Search results for "ayo"

adamayon comm. a tree variety. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

apayo 1comm. fish and crab trap with sharp bamboo prongs pointed inward so fish cannot squeeze out; placed at a point where water exits a rice terrace. Apayoy mahapul hi pangalah yuyu nah payo. A fish trap is needed to be able to get Japanese fish from the field. Ihulbuk mu nan apayo nah dolya. Set the fish trap along the wall of the field. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to use a fish trap for catching fish E nangapyoh Juan. John went to catch fish using the apayo-trap. maN‑/naN‑. Sim: hingihing.

atigagayo intrans. to be restless in thinking; uneasy thoughts; thinking about something. Mun-atigagayoy adol Bugan hi punnomnom nah dolada ad Gonhadan Bugan was restless thinking of her village of Gonhadan. {literary} muN‑. Sim: atigag-a.

ayo (sp. var. ayyo) adjunct. expression of dismay or distress about something being wasted. Nakai-ayo. It’s been completely wasted. naka‑ i‑. Attitudinal. Sim: sayang, kawa. (sem. domains: - Evaluator.)

ayod 1comm. a hammock-style cradle used for babies and small children. Ihaad mu nan kuyat nah ayod ta mahuyop. You put the child in his hammock-cradle so that he will sleep. Iyayong mu nan ayod. Swing the hammock-cradle back and forth. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2intrans. to use a hammock-cradle for a baby or for carrying a sick person to a doctor or hospital. Mun-ayod kayun tulang mu. Use the hammock-cradle with your sibling. Iayod mu nan golang ta mahuyop. Place the baby in the hamoock-cradle so he will sleep. Iayod yu nan mundogo. Use the hammock-cradle to carry the sick person. mun‑, i‑.

ayok-ok intrans. to make a bubbling sound. Mun-aayok-ok di hina-ang na. What she is cooking is making a bubbling sound. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

ayon-on intrans. 1rumbling sound of very distant thunder or explosion. Mun-aayon-on di kidul handi hilong. The distant thunder could be heard rumbling last night. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2to make rumbling noise as of thunder. Mun-aayon-on di luta te hay kidul. There’s a rumbling noise on the earth because of the thunder. general: One speaker suggested that this refers to a kind of silent thunder that seems to affect the earth during the rainy season, July and August. muN‑/nuN‑.

babbayong (sp. var. of babayung)

bagaybayon comm. tree variety with white wood that is good for carving. Pumpullohan da nan bagaybayon ta eda paoton. They were both seizing the bagaybayon-wood for their carving. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bayongyong (sp. var. of bayungyung) comm. bamboo tube used for storage of salt, binokbok ‘native yeast’ or for gathering coffee beans. Napnuy bayongyong Talakka hi kape. The bamboo tube of Talakka is full of coffee beans. [Larger than the allawin-bamboo tube.]Sim: allawin. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

bungan di palayon (n. ph. of palayon, bunga) comm. acorn. Ganganason di u-unga an mangapyah paddiing hi bungan di palayon. Children enjoy making spinning tops from acorns.

gayonggong intrans. to tremble; to shiver; due to fear, coldness or possession by a spirit. Gumayonggong nan mumbaki. The shaman will tremble. Munggagayonggong hi ina hi takut na. Mother is trembling with fear. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: - Shake.)

gayotgot 1intrans. to experience extreme anger, includes a desire to do something bad to the person with whom one is angry. [The word may imply the grinding or gritting of the teeth in anger.] Adika pipatibon hiya te gumayotgot. Don’t let yourself be seen by her because she will be extremely angry. Munggagayotgot. He is gritting his teeth in anger. ‑um‑/‑imm‑; muN‑/nuN‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: - Angry.) 2trans. to be angry with someone; the one to whom the anger is directed is cross-referenced by the affix. Gayotgotanah Anton. She is extremely angry with Anton. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3comm. fury. Namahig di gayotgot na. Her fury was extreme.

hayobhob intrans. to crowd around someone or something. Adiyu hayobhoban nan nahalangob. Don’t crowd around that one who fainted. Antipe ekayu humayobhob hitu? Why do you crowd around here? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: alibungbung. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

hayothot intrans. 1for meat to ooze fat when being cooked. Andai ta humayothot nan timbong mun dotag ta ihda taku. Wait until the meat you roasted oozes with fat then we will eat it. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Process. (sem. domains: 5.2.1 - Food preparation.) 2to perspire; to sweat. Kayang an humayothot tah atung! My, how we sweat because of the heat! 2E Body/Physiological functions.

ita-itayon (sp. var. of inita-itay)

kibyayong (sp. var. kibyayyong) intrans. refers to the oscillating motion of water in a pond; the back and forth movement of water. Tipe nin ta mungkibyayong tun danum? Why is this water oscillating? Maid di maptok ya mungkibyayyong nan danum nah lobong te mungkolyog gayam. All of a sudden, the water in the lake was moving (oscillating) because of the earthquake. (that I was unaware of ) muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: dalluyun; Sim: kibyung. (sem. domains: 1.3.2 - Movement of water.)

kolor 1comm. color; tint. Mangitit di kolor nan ahumi. Our dog is colored black. (sem. domains: - Color.) 2comm. crayons. Gimmattang hi kolor na. He went to buy crayons. 3trans. to use crayons to color something. Mungkolor nadan u-unga hi bale. The children are coloring a house. Koloran yu hi maingit. Color it red. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

layon comm. a lion. Maid layon hituh kad-an taku. There are no lions in our place. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

manayo (infl. of tayo) intrans. to dance. Deket mahmahdom on nunnaba da ta manayo da. In the evening, they play the gongs and dance. maN‑.

mayor (sp. var. of meyor) comm. an elected official of a town or city to serve as the chief executive or manager. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an umali dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was that women dressed in the Ifugao skirt would come. (sem. domains: 4.6.4 - Rule.)

meyor (sp. var. mayor) 1comm. the chief executive of a municipality or town, elected or appointed. Dakol di nuwang nan meyor. The mayor has many carabao. (sem. domains: - Government official.) 2intrans. to be mayor; to serve as mayor. Hi Pio di mummeyor ad uwani te numbakasyon hi meyor. Pio will act as the mayor because the mayor has taken a leave. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

ngayo intrans. 1to headhunt; headhunter. [The civil government outlawed headhunting.] Kanan day mungngayo di Ipugaw. They say that the Ifugao are headhunters. muN‑. 2to go on a headhunting expedition; to join a headhunting expedition. Eda mungngayo ad baliwon di ammod handi. In the old days, our ancestors went to the lowlands to headhunt. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Kill.)

palayon comm. tree, oak variety; highly flammable; firm wood that is good for house flooring and siding; the leaves resemble the bur oak. [In a traditional betrothal ceremony, the groom or his representative carry a small bundle of palayon-wood; it is intended to symbolize an enduring union.] Dakol di palayon ad Nayun, Lamut. There are a lot of palayon-trees in Nayun, Lamut. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree, - Plant product.) n. ph. bungan di palayon

payo 1comm. ricefield. Dakol di payo da. They have many ricefields. Maki-eyak nah payon apu kanan Butale. “I will go with you to grandfather’s ricefield,” said Butale. Mu nan dalanona ya hi pingngit diyen payo ot munnomnom an iliglig na. But he was walking at the edge of that ricefield and so he decided to detour. Sim: bananu, pukung. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.) 2trans. to cultivate a ricefield; to farm. Pumayo kayu. Cultivate another’s ricefield. Daan di pinayo da? Which one did they farm? muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

sayote (sp. var. sayuti) comm. a vine vegetable with green edible fruit and shoots. Logmon di sayote hi kayat. A sayote-vine climbs on anything. Sechium edule (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

tayo 1comm. the native Ifugao dance. Uggena inilay tayo taku te iBontok. He does not know our dance because he is from Bontoc. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Sim: tagg’am. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance.) 2v. to dance the native dance. Aga, manayo taku. Come on, let’s dance. Itayok di tayon di iKiangan. I will dance the Kiangan dance. Maphod di panayum. You dance the native dance well. maN‑/naN‑/paN‑, i‑/iN‑. infl. manayo

yayong 1trans. to move something back and forth; to swing; to rock. Iyayong mu nan ayod. Swing the hammock. i‑/iN‑. 3E Move object directionally. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 2intrans. to sway back and forth. Munyayyongan tun bale te mungkolyog. This house is swaying because there is an earthquake. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 3nom. a swing for rocking or swinging babies or children. Nangapyaak hi punyayongan nadan imbabalek ya pinpinhod da. I made a swing for my children and they like it very much. puN‑ ‑an.

babayung (sp. var. babbayong) comm. bumble bee; short antena in head, body seems to be wooly with yellow spots on it. Nabukal hanadan babbayung. The bumble bees have scattered. Sim: alig, balingog, pahok, pappahluk, iyyukan; Spec: pahpahluk, balingog, kamming-it, inalit. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

bayungyung (sp. var. bayongyong) comm. bamboo tube used for storage of salt or native yeast, binokbok, or for gathering coffee beans. [This container is larger than the allawin-container.] (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

inita-itay (sp. var. ita-itayon) (der. of ittay) advpred. to do something little by little; gradually. Inita-itay dan indat. They gave it gradually. ‑on/‑in‑ CVCV. Time.

adugayyap intrans. 1to be scattered everywhere, due to a large number. Umadugayyap da. They are scattered everywhere. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.) 2to put out runners like a creeping plant, e.g. sayote; to spread. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 6.2.1 - Growing crops.)

alibungbung trans. to gather closely around someone or something; to encircle. Inalibungbungan da nan munggattang. They gathered around the vendor. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Sim: hayobhob. (sem. domains: - Around.)

allawin 1comm. a container for snail collecting (a bamboo tube or a dried gourd, attached to the hips of the person gathering snails.). Napnu mo tun allawin kuh battikul. This container is already full of snails. Sim: bayongyong. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use the snail container. Mun-allawin kat eka mangdut. Use the container and go and gather snails. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use a particular snail container. Iallawin mu nan allawin inam. Use the snail-container of your mother. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site.

atigag-a restless. 1.1intrans. to be restless; uneasy thoughts resulting in restlessness. Mun-atigag-an pinhod nan abun ume. He was restless, that’s why he wanted so much to leave. muN‑/nuN‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: atigagayo. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) 1.2adv. abrupt action due to restlessness. Atigag-an ume ot adina donglon nan kinalik. He left so hurriedly, he did not hear what I said.

bananu comm. a metaphor for ricefield. Indalanah bananu. She passed through the ricefields. {ritual} Sim: payo, pukung. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.)

dalluyun comm. the waves of the sea or ocean. [There are no bodies of water in the Ifugao area that have waves. The current or movement of water is called kibyayung.] Ongal di dalluyun nah baybay ad uwani. The waves in the sea are big now. Katatakut hin-uddum nan dalluyun te alan dita. The waves are at times fearful for they tend to carry one. Sim: kibyayong. (sem. domains: 1.3.2 - Movement of water.)

hingihing comm. Japanese fish bamboo trap. Inhaad na nan hingihing nah kad-an di tudde. He placed the Japanese fish trap near the open channel of the dike. Sim: apayo. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.)

kawa 1intrans. for something to be wasted. Kumawa nan liting nah gulipu hin adim idakig. The water from the pipe will be wasted if you do not close it. Kimmawa nan inhaang dan hinamal. The rice they cooked was wasted. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes. Sim: ayo, sayang. 2trans. to waste something. Adim pakawaon nan liting. Do not waste the water. paka‑ ‑on.

kibyung comm. oscillation of water. Nal-ot di kibyung nan danum hi baybay. The oscillation of the water in the sea is strong. Sim: kibyayong. (sem. domains: 1.3.2 - Movement of water.)

pukung₂ comm. a small ricefield, a strip of ricefield. Adi maphod nan pukung te adi maaladu. The small ricefield is not good because it cannot be plowed. Sim: payo, bananu. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big, 8.2.1 - Small.)

sayang 1interj. an expression of regret; what a waste; too bad. Sayang nan niwellen boga. The thrown rice is wasted. Sayang di oras ya effort ya pihhu. Your time, effort and money are wasted. Sim: ayo, kawa. 2trans. to waste things. Adim idat hina nan unga te sayangona damdama. Do not give that to the child as he will waste it anyway. Masayang nan makan hin adiyu upuwon. The food will be wasted if you will not consume it. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

tagg’am intrans. to dance. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Muntaggam da nadan immuyauy. The ones who performed the prestige ritual-feast are dancing. muN‑. Sim: tayo. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance.)

