Search results for "bale"

bakkul₂ 1comm. a bundle of items. In-agtu na nan himbakkul an tabaku. He carried on his head the bale of tobacco. hiN‑. (sem. domains: 8.1 - Quantity.) 2intrans. to make bundles of tobacco. Mumbakkul dah tabaku ta ihap-e da. They are making bundles of tobacco to be dried. muN‑/nuN‑.

bale comm. a building in which people live; place of residence; house. Makaphod tun bale yu. Your house is so beautiful. Hi uncle nan hi Taguiling inimbitar nah bale da te mumbaki da. His uncle, Tuguiling, was invited to their house because they were to perform the baki-ritual. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. They passed some small huts with small people living in them. Sim: kihikugan, abung, allung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) balayyan der. baleyan der. himbale der. makibale der. mumbale

balegan comm. a bird species. (sem. domains: - Bird.)

balen di alig comm. honeycomb of the alig-bee.

baleyan (der. of bale) trans. to build a house on a piece of land. Baleyan yu nan nih-up nah ob-ob. Build a house near the spring. ‑an.

himbale (der. of bale) 1comm. husband and wife; married couple. Abuna nan himbale di wada nah bale. Only the husband and his wife are in the house. general: This word literally means one-house. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2sta. to be one household, referring to a married couple. Munhimbale da. They are husband and wife. muN‑.

hunggop di ulog hi bale yu (id. of ulog) your house yard grass needs to be cleaned ( lit. snake will enter your house).

ikadangyan di imbabale (id. of imbabale, kadangyan) to have many children ( lit. rich/wealthy with children). (sem. domains: 6.8.1 - Have wealth.)

imbabale 1comm. offspring; refer to any age child in relation to parents; son, daughter. Mahlu day imbabalek. My children are industrious. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Hi ke Butale ya binugtung an imbabale. Butale was an only child. Sim: bun’at; Syn: an’ak. (sem. domains: - Related by birth, - Child.) 2trans. to consider the child of a relative as one’s own; nephew, niece. der. imbabaleyon der. inimbabaleyan der. mun-imbabale id. ikadangyan di imbabale

imbabaleyon (der. of imbabale) nom. 1refers to the child of a sibling; nephew or niece. Hi Juan ya imbabaleyon Pedro. Juan is the nephew of Pedro. ‑on. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.) 2refers to one who becomes a son or daughter through the marriage of one’s child; son-in-law or daughter-in-law.

inimbabaleyan (der. of imbabale) trans. to have children out of wedlock. Inimbabaleyan Jose hi Bugan. Jose has a child out of wedlock with Bugan. ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Illegitimate child.)

makibale (der. of bale) sta. to live with people who own a house. Makible dan dakayu te naghob nan abung da. They will live with you in your house because their house burned down. maki‑.

mumbale (der. of bale) v. to build a house in a place. Etaku mumbale ad Ambabag. Let us build a house in Ambabag. muN‑/nuN‑.

mun-imbabale (der. of imbabale) intrans. to give birth, human. Mun-imbabale hantuh umalin bulan. She will give birth this coming month. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.)

nadanuman nan bale (id. of danum) an idiom that implies that although a lot of water was used to put out a fire, the house was completely destroyed by fire (lit. the house was watered).

Ayta (sp. var. Alta; sp. var. Aeta) prop. Philippine aborigine; short person with negroid features; native of Bataan or Zambales. Dakol di Ayta nah muyung. There are many Aytas in the forest. Sim: pugut. (sem. domains: - Family, clan.)

abung 1comm. a hut; small house; humble home; has a low post and no round disk encircling the posts just below the floor. Waday abung nad abbat. He has a small hut at that nearby place. Umeyak nah abung nan in-ina. I will go to the small hut of the old woman. Sim: bale, kihikugan, allung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2trans. to build a hut; to stay in a hut. Mun-abung dad Linda. They are building a hut in Linda. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) der. ab-abbung

allung 1comm. a shelter; hut with no walls; a lean-to. Etaku munhidum dih allung. Let’s take shelter in that hut. Sim: bale, kihikugan, abung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2trans. to build a lean-to or shelter. Allungan yu nan nun-impan babuy nah mabalat. Make a shelter for the pig which gave birth near the banana plants. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

an’ak (sp. var. nak) comm. child of; son; daughter. Hi Tomas an anak Tuguinay di ahawana. It is Tomas, son of Tuguinay, who is her husband. Hi Juan ya anak Pedro. Juan is the son of Pedro. general: This word for child is frequently used in oral literature and rituals. Sim: bunat, tanud, holag; Syn: imbabale. (sem. domains: - Related by birth, - Child.)

bun’at 1intrans. to produce offspring. Binugtung da ina ke ama mo numbunat da ya walu kami. My mother and father were only children but they bore offspring and we are eight. Hi Alfredo di nangibunat kediyen ungan immed America. That child who went to America is the offspring of Alfredo. muN‑/nuN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 1E Physiological functioins. Sim: imbabale. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 2v. to be named after a relative; to use an ancestor’s name; offspring of. Man-uket hi Catalinay ngadan ku ya ha-on di nangibunat hi ngadan da apu. My name is Catalina because I was named after the name of my grandparent. nangi‑.

kihikugan (der. of hikug) comm. a shelter from atmospheric elements; a refuge or haven. Numpataddog hi amanah kihikugan da ot ahi ume. His father built them a shelter before he left. Sim: bale, abung, allung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

a-ul sta. 1to be unsatisfactory; not good enough; inappropriate; not as it should be; does not meet expectations. Naa-ul nan bulhe. The beans are unsatisfactory. (not young enough nor mature enough) ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Evaluate, test.) 2to be handicapped; born with one arm or leg; dwarfed or short in height; lacking in physical attributes. Naa-ul nan imbabalena. Her child is very short. na‑. (sem. domains: - Birth defect.)

abang 1comm. rental. Ongal di mapihhu da nah abang di tatagu. They get big money from the rentals of the people. (sem. domains: - Hire, rent.) 2trans. to rent. Abangan mi nan balen Mike. We will rent Mike’s house. Abangan da nan daulon yu. They will rent the space under-your-house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented actions. 3trans. to rent. An mun-abang kayuh balen da Bayawon? Are you renting in the house of Bayawon? Adida pinhod an umalah mun-abang. They do not want to have anyone rent it. Kaatnay pun-abang yu ohan bulan? How much are you renting it for one month? muN‑/nuN‑/puN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. maabangan

abbat 1comm. a nearby place. 1.1comm. a nearby place of the same elevation as the reference point; neighborhood. Umeyak hidid abbat. I will go there (nearby place). Immeh abbat na. He went to the nearby place. (sem. domains: - Near.) 2trans. to go to a particular or specified nearby place. Iabbat kuh balen da Kunde. I will go to Kundeh’s house. Tipet umanab-abbatan ka? Why are you going back and forth nearby. In-abat da nan bilau. The runos were taken nearby. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to go from one house to another; making the rounds of houses nearby. Mun-abbatanak hi balen di tutulang ku. I frequently go from one sister’s house to the others. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to go to or be at a nearby place. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngu bungubun mangabbat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices nearby. maN‑.

abugadu 1comm. one who is legally qualified to act for another in matters of civil law; attorney; lawyer. Umayag kah abugadu ta hiyay mangitakdog ke he-a. Call an attorney to defend you. (sem. domains: - Legal personnel.) 2intrans. to do the work of an attorney; practice law. Mun-abugadu nan imbabalena hin maongal. His son will be an attorney when he grows up. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to defend someone in court. Abugaduwan dakan hiya. He will defend you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Defend against accusation.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: abogado.

adi 1neg. negation of intentional and abilitative actions; will not; cannot. Adiyak ume. I will not go. Adiyak paka-adal nan kumalih English. I cannot learn to speak English. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi-ceremony. (sem. domains: - No, not.) 2neg. negative answer to a question regarding intention to act; no. 3neg. negative of the command to perform or execute an action; don’t. Adim alan. Don’t get it. Iadim di humgop hi baleyu. Don’t let anyone enter your house. i‑/iN‑. 4trans. to prohibit or prevent an action. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an gimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Disagree.) comp. adi bo comp. adinadama comp. adin-abu der. addi-addi der. ad-addi der. ad-adi der. adiyon der. miadi der. mun-addiaddi

adi mumbayag (ph. v. of bayag) v. by negating the verb meaning ‘long time’, the concept of short time is expressed. Hay ittolyah dingngol ku handi ya handi dandani mitungo nan tulang ku ya kumananta nan kilkilang nah nih-up hi balemi ot adi mumbayag ya nakatte nan tulang kun golang. The story I heard before is that when it was nearly time for my brother to be born, there was this night bird that always sang near our house, and so the baby died in a short time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.)

adod-’on₂ (sp. var. odod-on) intrans. to do housekeeping work; housework. Mun-adod-on ka hin wada ka tuh bale. Do household work when you are at home. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 5 - Daily life, 6.1 - Work.)

aga’mang 1comm. sleeping house or sleeping quarters for young people. [In times past, there were separate houses for young women and young men; young women usually stayed with a widow; traditionally there were evenings when young men went to ‘serenade’ the young women. ] (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2intrans. to sleep in someone’s house, other than the home of the nuclear family. Eyak mun-agamang hi balen da Bugan. I will go to sleep in Bugan’s house. muN‑/nuN‑.

agamid trans. 1to bring something to oneself; draw towards one’s self. Agamidom din ulo. Draw that blanket towards you. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: akuy. (sem. domains: - Pull.) 2to adopt a child Inagamid na nan imbabalen nan inayana ya nan tindalu. He adopted the child of his wife and the soldier. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Adopt.) 3to take personally something that is said. Adim agamidon di kinalik te bokon he-a. Don’t take personally what I have said because it doesn’t pertain to you. Antipet agamidom am-in di kalida? Why do you listen to everything they say? ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Upset.)

