sediment will not be disturbed. Nakibul tun liting, adi matibo ad dalom. This water has so much sediment that I can’t see the bottom. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: kilut. (sem. domains: 1.3.6 - Water quality.) 2intrans. to stir up water by splashing and causing sediment to be stirred up. Kimmibul on dolog nah gawwan nan payo. A mudfish splashed in the middle of the paddy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

kili 1sta. to have naturally curly or kinky hair. Nakilkili di buuk din Pugut. The hair of the Aeta is kinky. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.) 2trans. to curl hair by a heating a wire, tobong, and winding it on hair. Kilkilion da nan buuk mu ta wadan pumpumhod di tibom. They will curl your hair by using a heated wire and maybe you will look better. ‑on/‑in‑.

kit’i intrans. a rustling sound made by insects, animals or man’s movement. Kumitikiti nadan balaingan nah karton. The cockroaches in the cardboard box are making a rustling sound. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ CV(C)CV. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

kodhol 1sta. to set; to become hard. Makodhol nan dotag. The meat is hard. Kimmodhol nan bangus. The milkfish became very hard. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.) 2nom. strength of someone or something. “Otto- anno tinamtam muy kodhol Lammooy? An makulug an hi Lammooy? Then, did you taste the strength of Lammooy? Is it true that it was Lammooy?” Maid diyo- maid e, mun-ingngo nin di kodhol mi. There is nothing er...nothing is...I think we had the same strength. infl. ikodhol infl. kimmodhol infl. pakodholon

kol-o intrans. fear, sudden and unexplainable; may be a premonition accompanied by a fear that can’t be explained. Tipe nin ta kumanol-owak. Why do I have this unexplained feeling of fear? Handi ek igatin ya kimmol-owak te innang an eyak mag-a. When I tried to step down I became frightened because I almost fell. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: takut, kobkob. (sem. domains: - Afraid.)

kom’ong trans. 1refers to the sharp curved nail on the toe of an animal or foot of a bird; claw. Ya deke on madudulnu ya dimmukkey buuk nan umat hi dutdut di tuldu ya dimmukkey kukunan umat hi komong di hamuti. (Daniel 4:33b) And he was drenched with dew and his hair grew long like an eagle’s feathers and his fingernails were like the claws of a bird. (sem. domains: - Parts of a bird.) 2may refer to the foot of an animal; paw. Hanadan naten aggayam an opat di huki dan waday komong da ya mibilang dan adi malinit.....(Libiticus 11:27a) Those dead animals that have four legs and paws are counted as unclean... (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.)

konnat (sp. var. konna ket) adjunct. if such a thing were to happen; supposing that; to conjecture. Konnat ipatna yun idat yu athidin aggayam nah gobernador, kon umamlong ke dakayu weno kon edakayu baddangan? (Malachi 1:8b) Supposing you try to give an animal like that to the governor, would he be happy with you or would he help you? general: The sentence quotation from the book of the Bible, Malachi, is in the context of God speaking to the Israelites about their sacrificing of defective animals to him. Attitudinal. Sim: hin, deket, nu. (sem. domains: - Condition.)

kontad trans. a ritual word meaning ‘to call to’, used only of the supernatural messengers of the gods. {ritual}

koynon sta. for cloth to shrink. Nakoynon nan payung ot mumbibinnat. The cloth of the umbrella shrank and so it’s pulling away from the sides. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Decrease.)

Kristo prop. the title given to Jesus as the Messiah in Christianity. Hi Kristo ya ingkatenay liwat taku, nilubuk ot mamahuwan handih mikatlun algo. (1 Corinth 15:3-4) Christ died for our sins, was buried and rose/resurrected on the third day.

ku-ing comm. dragonfly species; small with transparent wings; usually in villages around animals. Kinan nan hamuti nan ku-ing. The bird ate the small dragonfly. Gen: du-uti. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

kudal comm. a grassy area to pasture animals. Imme dan e dumpap hi baka nah kudal. They went to catch the cow in the pasture. Syn: pastu. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.)