‑in‑₂ num. this infix encodes plural for the noun roots meaning woman, babai, and man, lalaki, and some cardinal numbers. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was many women dressed in the Ifugao skirt. (sem. domains: - Noun affixes.)

aamm’od (infl. of ammod) comm. 1elders; ancestors; forefathers. [The traditional religion has been based on beliefs handed down by the Ifugao ancestors.] Hanadan aammod takuy nangapyah payo handih done. It was our ancestors who made the rice fields long ago. Hay pangi-e takud uwani ya nipuun hi pangi-en di aammod taku handi. Our ways today are based on the ways of our ancestors. Apu, damanan tontonom hanadan aammod ku? Grandfather, can you trace my ancestors? (sem. domains: - Related by birth.) 2those who give birth to next generation; parents. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was evidently not in good health. So he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place.

abul trans. to drive away, e.g. small animals, birds. Abulon yu nadan manuk ta adida kanon nan page. Drive away those chickens so that they will not eat the rice. Imme dan mun-abul hi buding. They went to drive away the rice birds. Dahdiy e mun-abul hi payo ad uwani? Who will go to drive away (the rice birds) in the ricefield today. Eyak mun-abul hi buding hi payo. I am going to drive away the rice birds in the fields. Abulom nan manuk ta adi na kanon nan boga. Drive the chicken away so it won’t eat the rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, dulun, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

adi maboblayan sta. this phrase refers to an uninhabited and uncultivated area; wilderness. Ot bumtik da nah adi maboblayan ta ibtikan da nadan tindalun di holag Israel, mu pindug da dida ot patayon da dida. (Hanadan Huwes 20:42) And so they ran away toward the wilderness, running away from the soldiers, the descendants of Israel, but they chased them and they killed them. (sem. domains: - No, not.)

ado₁ trans. to remove grasses from rice paddy and pile against the dike to make paddy mounds during the fallow season; used for planting vegetables. Umeyak hi payo te eyak mangado. I’ll go to the field to make paddy mounds. maN‑. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.) der. inado infl. mangado

aggudung 1comm. snail, long, edible, conical-shape; lives in rice fields and rivers. [The shells of the snails are burnt and pounded as lime for betelnut chewing.] Eyak umalah aggudung nah payo. I will go to get some snails in the rice field. Sim: hiyok, kullipaw. (sem. domains: - Fish.) 2trans. to gather snails. Eyak mangaggudung. I am going to gather snails. maN‑/naN‑.

ahal 1comm. a barrier of sticks placed in the water outlets of rice paddies; fish barricade. [The barriers are placed in the water outlets of rice paddies to prevent mudfish from swimming into the next field.] 2trans. to place an obstruction as a barrier. Maid da mo nan dolog hi payomi te kinaan da nan in-ahal ku. There are no more fish in our field because they removed the barrier I placed at the water outlet. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

ahihopnak (comp. of hopnak, ahi) nom. season for sowing rice seeds; making seed beds. Ahihopnak yaden ugge naaladu nan payo. It is the season to sow rice yet the field is not yet plowed. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

aladu 1comm. a farm implement used to break up and prepare soil for planting; a plow. [The plow has one blade and one handle attached.] Natupu nan aladu te mabatu nan payoda. The plow became dull because their field is rocky. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2plowing. 2.1trans. to prepare soil for planting by using a plow; the activity itself is in view. An mun-aladu kayu nah payo yud uwani? Are you going to plow your field today? muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. to prepare some specified amount of ground for planting; activity is in view. Umaladu kah puntanman hi gahhilang. Plow an area to be planted with corn. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 3plow soil. 3.1trans. the soil being prepared for planting is in view. Kon aladuwon yu nan payo da? Are you are going to plow their field? ‑on/‑in‑. 3.2pass. the passive form which describes the soil being prepared for planting. Adi maaladu te mabatu. It cannot be plowed because it’s rocky. ma‑. 3.3trans. the plow implement is in view in the preparation of soil for planting. Ialadu yu nan ka-apya. Use the new plow. i‑/iN‑.

alayyon (sp. var. alayyun) 1comm. spinach variety; glabrous herb of goosefeet family, utricular (pouch) fruit. Dakol di alayyon nah pingngit di payo. There is plenty of spinach at the sides of the ricefields. Chenopodium Sim: amti. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather spinach. Eda mangalayyon nadan u-unga. The children are going to gather spinach. maN‑.

aliwot dizzy 1.1sta. to be dizzy, refers to feeling dizzy. Adika muntillonan te maaliwot ka. Don’t twirl around because you’ll get dizzy. Naaliwotak nah ek inumbunan nah ayod. I got dizzy when I sat in the hammock. ma‑/na‑. Sim: ulaw. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.) 1.2sta. refers to the process of becoming dizzy due to motion; motion sickness Umaliwot di umbun nah ayod. Sitting in a hammock causes dizziness. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

almador 1comm. white, sleeveless, native blouse. Nan almador di usalom hantuh manayo kayu. Use your native blouse when you dance. Sim: lamma; Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear the native blouse. Mun-almador ka tedeyan maka-atung. Wear the native blouse because it is very hot. muN‑/nuN‑.

ampuyo 1comm. a native loom woven skirt. [Generally considered to be the type of skirt worn by the kadangyan ‘aristocratic’ class of women.] Antikkey ampuyo na. Her skirt is short. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, inabol, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. donning the skirt 2.1deriv V. to wear the native, loom-woven skirt. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that women would dress in the Ifugao skirt. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.3.7 - Wear clothing.) 2.2deriv V. to dress someone in the native skirt. Ampuyowan yuh tulang yu. Dress your sister in the Ifugao skirt. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

an₁ lk. 1this form links a main clause and a complement clause. Naka-ang-ang ku an pungkiting daka. I actually saw that you were being pinched. Tinuttuduwanak an kumalih kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Katatakut pay an e buma-el na kalata. It is very dangerous to cross the street. 2this form links a relative clause to noun and verb heads. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Mr. Paredes and Mr. Datumanong would come here to Ifugao. 3this form links quantifiers and adjectives to noun heads. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel of the linker is reduced and the n attaches to the word.> Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. We, all of us women, wore the Ifugao-skirt. comp. deya ot an

ang-ang 1to look. Sim: tibo, buya. 1.1trans. to direct one’s eyes in order to visually perceive something. Ang-angok di manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Uggan mu ang-ang-angon din niha-ang ta ek ang-angon din golang. Once in a while, look at what is being cooked so that I can go and see how the baby is. Sim: buya. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2trans. to spend time looking for someone or something, a durative activity is in view. Mun-ang-ang kah ibbam. Look for a companion. muN‑/nuN‑. 2comm. the appearance of a person or thing. Maphod di ang-ang nan pinaot na. The appearance of his wood carving is good. (sem. domains: - Appearance.) infl. maang-ang

anoka (sp. var. anuka; sp. var. annoka) 1dem. thingamajig; what-you-may-call-it, an expression standing for anything unknown or forgotten at the moment. Hamakon taku nanno anoka nanno libbutan. Let’s look for ahh- that thing, ahh- that betelnut bag. Sim: kuwan. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2pass. anything; anyone. Adi itayon di kumpulmin tagu mo hay anhan di nianokan diyye ya hay immuya-uy. The ordinary man cannot dance that one, it is not for just anyone, it is the dance of the rich. ni‑. comp. hin anoka ta

apit₁ trans. to harvest, may be used regarding any crop. Dakol di inapit da nah payon Jose. They harvested much rice in the field of Jose. Apiton yu nan wadad Linda. Harvest whatever is in Linda. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: ani. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

Aplil prop. April, the fourth month of the year. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu Apu Paredes ya Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao hi 27th. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said it is reported that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong would come here to Ifugao on the 27th. (sem. domains: - Months of the year.)

apunge trans. to caress by pushing the hair away from the face; related to the expression of joy at seeing someone who has not been seen for a long time. Dimmatong hi Bugan ot apungayon inanan hi Indumulao. When Bugan arrived, her mother Indumulao caressingly pushed back her hair. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Touch.)

attake 1comm. a necklace of ceramic beads, ordinarily they are made of a type of clay; may also be wound in the hair. Makakkaphod di attakem. Your beads are so beautiful. Sim: banungul, inipul; Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.) 2trans. to wear a necklace of ceramic beads. Iattakem nan binanok ke apum. Wear the beads I borrowed from your grandmother. Attakeyan yu nan unga. Let the child wear the beads. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3trans. to wear beads. Mun-attake kayu hin ekayu manayo. Wear your beads when you go to dance. muN‑/nuN‑.

attang trans. for two or more people to carry something. [Traditionally, sick people were carried in a woven sling or blanket hanging on a pole carried by two people, one at each end of the pole.] Iattang yu nan hinsakun boga. You two carry the sack of rice. Attangan yu nan kaiw. You two carry the wood. Mun-attang da. They help each other in carrying. In-attang dah ayod nan mundogo. They carried the sick in a hammock. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.)

ayuduk trans. to creep under; to bend over under something.; to walk bent over under something. Iayuduk mu nah mabilau ta ahika dumatong. You have to creep under the thick canegrass before you will reach your destination. Ayodukom nan bola nah daulon. Creep to retrieve the ball under the house. Eka mun-ayuduk nah daulon ta tibom nan nag-a. You go under the house and look for the one that fell. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, mun‑/nuN‑. Sim: uduk. (sem. domains: - Walk.)

ba-atong comm. large, green grasshopper. Dakol di ba-atong hi payo. There are plenty of grasshoppers in the fields. Sim: am-amuna; Sim: am-amhik, golp’ak, yadit, paggepagge, am-amuna; Syn: am-amuna. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

baddang 1trans. to help someone; to aid; to assist. Bumaddang kayun mamah-on nah intungu. Help in carrying the firewood. Eyak bumaddang, atok di damanan atok I will help; I will do what I can. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: tulung, dang-a, abono. (sem. domains: - Help.) 2comm. assistance or help that is given to someone; often it is in the form of money, but it can be general assistance in anything that is needed. Hay oha bo ya nomnomom an ongal di baddang Apu Dios ke he-a ot maischolar ka. Another thing is remember that God helped you greatly to become a scholar. 3trans. to help someone who is specified. Em baddangan nah payo da. Go and help them in their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4trans. to give something, often money, to help someone; what is given is cross-referenced as the grammatical object. Hituwey ibaddang kun he-a. This is what I will give to help you. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. infl. mamaddang

baddi₂ comm. beetle larvae; worm with pincers that coils itself and jumps as if with force. Dakol di baddih payo. There are many larvae in the fields. Sim: ballotbot. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

badi intrans. to pluck a stalk or particle of grain usually rice; young rice grains plucked and skinned and eaten. Adi kayu bumadih page te bumoh-ol di kon payo. Don’t pluck the rice because the field owner will be angry. Tipet ekayu mumbadih page? Why are you plucking young rice grains? ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: kuttim. (sem. domains: - Hold.)

bagat 1comm. the four main corner posts of the Ifugao native house; four main, inside posts nailed to the floor joist and girders, holding and connecting girders to roof. Naane nan bagat di bale. The main post is attacked by termites. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to place corner posts. Bagatan yuh palayon nan bale. Use the oak wood for the corner posts. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

bagaw’ol comm. widest terrace in a field. Da nak-Dulnuan di kompayoh bagawol. The sons of Dulnuan are the owners of the field with the widest terrace. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.)

bahbah pass. for something to be destroyed. Nabahbah nan payo da te pinain di liting nan tuping na. Their ricefield was destroyed because the water destroyed the stonewall. na‑. Syn: pa-i. (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

bak’ug 1sta. hunchbacked. Mabakug dah gagala nadan aammod an mungngunuh payo te iyuyuung da. Those parents who work the ricefields become hunchbacked because they are bent-over everyday. ma‑. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2trans. to hunch the back; slouch; bent from waist. Adim bakbakuggon te ad-adin tibon. Do not hunch your back because it is not good to look at. ‑on/‑in‑ CV(C)‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.1.8 - Bend down.)