agihid comm. space, between a fence and a building, usually related to a house or granary. Natu-i nah agihid di baleda. He fell near the fence of their house. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area, - Vicinity.)

agol 1comm. to be hesitant; refers to the feeling of hesitation to do a thing because of fear of consequences. Waday agol kun e mundallanan nah hilong. I am afraid to go and walk around during night time. (sem. domains: - Doubt.) 2intrans. Umagolak an e hunggop hi baleda. I am hesitant to enter their house. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautiously walking on the slippery dikes. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: - Uncertain.)

ah’a (sp. var. ahh’a) adjunct. expression of disapproval; expression of disagreement; expression of refusal. Aha! Mangan kayut ahiyak mangan hi bale. No. You go ahead and eat, I’ll eat at home. Aha, tipe bo anhan ta em boh-olan. Oh come on, why do you have to scold her? Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ahilida (comp. of lida, ahi) nom. season for cutting grass in the ricefields. Ahi mibangngad nan imbabalem hi ahi lida. Your child will return when it is the season for cutting grass in the rice fields. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language.

akhop 1sta. having little relative height; situated below normal height; low. Naakhop nan kaiw di be-et. The guava tree is very low. Umakhop nan duplanu. The airplane will lower itself. Naak-akhop di kad-an nan baleyu. Your house is on a lower place. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6D Descriptives. ant: tag-e. (sem. domains: - Low.) 2intrans. to be aware of one’s shortcomings; to show respect for others; to be humble. Maphod di mun-akhop namam-a hin waday bahul. One should be humble especially if he is at fault. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Humble, - Low status.)

akhup 1trans. to overtake someone; to catch up with; come upon someone. Gal-an yun mundallan ta akhupan taku dida. Walk faster so we will overtake them. Inakhupak didan munlinillinih bale da. I came upon them cleaning their house. Gal-am ot wadan akhupam hi baleda. Hurry so you might catch up with them at their home. Mahmok ka ot kuman ugge nangakhup ke hiya. It’s a pity that you missed her (didn’t overtake her). ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, maN‑/naN‑. 5C Goal oriented site. Sim: lah-i. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2intrans. to meet someone. Ahi ta mun-akhup hidi. We will meet there. muN‑/nuN‑.

aladdu 1comm. key. Nangihdiyam nah aladdun di bale? Where did you put the key to the house? Pudugom hi Jose ta em idat tun aladdu. Run after Jose and give this key to him. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, - Rope, string.) 2trans. to lock up. Ialaddum nan bale hin lumah-un ka. Lock the house when you go out. Aladduwom nan kaban. Lock the wooden crate. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Shut, close.)

ali 1come. 1.1intrans. to move from a place thought of as ‘there’ by a speaker or hearer, to a place thought of as ‘here’; to come. Umaliyak ot hi baleyu ta ialik tun binakle muden immali ka. I was about to come to your house to bring these rice cakes but then you came. Immalih ina an nalpu nah indoggan di bale. Mother came from behind the house. 2A Movement, from one place to another. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2intrans. progressive aspect of come. Mangali amam. Your father is coming. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. Later on, he was approaching the er...creek, he saw..there were voices conversing. maN‑/naN‑. 2trans. to bring; come with something. <The prefix set, i-/iN-, cross-references the object being brought.> Iali yu nan babuy hi andani. Bring the pig later. In-ali dah ka-anin pagey. They brought newly-harvested rice. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

alingangnga intrans. to be confused; disconcerted; bewildered; thrown into disorder, e.g. when there are too many tasks to do, and by hurrying, some things are forgotten and others are not done. Mun-al-alingangngah Jose hi ena panamakan nah imbabalena. Jose was bewildered as to where to look for his child. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.)

Am’ung prop. a ritual, usually performed three days after the birth of a child. [Prayers invoke deities and sacrifices are offered and then there is feasting; attended by friends and relatives. This is also the time when the baby is named; usually named after a relative.] Dih Amung nan imbabalen nan tulang ku ya indasalan mi nan golang ot ahi kami muniistolya. During the ritual, for my brother’s child, we prayed first for the child then we continued our sharing of stories. (sem. domains: - Pray.)

amih trans. 1to pick on someone even if it is not his fault; to bully because someone is helpless or not capable of defending himself nor of retaliating. Amihona imbabalek te ongal ke hiya. He picks on my son just because he is bigger. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Act harshly.) 2to insult; to berate; to put down. Amihonah tulang na. He insulted his brother. ‑on/‑in‑.

ammod 1comm. parents; elders; kin of parent’s generation; relatives. Handih kaittay ku ya dakol di istolyan di aammod ya nadan umali bale. When I was small, I heard many stories from older folks and from those who came to our house to visit. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.) 2trans. to be related to. Ammodok diday iAmbabag. Those from Ambabag are my relatives. ‑on. infl. aamm’od

amugawon comm. a yellowish, hardwood tree variety. Amugawon di tukud di bale na. His house posts are of amugawon-wood. Numpagolgolak hi amugawon ta panulung ku. I let somebody saw amugawon-wood for my flooring. Sim: amuyuwon, labi, molave. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree, - Plant product.)

amunna adv. to be unique in number of characteristics. Maid di udum an makiha-ad ke dakami amunna nadan duwan golang an imbabalek ya nan inayak. There were no others living with us, only my two small children and my husband.

an-an intrans. 1to remain behind; stay behind to guard house. or when all but one of brothers and sisters have died; the last one or thing left behind; only living person in a family. Dahdiy mun-an-an hi bale? Who will stay behind in the house. He-ay maan-anan hanah bale. You stay in the house. muN‑, ma‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Stay, remain.) 2 refers to the only living person in a family; when all but one of brothers and sisters have died, the last one left behind.

ane 1comm. an insect that lives in colonies and eats wood; termite. Dakol di ane tuh tukud. There are many termites in this post. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2sta. to be eaten by termites;; termite damage. Maane nan posten di baleda. The post of their house will be eaten by termites. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 7.9.1 - Damage.)

angop sta. indistinguishable, hazy object; barely visible because it is seen from a distance. Deya on maang-angopan an bale. There, a house is barely visible. ma‑ ‑an CVC‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See, - Blind.)

apnga 1intrans. to welcome people into homes or to participate in special occasions; be hospitable. Mun-ap-apnga taku te ammuna ad uwanin nundadammuwan taku. Let us rejoice for it is only now that we have all met together. Nun-aapnga dan hintutulang dih kasal da Segun ke Ellaine. They welcomed their relatives to the wedding of Segun and Ellaine. general: People are not only hospitable, they are cheerful and happy to welcome people into their homes. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: - Welcome, receive.) 2comm. a welcome. Kayang di apnga na nah dintngan nan imbabalena. Her welcome/rejoicing was great when her child arrived.

at’op 1comm. roof; roofing material. Hinnanotak di atop nan balemi. I changed the roof of our house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to construct a roof; to use as roofing. Iatop yu nan gulun. Roof with the cogon grass/Use cogon grass for the roof. Atopan yu nan baleda ad uwani. You are going to roof their house today. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3pass. to be roofed. Naatopan moy baleda. Their house is already roofed/has a roof. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to make a roof. Mun-atop da nadan mungngunu. The workers are constructing the roof. Umatop kayuh pun-hiduman taku. Make a roof for our shelter. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

atu 1sta. to be tired; fatigued. Adi maatu nan nuwang. The carabao does not tire. Naka-atuwak an pinhod kun mun-iyatu ni-an. I am so tired, I want to rest for a while. Indani ya naatu da nin an nundopap. Later on, maybe they were tired from grappling. ma‑/na‑ . 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: bol’e. (sem. domains: 2.4.4 - Tired.) 2proc. refers to the process of becoming tired; tiring. Umatuy umeh baleyu. Going to your house is tiring. Adika mun-atu. Don’t tire yourself. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

atuwingwing intrans. to visually survey an area; to look around apprehensively; apprehensive surveillance, turning head back and forth, side to side. Mun-atuwingwing nan lalaki ot ahi hunggop nah bale. The man looked around apprehensively before entering the house. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: wingi, liggu, balungango. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

awidan comm. back side of the house; backyard. Eka munggabut nah awidan di bale taku. You go and cut grass at the back of our house. Sim: kob-al.

awil 1comm. a gift animal; given to visitors who visit a place for the first time; usually a chicken or a duck. Indattanak hi manuk an awil ku. They gave me a chicken as my gift. Mahapul an waday awil di golang ten pinghanay pangighopan dan hiya nah bale. It is necessary that a gift be given to a baby when she is brought into a house for the first time. Laawon mon Magappid ot idat na ta hidiye moy awil Bugan. Aunt Magappid agreed and gave it to Bugan as a present. Sim: regalo. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) 2trans. to give an animal gift. Awilan dakah manuk hin umanamut kayu. They will give you a chicken as your animal gift when you leave for home. ‑an.

awis 1trans. to invite or persuade someone. Awisom ta ume taku hi bale. Invite him and we will go to my house. Maid di maawis te inila day pangi-em. None could be persuaded because they know your character. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: lalit; Syn: ahuy. (sem. domains: - Invite, - Persuade.) 2intrans. to speak in order to persuade someone to do something. Mun-awis kah ibbam. Persuade your friends. Umawis kah tatagu ta umali dah tu. Persuade some people so they will come here. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. maawis

ay adjunct. expression of affirmation, usually with the component of an afterthought or insight, oh yes; oh yes, it’s like that. Immimih ina ot kananay “Ay, appaw. Man bokon bibiyoh diye Mother smiled and said, “Oh I see, that isn’t a fairy; Waday ohan ayyo- wadah Pangka an immed Mammangan hi baleda There was one, er..yes, there was Pangka who went to Mammangan to their house. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ba’ing comm. 1coconut midrib. Eka umalah baing ta kapyaom hi basket. Go and get coconut midribs and make a basket. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2broom made of coconut midrib. Alam nan baing ta higidam nan dola. You get the hard broom and sweep the yard. Alam nan baing ta ihigid mun nah dalan di bale. You get the hard broom and sweep the path to the house..