kudu comm. stamping sounds on the floor or ground; rumbling noise, e.g. children running on floor boards, a number of hoofed animals running. Nganneh naen kudu? What is that stamping sound? Mungkukudu da bo nadan u-unga nah bale. The children are making rumbling noises again in the house. Sim: anikdul. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

kukub comm. feet of hoofed animal, e.g. pig, cow, carabao; hoof. Kukub di babuy hinae ya mahong-on ihda. Those are pig’s feet and are delicious for viand. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.)

kukut intrans. to curl up, an animal or person; fetal position. Nungkukut nan puha nah ubunan. The cat is curled-up on the chair muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kuleng sta. to be withered, referring to plants. Makuleng di intanom ku te namahig di potang. What I planted will wither because it’s too sunny. Nakuleng nan buttatan inalan nan ungah payo. The chinese cabbage that the child got from the field is withered. Uggem dinanuman nan flower te inang-ang ku ya mungkakuleng. You did not water the flower because I saw it and it was withering. Nanginkukuleng nan intanom kuh tu kaiw. The tree that I planted here withered easily. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: malyo. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) infl. mungkakleng

kum-ot intrans. for an animal to paw the ground, e.g. as a horse does. (sem. domains: - Touch.)

kupo 1sta. to be empty of content, e.g. the husk of grain or nits. Nakupo nan page te tiniptip di buding. The rice-grains are empty because the ricebirds sucked them. Nakupo nan kinaan dan ilit na. The nits they removed were empty. na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Empty.) 2comm. may refer to a bile sac which is white not green, observed during a ritual.

ladaw sta. to be late. Naladawak bo. I’m late again. Lumadaw nan munlugan tah adi paka-en tolak. A cause for being late is riding a vehicle that is slow. Adik pinhod an ekayu maladaw, kanan inada. I don’t want you to be late, their mother said. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.) infl. maladaw infl. munladaw

lagim trans. to singe off the hair of animals or feathers of poultry. Ilagim yu tun manuk. You singe off the feathers of this chicken. Bokon ha-on di munlagim. I am not the one to do the singeing. Inlagim da nan labit. They singed the rabbit. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: lopa. (sem. domains: - Steps in food preparation.)

lamaw trans. to scald an animal by pouring or soaking in hot water to remove hair or feathers. Lamawon yu nan babuy te adida munhida hi nilagim. You remove the pigs hair by pouring hot water on it because they do not eat singed animals. Ilamaw mu nan manuk ta gagalan makaan di dutdut na. You soak the chicken in hot water to make it easier for the feathers to be removed. Malamaw di takem hin mih-up ka nah maatung an danum. Your hand will be scalded if you get it too close to the water. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. Sim: dulhukan. (sem. domains: - Steps in food preparation.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lamon 1comm. the seeds of legumes. Maid ni-an di lamon di bulhe. The beans have no seeds yet. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2comm. edible roots. Wada moy lamon nan gatawwa. The cassava has roots. 3proc. to bear seeds or roots; to bear produce inside pods or husks, e.g. beans, rice. An lumamoy gattuk hi mitanom hitu? Do sweet potatoes that are planted here bear a root-crop? Nalamhanan nan page mo. The rice has grain-seeds now. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 6.2.1 - Growing crops.)

limu 1go down. 1.1sta. to be submerged; to have sunk below the surface; to vanish out of sight from a horizontal plane. Nalimu nah adalom. He was submerged in the deep spot. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Move down.) 1.2nom. refers to the sunset. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. Imme da nah nalimuhan di algo. They went after the sun had set. ka‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.) 2proc. disappearing from view. Mungkalimuy bulan ot ahi kami umanamut. The moon was already disappearing when we went home. Mungkalimuy algo. The sun is disappearing. mungka‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) n. ph. kalimuwan di algo ph. v. nalimuwan di algo

lin-ong sta. to be clear, refers to a liquid. Malin-ong nan danum nah wangwang. The river water is clear. Lumin-ong nan liting hin adi umudan. The water will become clear if it does not rain. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: hayawhaw, hawhaw. (sem. domains: 1.3.6 - Water quality, - Transparent