bako (sp. var. bakbakko) comm. a weed resembling a rice plant. Mahapul an bagutom didan bako te patayon day page. You must pull out those weeds because they will crowd the rice plants. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

balag comm. a bird species like a kingfisher; medium size, long neck, long beak, brown; eats fish. Kinan nan balag on yuyu nah payo. The kingfisher ate a Japanese fish in the field. (sem. domains: - Bird.)

balal trans. 1to mortgage a property, houses or ricefields. [The person who mortgages his property is called the mortgagor.] Ibalal ku nan balemi. I am mortgaging our house. Nibalal din payon da Bugan. Bugan’s ricefields are mortgaged. Bangadok nan imbalal ina. I’ll pay back what mother has mortgaged. i‑/iN‑. 3H Conversive action process. (sem. domains: - Owe, 6.8.4 - Financial transaction.) 2refers to the act of underwriting a mortgage. [The person who underwrites a mortgage is called the mortgagee.] Wada ke ot di pihhuyu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. balalan infl. mangibalal

balalan (infl. of balal) trans. to take the mortgage on someone’s property. Wada ke pihhu yu ya balalan yu payo da. If only you had the money, you could take the mortgage on their rice field. (sem. domains: 6.8.4 - Financial transaction.)

balat 1comm. bananas, generic. Nat-ongan ke nan balat nah habal ne tinabal mu. When the banana in the garden is matured, cut it down. Ad-adiy mipal-um an balat hin ahikotolan te mabatag. It is not good for bananas to be ripened during the cold season because they don’t ripen well, they harden. spec: balangngon, dattok, udding, morado, dippig, lakatan. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.) 2sta. banana plantation. Mabalat nan muyung da. Their forest has lots of banana plants. ma‑. 3sta. The literal meaning of the riddle is that you must cut down the banana stalk to get the bananas. Patayom nih-an di inana ahim ta alan nan imbabalena. (balat) You kill the mother before you can get the child. (banana) (riddle) der. mabalat

balbalatuk (sp. var. balbalatok) comm. a bird species, white and brown; like a woodpecker. Linattik na nan balbalatuk nah palayon. He shot the woodpecker in the palayon-tree with a slingshot. (sem. domains: - Bird.)

balikongkong comm. 1a reed variety. Dakol di balikongkong an tinummol nah payomi. Plenty of reeds grew in our field. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2refers to an upper area of Kiangan.

Ballihung (sp. var. ballihong) 1prop. a ritual of prestige that shows wealth and status, particularly performed by an unmarried person; involves a feast. [This ritual feast was formerly celebrated to share wealth; a bulul god was considered to be the partner of the unmarried person; occasionally it was performed because no other rituals had been effective in removing the sickness of a child.] Sim: uya-uy, got’ad. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion, 4.2.2 - Social event, - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the ritual feast. Mumballihung hi Jose hi bigat. Jose is going to perform the prestige feast for unmarried people tomorrow. Bumallihung te binugtung. They’ll perform the prestige ritual feast for him because he is an only child. Naligat di bumallihung ad uwani te naginay nuwang ya babuy. It’s difficult to have the ballihung feast nowadays because carabaos and pigs are so expensive. Bimmalihung nan imbabalen da Juan ke Marta ot eyak manayottayo. Juan and Marta held a festival for their child and I danced and danced. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

baludibud comm. a tree variety which attaches to another tree; it may overshadow the fruit of the other tree and keep it from ripening; may be used as firewood. Nakalligat an patayon di baludibud. It is very hard to kill the baludibud- tree. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

baluknit comm. battlefield; a skirmish place; usually in a large ricefield or in the riverbed of a large river. [Hudhud term that helps the chanters in describing their stereotyped, idealized spear battles. (Lambrecht).] Nundammu da nah baluknit an payoda. They met at the place for the skirmish in their field. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.)

balun 1comm. a packed meal; provision for subsistence away from home which could be either money or food. Adim kal-iwan nan balun mu hin ume kah payo. Do not forget your packed lunch if you go to the fields. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to prepare food to take with oneself; to take food or money for travel needs. Balunon yu nan natdaan an ihda. Pack the left-over viand for your lunch. Nap-u mo nan binalun kun pihhu. The money I took along was already gone. Mumbalunak ta adiyak maagangan. I will pack a lunch so that I will not be hungry. Mumbalun kah hinamal. Pack cooked rice for your lunch. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ban’ong 1comm. lip of ricefield dike which contains the water; projecting edge of ricefield dike sometimes stepping stones are laid for walking on the lip. Niphod mo nan banong nan payo? Is the ricefield dike already fixed? Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Sim: botnge. (sem. domains: - Wall.) 2trans. to build ricefield dikes. Banongan dan nan payo ad uwani. They are going to build the ricefield dike today. Mumbanong da ama nah payon da Juan. Father and his companions are building mud dikes in the Juan’s field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

baw’ang comm. 1the inside of a container or contained area. Adi maphod di dola da; ammunay bawang di bale da an malini. The outside yard is not good; only the inside part of their house is clean. Sim: bohong. (sem. domains: - Inside.) 2the center of a ricefield. Waday balen di dolog nah bawang di payo da. There is a fish cage in the center of their ricefield.

bay-un 1comm. a basket; woven out of plastic strips or buri leaves; a sack of cloth. Alam nan bay-un an natalwan hi littuku ta ie tad da-ul. Get the basket full of rattan fruit so we will bring it down. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to place something in a basket or bag. Ibay-un mu nan ginattang inam. Place in a basket the things your mother bought. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to use a basket. Mumbay-un ka hin ume kah payo. Use the woven basket if you go to the field. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bih-ak trans. to part the threads carefully; to separate strands of thread or ties. Bih-akon you nan linubid. Separate some strands of the rope. Ulayom an mumbih-ak ta maid di makhat. Part the threads carefully so none will break. Bumih-ak kah pangugut ta. Separate some thread for us to use in sewing. Adi mabih-ak te nakallubid. It cannot be separated because the rope was made well. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter, - Weaving cloth.)

bihuk sta. pooled water in ricefield after draining. [The pool will be filled with mud for leveling before the field is planted.] Nabihuk di payomi. Our field has a pool of water. Adita tagan hi ala hi luta nah gawwana te mabihuk. Let us not continue to get earth from the middle because water will pool (there). ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.)

bingay 1comm. share of a harvest of rice grain, fruit, coffee beans, etc. [Usually two-thirds of the produce goes to the owner and one-third to the laborer or tenant. Farm inputs are usually provided by the owner of the land.] Idag-um nan bingay nan kon luta. Drop the share of the landowner. Syn: dowa. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, - Part.) 2trans. to give people a share of produce. Bingayon yu nan irik. Divide the lowland rice grain. Biningay da Mara nan page mo. Mara and her side have already divided the rice grain. Maid di mabingay ad uwani. There is nothing to be shared now. Eyak makibingay na inani da. I’m going to have my share of the rice grain that they gathered. Takon di idat yuy bingay ku hanadah ma-ma-idan. You may give my share to those who are poor. Bingayan dakah makan. We will share food with you. ‑on, ‑um‑, ma‑, ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bistigal trans. to make a systematic examination of events or situations. Impaimbistigal nan mayor ya makulug hidiyen indatdatong dan hiya. The mayor had an investigation made to determine the truth of what he had been told. (sem. domains: - Investigate a crime.)

boltan 1trans. to transfer from one person to another; to take turns, change of responsibility. Boltanom an mun-adug tuh golang. You take over caring for this child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: tawid, odon. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 2trans. to inherit something. Binoltan na nan payon amana. He inherited his father’s ricefields. Maid di maboltan an payowon. No land can be inherited to be planted with rice. Nan payon ambilog di boltanon Jose. It is the wide field which Jose will inherit. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. 3comm. change of ownership, from parent to child. Cultural note: Inherited objects include ricefields, houses, wine jars, gongs, jewelry. (sem. domains: - Own, possess.) infl. mumbinbinoltan infl. mumboltan

bomba₃ 1trans. to spray insecticide in the home or in the garden; to spray mango trees with flowering hormone. Mumbomba da nah garden. They are spraying insecticide in the garden. Ibomba da nan kodot nah payo. They are spraying poison on the fields. Bombaan da nan mangga ta humabung. They are going to spray the mango tree so it will bloom. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 6.2.4 - Tend a field.) 2intrans. to spray insecticide. Mumbomba da nah garden. They are spraying insecticide in the garden. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

bongbong trans. to build a dam; to block water. Bongbongom ni-an nan danum nah payo. You block the water coming out of the field. Ibongbong mu nan luta nah loba. Use the soil/dirt on the slope in damming the water. Pumbongbong da na napa-in banong. They are blocking the water flowing from the destroyed ricefield dike. Bumongbong kah pangiha-adan hi liting. Dam a spot for gathering water. Adi mabongbong te nal-ot nan danum. It cannot be dammed because the current is too strong. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, puN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 5F Adjacency/Adjoining. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) infl. mamongbong

bud’ing (sp. var. budding) comm. ricebird; two species. Eka mun-abul hi buding nah payo. You go to drive away the rice birds in the fields. Naligat di mun-abul hi buding. It’s hard to drive rice birds away. Upuwon di buding di page hin adi adugan hanan page hin mamunga. The ricebirds will consume the grains of rice if the rice is not guarded when the grains begin to form. Sim: banukung, bikongkong; gen: hamuti. (sem. domains: - Bird.) id. kay nomnom di buding

buggan₁ comm. dragonfly species; light brown colored; it seldom alights. Dakol di buggan nah payo. There is a lot of buggan dragonflies in the ricefield. Sim: ballahang, dudduti; Gen: du-uti. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

buk’a 1trans. to set/let loose; to let go; release; to free; to untie. Ibukam nan ahu ta waday innunan mun-adug tuh bale. Release the dog so it can guard the house. Bukaan yu nadan manuk ta mun-ay-ayyam da. Set the chickens free so they can roam around. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3B Move and release object. Sim: bulus. (sem. domains: - Set free.) 2intrans. an animal frees itself form a pen or from its tethering rope. Numbuka nan nuwang ot ume nah payo. The carabao set itself loose and went to the ricefield. Tibon yu te bumuka nan ahu. Be careful because the dog might free itself.

bulag proc. to become blind. Golang ot mabulag te tinayanan hanadan tutulang na. He was a baby when he became blind because his brothers/sisters left him alone. Binulag di papan di ohan matana. One of his eyes was blinded by a bullet. Adina pinhod an ituduy numbulag ke hiya te kal-in patayon da. He does not want to point out who made him blind because they might kill him. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑, muN‑nuN‑. Sim: budking, bulding; Sim: kulap, budking, bulding. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See, - Blind.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

bulduser 1comm. a bulldozer. Bulduser di nangapya tuh kalata. A bulldozer made this road. (sem. domains: - Vehicle.) 2intrans. to use a bulldozer. Mumbulduser da hi kalata. They are building a road with a bulldozer. Bumulduser kah puntabab. Excavate some backfill. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to bulldoze something in particular. Buldoseron da nan payo. They will bulldoze the ricefield. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: bulldozer.

bumalal comm. one who buys a mortgage. E bumalal hi payo ad baliwon. He is going to buy mortgaged-ricefields in the lowlands. Bumalalak te waday pihhuk. I will buy the mortgage because I have money. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Buy.)

bunabun comm. a snake species; the dominant color is brown. Waday bunabun nah payo. There is a bunabun-snake in the field. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

bunag intrans. to transfer or transport something; usually done little by little; to transport specified things. Ekami numbunag hi kape. We made several trips to carry sacks of coffee. It-itayon yun e mumbunag nah lona. You carry the sand little by little. Kalyom ke dida ta eda punbunag nan karga yu. Tell them to go and carry our cargo. Binunag hanadan imbabalek nan batu. My children carried the stones little by little. Bunagon yuh tu nadan liblu. Carry the books here little by little. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: ubu. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bunwit 1comm. fishhook. Nipanot nan bunwit nah matan nan dolog. The fishhook was stuck in the eye of the fish. (sem. domains: 6.4.5 - Fishing, - Fishing equipment.) 2trans. to hook fish; to go fishing. Etaku mumbunwit ad Ambuwaya? Shall we go fishing at Ambuwaya? Mamunwit dah dolog nah payo. They are fishing for mudfish in the ricefield. Maid di bunwiton yuh na. You will not catch anything there. Eka bumunwit hi ihda taku. You go and hook a fish for our viand. Ibunwit mu nan bunwit amam. Use the fishhook of your father. muN‑/nuN‑, maN‑, ‑um‑, ‑on, i‑.