bagat 1comm. the four main corner posts of the Ifugao native house; four main, inside posts nailed to the floor joist and girders, holding and connecting girders to roof. Naane nan bagat di bale. The main post is attacked by termites. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to place corner posts. Bagatan yuh palayon nan bale. Use the oak wood for the corner posts. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

bagbaga-an (bag’a) trans. to tease; to mock or ridicule. Ginyang na nan balen da Pedro te bagbaga-an da. He threw stones at Pedro’s house because they had been teasing him. Binagbaga-an dah Willy kinali bimmoh-ol. They had been teasing Willy that is why he is mad. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. (sem. domains: - Insult.)

bagi 1exispred. to own; to belong to; to possess; predicates the existence of something that is owned. Bagik. It is mine. Dahdiy kon bagi ketuwe? Who owns this? Bagim hituwe. This is yours. (sem. domains: - Own, possess.) 2trans. to own or claim something that is not originally yours. Ibagim tun liblu hin bidbidok. You will own this book after I read it. Bagiyon yu nan bale. You will own the house. Maid di mabagi yu. You will own nothing. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bahawit trans. to jack-up something; to lift a heavy object by using a brace or jack. [Formerly, round trees were used; now hydraulic metal jacks are used.] Bahawiton miy balemi ta mundotal di dulung. We will jack up our house so that the floor will be level. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Lift.)

bak’uy₁ trans. to bend something. Bakuyon da nan gulipu ta umeh baleda. They will bend the pipe so it will go to their house. Bumakuy ka nah gumok. Bend some of the iron bars. Nabakuy di gaud na. His spade is bent/crooked. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: yaku, baking, banguy, killu. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

bakla 1comm. a gay; a homosexual man; one who is effeminate. Bakla nan imbabalena. His son is a homosexual. 2sta. will become effeminate or a homosexual. Mabakla nan imbabalem hin binabaiy iibbana. Your son will become effeminate if his companions are always girls. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

balal trans. 1to mortgage a property, houses or ricefields. [The person who mortgages his property is called the mortgagor.] Ibalal ku nan balemi. I am mortgaging our house. Nibalal din payon da Bugan. Bugan’s ricefields are mortgaged. Bangadok nan imbalal ina. I’ll pay back what mother has mortgaged. i‑/iN‑. 3H Conversive action process. (sem. domains: - Owe, 6.8.4 - Financial transaction.) 2refers to the act of underwriting a mortgage. [The person who underwrites a mortgage is called the mortgagee.] Wada ke ot di pihhuyu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. balalan infl. mangibalal

balasang 1comm. young unmarried girl over thirteen; girl; a young lady. Waday imbabalem hi balasang? Do you have an unmarried daugther? Sim: buggan, maddikit, pintas. (sem. domains: - Woman.) 2intrans. for a girl to develop and become a young woman. Bimmalasang kah hingkatang. I didn’t realize you’re a big girl now. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

balat 1comm. bananas, generic. Nat-ongan ke nan balat nah habal ne tinabal mu. When the banana in the garden is matured, cut it down. Ad-adiy mipal-um an balat hin ahikotolan te mabatag. It is not good for bananas to be ripened during the cold season because they don’t ripen well, they harden. spec: balangngon, dattok, udding, morado, dippig, lakatan. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.) 2sta. banana plantation. Mabalat nan muyung da. Their forest has lots of banana plants. ma‑. 3sta. The literal meaning of the riddle is that you must cut down the banana stalk to get the bananas. Patayom nih-an di inana ahim ta alan nan imbabalena. (balat) You kill the mother before you can get the child. (banana) (riddle) der. mabalat

balbal trans. 1to wash clothes. Balbalan yu nan nunhannotan yu. Wash your soiled clothes. Pakabbalbalam tun bulwatik. Wash my clothes very well. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, pakaC‑ ‑an. 5B Remove object from site. (sem. domains: 5.6.4 - Wash clothes.) 2to do laundry as a durative activity. Mumbalbal nan imbabale na. Her child is doing the laundry. Mumbalbal da nah wangwang. They are washing clothes in the river. muN/nuN .

Ballihung (sp. var. ballihong) 1prop. a ritual of prestige that shows wealth and status, particularly performed by an unmarried person; involves a feast. [This ritual feast was formerly celebrated to share wealth; a bulul god was considered to be the partner of the unmarried person; occasionally it was performed because no other rituals had been effective in removing the sickness of a child.] Sim: uya-uy, got’ad. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion, 4.2.2 - Social event, - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the ritual feast. Mumballihung hi Jose hi bigat. Jose is going to perform the prestige feast for unmarried people tomorrow. Bumallihung te binugtung. They’ll perform the prestige ritual feast for him because he is an only child. Naligat di bumallihung ad uwani te naginay nuwang ya babuy. It’s difficult to have the ballihung feast nowadays because carabaos and pigs are so expensive. Bimmalihung nan imbabalen da Juan ke Marta ot eyak manayottayo. Juan and Marta held a festival for their child and I danced and danced. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

balo (sp. var. ballo) revenge 1.1trans. to injure or kill in return for an injury or death; to take revenge. Adim ibalo nah imbabalena te maid di bahul na. Do not take revenge on his child because he is innocent. i‑/iN‑. Sim: aw’it. (sem. domains: - Revenge.) 1.2pass. for an act to be avenged. Mibalo nan at-atton yud uwani hi udum an algo. The evil things you are doing now will be avenged someday. mi‑/ni‑. infl. mangibalo

baltung 1comm. ritual in which the Ifugao shamans stamp their feet after each sentence of the ritual chant. Ingunu da nan baltung nah hogop. They perform the baltung-ritual during the hogop-ritual. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the baltung-ritual. Baltungan dah tulun babuy nan balen da Jose. They are going to perform the baltung ritual with three pigs in the house of Jose. Mumbaltung hi Jose. Jose will perform the baltung-ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑. 3comm. refers to the sound of the rapid stamping of feet. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 4intrans. to stamp one’s feet in rapid succession. [performed during the hogop ritual.] Mumbaltung da boh hilong. They are going to stamp their feet again tonight. Bumanalbaltung hanadan u-unga. The children are always stamping their feet. Mapmaphod hhi Dulyaggan ten mumbaltung. Dulaggan was very skillful when he was doing the baltung ritual. muN‑, ‑um‑.

banbanaggo comm. house lizard; gecko. [When it talks, it’s a sign visitors will arrive.] Dakol di bumudal an banbanaggo nah hilong ten waday dilag. Many house lizards come out at night when there is light. Mungkali ke kanu nan banbanaggo ya waday bisitan umali nah bale. It is said that if a lizard speaks in your house, a visitor will come. Munggango ke kanu nan banbanaggo ya waday bisitan umali na bale. When the house lizard sounds at your house, a visitor will come. Sim: kutkutli, banniya, kallulu; Sim: amulilit. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

bandela 1comm. flag; streamer; banner Kay bandelay bulwati na. Her dress is like a flag. (gaudy colored) (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.) 2trans. to use as a flag; display a flag or banner. Imbandela da nan maingit an luput. They used the red cloth as a flag. Bandelaan yu nan baleyu Place a flag on your house. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

bangad intrans. to return to a place that someone had previously left; usually used to return to residence. Nagibbu dan mangan ot mibangad dah bale da. When they finished eating they returned to their house. mi‑/ni‑. der. kibangngadan

bangun₂ 1intrans. to awaken and get up. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe awakened/got up and er...went climbing toward Talih to his hut. “Bumangun kayu mon iimbabalek, kanan inada. “Wake up, children,” their mother said. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 5.7.3 - Wake up.) 2trans. to awaken someone; the affix cross-references the person being awakened. Kanan Juliey “Nganat edakami hinalaman an binangun? Julie asked, “Why did you wake us up so early?” ‑on/‑in‑. bumangun infl. bangunon

banig 1comm. refers to the disembodied spirit of a dead person; ghost. [Adults use threats about ghosts to make children obey. Ghosts are believed to talk to people and sometimes lead them astray.] Waday banig kediyen bale. There are ghosts in that house. Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2trans. ghost appears; to haunt. Banigon daka hin mateyak. I will haunt you if I die. Bumanig nan nate. The dead will haunt. Binanig dah tulang ku. My brother met a ghost. Adika umeh gawwan di hilong te mabanig ka man. Don’t go in the middle of the night because you might meet ghosts. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

bao₁ sta. to be an abandoned house; describes the state, not the action of abandoning. Pinhod mun e mihdi dih nabaon bale? Do you want to live in that abandoned house? ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

bata-an 1trans. to move farther away from someone or something, putting space between; move back. Mibata-an kayun u-unga teden mumpapatteda. You children, move away for they are fighting. Eta dih bata-an ta waday kalyok ke he-a. Let’s go apart (from the crowd) so I can tell you something. mi‑/ni‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.5.3 - Be at a place.) 2intrans. the space or things between two things. Hay numbata-anan da ya nan bale mi. The thing between them is our house. nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Between.)

batweng₂ comm. a device for lifting heavy things; a jack. Nan batweng di inusal dan nangitagge nah bale. They used the jack in lifting the house. (sem. domains: 6.7.4 - Lifting tool.)

baw’ang comm. 1the inside of a container or contained area. Adi maphod di dola da; ammunay bawang di bale da an malini. The outside yard is not good; only the inside part of their house is clean. Sim: bohong. (sem. domains: - Inside.) 2the center of a ricefield. Waday balen di dolog nah bawang di payo da. There is a fish cage in the center of their ricefield.

bayyube (sp. var. bayube) 1comm. a cane-grass symbol of prohibition; no trespassing symbol. Eyak makimmah balen da Gabina ya numbayyube da ot adiyak humgop. I was going to chew betelnut at Gabina’s house but they had placed the prohibition sign so I did not enter. Adika gumawah na te neyay bayube/pudung. Don’t step into that part for there’s a keep-off sign. Sim: pudung, pile. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2trans. to prohibit an action. Bayubeyan yu nadan page nah pingngit di kalata. Put a keep-off sign on the rice grains along the path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

bentahe 1comm. an advantage; a benefit. Ongal di bentahe na te nih-up hi kalatay baleda. He has a great advantage because his house is along the road. (sem. domains: - Help.) 2intrans. to benefit from something done; have more advantages. Munbentahe nadan iTinoc hin miphod nan kalata da. The people from Tinoc will benefit if their road will be fixed. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

Biblia prop. the sacred book of Christians; Bible. Kon waday Bibliad bale yu? Do you have a Bible in your house? (sem. domains: - Sacred writings.)

bigbig 1trans. to claim or acknowledge something or someone. Bigbigon daka an imbabale. He claims you as his child. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: immatun, matmat. (sem. domains: - Report.) 2sta. to recognize. Ugge daka nabigbig te immongal ka. I did not recognize you because you have grown. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bilin 1comm. a message; a request. Nganney bilin dan ha-oy hi bale? What message did the people at home have for me? Sim: paad. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2trans. to give advice. Bilinom nan imbabalem ta adida munay-ayyam nah kalata. Advise your children not to play in the streets. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.5.3 - Exercise authority.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bo damdama adv. this compound adjunct expresses two concepts; one is an event that is repeated, i.e. again; the other concept is a different agent(s) is involved, i.e. also. Hi udum hi algo ya kalyon yuh iimbabale yuy mipanggep ketuwen himpappangen naat ne ahida damdama kalyon hi iimbabale da ne ahida bo damdama kalyon dadiyeh imbabale da. (Joel 1:3) In the future tell your children about this terrible happening, then they will also tell their children and then, they will again also tell their children. (This implies passing the story from generation to generation.) Additive.

bobida comm. the ceiling of a house or room. Ingkapyana di bobidan baledad nakugab. He built the ceiling of their house yesterday. (sem. domains: - Roof.)

bodega comm. a place for storing things. Ongal di bodega dah bale da. The storeroom in their house is big. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

bohong (sp. var. bohang) comm. the inside of a building or vehicle; interior of a building. Munhihhilong nah bohongnan nan bale. The inside of the house is dark. Ya tinibok nah bohong nan talak an impahuyop da nan natuwik nah dulung. And I saw the stabbed person inside the jeep lying on the jeep’s floor. Sim: baw’ang. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

bohwat₁ trans. to erect a building; to build. Bohwaton da hi bigat nan alang. They are going to build the granary tomorrow. Bumohwat dah bale nah tap-on di wa-el. They are going to build a house above the stream. Binohwat da mo nan balen da Bugan. Bugan’s house was built already. Mumbohwat dah bale. They are building a house. Adi mabohwat inggana umalih tulang na. It will not be built until his sibling arrives. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.)

bolhe 1intrans. to divorce; marital separation. Mumbolhe da te anampingona. They are divorcing because he always slaps her. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Divorce.) 2trans. to divorce someone. Imbolhe na nan inayana te adi pakaimbabale. He divorced his wife because she cannot bear a child. i‑/iN‑.

bub’ung (sp. var. bubong) comm. roof peak in an Ifugao house or granary usually with a vent at the side which serves as a chimney; the topmost ridge of thatch. Muntudu nan bubung nan abung. The roof of the house is leaking. Kinayat kuy bubung di baleda. I climbed to the peak of the roof of their house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

bud’al 1nom. an exit or opening to go out. Maid di buddalan nan gando. The rat has no exit. ‑an. Sim: buddu, lah-un. 2intrans. to exit; come out; go out. Bumudal kayu ni-an ta liniyan mi tun bale. Go out for a while and we will clean the house. Hinumgop kami nah balen ongal ya ekami bumudal ya hinnatkon di bimmudalan mi. We entered the big house but when we came out we came out from a different exit. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Move out.) 3trans. to bring something out. Ibudal mu nan it-ittalum. You bring out what you are hiding. Adiyu ibudal am-in hanan makan te dakol da pay di ugge nangan. Do not bring out all the food because many did not eat yet. Dahdiy nangibudal bo tuh intaluk an otak. Who brought out again this bolo which I had hidden. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3E Move an object directionally. ph. v. bumudal nah hospital

buk’a 1trans. to set/let loose; to let go; release; to free; to untie. Ibukam nan ahu ta waday innunan mun-adug tuh bale. Release the dog so it can guard the house. Bukaan yu nadan manuk ta mun-ay-ayyam da. Set the chickens free so they can roam around. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3B Move and release object. Sim: bulus. (sem. domains: - Set free.) 2intrans. an animal frees itself form a pen or from its tethering rope. Numbuka nan nuwang ot ume nah payo. The carabao set itself loose and went to the ricefield. Tibon yu te bumuka nan ahu. Be careful because the dog might free itself.

bulakbul 1comm. one who wanders about without purpose; drifter. Tuttudwam nan imbabalem ta adi mumbalin hi bulakbul. Train your child so he will not become a drifter. Bulakbul ad uwani te nungkaan hi iskul. He is a drifter now because he dropped out of school. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2intrans. to loiter around; to gallivant. Mumbulakbul ka an adim homkon di ammod mu. You are just loitering around (doing nothing) not pitying your parents. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: duka. (sem. domains: - Lazy.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bulan₁ 1comm. moon. Ongal nan bulan. The moon is big/full. (sem. domains: - Moon.) 2intrans. for the moon to shine. Indanit bumulan ta ahi taku ume. Wait for the moon to shine before we go. Bimmubbulan handi hilong. The moon shone brightly last night. Pinaddi min immeh bale da handih bimmulan. We purposely went to their house during a moonlit night. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 3comm. full moon; bright moon. Dakol di makihalud hin bulabbulan. There are many serenading/courting on the nights when the moon is full. Manomnom ku ya bulabbulan dih natayana. I remember he died on a full-moon-night. CV(C)CV‑ C‑. Ambulan bulabbulan natalak di bulan der. bumulan n. ph. kahabonan di bulan n. ph. kaha-alan di bulan n. ph. katalakan di bulan n. ph. katanungan di bulan n. ph. katom-angan di bulan n. ph. ongal di bulan

bulubul 1trans. to wash away something. Duyagam nan balen di babuy hi dakol an danum ta mabulubul nan tain di babuy. Pour plenty of water in the pigpen so the pig’s waste will be washed away. Bulubulon yu nan luta nah gawwan di kalata. Wash away the soil in the middle of the street. Mahapul di tuping tedeyan mungkabulubul tun luta. A retaining-stone-wall is needed because the soil is being washed away. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: anud. (sem. domains: 5.6 - Cleaning.) 2proc. for soil to be washed away; to erode. Mahapul di tuping tedeyan mungkabulubul tun luta. A retaining (stone) wall is needed because the soil is being washed away. mungka‑/nungka‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: burubur.

bun’ung trans. to give a wedding present during the bubun ceremony. Nganne pinhod yuh ibnung kun dakayu? What do you want me to give you for a wedding present? Pinhod kuy otak an ibnung ke da Dulnuan an himbale. I want to give a bolo to Dulnuan and his wife. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

bunag intrans. to transfer or transport something; usually done little by little; to transport specified things. Ekami numbunag hi kape. We made several trips to carry sacks of coffee. It-itayon yun e mumbunag nah lona. You carry the sand little by little. Kalyom ke dida ta eda punbunag nan karga yu. Tell them to go and carry our cargo. Binunag hanadan imbabalek nan batu. My children carried the stones little by little. Bunagon yuh tu nadan liblu. Carry the books here little by little. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: ubu. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bungul₁ sta. to have fungus on head; tinea eczema. Nakabbungngulan tun imbabalem. Your child has fungus all over his head. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, naka‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.)

butik 1to run. 1.1intrans. to move by moving legs rapidly; run. Mumbubutik an limmah-un. He was running when he came out. Ya andani ya mumbubutik an manayyu nan ahawana. And after awhile, the her husband came running down. muN‑/nuN‑. Class 1A Movement, manner. Sim: bel’et. (sem. domains: - Run, 7.2 - Move.) 1.2intrans. to continuously run in and about a particular site. Mumbutbuttikan nan golang nah danum. The child is running around in the water. muN‑ ‑an, CV(C)‑. 1.3intrans. to run about repeatedly, with the component of stopping and starting again. Adika bumanuttikan te mihubag ka. Don’t be always running around because you will stumble. um‑ ‑an‑ ‑an. 2to run in a direction. 2.1trans. to run in relation to a goal-object. Butikon yu ingganah baleda. You will run until you reach their house. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.2intrans. to run in relation to a particular site-object (place of running). Butikan yu hin la-uwan yu nan ob-ob. Run when you pass by the spring. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to run away to escape danger or pursuit. Bumtik man nan babuy. The pig will surely run away. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. bumtik

butong 1intrans. to be drunk; to be intoxicated. Mumbutong hi amam. Your father is getting drunk. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Drunk.) 2intrans. to become intoxicated; become drunk. Bumutong di baya. Rice wine is intoxicating. Adi bumutong tun bayam te nadanuman hi liting. Your rice wine does not cause intoxication because water has been added. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to cause someone to be drunk. Binutong Alfred hi Allen te indat nan hiyan am-in nan bayan od-odnana. Alfred was the cause of Allen’s being drunk because he gave him all the rice wine he was holding. Ibutong na nan binoklana. He will use his pay to get drunk. Butongon daka hin adika mangan. It will cause you to be drunk if you do not eat. 4sta. to be drunk. Adik pinhod an mabutong ka te uggem inilay at-attom. I do not like you to be drunk because you do not know what you are doing. Hidin nah bale day nabutongak. It was there in their house where I got drunk. Nabutong day dakol dih kasal dih Linggu. Many were drunk during the wedding last Sunday. na‑, na‑ ‑an. 5trans. focus is on reason for being drunk. Imbutongan Mario di nunhannuwan dan Maria. Mario got drunk because he and Maria argued with each other. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an.