buwis (sp. var. buwit) 1comm. tax. Adika pakabayad hi buwis di payom. You cannot pay the tax on your ricefield. (sem. domains: 6.8.8 - Tax.) 2trans. to tax something in particular. Buwisan dan am-in di malpuh luta. They will tax everything that comes from the land. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: buwis.

dahada trans. to feel with hands or feet for something that cannot be seen. Dahadaom nan takkalang kun nag-a nah kad-an di batu nah payo. Feel with your hands for my rings which fell near the stone in the ricefield. Dinahadak nan dalan an immeh bale di hilong te tapottapol. I had to feel for the path when going to our house last night because it was so dark. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 2.3.5 - Sense of touch, - Touch.)

dalikdik 1comm. a type of dance, foot and toe movement is the focus, women only. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance.) 2nom. dancing as a nominalization. Maphod di pundalikdik mu. Your dance-step-shuffle is good. puN‑. 3trans. to do the native dance. Idalikdik mun manayo. Do the native dance by shuffling your feet. i‑/iN‑.

daluhdu trans. to remove grasses with a bolo. Idaluhdum nan punggabut mu nah kaddat ta makikaan nan lamut na. You remove the crabgrass (with the bolo) so that its roots will also be removed. Mundaluhdu nadan mungngunu nah payo. The field workers are removing the grasses (with a bolo). i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

daydayuna 1advpred. a tendency; to be prone to. Daydayuna tuwalin kumga ka. You have a tendency to cry. Daydayunay panayo na. His manner of dancing is graceful. Manner. 2sta. to be fitting; to be appropriate; to be perfectly well done; becoming in appearance. Nidaydayuna nan taddung nah ulum. The hat is very becoming on your head. Naka-iddaydayunay panayona. Her manner of dancing is very fitting. (good dancer - graceful) mi‑/ni‑, naka‑ i‑. Sim: bagay. (sem. domains: - Right, proper.)

dayyukung sta. 1to be concave, a part of a curve; particularly refers to a landscape or a road. Hay kad-an nan payo da ya nah nadayyukung. Their field is in the curve of the road. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: - Concave.) 2to be a valley; refers to the hollow place between mountain ridges. (sem. domains: - Valley.)

dol-ak 1comm. a poisonous vine or coffee-bean-like poison for use in fishing; the vine is crushed then dried to be placed in the ricefields to catch fish. E immalah dol-ak hi ama. Father went to get the poisonous vine. Sim: ipe, tuba. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to use the vine to catch fish. Eda manol-ak. They are going to catch fish using the dol-ak-vine. maN‑. 3intrans. to use the vine to catch a particular kind of fish. Dol-akon da nadan yuyu nah payo hi bigat. They will put the poison vine in the ricefield tomorow to get the Japanese fish. 4intrans. extended meaning to refer to something that tastes strong and may cause drunkenness. Dumol-ak nan impainum da. The thing they had me drink is strong. Nadol-ak te intaganah inum hi baya. He is drunk because he kept on drinking rice wine. ‑um‑.

dolog 1comm. fish, generic; mudfish; found in rice paddies, rivers and small lakes. Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. spec: yuyu, dalit. (sem. domains: - Fish.) 2trans. to catch fish. Eda manlog nah payon Bugan. They are going to catch fish in Bugan's field. maN‑/naN‑. 3trans. to have fish in pond or ricefield; to place fish into pond or ricefield. Nadlogan di payomi. Our rice field has mudfish in it. Dologan yu nan payoyu. Place mudfish in your ricefield. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

dolwak comm. heron; a wading bird found in ricefields and grassy areas. Kanon di dolwak nadan gando nah payo. The heron eats the rats in the fields. (sem. domains: - Bird.)

dolya 1comm. land that is untilled around ricefield or swidden-plot. Tanomam nan dolyah kumpulmin mihda. Plant the untilled land with any kind of vegetables. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.) 2intrans. to work on an uncultivated area. [It is panio ‘taboo’ to go into the ricefield or swidden-plots after cleaning the dolya-area because it is believed that rats will follow your path later.] Deket manolya ka ya adika umeh bawwang di payo weno habal. If you clean the dolya-area, do not go to the middle of the ricefield or swidden-plot. maN‑/naN‑.

done comm. times past; long ago. Kal-iwan yu ot danae te danae nan na-naat handih done. You better forget those things because those things happened long ago. Payon da apu tuwe di done. This is the ricefield of our parents long ago. Sim: handi. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

dotal 1nom. an area of land that is very flat and level, usually located among mountains; a valley. 2trans. to make something level; to make flat. Dotalom. Level it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 3intrans. a level surface. Hidih nundotal di pangiha-adam ta adi muntiggitigging. Place it on that leveled place so that it won’t be unsteady. Nuntitigging di lutah tun adi umat hi udum an boblen nundodotal. The land here is steeply tilted unlike the land in other places where it is level. Nundotal di payo mi. Our field is level. nuN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Rough.) der. nundotal

dukke (sp. var. duke) 1adj. long; to have a specified linear extent or duration. Andukke bo kaya nan ginatang mun linubid. The rope that you bought is long. Andukkedukke nan buuk din lalaki. The man’s hair is very long. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a long branch or pole and to this, they tie the hagabi-bench. aN‑. Dimension quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.2 - Long.) 2trans. to lengthen. Dukkayom nan punlubid mu. Make the rope you are twining long. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Extend.) 3proc. to become long as a process without an agent. Paputul mu nan buuk mu ot dumukke damdama. Have a haircut because your hair will become long again, anyway. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kadukke id. andukkey taklena infl. andukke infl. kadukkayan

dulun trans. to drive animals or poultry away from a particular area. Dulunom nadan gawgawa ta adida ume nah payo. Drive away the ducks so that they will not go into the ricefield. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, abul, dugyun. (sem. domains: - Drive along.)

dumdum trans. to increase number or amount by adding more. Idumdum mu nah wada nah payo. Add it to the ones in the fields. Kalyom ke dida ta dumduman da tun hinamal. Tell them so that they will add more to this rice. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: - Increase.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

dupi 1pass. to be intimidated by the presence of another of greater status; overpowered in feeling. [For example, a rich man and a poor man are dancing; later the poor man will start to sweat and/or tremble and he leaves the dancing space. The poor man is said to be nidupi.] Manayo da Bumidang ke Dulnuan ya nidupih Dulnuan ot dumakal nah tayyawan. Bumidang and Dulnuan were dancing and Dulnuan’s feelings overpowered him so he left the dancing area. general: The sentence example implies that Dulnuan is of lower social stature. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: - Nervous.) 2trans. to overpower; to lose in a discussion. Mundoppap kayu ke ta idupim hi Pablo te it-itay. If you should wrestle, you’ll overcome Pablo because he is smaller. i‑/iN‑.

duy-a₁ 1comm. the sound and rhythm of the gongs for the uya-uy dance; dance performed at a uya-uy celebration. (sem. domains: 4.2.3 - Music.) 2trans. to beat gongs in this tempo of dancing. Duy-ahon yu ta manayo kami. Sound the duy-a-tune and we’ll dance. ‑on/‑in‑. der. dinnuy-a

e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume

em pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 1; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is not cross-referenced by rhe affix on the verb. Em iayag din binabait mid-um tudah udum an binabai. Call those women to be added to these other women. Em gaudan di payo taku. Go spade our rice field. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

gadul trans. to excuse oneself, by giving a reason or alibi for not doing something. Munggadugadul an adi makien dakayu. He is looking for an alibi so that he does not have to go with you. Pangigadulanay maid libluna ot lumah-un. He made his not having a book the reason and went out. Nganney pangigadulam an adi ume? What is your excuse for not going? Hanan tagun humigan mungngunu ya adina pinhod an lumah-un te igadul nan kal-ina ya waday layon nah dola. (Proverbs 26:13) As for the person who is lazy to work, he doesn’t want to go out because he excuses himself by saying that there might be a lion outside. muN‑, pangi‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Cause, - Reason.)

gam’it 1comm. a native loom-woven skirt, red and black striped. [One type of woven skirt worn by women of wealth.] Hay iusal nadan mumpalaya an pepensiyonados ya gamit. The old folks who are receiving pensions will have a parade and will wear gamit-skirts. Sim: dinabol, inabol, ampuyo, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to wear the native skirt. Munggamit da nadan manayon u-unga. The children who will dance the native dance will wear the gamit-skirt. muN‑/nuN‑.

gangha 1comm. a gong, large bronze disk shaped like a round cake pan. [Gongs are used in rituals and for dancing.] Madngol di gangha dah tu. The sound of their gongs can be heard here. Pol-agon yu nan gangha ta manayu da. Sound the gongs so they will dance. Sim: balangbang. (sem. domains: - Musical instrument.) 2intrans. to sound the gongs; to beat gongs. Munggangha kayu ta manayo kami. You beat the gongs so we will dance. muN‑.

gapas 1comm. sickle. [A sickle is used only in harvesting lowland rice because lowland rice can be piled in the field and threshed later.] (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to harvest rice using a sickle. Gapason yu nan irik hi bigat. Harvest the lowland rice tomorrow. Munggapas dah payon da Dimmolnay hi bigat. They are going to harvest the ricefield of Dimmolnay tomorrow. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

gaplo comm. the sapwood of the pine tree that does not burn well. Adim itungu nan gaplo te patayona ot ya abu nan apuy. Do not use the sapwood because it will just kill the fire. wh: bolbol. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

gaud 1comm. spade with a long handle; used for soil and fieldwork. Nan gaud di pangaan mun nadah holok. Use the spade in removing the grasses. Doltakom hi gaud nan makakkulhin lamut. Thrust your spade into the hard root. (for the purpose of cutting it) Sim: baung, bangbang, pala, huklay. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to use long-handled spade to remove something such as stones from a site or to prepare a site for planting; to spade. Gaudom di batu ta iwelem. Spade away the stones and throw them away. Em gaudan di payo taku. Go to spade our field. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4A Change structure of object. (sem. domains: - Plow a field.) 3intrans. to till the soil in the ricefield by use of the spade; durative activity. Munggaud dad uwani hi payon Pedlo. They are spading the field of Pedro today. Inilam an munggaud hi payo? Do you know how to spade a ricefield? Munggaud day liman linalaki nah payo. Five men are tilling the soil in the ricefield. muN‑/nuN‑. comp. ahigaud

gibu 1comm. a fine imposed; penalty payment. [A fine that is imposed because of the violation of a custom; the fine may be in the form of cash, gold, beads, blankets or animals.] Mumbagaday iiban Ana hi gibu ke Tomas te nunlangkak. The relatives of Ana are demanding a fine from Tomas because he was unfaithful. Kaatnay gibu hi ibaga da? How much is the fine they are demanding? (sem. domains: - Fine.) 2trans. to pay a fine for violation of a custom. Gibuwom ot Tomas te patayon daka man! Pay your fine, Tomas, lest they kill you. ‑on/‑in‑.

golp’ak₁ comm. katydid field species, edible. Immamung dah golpak nah payo ot ihda da. They gathered katydids in the field and they had them for viand. Sim: am-amhik, ba-atong, yadit, paggepagge, am-amuna. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

guhing 1comm. water outlet in dikes to let water flow to lower terrace. Eka mun-ulah dih guhing. You go and wash in the water outlet of the ricefield. 2trans. to make a water outlet. Guhingan yu nan banong ta tudukon yu nan payo. Make a water outlet on the dike so the field will be drained. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.)

ha-ob 1comm. the side of someone or something. Eka dih ha-ob na. Go beside him. (sem. domains: - Beside.) 2comm. opposite or other side of something. Eka umbun hi ha-ob na. Go sit opposite him. Dahdi din taguh ha-ob mayor? Who is that person seated opposite the mayor? Sim: bah-el. 3intrans. refers to both sides of someone or something. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by both of my shoulders. infl. hinna-ob

had-on (infl. of hood) trans. to wait for someone or something that is definite. Had-on yuh mayor. You wait for the mayor. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Wait.)