buut₁ 1comm. cobweb; white cotton-like nests of small insects like spiders. Dakol di buut nah abung yu. There are many cobwebs in your house. ma‑‑an. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2sta. to have cobwebs. Nabuutan nan dingding di bale mi mu maid aton an munlini te nitag-e. The walls of our house have cobwebs but there is no way to clean them because they are too high. Nabuutan di baleda te adida mihdi. Their house is full of cobwebs because they don’t live in there. ma‑‑an.

buyong 1trans. for the wind to cause the motion or movement of something; swaying movement caused by the blowing of the wind. Imbuyong nan dibdib nan apuy kinali nakiaala nan bale yu. The wind blew the fire towards your house, that’s how your house caught fire. Mibuyobuyong nadan tutubu. The leaves are being blown. (swaying movement can be seen). i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: - Wind.) 2sta. to be shaded, area shaded on the ground by the branches of a tree. Nabyongan nan intanom kun petchay. The petchay I planted is shaded by the tree ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

CVC- dim. this reduplicant expresses the meaning of small size; it co-occurs with nouns; diminutive. Waday dakol di ka-kaiw hi bale mi. There are many bushes (small trees) by our house. Pina-i na nan taltalak an indat ku. He destroyed the toy truck that I gave him.

da-guh intrans. to stop at a house to visit. Deket munda-guh da ya mahapul an painuman ya ipaltiyan nan kon bale. If they should stop at a house, the relative must give them wine and butcher a pig for them. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Stop moving.)

da-it₂ trans. 1to add something to what is already existing. Adim ida-it nan bale yu nah bale da. Do not join your house to their house. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object . (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 2to sew; to add a piece of cloth to another. Da-itam nan ampuyom te neyan antikke. Sew a piece to your skirt because it is short. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

da₁ pers. 1they; third person, plural pronoun; the form is a member of both Set 1 and Set 2 and encodes the subject grammtical relation, whether or not it is cross-referenced. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hiyo dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka some small er...meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They left the basket in our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2third person plural, possessive pronoun, Set 1; equivalent to the English possessive pronoun ‘their’. Ume kamih bale da. We are going to their house. Loktat mo anhan ya nauman am-in di odon da. Soon enough, nothing was left of their heirlooms. Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. comp. dehdida ph. v. dedah di ph. v. dedah tu

dadag destroy. 1.1trans. refers to the destruction of concrete objects; may also refer to people or their reputations; to ruin; to destroy; to damage. Adim dadagon nan intanom ku. Do not destroy what I planted. Wada boppoy ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whatever toy that I buy, you destroy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object . (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 1.2pass. the passive form refers to the state of being damaged or destroyed, without an agent. Madadag am-in di nitanom te itotool nay udan. All the plants will be damaged because it keeps raining. Nadadag nan ingkail ku te makudang di inha-ad kun binokbok. The rice wine I prepared is ruined because I did not put enough yeast into it. ma‑/na‑. 1.3mod. expresses the facility with which an undergoer-object can be put into a condition or state; easily destroyed. Kadinaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. ka‑ ‑inn‑. 1.4nom. the derived noun refers to the concept of destruction. Hay tumbuk di kadadagan di dakol an tagu. It is gossip that is the destruction (reputation) of many men. ka‑ ‑an. 1.5trans. to destroy, with an added component of having the ability to do this. Dumadag hi bale nan puwok an umali. The storm that is coming can destroy houses. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

dag-u 1intrans. to stop by someone’s residence or business place; drop-by, for a reason, not just to visit. [In Ifugao culture, people may stop by for eating or sleeping or other reasons.] Ahika dumag-uh gattak tun golang. Drop by a store for this baby’s milk. Nundag-uwak hi bale yu handi mu maid ka. I stopped by your house before but you were not there. Deket malpu kad Lagawe ya nundag-u kah tut waday ipaad kun ahim kalyon ke amam. When you come from Lagawe, you come here so I can tell you the message which you are to tell your father. muN‑/nuN‑,‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: - Visit.) 2trans. to stop by to leave something or pick up something. Idag-u yu nan ginattang kuh bale. Drop/Leave the things I bought at home. Dag-uwom nan libluk hi balen da Ana. Stop by the house of Ana and get my book. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. der. pundag-uwan

dagami 1comm. dried stalks of rice. Ha-adam hi dagami nan puyok ta adi madanglol. Place rice stalks on the mud so (the path) will not be slippery. Takon di munnanong nan dagami ot nalakan matanok. Just let the rice stalks remain, anyway, they easily become soft (and decay). Hay ke uung ya mabalin an tummol hi dagami. Mushrooms can grow in rice straw. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2trans. to place rice straws with location in view. Dagamiyan yu nan balen di babuy. Place rice straws in the pigpen. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

dagga v. to go beyond a given place. Deket ume kah balen da ya madagga ka ni-an hi Shrine ta eka mangala nah lappaw ta waday ahi ta idecorate nah simbaan. If you are going to their house, go beyond to the Shrine first to get sunflowers so we will have something to decorate the church. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Move past, over, through.) Daggana

dahada trans. to feel with hands or feet for something that cannot be seen. Dahadaom nan takkalang kun nag-a nah kad-an di batu nah payo. Feel with your hands for my rings which fell near the stone in the ricefield. Dinahadak nan dalan an immeh bale di hilong te tapottapol. I had to feel for the path when going to our house last night because it was so dark. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 2.3.5 - Sense of touch, - Touch.)

dal’ang flaming. 1.1intrans. to burn brightly; refers to the process of visible burning; the flaming of a fire. Mundadalang nan baleda. Their house is flaming. Induyag ku nan pitlolyo ot tolgak ya dimmalang. I poured kerosene (on it) and lit it and it flamed. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: dalebdeb. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5 - Fire.) 1.2caus. to cause a fire to flame. Padalangon yu nan apuy. Make the fire flame. pa‑ ‑on. 1.3sta. refers to a type of wood that burns well. Madalang nan intungu. The firewood burns well. ma‑. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

dalligan comm. a tree variety used for flooring. Dalligan di dulung nan baleda. The flooring of their house is of dalligan-wood. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

dang-a 1comm. labor that is voluntary; volunteer work; to help do anything. Dang-an Juan ad uwani. Now is the time to go and help Juan with his work. Sim: baddang, tulung, abono. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2trans. to work without pay; voluntarily. Dang-ahon da nan ubun di kaiw hi bigat. They will volunteer to carry the wood tomorrow. Pidang-ak nan magolgol hi bale. I’m having (people) voluntarily saw wood for my house. ‑on/‑in‑, pi‑. 3intrans. to work voluntarily. Mundang-a dad uwani. They are working voluntarily today. muN‑/nuN‑.

daplug (sp. var. duplug) knock over. 1.1trans. to knock over by bumping or overrunning as a flood. Kumaan kah na te idaplug dakan hiya. Get out of there because he will knock you over. Nidaplug nan ung-ungngan um-umbun te munhihilong an adi matibo. The child sitting there was knocked over because it was night and she couldn’t be seen. Nan olwang ya indaplug nah baleda. That flood, it overran their house. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 1.2trans. to knock over, involves the manner or reason for the action. Ikiwangan yu ot din mangali te kay nuwang an umidaplug. Give way to the one coming because he will knock you over like a carabao. Pun-idaplug muy ubunan te adim tibon di dalanom. You knock the seat over because you don’t look where you are going. Mamtikak ya wada da nan nitanom nah pangidalanak ot pun-idaplug ku. I was running and there were plants in my way so I knocked them over. umi‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3trans. to bump someone or something. Immali ot daplugonak ot bumtik. He came and bumped me and ran away. ‑on/‑in‑.

datong₁ 1intrans. to reach a destination; to arrive. Dimmatong dad Lagawe ad nakugab. They arrived at Lagawe yesterday. Madatong di tiempon ahi daka tibon. The time will arrive when I’ll see you. Dakol day tatagun e munhood hi iiba dan dumatong. Many people go to meet their relatives who are arriving. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑. 2A Movement, from one place to another.. (sem. domains: - Arrive.) 2trans. to arrive, bringing something with oneself. <The prefix cross-references the object that is brought.> Idatong yu nan itunguh bale. Bring the firewood up to our house. Indatong da nan babuy dih indai. They arrived with the pig a while ago. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with onself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.) 3trans. the site of arrival is an object that is cross-referenced, a person, place or time. <Morphophonology: datngan; dinatngan; the ‘o’ in the second syllable of the root is lost when a suffix is added.> Datngan hiyah di. You will arrive there where he’ll be. Dinatngan Jose hitud Kiangan ad nakugab. Jose arrived here in Kiangan yesterday. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day arrived. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. infl. madatngan

dattum (sp. var. dutum) 1trans. to touch something. Idattum mu nan taklem hi uluna. Touch his head with your hand. Nidattum nan taklena nah danum. His hand touched the water. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. Sim: dondon, dummit. (sem. domains: - Touch.) 2intrans. to be adjacent. Mundattum di baleda. Our houses are adjacent to each other (side-by-side). muN‑/nuN‑.

dawwi (sp. var. dawi) 1adjectival predicate. to be distant; to be far away. Adaddawwi nan boble da. Their barrio is very far. a‑ CVC-. (sem. domains: - Far.) 2to place at a distance. 2.1trans. to put some distance between two things. Idawwim nan imbabalem nah apuy. You take your child away from the fire. i/iN. 2.2pass. to be far away from a designated point. An nidawwi nan bale yuh tu? Is your house far from here? Adik pinhod an midawwi kan ha-on. I don’t want you to be far from me. mi‑/ni‑. der. kadinawwina infl. adawwi

daya₁ trans. to level ground; to make ground level. Dayahan yu nan pangiha-adan hi bale. Level the ground where we will build the house. Dinayahan da dola da ta pun-ay-ayyaman di imbabalem. They leveled their yard so that their children can play on it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Sim: kiblu, dede. (sem. domains: 7.5 - Arrange.)

dayyu 1intrans. to move in a downward direction; walking or riding down an incline; descend; go down, walk down a mountain or hillside. Dumayyu ka keh tu ta waday ibagak. Come down here (lit. descend) and I will ask you something. Dumayyu kad Pindongan ta em tibon hi Dulyaggan. Come down to Pindongan so that you will go to see Dulyaggan. Mundayyu kat ume kah bale da ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Go down (lit. descend), to their house and call for Kabbigat so that I will have someone to help me singe the pig. Indai ot dongdonglona, mundayyu dah wa-el nan ho kali ya- ne kinimit na. Later on, as he was hearing, they were going down to the creek and then he closed his eyes. muN‑/nuN, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: - Move down.) 2sta. to be sloping, a path or road, descending toward a destination. Madayyu nan dalan an umeh baleda. The path going to their house is sloping. Ya mumpadayyuy ohat mumpaed Kiangan. And one pathway goes down towards Kiangan. ma‑. 3to descend with the path or site in view. 3.1trans. the direct object refers to a specific path or something along the path. Dayyuwon yu nan madopla ta ahi kayu dumatong. You’ll go down/descend the cliff before arriving. ‑on/‑in; dayyuwon. 3.2trans. the direct object refers to a specific site for starting the descent Hidiy dayyuwan yu. There (is the place) where you will go down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.3trans. the direct object refers to an object along the path of descent. Idayyu yu nah kad-an di mangga. You’ll go down/descend where the mango tree is. i‑/iN‑.

dedah tu (ph. v. of de, da, hitu) demonstrative predicate. predicates the place where people or things are; see, they are here. Ya hanada ken imbabalek ya dedah tu. As for my children, they are here. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

dekoresyon (sp. var. dekolatyon; sp. var. dekorasyon) comm. decoration. Kulitmat ke on ihaad day dekoresyon hi babaleda. During Christmas they place decorations in their houses. (sem. domains: 5.1.2 - Household decoration.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

dekoreyt 1intrans. to decorate, e.g. house, church, stage. Mundekoreyt da hi baleda. They will decorate their house. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.1.2 - Household decoration.) 2trans. to decorate something or to use things in decorating. Idekoreyt da nan indat mu. They will use the things you gave in decorating. Dekoreytan da nan baleda. They will decorate their house. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: English.

dewet intrans. to go about without purpose; to roam; to gallivant. Mundewet nan imbabalem. Your child is always roaming around without any purpose. Adi kayu e dumewedewet te dakol di mingunud uwani. Don’t go gallivanting because there is much work to do now. Nadewet hi Maria. Maria is a gallivanter. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. Sim: umga, lubwat, baat. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

dilag 1comm. artificial light. Maid di dilag ku. I have no light. Sim: big’at, pat-al, algo, potang. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2trans. to use a light. Eda mundilag hi bakbak. They are going to use a light and catch frogs. Mundilag hi baleda handi hilong. Their house was lit up last night. Maid di idilag ku. I have no light-to-use. Dilagan yu nan dalan. Provide a light for the path. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑.

dingding 1comm. wall of any building, e.g. houses or granaries. Napa-i nan dingding. The wall was destroyed. (sem. domains: - Wall.) 2trans. to build a wall; to put up walls. Ugoy indingding da. They walled-it with fine bamboo. Dingdingan yuh tabla. Wall with the boards. Pundingdingan da. They are walling-it. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 4A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) 3intrans. to place a wall. Mundingding da ad uwani nah balen da Pedro. They are putting up a wall now in the house of Pedro. Dumingding kah kiha-adan nadan u-unga. Wall off a spot for the children to live in. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

disaag 1intrans. to alight from vehicle; to get off a vehicle. Mundisaag taku hi bale. We will get off the vehicle at home. Dumisaag taku nah pottok di baleda. We will get off directly in front of their house. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Leave.) 2trans. to unload from a vehicle, usually cargo. Idisaag mu tun kargak. Unload my cargo. i‑/iN‑.

disiplina 1comm. refers to the training or punishment of someone. (sem. domains: - Discipline, train.) 2trans. to train or punish someone. Deket disiplinaom di imbabalem ya luminggop ka. If you discipline your child, you will experience peace. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact.

diwol 1trans. to shake something back and forth horizontally. Idiwol nan gulding nan alad. The goat shook the fence. i‑/iN‑. 3E Move object directionally. Sim: wat’ang, wagot, wowod. (sem. domains: - Shake, - Move back and forth.) 2intrans. the shaking of something. Mundiwol tun bale yu. Your house shakes. Dimmiwol nan kaiw ot iang-ang ku ya wada on bulangon. The tree shook and when I looked, there was a monkey. Mundiwwolan nan bale dih kimmolyog. The house was shaking during the earthquake. muN‑/nuN‑ ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ ‑an.

diyyu dem. there far away; over yonder. Diyyu nan balen da Pedro. There yonder is the house of Pedro. (sem. domains: 8.5.1 - Here, there.)

dot-al 1comm. flooring. [Floorboards are placed across the doorway not parallel to it so luck and prosperity will not go out of the house.] Nan udyo di iha-ad yun dot-al. Place the mahogany-wood for the flooring. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to floor a house. Dot-alan dah kawayan nan bale da. They are going to floor the house with bamboo-slats. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

Dugung prop. the name of a village. Ad Dugung di bale da. Their house is in Dugung.

duhdu₂ trans. to block the passageway of rats in ricefields by using mud. Duhduwon yu nadan balen di utut. Block the passageways of the rats into their nests. Manuhdu kayu nah loba. Block the entrance to the rats’ nests in the field’s slope. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: - Block, dam up.)

duka intrans. to walk about without purpose; to roam; to wander about. Adim tuttuduwan tun imbabalek an e munduka. Don’t influence my child to go roaming around. Nganney boklaom an dumukaduka. What will you gain by roaming around? muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: bakwad; Sim: bulakbul; Syn: alaya. (sem. domains: - Walk.)

duladul trans. to poke something so that the contents will fall into a container, e.g. the house of the allaga-ant. Duladulaom nan balen di allaga ta ihda taku nadan inana. Poke the house of the allaga-ant so that we will have the queen ants for viand. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: hudpak, hukit, dunghak, hudng’ak. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

dulung 1comm. floor. Kakukudli nan dulung da te udyo. Their floor is slippery because it’s of narra-wood. Tablay dulung di baleda. The floor of their house is of boards. 2trans. to place floor boards or strips; to place flooring. Dulungan yu nan balen di maunk. Place flooring strips on the chicken house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

duntug 1comm. a slight elevation of land; a hill. Nah duntug di nangiha-adan da nah bale da. On the hill is where they placed their house. Sim: bilid. (sem. domains: - Mountain.) 2sta. to be hilly. Maduntug nan kudal da. Their pasture land is hilly. ma‑.

duttuk trans. to go directly to a person or place; to arrive at a specific place. Nan balen kapitan di duttukon yu. Go directly to the house of the captain. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.)

e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume

e-ele 1comm. refers to an area that is outside of a residential area, Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. 2move away. 2.1intrans. to move away from a particular area. Ume-ele kayu te bumduk man nan bomba. Move away because the bomb will surely explode. Imme-ele da ot datngan da nadan babalen nihag-on nah ob-ob. They went further and reached the houses near the spring. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2.2trans. to move something away from a particular area. Ie-elem nan ngalam. Move your noise away. i‑/iN‑.

etaku pers. we-all; the form is a compound of the marker e and the first person inclusive personal pronoun, a member of Set 1 and Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb and encodes the subject grammatical relation. Ot kanan miy “Etaku balen APU DIOS ta etaku mundayaw ke hiya.” (Psalm 132:7) We’ll say “Let’s go to the house of the LORD so that we will worship him.” (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

gaat trans. to trim grass; mow grass with bolo; to clear a path of grass. [This is usually done for the purpose of clearing a path or area around a house or the sides of roads.] Gaatam nan dalan an umeh bale taku. You clear out the path going to our house. ‑an/ ‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: - Cut grass.)

gag-a trans. to urge someone to do something that the speaker doesn’t want to do. [The word may be obsolete.] Pun-igag-an Tayaban nadan imbabalena ta eda ibaloy namatayan da nah tulang da. Tayaban urged his sons to go and revenge the death of their brother. puN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: - Persuade.)