halibubu comm. a waterlily. [An aquatic plant, yellow-green and orange; it looks like a small cabbage.] Dakol di halibubu nah payo. There are a lot of water lilies in the fields. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.)

handih (handi) dem. then, past, e. g. at that time when something happened or was done; a member of Set 4 demonstrative pronouns; refers to times of events. Kinapyan di aammod taku hantudan payo handih wandi. Our ancestors made these ricefield a long time ago. Mu pamganay op-opya handih dingngol nah diye. (1 Samuel 10:27c) But he was just quiet when he heard that. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hanil comm. a reed variety that bears white cottony flowers called buyyako;similar to arrow cane grass. Ginabut ku nan hanil nah payo. I uprooted the reeds in the field. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

hannu 1comm. a dispute; a quarrel; a contention. Waday hannun da Tomas ke Pablu. Tomas and Pedro have a dispute. (sem. domains: - Debate.) 2intrans. to have a disagreement that results in an argument. Munhannu da te hay payo. They quarrel because of ricefields. Tipet munhannu kayun hintulang? Why do you quarrel with your brother. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: - Quarrel.)

hapit 1comm. a speech. Donglon taku di hapit na. Let us hear his speech. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Sim: kali. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2intrans. to lure or tempt with words; to sweet-talk someone. Humapit an kandidato. The candidate will give a speech. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. der. mahapit infl. ihapit infl. ihapitan

hib-at intrans. the alternate sounding of the gongs. [One player beats a gong with his palms; that is called the tobab rhythm. Three or four players play the hib-at rhythm to complement the tobab.] Hib-atom ta manayo kami. Beat the gongs so that we will dance. Mahaldot di panib-at nah gangha. The mannner in which he is striking the gongs is very sonorous. ‑on/‑in‑, paN‑. Sim: pol-ag. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

hikatu trans. to concentrate or focus on a task; to take very good care of something that is important. Nganne ahan di hikatuwam? What is it that you care for so much? Hay payo di ihikatuwak ta waday kanon taku. It’s the fields that I concentrate on so that we will have food. Apu Dios, bendisyonam di ihikatuwan mi. Lord God, bless the things we care about. Munhikatu kan mun-iskul. Concentrate on your studies. ‑an, i‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.)

hin-algo (comp. of algo) comm. one 24-hour day. Mabattanan di hin-algo on wadaak hi payo. Every other day I will be in the ricefield.

hin-ama (der. of ama) comm. refers to a father and one child. Imme nan hin-amah payo da. That father and his child went to their ricefield. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.)

hinggatut₂ comm. a gong tune and beat. Pinol-ag dah hinggatut ot e manayo nadan himbale. They beat the gongs to the tune of the hinggatut-beat and the married couple went to dance. (sem. domains: 4.2.3 - Music.)

hiyok comm. snail, a large, edible cone species. Dakol di hiyok nah payo da . They have many large snails in their ricefield. Sim: aggudung, kullipaw. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

hoddomna (infl. of hodom) comm. evening; twilight; sun has already set. Hoddomna mo yaden wadada pay nah payo. It is already twilight and they are still in the ricefields. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

hong-ak trans. to reprove; scold someone harshly; a loud shouted rebuke or reproach; insulting profane talk. Adim ihong-ak nan golang te mungagayonggong. Do not reprove the child because he is trembling. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: hanggik, hingal, bugtak. (sem. domains: - Rebuke.)

hood 1trans. to wait for someone or something. Had-on yuh mayor. You wait for the mayor. Natduk ke, had-om hi ittay ta madangdang. When the water has dried up, just wait a little while for it to be well-dried. Mu nahimong uggena inila nu ngannen bobley kawad-ana, ot nomnommonan had-onay kabiggatana. But he had completely lost his sense of direction so he decided to wait until daylight. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: - Stay, remain.) 2intrans. to wait for each other. Munhinno-od ta Lagawe. We’ll wait for each other in Lagawe. muN‑ ‑inn‑. infl. had-on

hulug sta. to waive a right; to relinquish something. Inhulug Jose nan payona ke tulang na. Jose relinquished his field to his brother. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Altruistic, selfless.)

hululan (infl. of hulul) trans. to buy something. Pinhod dan hululan nan payok. They want to buy my field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented site. (sem. domains: - Buy.)

huyyay trans. to try to remember. Huyyayom an nomnomon nan naat. Try to remember the thing that happened. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

ie (infl. of e) trans. to take something with oneself. Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) infl. pangieyan

igawat (infl. of gawat) trans. to show something as a loan collateral. <The affix cross-references the collateral.> Hituwen payo di igawat kun he-a. I am showing my field to you as collateral. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.5 - Borrow.)

ihik trans. to desire intensely; to want something intensely; to obsess about something. Ihik nan e patayon. He really wants to kill him. Ihik Bugan an umeh payo. Bugan wanted very much to go to the field. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Lust, 3.3 - Want.) infl. mun-ihhikan

ila-ila intrans. to invite trouble; to court trouble; to do something that causes trouble. Umila-ila kah katayam. You are looking for your death. Antipe umila-ila ka hi pakidamaam? Why are you looking for a cause to quarrel? Tipet nganney ilailam? Why, what are you looking for? Eka umilailah patayon dakan dida. You are giving them a reason to kill you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2H General class. Sim: angit. (sem. domains: - Bad, immoral.) infl. mangila-ila

ilik (sp. var. irik) 1comm. lowland rice grains; unpounded, unpolished. Ilik di nitanom nah payo. The ricefield is planted with lowland rice. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to thresh lowland rice. Ilikon da nan nagapas. They are going to thresh the cut rice. Mun-ilik dad Ambabag ad uwani. They are threshing rice in Ambabag today. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of object.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

ina₂ comm. 1female biological parent; mother. Deyah inam an mangali. Look there, your mother is coming. Syn: mama. (sem. domains: - Father, mother.) 2respectful form of address for any female of mother’s generation; auntie. Ina, an ume kayuh payo? Auntie, are you going to the ricefield? (sem. domains: - Uncle, aunt.) der. ina-om der. ina-on der. inaon der. in-ina der. mungka-in-ina der. nain-ina der. naka-in-ina

inay-aw (inay) adjunct. expression of surprise, can be positive or negative. Tinibom hi Bugan an e nanayo yaden nabutong. Inay-aw tipet maid di baina. I saw Bugan dance and yet she is drunk. Oh my, why doesn’t she have any shame? Inay-aw, nakagganas man! Wow! What a wonderful time we’ve had! Inay-aw, tumakutak, indae ya matalak da! Oh my! I’m so afraid they’ll get lost. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

iple 1comm. roe; fish eggs. Waday iplen nadan dolog nah payo. The mudfish in the field have eggs. Sim: bine. (sem. domains: - Fish.) 2sta. to have fish roe/eggs. Naipleyan nan tilapia. The tilapia-fish have eggs/roe. na‑ ‑an.

ipugo₁ comm. 1native rice. [This rice variety is planted on wetland; it requires 5 to 6 months of growth before it can be harvested. According to an oral legend, this rice variety was first planted on a hill called Imbiday, near Kiyangan by hunter-brothers, Ballituk and Kabbigat.] Mahong-o nan ipugo mu nan wagwag. Native rice is more delicious than the lowland-rice. Ipugo nan intanom mid uwani nah payo. The rice we planted now is the native-vairety. Sim: bulkitan, tinoon; gen: bog’a. (sem. domains: - Food from plants.) 2human being. [May also refer to someone from the hills, ipugo.] 3refers to the Ifugao people. [Used in the Ketema and Bonwe rituals.] Oral Literature of the Tuwali Ifugao in Kiangan by Manuel Dulawan.

ittay (sp. var. itay; sp. var. ittang; sp. var. kittay) 1adj. small; little, evaluative measure of size, extent or amount. Ittay tun inalak an boga. The rice I brought is a small amount. Ittay tun hinamal, munhaang ka pay. The rice is not enough for us, cook some more. Umeeley ka hi ittay. Move a little further. Ittay di indat mun hiya. You gave him a small one only. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.1 - Small.) 2trans. to decrease in size, extent or amount. Ittayon yu di idat yu. Give them small amounts. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Decrease.) 3proc. to become small as a process. Umittay nan boga. The rice will become few. (lit. become small) ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. inita-itay der. kaittay infl. it-itay infl. kait-itayan

kadap intrans. to move, by crawling refers to insects, lizards, vine-type plant and babies. Nal-ot nan banniyan kumadap. The lizard is strong in crawling. Itaggem ke nan bulwatik ta tibom nan gutul an mungkaddapan nah odog ku. Please pull up my shirt and see the ant crawling on my back. Pungkadap din sayoten am-in din nih-up an nitanom. The sayote-plant is crawling over all the nearby plants. Humgop nan golang nah kuwarto ta kadaponan am-in di kama. The baby enters the rooms and crawls in all the beds. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ ‑an, ‑on/‑in‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: bullu, bakka. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) der. mungkaddapan

kagoko trans. to pull grass from ricefield. Ingkagoko da mo. They are through pulling-grasses. Mungkagoko da nah payo mi. They are pulling-grasses from our ricefield. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: - Cut grass.)

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kamahhita (sp. var. kamihhita) 1comm. undershirt; t-shirt. Napipitok tun kamahhita te nag-a nah payo. This t-shirt is muddy because it fell into the ricefield. gen: bulwati. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a t-shirt. Handidan aammod taku ya adida mungkamihhita. Those forefathers of ours did not wear T-shirts. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: camasita.

kanan to say. 1.1trans. a quotation form meaning say, said, tell, or told. Kanan day deke mo kanu ta pidwana ya adida makie. They said that the next time they would not join the group. Om, an kanan min Mayor. We told the Mayor yes. Speech Verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 1.2trans. a quotation form meaning thought, wish. Kanak hi nomnom kuy “Makamman-un dida te kay nakalakka. I said to myself, “It’s good for them because it seems easy.” Handi immingleyak mo ya kanak di nalakan lumah-un. Then, I got tired and thought it would be easy to go down. (sem. domains: - Think about, 3.2 - Think.)

kanta 1comm. refers to a song or music in general. Mundonggol ka hi kanta nah ladyu. Listen to songs/music from the radio. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. (sem. domains: - Sing.) 2intrans. to sing. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who sang and danced did not eat. Kanan Juliey, “Dakol di in-innat mi. Nungkanta kami ya pimmaytuk kami. Julie said, “We did many things. We sang and we jumped, muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to sing a particular song. Ikantam nan intuddun tulang mu. Sing the song taught by your brother. i‑/iN‑.

kanu adjunct. allegedly; reportedly; it is said; refers to something that was not heard or seen first hand. Wada kanu di manamak ke ha-oy? They say someone is looking for me? Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu kamih tu. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that we should come here. Kanan day deke mo kanu ta pidwana ya adida makie. They said, reportedly, that if there is another occasion they will not join in going. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Report.)

kapilitan (der. of pilit) comm. for something to be mandatory. Kapilitan an makimiting te hidiyey kanan mayor. It is mandatory to attend the meeting because the mayor says so. ka‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Necessary.)

katlubung 1comm. canegrass with hollow stalks. Maphod an luhad di katlubung. Canegrass is good for trellising. Sim: bilau. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2sta. to be full of hollow-stalked canegrass. Makatlubung nan payo mi handi. Our ricefield before was full of canegrass. ma‑.

kawal 1comm. harrow; used with carabao to pulverize soil. Ginuyud nan baka nan kawal. The cow pulled the harrow. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to prepare a field with a harrow. Dahdiy e mungkawal nah payo? Who will harrow the rice field? Kawalon yu nan payo ot deyan waday liting. Harrow the field, anyway there is water. Kinawal da nan payon Miguel ad kugaban. They harrowed Miguel’s field yesterday. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: - Plow a field.)

kayu pers. you plural; second person, plural, Set 2 subject pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ume kayu nah payo an mangdut. You all go to the ricefield and gather snails. “Bumangun kayu mon iimbabalek, kanan inada. “Wake up, children,” their mother said. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

ke₁ (deke) conj. 1if; marks a conditional clause, hypothetical or real. Maid ke hi Juan ya uggeyak immali. If Juan had not been around I would not have come here. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan prayer for him. Wada ke ot di pihhu yu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: - Condition.) 2follows a predicate and marks a time phrase or clause. <The allomorph y of the linker di is an enclitic.> Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Mala-u key duwan hinlingguwan ya damanan hiitom nan baya ta inumon taku! After about two weeks, pour out the wine from the jar and we’ll drink with you. 3when; marks a time clause. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. Nagibbu ke nan kapkapyan di hagabi, kalyon day algoh pangihakyatan da. When the hagabi-bench is completed, they say the day that it will be brought home. (sem. domains: - Clause conjunctions.)

kibul 1sta. to have sediment in water. Adim kutiyon nan danum ta adi makibul. Don’t stir the water so that the sediment will not be disturbed. Nakibul tun liting, adi matibo ad dalom. This water has so much sediment that I can’t see the bottom. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: kilut. (sem. domains: 1.3.6 - Water quality.) 2intrans. to stir up water by splashing and causing sediment to be stirred up. Kimmibul on dolog nah gawwan nan payo. A mudfish splashed in the middle of the paddy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

kidlo 1comm. any scarecrow objects, used to frighten rice birds. [Clothing, pieces of plastic, or cans are connected to strings that can be pulled to move the object or make noise.] Dakol kidlo an intattayun mih payo. We have hung many things in our fields to scare rice birds. Sim: taktakut. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 2trans. to place objects in rice fields to frighten rice birds. Kidlowam nan mamuhbun page ta adi tiptipon nadan buding. Place things to scare away rice-birds in the places where the rice-grains are blooming so that they will not suck them. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

kil-at 1comm. a natural electrical discharge in the air; lightning. Linhitan di kil-at nan akasya. Lightning burned the acacia tree. Sim: luhit, kimat. (sem. domains: - Lightning, thunder.) 2intrans. to discharge an electrical flash; to lightning. Humgop kayu tuh bale te kumil-at. Come in the house because there will be lightning. Mungkikil-at yaden wada nah payo hi Jose. There are flashes of lightning yet Jose is in the field. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2F Meteorological.

kimat sta. to be struck by lightning. Nakimat hi inana hi nangayanah payo ot mateh di. Her mother was struck by lightning when she went to the field and died there. Adi maphod di makimat te ngumitit di adol hin nate ta. It is not good to be struck by lightning because the body turns black if we die. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: luhit, kil-at. (sem. domains: 2.5.3 - Injure.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kiwil₁ trans. to divert water from an irrigation ditch. Ena kiwilon nan liting te nalbong nan payo. He is going to divert the water from the irrigation ditch because the ricefield is flooded. Kiniwil na nan liting te mangaliy nal-ot an udan. He diverted the water from the irrigation ditch because a strong rain was coming. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Flow.)

kolet comm. cabbage. Dakol di kolet nah payo mi. We have a lot of cabbage in our ricefield. Natanman nan pinkol hi kolet. The mound is planted with cabbage. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

konsehal comm. a councilor; an elected member of the municipal council. Walu day konsehal di Kiangan. There are eight councilors of Kiangan. Intud-ak meyor nan konsehal. The mayor sent the councilor. Nadan konsehal di e nangayag ke hiya. It was the councilors who went to invite him. (sem. domains: - Government official.)

koy’e trans. to loosen the knot of something that is tied. Koyayon yu nan gakod di apatut na. Loosen his shoelace. Koyayom nan balikit mu. Loosen your belt. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Remove, take apart.)

ku pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; member of Set 1 non-cross-referenced subject pronouns. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, the pronoun attaches to the verb, and the vowel ‘u’ is dropped.> Ang-angok di manayo. I will look at the dancers. Pinpinhod kuy makihamul. I enjoy going to parties (lit. feasts). (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2my; first person, singular, member of Set 1 possessive personal pronouns. <Morphophonology: When a possessed noun ends in a vowel, the pronoun attaches to the noun, and the vowel ‘u’ is dropped.> Tudok ku hinae. That is my letter.

kudut trans. to pick up snails; gather snails in the ricefield. Adiyu kuduton nadan i-itay an ginga. Do not pick up the small snails. Dakol di kindut nah battikul nah payo yu. He picked up many snails in your ricefield. Ume kayu nah payo an mangdut. You all go to the ricefield and gather snails. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑,. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

kuhhukuhhu sta. 1to go en masse. Nakuhhukuhhu dan e nanibon meyor. They went en masse to see the mayor. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Move together.) 2to separate and regroup; refers to the breaking up or separating of a group participating in a ritual. [This is often related to the breaking up of the hapad ceremony in the uya-uy marriage ceremony. The group then goes en masse to a relative’s house for further drinking and dancing.] {hist}

kulbung 1comm. a basket for husked rice; woven from rattan strips or baguinge fern. Nangapyah Ognayon hi kulbung ot ena igattang ad Lagawe. Ognayon made a basket and went to sell it in Lagawe. Mangohe keh Immaya ya ihaad yu nah kulbung. If Immaya is insolent, put her inside the kulbung-container. (said facetiously) Sim: attong. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place in basket. Ikulbung mu nan natap-an an boga. Place the winnowed rice in the basket. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.)

kuleng sta. to be withered, referring to plants. Makuleng di intanom ku te namahig di potang. What I planted will wither because it’s too sunny. Nakuleng nan buttatan inalan nan ungah payo. The chinese cabbage that the child got from the field is withered. Uggem dinanuman nan flower te inang-ang ku ya mungkakuleng. You did not water the flower because I saw it and it was withering. Nanginkukuleng nan intanom kuh tu kaiw. The tree that I planted here withered easily. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: malyo. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) infl. mungkakleng

kungkung 1comm. ceremonial headdress, feathers from the neck of roosters are tied together in a row and tied in men’s hair. Inha-ad na nan kungkung hi uluna ot e manayo. He put on his ceremonial headdress, then went to dance. (sem. domains: 5.4 - Adornment.) 2intrans. to wear or use a kungkung ceremonial headdress. Mungkungkung kan manayo ta maphod di tibona. Wear a kungkung-headdress when you dance so that it will look good. muN‑/nuN‑.

kupli-ing 1comm. a flute made of bamboo, played with the mouth. Kupli-ing nan munggango nah payo. It is a flute that could be heard from the field. Sim: ingngiing, ipiip. (sem. domains: - Musical instrument.) 2intrans. to play the flute. Mungkupli-ing nadan u-unga. The children are playing their flutes. muN‑/nuN‑.

lahla₁ trans. to remove vine from trees by pulling at the vine. Lahlaom nan sayote nah alad. Remove the sayote-vine form the fence. Linahla na nan hapid. He removed the betel-leaf-vine. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Remove, take apart.)

lai (sp. var. laik) 1comm. the old leaves of rice plants. Dakdakol di bungan di page hin makaan di lai na. There will be more rice grains if the old leaves of rice plants are removed. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to remove old leaves of rice plants. Munlai da hi bigat nah payon Bugan. They are going to remove the old leaves of the rice plants in Bugan’s field. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movment with a directional component. comp. ahilai

lak-ay (sp. var. lak-e) trans. to lift up someone or something. Immalih Talakka ot lak-ayonak ot ieyak hi bale. Talakka came, lifted me and carried me into the house. Imme ot ena lak-ayon di oha. She went over and picked one up. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: - Lift.)

laput trans. to risk health or life by fervently doing something difficult. Ilaput nan mumpayo ta hay pakanah imbabalena. He works so hard in the ricefields, risking his health, so that he will be able to feed his children. Tipe ahan ta ilaput mu? Why do you take such risks? Ilaputanan mungngunu. He works very hard risking his health. i‑/iN‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Risk.)

layut₂ comm. algae. [Great care is taken in removing the algae from ricefields so that rice plants are not damaged; it is lifted up rather than pulled horizontally.] Deket kaanon nan layut hi payo ya tapayaon ta itag-e ten waday page. If you remove algae from the ricefield, lift it high on th palms when there are rice plants. Gen: bagiw. (sem. domains: 1.5.4 - Moss, fungus, algae.)

libu adj. thousand; the cardinal number 1,000. Kalibulibuy pihhun Layo. Layo has money by the thousands. Linibuy manuk da. They have thousands of chickens. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) hinlibu

lida 1comm. a long single-edged knife used for cutting grass; a bolo. (sem. domains: 6.7.1 - Cutting tool.) 2trans. to cut grass in ricefields. Lidahan da nan payo ad uwani. They will cut the grass in the fields today. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: - Cut grass.) 3comm. season for cutting grass in the ricefields. comp. ahilida

likkod trans. to go around something; to circle around. Illikod mu nah payo ta ahika dumatong hi baleda. Go around the field then you will arrive at their house. Lanikkodon nan eroplanu nan bilid. The airplane kept circling the mountain. i‑/iN‑, ‑an‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: - Move in a circle.) infl. likkodon infl. nunlinikkod

likkulik intrans. for something to be coiled. Patayonah diyen munlikkulik ulog. He will kill this coiled snake. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Roll up.)

liyak trans. to work the ricefields, digging, clearing, planting etc. Hiyay nunliyak nah payo. He was the one who worked the ricefield. Dakol di inliyak na. He has planted many ricefields. Iliyakana nadan iibanan mun-iskul. He is working in the ricefields for his realtives who are in school. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

liyang 1comm. cave. Adika maohhan humgop hi liyang. Do not enter a cave alone. Waday inang-ang kun liyang ad Kalao, Tuguegarao. I’ve seen a cave in Kalao, Tuguegarao. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo, it is said, stay or live in caves, near springs. 2sta. to have a cave formed. Naliyangan nan nagden nah payo. A cave was formed in the landslide in the field. na‑ ‑an.

lob’ong 1comm. a body of water; a lake; a pond. Eda mungkeke nah lobong ad Ambuwaya. They are going to swim in the lake at Ambuwaya. Sim: baybay, wangwang, wa-el. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.) 2trans. to fill depression in earth with water, e.g. a ricefield, a pond; to flood. Em lobngon din payo taku. Go fill our ricefields with water. Limbong da nan payo ot ha-adan dah tilapia. They flooded the ricefield and placed tilapia-fish. Nal-ot di dinlu kinali nalbong di kanal. There was a strong rain that is why the canal was flooded. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑.

loda 1comm. a ricefield that has been uncultivated for more than one year. [If the ricefield is uncultivated for five years the tiller will get the harvest for five years before turning it over to the owner.] Adida pinhod an payawon di payomi te loda. They don’t want to till our ricefield because it has not been cultivated for some years. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 2trans. to recultivate a fallow ricefield; to work in an uncultivated field. Pinhod mu ta lod-om? Would you like to be the one to cultivate it (this uncultivated area?) ‑on/‑in‑.

lok-ap 1comm. incrustation formed on a healing wound; a scab. Ulayom an kaanon nan lok-ap di gulid mu. Gently remove the scab of your sores. (sem. domains: 2.1.4 - Skin.) 2trans. to remove a scab. Lok-apom. Remove the scab from the sore. ‑on/‑in‑.

lomlom 1comm. rainy season; continuous rain for two or more weeks. Lomlom ad uwani. It is now rainy season. Mapaiy nitanom na ahi lomlom. Plants are destroyed during rainy season. Sim: hipak, hamiy’ok, udan. (sem. domains: - Rain.) 2intrans. to be rainy. Adika umeh payo te munlomlom Don’t go to the fields as it is a rainy day. muN‑/nuN‑.

luhuk 1comm. a man-made hole in the ricefield for backfill in repairing landslides in the field. Maid di luhuk nah payo da. There is no backfill hole in their ricefield. 2trans. to dig a hole in the ricefield. Luhukan da nan payo dah bigatna. They will dig a backfill hole in their ricefield tomorrow. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.)

mahang-an sta. to be spared from a disaster. Mahang-an po udot di edaka patayon. They will not go to the extent of killing you. Mahang-an ken bokon he-a eyak immalih tu. Were it not for you I would not be here.

mahapit (der. of hapit) comm. to be articulate; to be glib. Mahapit hi amana kinali hiyay meyor. His father is articulate that is why he is the mayor. ma‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

mahin-alangan (der. of alang) sta. a size measure of a ricefield; its produce can fill a normal size granary. Mahin-alangan nan payon Bugan. Bugan’s ricefield produces enough to fill a granary. mahin‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.)