gagala (fr. var. galgala) 1advpred. may refer to the speed with which something is done, i.e. quickly, or a short duration of time; soon. Gagalay pangapyaan Fely hi cookies. Fely makes cookies quickly. Gagala ya nap-uy makan. Soon the food was gone. Gagala ya dimmatong da nah balen nan inaona. Soon they arrived at Aunt Magappid’s house. Time. Sim: alittu; Sim: galgala. (sem. domains: 8.4.8 - Speed.) 2to hurry. 2.1advpred. to hurriedly do something; do something with haste. <The action is cross-referenced by the affix on the adverbial predicate.> Galgal-am ta magibbu. Hurry it (the thing being done) so that it will be finished. Tipet galagalaam an mangan? Why do you eat so fast? (hurriedly) Gal-am an ume. Hurry and go. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.4.2 - Take time.) 2.2advpred. the information focus is on the hurried manner rather than the action that is modified. Inggagalanan in-e. He hurriedly brought it. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 2.3intrans. the information focus is on the person hurrying. the agent-subject is cross-referenced by the affix.. <The agent-subject is cross-referenced by the affix. on the adverbial predicate.> Tipet eka gumalagala? Why are you hurrying? Kanan Josey “Tipe eka munggagalan manayyu?” Jose said “Why are you hurriedly going down?” ‑um‑/‑imm‑; muN‑/nuN‑.

ganga sta. to be hard; durable; referring to wood. Maganga nan tukud di baleda. The post of their house is hard. Maganga nan kaiw an kinapya nah ubunan. The chair he made is from a durable wood. ma‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture, 6.5.3 - Building materials.)

gastu 1comm. expense. Dakol di gastu an umeh iskul. There are many expenses in going to school. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2trans. to spend money to cover an expense. Adiyu gastuwon am-in nan pihhu yu. Do not spend all of your money. Gastuwan dakan tulang mu hin ume ka mun-iskul. Your brother will spend for you when you go to school. Munggastu ka hi ongal ta ahi miphod nan balem. You will spend a large amount of money before your house will be finished. Gumastu ka nin hi duwan gatut ta ahika dumatong ad Baguio. You will spend around two hundred before you reach Baguio. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Spend.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: gasto.

gayam adjunct. expression of remembering; with emphasis; Oh yes, I remember! Ibangngad takuh bale te nal-iwak gayam nan libluk. We’ll go back to our house because I just remembered I forgot my book. Attitudinal. Sim: ta-wa. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: gayam.

gidi 1intrans. to move restlessly; to fidget. Munggidi nan unga te pinhod nan umeh baleda. The child was moving about restlessly because she wanted to go home. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: gad’it. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.) 2sta. to be fidgeting. Nagidi kinali nag-a nah ubunan. He was fidgeting that is why he fell down from the seat. ma‑/na‑.

ginnid comm. a male person. Restrictions: Hudhud epics and songs.. Ginnid di imbabalena. Her child is a boy. Syn: lalaki. (sem. domains: 2.6.5 - Male, female.)

gladu (sp. var. gradu) comm. 1a grade of school. Tuluy gladu nah iskul. He is in grade three. (sem. domains: 3.6.2 - School.) 2a story of a building; floors of a building, refers to the levels of a building. Duwan gladu nan kinapya dan bale. The house they built is two stories. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) Lnguage Of Borrowing: Spanish: grado.

golen (sp. var. holen) 1comm. a rounded children’s plaything made of agate; marble. Idatam nan ibam hi golen na ta mun-ay-ayyam kayu. Give your brother a marble so that both of you can play. Sim: bulintik, holen. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to play with marbles. Munggogolen da nadan u-unga nah daulon di bale. The children are playing with marbles under the house. muN‑/nuN‑.

gulipu (sp. var. gulipo) 1comm. pipe, galvanized iron; water pipe. Maid di liting nah gulipu mi. We have no water in our pipe. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2comm. faucet; water tap. Waday liting nah gulipu. There is water in the faucet. 3trans. to place a water pipe or tap. Gulipuwan yu nan ume nah galden an liting. Place a pipe for the water that goes to the garden. Gulipuwon yu nan otbol ta ie yuh bale yu. Place a water pipe in the spring so that you can bring the water to your house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: gripo.

gulun comm. grass; may refer specifically to cogon grass, used for thatch. Unga ke ya mabungot, diket na-ongal ya ma-ule. (gulun) While it is young, it is cruel, when it gets old, it is kind. (grass)(riddle) Nganney atop di bale yu, gulun? What is the roofing of your house, cogon grass? (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) der. magulun

gutul 1comm. ant, generic term. Manggop day gutul nah bale te niwahit di atukal. The ants are entering the house becaause the sugar is scattered. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to ants when you are walking along the road. spec: ad-ad’ing, bubbuwit, bubuwit. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2sta. to be full of ants; refers to the condition of having ants on or in something. Nagutulan nan tinapay. There were ants in the bread. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

ha-oy (sp. var. ha-on) pers. I, first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the form is preposed before the verb and functions as a topicalized agent-subject; the form is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Ha-oy mangipaali nah talak hitu. I will have the truck come here. Ha-oy ke ya handih wada ak ad Linda hi balen nan iban aman nih-adak I am the one who was in Linda staying at the house of my father’s relative at that time. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

hag-on 1trans. to be alongside; to be beside each other; to be adjacent. Nunhag-on kami nah simbaan. We were beside each other in church. Hinag-on mi nan baleda. We are beside their house. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: paldang, dongte, hunnup. (sem. domains: - Beside, - Next to.) 2nom. neighbor. Hidiyen tagu ya adina tumtumbukon di hinag-ona. As for that person, he does not gossip about his neighbor. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 4.1.4 - Neighbor.) der. hinag-on

hakyat 1trans. to bring or take something home. Ihakyat muh tuwe. Bring this home. Inhakyat Pedro nan page dih bale. Pedro brought the rice up to the house. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.) 2intrans. to go home. An humakyat kayu mo? Are you leaving for home? ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

halman sta. to be excessive; too much; to overdo something. Adim halman di alam. Don’t get so much. Nakahhalman di imbabalem. Your child is too much/terrible. naka‑. Sim: labes; Sim: mahig, hogla. (sem. domains: - To a larger degree.)

hammang 1trans. to build the skeletal structure of a house, without walls and flooring. Dahdiy kombaleh hammangom? Whose house are you going to build? (understood without walls) ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) 2pass. for the skeletal structure of a house to be built. Nahammang mo nan balen Pedrito. The skeletal structure of Pedrito's house is built. ma-/na-.

hanah (han) dem. the; that; a demonstrative pronoun belonging to Set 2; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific person, place, time or thing. Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. The place where they walked, they passed some small huts with small people living in them. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hawan trans. to block the view. Adim hawanan nan dilag. Do not block the light. Ihawan mu nan saku nah tawang. Use the sack in blocking the window. Humawan nan kaiw ta adi matibo nan bale mi. The tree blocks the view so that our house cannot be seen. Adika mihawan na. Do not block our view. ‑an/‑in‑‑an, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑/ni‑. Sim: duklig, hani; Sim: hani. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

haybong sta. to have thick foliage; to be full of leaves. Mahaybong nan dalan an umeh bale da. The road to their house is bushy. Himmaybong nadan intanom ku. My plants have become bushy. ma‑, ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

hayyudut (sp. var. hayudut) 1sta. to be kind, loving or gracious; compassionate. Mahayyudut hi Juan. Juan is kind and loving. general: This word is rarely used by younger speakers. {arch} ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.1 - Good, moral, 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2proc. to become kind. Humayyudut mo te waday mahapul na. She is becoming kind now because she needs something. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to be kind or loving to someone in particular. Hayyudutam di imbabalem. Have a great love for your children. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. mahayudut

hidiye (diye, hi) demonstrative. demonstrative pronoun that does not require a co-occurring noun; that over there, definite reference to something, away from both speaker and hearer. Hidiye di balen da Juan. That one over there is the house of Juan. Man-uke kanak hidiye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) hidiyen hidiyey

hidiyey (hidiye) demonstrative predicate. that is; a demonstrative predicate; the form is based on hidiye, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; it co-occurs with the allomorph y of the linker di. The form predicates the existence of something or someone that is away from both speaker and hearer. Hidiyey balen da Juan. That is Juan’s house. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

higa 1comm. laziness; indolence. Namahig di higan tun imbabalek. The laziness of my child is too much. Sim: inaw, nawadaan, ngidlu, butyug, himmiga. (sem. domains: - Lazy.) 2trans. to be pregnant, euphemism. [It could be that higa for pregnancy is associated with laziness because pregnant women often do not work.] Himmiga. She is pregnant. Nihiga di tiempon di gubat. She was pregnant during the war. ‑imm‑, ni‑. Syn: hiding. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 3trans. to be pregnant with a specified child. Nanomnomok di dolog handih inhigak hi Ana. I was always thinking of fish when I was pregnant with Ana. i‑/iN‑. der. munhighigga id. Hay humiga maagangan. infl. himmiga

hikkad (fr. var. hokkad; sp. var. hikkan) trans. 1to brace the foot against something; to plant the feet firmly on the ground. Ihikkad mu nah batu ta adika maguyud. Brace your foot against that stone so that you will not be pulled. i‑/iN‑. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. (sem. domains: 7.1.1 - Stand.) 2(fig) to insist on one’s point of view. Makiinhikkadan handi ihuhumangan da nan imbangon di imbabalena. He was insistent when they were talking about the engagement ritual of his daughter. (sem. domains: - Insist.) id. makiinhikkadan

hikon sta. 1may refer to a maturing boy or adolescent. Tuwe an mahikon nan imbabaleda. Their son is about to be a grown up. Nahikon mo. He is grown up already. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: kat-agu. (sem. domains: - Youth.) 2a pet name for a boy child. infl. mahikon

hikop sta. to be spirit-possessed. Nahikopan nan imbabale na. Her child is possessed. Nihkop hi aman Juan ke Maria. The spirit of the father of Juan possessed Mary. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: - Demon possession.)