mahmahdom (infl. of hodom) comm. refers to the end of the day and the beginning of night when it is becoming dark; dusk; evening. Deket mahmahdom on nunnaba da ta manayo da. In the evenings, they play the gongs and dance. CVC‑. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

mamatung (der. of batung) intrans. to build a stone dam so water will enter an irrigation canal. Mamatung da ta adi matdukan nadan payo. They are building a stone-dam so that the ricefields will not dry up. Sim: mangalak.

mambab (der. of tobab) comm. drummer, one who plays the lead rhythm in the playing of the gongs; uses a clenched fist and an open palm. Mambab hi Jose ya manayo hi Juan. Jose is drumming and Juan is dancing. maN‑.

mamkol (der. of pingkol) trans. to make mulch mounds. Immeh ina an e namkol hi payomi. Mother went to mold mounds in our ricefield. maN‑/naN‑.

man tuwali ot adjunct. denotes that without a doubt what is said is true, a strong assertion; certainly. Man tuwali ot nawotwot da te maid di payo da. Without doubt, they are poor because they have no ricefield. Man tuwali ot maid di bain mu kinali athinay at-attom. The truth is you have no shame; that’s why you are doing that. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Markers of emphasis.)

mangado (infl. of ado) trans. to make rice paddy mounds for planting vegetables during fallow season. Umeyak hi payo te eyak mangado. I’ll go to the field to make paddy mounds.

mangibalal (infl. of balal) 1comm. refers to the one who sells a mortgage. (sem. domains: - Sell.) 2trans. to mortgage a ricefield. Hi Jose di nangibalal nah payo da. Jose was the one who mortgaged their ricefield. Dakol day ibaliwon an mangibalal hi payo da. There are many lowlanders who are mortgaging their ricefields. mangi‑/nangi‑.

mayad 1comm. a woman’s belt, hand-woven with decorative pompoms; worn with a woven skirt. [This belt is sometimes used as a loin cloth for young boys.] In-wanon nan unga nan mayad inana. The boy used the woven belt of his mother for his loin cloth. Gen: balko. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to wear a woven belt. Mummayad ka hin manayo kayuh iskul. Wear a woven belt if you dance in school. muN‑/nuN‑.

miting 1comm. meeting. Waday miting meyor hi lunis. The mayor will have a meeting on Monday. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.) 2intrans. to conduct a meeting. Mummiting da meyor nah munisipyu. The mayor is having a meeting in the town hall. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to meet with a particular group of people or to meet about a particular agenda item. Mitingon da nadan mittulu ad uwani. They will conduct a meeting with the teachers today. Imiting da di mipanggep nah kalata. Their meeting is about the road. Language Of Borrowing: English.

muN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp.

mungkaddapan (der. of kadap) comm. refers to crawling things; insects. Dakol di mungkaddapan nah payo. There are many insects in the ricefield. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

munhikhikyad (infl. of hikyad) intrans. refers to what a child does when having a tantrum, kicking his legs in all directions; tantrum kicking. Munhikhikyad handi adida paki-ayon. He was kicking when they did not allow him to go along. muN‑ CVC‑.

naba intrans. to play the gongs for dancing. Deket mahmahdom on nunnaba da ta manayo da. In the evenings, they play the gongs and dance. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Play music.)

namam-a (infl. of mam-a) advpred. to show an action or feeling to an extreme degree; by comparison, even more so. Namam-a te kanan hanadan iibanay adida mo pakiayon hi pidwana. What was even worse, her brothers told her that she could not come with them again. na‑. Comparative. Sim: namahig. (sem. domains: - Markers of emphasis, - To a large degree.)

naN- TACR. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 4 verbal roots; past tense. <Morphophonology: The final nasal of the prefix assimilates to the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant; if the vowel o follows the root consonant, the vowel will also be reduced.> Himmagob, nana-ang ya nunhigup hi bintok. He got water, he cooked and carried rice bundles into shade. Hi manang ya dingngol na damdama ot mundihhan namtik nah panto. As for my older brother, he heard it too and ran to the door at the same time. Hiyay nangalah kadukkayan kawayan. He is the one who got the longest bamboo. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who participated in the songs and dances did not (eat). Mun-an-anlah inadan nangngol an dakol di inadal da. Their mother was happy to hear that they had learned so much. Sim: maN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

nangatang (infl. of gatang) trans. buyer, the one who has bought something. Hiyay nangattang nah lutan Bugan. He is the one who bought Bugan’s ricefield. Kaatnay nangatang mun nah payo? How much did you pay for the field? maN‑/naN‑.

nangi- -an TACR. this circumfix topicalizes and cross-references a time or place; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Tibom di nangiha-adan na nah basket. Find where she placed the basket. Hay nangidongolana ya hi nangappit nah payoh kawad-an di ob-ob. What he heard was in the direction of the ricefield near the spring. Sim: pangi- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

ngaw’it comm. refers to the end or edge, e.g. of rich man’s bench or ricefield. Id-on mu nah ngawit na ta adika mag-a. Hold onto the end of the hagabi-bench so you will not fall. Ugge da tinamman nan ngawit nan payo. They did not plant the end of the ricefield. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.)

ngohe 1intrans. to act in a hostile manner; to disobey; to act in an obstinate or belligerent manner. Mungngohe an adina pinhod an umanamut. He is being obstinate, refusing to go home. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: kahing. (sem. domains: - Disobey.) 2sta. to be obstinate or stubborn. Mangoheh diyen unga. That child is obstinate. Makangohhe an unga. The child is very obstinate. ma‑, maka‑. (sem. domains: - Rebel against authority.) 3trans. to disobey with a belligerent attitude. Ngohayon na nan tugun mun hiya. He will disobey your advice. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Disobey.) infl. mangohe

ngunu 1comm. using the body or mind to do or make something; work. Nganney ngunum? What is your work? Sim: ganal, tangdan, bokla, suweldu. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2to work. 2.1intrans. to work. Mungngunuwak hi payo hi bigat. I will work in the field tomorrow. muN/nuN. 2.2trans. to work on a particular thing; the object being worked on is prominent. Ingunu yu nan onob di bale te napai. Work on the door of the house because it is destroyed. Ingunum tun pingunuk ke he-a. Work on this which I am assigning you to do. i/iN. 2.3pass. for something to be worked on. Maid di mingunu ad uwani. There is nothing to work on today. mi‑/ni‑. 2.4trans. to work for something or someone; the beneficiary or the thing being worked for is prominent. Ingunuwak hi tulang ku ad uwani te mundogo. I will work for my brother today because he is sick. Ingunuwak nan binanok an pihhu. I will work for the money I borrowed. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. say. Hin pinhod takun munhidah itlug, mumpaptok kah manuk.

ni-yan advpred. just right; perfect. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Ni-ni-yan tuy pun-am-ampuyyon Bugan. How fitting to perfection did Bugan wear her tapis-skirt. Ni-ni-yan tuy panpannayona bo. Her dancing was also perfect. Evaluative.

odon₁ comm. valuable possessions; inheritance. Ha-oy di namoltan hi odon Ama. I inherited the valuable possessions of my father. Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. Sim: tawid, boltan. (sem. domains: - Value, - Own, possess.)

olwag 1comm. showing approval of something with shouts; cheer. Madngol di olwag nadan tatagu ad Atade. The cheer of the people could be heard in Mt. Atade. Sim: iyag. 2intrans. to cheer with shouts. Nangapput nan poltan ku ya mun-ol-olwag day tatagu. When my rooster won the people were cheering. Ol-olwagan da nadan manmannayo. They were cheering the dancers. Umolwag da hin mangapput taku. They will shout their cheers if we win. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ope trans. to cast a spell on someone. Inopayan Kuyappi hi Bugan te nanayo da. Kuyappi cast a spell on Bugan because they were dancing. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Sorcery.)

ot₃ adjunct. an optative modal expressing a wish, hope or desire. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was that women would dress in the Ifugao skirt Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Uncertain.)

otbol 1comm. water coming from the ground; a spring. Adi matduk nan payo te waday otbol nah gawwana. The rice paddy will not dry up because there’s a spring at its center. Sim: hobwak, ob-ob. (sem. domains: 1.3 - Water.) 2intrans. to have water seeping out of the ground. Mun-otbol nah daulon nan bale ya paniowon di ammod. Water is seeping out of the ground and the old folks say it is a bad omen. muN‑/nuN‑.

padang 1comm. bracelets, leg bands, worn on legs by males, made of copper. Kinapya dah padang nan giniling. They made the copper into a leg-bracelet. Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.) 2intrans. to wear ankle bracelet. Mumpadang nan imbabalem te manayo da. Your son will wear leg-bracelets because they will perform the native dance. muN‑/nuN‑.

paghok 1comm. a peg or stake used as a boundary marker, made of wood or stone dug into the ground. (sem. domains: - Boundary.) 2trans. to place a peg or stake. Em ipaghok hituwe dih koltog taku. Go put this stake on our boundary. Paghokam nan koltog taku hi palayon. Place a marker on our boundary with palayon-wood. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.) 3comm. a stake used to dig hole for planting seeds. Usalon da di paghok hin mun-ohok da. They use the stake when planting seeds.

paki- -on caus. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references a patient-object. Namam-a te kanan hanadan iibanay adida mo paki-ayon hi pidwana. What was even worse was her brothers told her that she could not come with them again. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

pakyaw 1comm. contract system for labor. Pakyaw di ngunun di gabut nan payo. They cut the grass of the field by contract. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2v. to work on a contract basis. Pakyawon da di gayon nan garden. They will contract to hoe the field. Dahdiy numpakyaw nah iskul? Who did the labor contract for the school? ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: - Hire, rent.) 3trans. to buy large amount of something by contract, i.e. wholesale. Pakyawom nan igattang nan amput. Contract to buy all of the garlic she is selling. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

paldang₁ 1intrans. beside; alongside. Numpaldang kamin Mayor dih program. We sat beside the Mayor at the program. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: dongte, hunnup, hag-on. (sem. domains: - Beside.) 2trans. to place something alongside someone or something. Ipaldang mu nan golang ke inana. Place the child beside her mother. Paldangom hi tulang mut tibom ta adi mag-a. Stay beside your brother so that he will not fall. Mipaldang kan ha-oy hin mangan taku. You will stay beside me when we eat. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3A Move and position object at site. der. kapaldang der. pinaldang

paltat comm. fish species; catfish. [This fish specie is not native to Ifugao; some people have not seen one.] Waday paltat an inhaad da nah payo da. They placed catfish in their field. (sem. domains: - Fish.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

paluk 1comm. an irrigation ditch. Waday paluk nah tap-on di payo da. There is an irrigation ditch above their ricefield. Sim: boy’a, alak, kanal. 2intrans. to build or maintain an irrigation system. Eda mamaluk nadan iLinda. The people of Linda are going to build an irrigation ditch. maN‑/naN‑.

pana 1comm. an arrow or dart. Niptok nan pana nah baggang di babuy. The arrow hit the neck of the pig. (sem. domains: - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to shoot with an arrow; to hit with an arrow. Panaon nadan Pugut di makawa. The Aetas shoot deer with arrows. Pinana day matana. They hit his eye with an arrow. Mumpana dah dolog nah payo. They are shooting fish with arrows in the ricefield. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

panday 1nom. blacksmith; ironsmith. An waday mumpanday hi inang-ang yu? Did you ever see an ironsmith? muN‑/nuN‑. Syn: udi. (sem. domains: - Working with metal.) 2trans. to make iron tools, e.g. spades, knives, bolos; to forge. Pandayon da nan gumok hi gaud. They will make the metal into a spade. Pumanday kah uwan tun unga. Make a knife for this child. Mumpanday dah otak ad Bolar. They are making bolos in Bolar. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of object.

pang-o 1comm. a necklace made of agate or amber beads. Waday pang-on da apu handi kanu. My grandparents had agate necklaces before, it is said. (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.) 2trans. to have someone wear a necklace. Pang-owan yu nan imbabale. Have your child wear a necklace. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to wear necklace. Mumpang-o ka te manayo kayu. Wear a necklace because you are going to dance. muN‑/nuN‑.

panio 1comm. an evaluative and cultural term referring to forbidden things; taboo. Panio nan e makihamul hi numpate. It is taboo to attend a feast for someone who committed suicide. (sem. domains: - Taboo.) 2trans. to treat as taboo. Paniawon day umeh payo hin tungo. They think it is taboo to go to the fields when it is a declared rest day. ‑on/‑in‑.

paot trans. to carve wood. Paotom nan akasya hi tagtaggu. Carve the acacia tree into a figure of a man. Mumpaot da hi gawgawa. They are carving a duck. Pumaot kah duwan poltan. Carve two roosters. Paotam hi gulding tun unga. Carve a goat for this child. Paotan yu tun onob hi tatagun manayo. Carve people who are dancing on this door. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut, 6.6.4 - Crafts.)

papa comm. refers to a father; may be used as an address. Immeh payo hi papa. Father went to the fields. Syn: ama. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

papak comm. bamboo clappers used in the ricefield to drive away rice birds. Linikkud mih papak nan payo. We surrounded the field with bamboo clappers. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.)

papuut advpred. to do something quickly. Ipapuut nay ngunuh payo. He works quickly in the field. Siguladun naagangan te papuutanay kakan. It’s certain he’s very hungry because he is eating quickly. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.8 - Speed.)

payu trans. to go directly somewhere. Impayu na nah payo. He went directly to the fields. Nah pun-ay-ayyaman da di payuwan nan liting. The water goes directly to the playground. Hi balen da tulang mu di payuwom ad Lagawe. Go directly to the house of your brother in Lagawe. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑on/‑in‑. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.)

payyad intrans. to extend hands when dancing. Deya da nan manayon mamaypayyad da. There, they are dancing with extended hands. maN‑. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance.)

pingping 1comm. stones broken from boulders, used in building stone retaining walls. (sem. domains: - Rock.) 2trans. to cut stones. Pingpingon yu hituwen batu ta itping taku nah payo. Cut this stone into riprap size to be used in the field. Nan piningping di itping yuh tu. The stones you cut from boulders into riprap are here. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

pito intrans. to go to work in the ricefields; the word has a meaning component of reporting for work. Uhup ya adi kayu pumito. It’s already late and you haven't gone to work yet. Kaatna kayun pimmito payo mi? How many of you went to work in our fields? ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

potag 1comm. small cracks in the soil or things like the bamboo tube for water due to the heat of the sun. Dakol di potag nah natduk an payo. There are many cracks in the dried field. Sim: bul-i, okak. 2sta. to be cracked, refers to earth or other object due to the heat of the sun. Naptag nan luta. The earth was cracked by the heat of the sun. Naptag nan aluwog te nihap-e. The bamboo tube for fetching water cracked because it was placed under the sun. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects.

pugo₂ comm. native Ifugao rice. Ipugo di intanom da nah ambilog an payo. Native rice is what they planted in the wide ricefield. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

pukit 1comm. the inability to hear; deafness. An waday agan di pukit? Is there medicine for deafness? Sim: lulok. (sem. domains: - Deaf.) 2sta. to become deaf; not capable of hearing. It-itayom nan ladyu te pumukit. Lower the volume of the radio because it causes deafness. Napukit ka gayam kinali adika pakadngol. So you are deaf, that’s why you cannot hear. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6A Physiological Process - State.

pul’o (sp. var. pullo) trans. to grab something from someone; to seize; to snatch. Iplonay pangalana. He takes by grabbing. Adim pulhon di ay-ayyam nan ibam. Do not grab the toy of your brother. Adika pumloh payon di ibbam an tagu. Do not grab the field of your neighbor. Numpullowan da nan golang. They fought over (tried to grab from each other) the child. Makaplo ka. You are a grabber. Puppumloh Julian hi luta. Julian is a land-grabber. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, i‑/iN‑ muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: - Take something from somewhere, 7.4.3 - Get.)

pundag-uwan (der. of dag-u) nom. a house that people use as a place for stopping overnight or eating; a residence that is like a hostel for people traveling through a place. [Hospitality is a high value in the culture.] Hi balen da Mayor di oggan mi pundag-uwan hin ume kamih did Tinok. The mayor’s house is our stopping place (overnighting) if we go to Tinok.

sakup trans. 1to take possession of and make a part of something else; may be used in the case of an army or group of people that takes over a city or part of another country. Sinakup nadan tindalun Hapon di boble taku. The Japanese soldiers captured our village. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: laggat, gappat, hayyup, lak-am, lanud. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.) 2to include as a part of a whole. Hidiyen payo ya sakup di luta da. That ricefield is a part of their land. Sakupon di poblasiyon di Linda. Linda is a part of the town center. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

suweter 1comm. a sweater. Duwa di suweter na. He has two sweaters. gen: bulwati. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a sweater. Munsuweter ka tedeyan kotol. Wear a sweater because it is cold. muN‑nuN‑. 3trans. to place a sweater on someone. Suweteran yu tun golang tedeyan munggagayonggong hi kintol na. Have this child wear a sweater because he is shivering from the cold. Isuweter mu nan indat tulang mu. Wear the sweater given by your sister. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) Language of Borrowing: English.

tabukul 1comm. a large fishing net with bamboo frame. 2trans. to fish with net. Maid day muntabukul hitu te maid di wangwang hitu. No one fishes with large nets here because there are no rivers here. Tabukulon da nadan dolog nah adalom an payo. They will use a net in getting the fish in the deep field. Eda manabukul ad Ibulao. They are going to fish with nets in Ibulao River. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑. (sem. domains: - Fishing equipment.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

takkalang (sp. var. takalang) 1comm. a bracelet of bronze. Maphod nan kinapya dan takkalang. The bracelet they made is beautiful. Sim: giniling. (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.) 2intrans. to wear a bracelet. Muntakkalang ka hin manayo kayuh bigat. Wear a bracelet when you dance tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑.

taktakut (sp. var. tattakut) comm. scarecrow, made of old clothes, old hat and grasses. Dakol di nitattayun hi taktakut nadah papayo. There are a lot of scarecrows in the ricefields. Sim: kidlo. (sem. domains: - Afraid.)

talan-u intrans. to crow; the cry of a rooster. [Old folks say that the ido-snake also crows.] Muntatalan-u day poltan. The roosters are crowing. Adi tumalan-u nan poltan ku. My rooster can’t crow. Makatallan-u udot tun poltan ku yaden iittay. My rooster crows well although it is still small. Muntatalan-u ke on imme kamih payo. At dawn (lit. when the rooster crows) we go to the fields. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑, maka‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Sound.) id. muntatalan-u

tali 1comm. a rope. Alam nan tali ta gakodan ta tun kalton. Get the rope and we will tie this box. Sim: lubid. (sem. domains: - Rope, string.) 2trans. to tie using a rope. Taliyam nan nuwang ta adi ume nah payo. Tie the carabao so that it will not go to the ricefield. Italim nan gulding nah puun di be-et. Tie the goat to the base of the guava tree. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

tanghoy 1comm. watercress. Tummol di tanghoy nah malini ya matuning an liting. Watercress grows in clear and cool water. Nasturtium officinale (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to gather watercress. Eka mananghoy nah payo ta ammungok tudan ginga. Go and gather watercress in the field while I gather these shellfish. maN‑.

tikam comm. a bivalve mollusk; mussel. Waday inhaad dan tikam nah payo da. They planted mussels in their ricefield. (sem. domains: - Fish.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

tilapia 1comm. a fish species. Tilapiay igattang da. They sell tilapia-fish. (sem. domains: - Fish.) 2trans. to fish for tilapia. Eda manilapia nah adalom an payo. They are going to fish for tilapia in the deep field. maN‑.

toan₂ sta. to be abandoned, farmland or uncultivated land; an abandoned path, overgrown with weeds. Natoan di galden da. Their garden has not been attended to for a long time. Natoan di dalan an umeh kad-an da. The road going to their place has been abandoned. Nakatto-an nan payo da. Their ricefield is uncultivated. ma‑/na‑, naka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: walong. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.) infl. matoan

tobab 1comm. the name of a gong instrument, used as a percussion instrument for the lead rhythm. (sem. domains: - Musical instrument.) 2comm. a kind of wedding dance, performed to the playing of gongs. Tobab di intayo da. They danced the tobab. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 3trans. to beat a gong with hands, using a clenched fist and an open palm or both hands clenched. Tobabom nan gangha. You beat the gong. Mundukkun hi Juan an muntobab. Juan kneels down while beating the gong. Hi Juan di mambab ta mahaldot. Juan will be the one to beat the gong so that it will be sonorous. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. der. mambab

tongwab₂ comm. a stage after the beetle larva; pupa. [A balotbot and baddi turns into a tongwab then becomes a ba-i and lukkuban.] Dakol di tongwab nah payo. There are many insect pupa in the ricefield. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

tuba₂ comm. th fruit of a vine used to poison fish. Tuba nan inhaad da nah payo kinali muntaptapo day yuyu. They placed tuba-poison in the ricefield, that is why the Japanese fish are floating. Sim: dol-ak, ipe. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

tuduk₂ 1trans. to drain ground water. Tudukon da nan payo ta galdenon da. They will drain the water in the ricefield because they will make it into a garden. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Flow.) 2sta. for ground to be dried out. Natduk di payo mi. Our ricefield is dried up. (ground is dried out) Natdukan di payo mi. Our ricefield is dry. (water is not standing, but ground is not completely dry) Natduk ke, had-om hi ittay ta madangdang. When the water has dried up, just wait a little while for it to be well-dried. ma‑/na‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. Sim: mag-a.

tugal 1comm. a gambling game with cards. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to gamble in a card game. Uggek inilan muntugal. I don’t know how to gamble. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: - Card game.) 2.1trans. to give prominence to the opponent in gambling. Etaku tugalon nadan iLagawe. Let us go and gamble against the people from Lagawe. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.2trans. to give prominence to what is being used for gambling. Intugal na nan payo nad Linda. He gambled his ricefield in Linda. Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling. i‑/iN‑. 3comm. a gambling place. Adika umen nah puntugalan. Don’t go to the gambling place. puN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: jugar. id. itugal di nitaguwan id. kay ku intugal di inatuk infl. makattugal

tukuk 1to shout. 1.1intrans. to speak with a loud cry or call; to shout usually because of fear or drunkenness, but may also be done to make oneself heard. Muntutukuk da nan tatagu te mungkapuulan di babale da. The people are shouting because their houses are burning. Muntukuk hi Daulayan te timmakut nah ongal an puha. Daulayan is shouting because he was frightened by the big cat. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: tudodan. (sem. domains: - Shout.) 1.2intrans. to call loudly once; to give a single shout. Tumukutukuk nan nabutong. The drunk keeps shouting. Tumkuk man hin ipatibom ke hiya nan bigi. She will surely shout if you show her the worm. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2D Vocal sounds, expressing feeling. 2to shout at. 2.1trans. to shout at someone; the person being shouted at is highlighted by the affix. Tukukam nadan u-unga ta adida mun-ay-ayyam nah payo. Shout at the kids so that they will not play in the field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to shout in order to make oneself heard; to relay a message to people within a cluster of houses or even the next village by shouting, e.g. rest day, the first thunder, etc.; the message itself is prominent rather than the loudness of the shout. [Ifugao houses were built in clusters around their fields.] Initkuk dan tungo ad uwani kinali umeyak hi habal. They shouted a message that it is a rest day today so I am going to the swidden plot. Nagibbuy programa ot waday nangitkuk hi daanay epangenan di tatagu. After the program, someone shouted out the places where the different groups will eat their lunch. i‑/ini‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3trans. to cry loudly in a manner that resembles shouting. Itkuk nay koga na. He is crying loudly. i‑/iN‑. 4comm. a loud cry or call ; a shout. Madngol nah bobley tukuk na handi natalak nah muyung. His shout could be heard in the village when he got lost in the forest. Sim: ingal.

tulludan (der. of tulud) nom. a box or crate, sled-like for hauling soil in the ricefield made of gabgab wood; it is pushed when full. Mahapul day tulludan nah payo te adalom nan bongwana. They need a wooden crate for hauling soil in the field because the other half of it is deep. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

ubbu 1comm. a work-sharing system. Ad uwani di ubbu da. Today is their share-work. Sim: ammung, bokla, kalu. (sem. domains: 4.2.1 - Come together, form a group.) 2trans. to pool resources for someone. Ubbuwon da hi Juan ad uwani. They will share their resources for Juan today. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑, paki‑ ‑on. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Working relationship.)