hiktam trans. to undergo actions or events; to learn about something through experience. Ad-adiy hiniktamana ad baliwon. He had a bad experience in the lowlands. Pinhod kun hiktamak di maphod an biyag. I want to experience a good life. Hanan imbabalena di nunhiktam hi pundisiplina That child of his is the one who has experienced his discipline. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Sim: gikna. (sem. domains: 3.2.2 - Learn.)

hin conj. if; marks a dependent conditional clause. <When this conjunction, hin, is compounded with interrogative pronouns, it indicates that the question is indirect.> Hin ume ka, alam tun tudok ku. If you go, get my letter. Hin athinay kanam, umunud kami. If that is what you say, we’ll go along with it. Hin babai di imbabalem ingadanam hi Bugan. If your child is a girl, name her Bugan. Ahim ipainila hin umali ka. Let us know if you will come. Sim: deket, konnat, nu. (sem. domains: - Condition.) comp. hin anoka ta comp. hin bokon comp. hin kananat

hinae₂ demonstrative predicate. demonstrative predicate; refers to the existence of something that is away from the speaker and close to the hearer. Hinaey pinhod ku. That is what I want. Hinae nan imbabalen Pedro. That is Pedro’s child. Hinaey alam hi baleyu. That is the one you will bring home. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hinap trans. 1to spread something; to distribute something over an area. Ihinap muy pangihaad mu. Distribute it so that it will cover the whole area. Mihinap di dogo te nungkakammoy tagu. Sickness will spread because there are so many mixed people. Adim ihinap di hinamal. Don’t spread the cooked rice. Tipet ihinap muy lugit mu? Why spread your dirt? i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Distribution.) 2to extend an action in time or space; distribute. Hinapom am-in di tendaan hi pun-utangam. You are going to each and every store for credit. Hinapom di kabobboble. You go to all places. Adim hinapon di kabalebale hi em panganan. Don’t go to each and every house to eat. Hininap kuy kaboboble hi ek nanapuhapulan ke he-a. I have passed through villages looking for you. Hinapon yun iwahit nan abono. Spread (over a wide area) the fertilizer by scattering it. ‑on/‑in‑.

hinggatut₂ comm. a gong tune and beat. Pinol-ag dah hinggatut ot e manayo nadan himbale. They beat the gongs to the tune of the hinggatut-beat and the married couple went to dance. (sem. domains: 4.2.3 - Music.)

hituwey (hituwe) demonstrative predicate. this is; a demonstrative predicate; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; it co-occurs with the allomorph y of the linker di. The form predicates the existence of something or someone that is near the speaker. {The demonstrative predicate combines the function of predication and definite reference.} Hituwey nakapyan ha-on. This is what happened to me. Hituwey bale mi. This is our house. Hituwe di kanan dan liblu. This is what they call a book. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hiwwe 1intrans. to separate; to divorce. Munhiwwe kanu da Juan ke Maria. They say that Juan and Maria will separate. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: hi-an. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter, - Divorce.) 2sta. to be separated from a group; to be apart. Nahiwweh tuwen bale. This house is separated from the rest. Pinhod kuy mahiwwey panganan mi. I want our meals to be separate. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives.

hogla (dial. var. hegla) advpred. terrible; excessive in reference to a negative trait or attitude; too much so. Hoglay honan nan golang. The attachment of the child is excessive. Nunhogla ka! You are too much! Nunhogla tun imbabalek. My child is too much (of every undesirable trait). Nunhogla di bungot na. His anger was excessive. Evaluative. Sim: mahig, halman. (sem. domains: - Lack self-control.)

hogpan (der. of hogop) a place of entry into an enclosure; entrance; gate. Hay pantoy hogpan di bale. The door is the entrance to a house. ‑an. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

homok 1pass. having the property of or being in the state of arousing the pity of others. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Oha bo ya mahmok di adol. One more thing is your body is pitiful. Adik bo pinhod an eka mahmahmok an maoh-ohha. I don’t want you to be pitiful, always alone, by yourself. ma‑. Sim: amuyu. (sem. domains: - Mercy.) 2feel pity. 2.1trans. to feel compassion for someone in trouble or who is suffering, and do something to alleviate the suffering; usually results in giving material aid; the person receiving the pity and help is in view. Homkonak anhan. Please pity me. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Mercy.) 2.2intrans. to show compassion. Mipangngat an hummok tah ibban tagu. It is one’s duty to have pity on others. Hummok kayu ahan ta umidat kayu hi ittay an boga. Please have pity and give us a little rice. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3comm. the feeling of sympathy for another’s plight or suffering. Namahig di homok di Dios ke ditaku. God has much pity for us. infl. numpahpahmok

hon’ad sta. to remain in one place; to stay put. <This word is always used with a negative.> Kayang hi ina an adi mihnad. Oh my mother, she cannot stay put. Mihnad ka tuh bale. You stay put in the house. mi‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: - Stay, remain.)

hon’ag 1trans. to send someone on an errand. Honagom hi Pedro ta ena ayagan hi amana. Send Pedro to call his father. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: tud-ak, baal, gitgit. (sem. domains: - Send.) 2intrans. to arrange a marriage. Munhonag da kanu da Dulnuan hi balen da Allaga. They say that the Dulnuans are sending a messenger to arrange a marriage with the Allagas. muN‑/nuN‑.

hona 1intrans. to be capricious; often refers to the actions of a child who has been overindulged. Namahig di honan nan imbabalek. My child is capricious. Munhona te balen da apuna. He is capricious because it is his grandfather's house. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: lagda. (sem. domains: - Immature in behavior.) 2sta. to be dependent on; too attached; overly dependent on someone. Makahonna nan ibam, ibaganan am-in di pinhod na takon di inilanan nakangngina. Your sister is too dependent on you, she asks for anything even if she knows it is expensive. Makahonna tudan u-unga ke amada te idat na ya un-unudonan am-in di ibagada. These children are spoiled/dependent on their father because he gives and he follows all that they ask for. maka‑. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations.)

hubut 1nom. refers to a person who has been enslaved. (sem. domains: - Slave.) 2trans. to enslave a person by buying or selling. Ena ihbut nan imbabalena. He is going to sell his child as a slave. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. der. himbut infl. ihbut

huguhug (sp. var. huguhugan) 1comm. a rack above the fireplace used for drying wood and rice. [Some racks have three tiers.] Maid di huguhug di balemi. Our home doesn’t have a rack above the fireplace. Hanan pagen deh huguhugan di em ibayu. Take the rice bundle on the upper part of the rack to pound. pt: wan’an, hay-ung, pal’a. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to put firewood or rice bundles on the rack above the fireplace for drying. Ihuguhug mu nan itungu. Put the firewood on the rack. Ihuguhug nan kaiw ta mamag-anan. Put the wood on the firewood rack so that it will dry. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. 3intrans. for the rack to be full, generally full of firewood. <Morphology: nahuguhugan> na‑ ‑an. infl. nahuguhugan

hukit₁ (sp. var. hukkit) sta. 1to be limited in width; narrow. Nahkit tun panto yu. Your door is narrow. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Narrow.) 2for a space to be very crowded; to be full of people; occupied fully; related to being a small or narrow area. Nakakkahkit nan bale mi te itaitay. Our house is very crowded because it is very small. nakaC‑ CVC‑. der. hukkihukit

hukkudan (infl. of hukkud) trans. to prop up something with focus on what is propped up. Hukkudam nan bale te mungkatui. Put props on the house because it is about to fall over. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

humang to answer or converse. 1.1to answer a comment or question. 1.1.1intrans. to answer; to reply. <The infix gives prominence to the action of answering.> Nomnomom on ahika himmumang. Think before you answer. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: - Answer, - Ask.) 1.1.2trans. to answer. <The prefix cross-references the object, the words used to answer.> An hinaey ihumang mun ha-oy? Is that your answer to me? “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. “You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. “Om, mama” inhumang nadan iimbabalena. “Yes, mama,” the children answered. i‑/iN‑. 1.1.3trans. to answer someone. <The object is cross-referenced with either the person or his words having referential prominence.> Ek ot humangon mu uggek te tinibok an bimmoh-ol. I was about to answer him but I didn’t because I saw that he was angry. Humangom nan kinalina. Answer what he said. ‑on/‑in‑. 1.2trans. to converse; talk together; to make an agreement. Munhummangan kayu. You converse with each other. “Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami,” kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Nakihummangan hi uncle ot magibbuy nunhummanganan da ot tumayan kamih di. My uncle spoke to him about his woodcarvings and when they finished their conversation, we left there. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. Later on, he was approaching the er...creek, he saw...there were voices conversing. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an, maki‑ ‑an/naki‑ ‑an. infl. hummangan infl. munhuhummangan

i- -an TACR. this circumfix cross-references a beneficiary-object of an action and encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect. I-ang-angam hi bulwatih inam. Look for a dress for your mother. Igaudam hi inam te nain-ina mo. Spade for your mother because she is old already. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a shaman has to perform a ritual for him to make him well. Deket munda-guh da ya mahapul an painuman ya ipaltiyan nan kon bale. If they should stop at a house, the relative must give them wine and butcher a pig for them. Sim: iN- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

idut 1comm. a curse. [Usually refers to rituals related to cursing; there are formal cursing rituals.] Kayang kattog di idut na! My! What curses he says! Sim: dug-a, duhngil, Ayak, Hagoho, gamud, hiblot, bong’eg. (sem. domains: - Curse.) 2trans. to curse someone. Dakayun aammod ya adiyu ot anhan idutan di imbabale yu. You parents should not curse your children. Liwat di mun-idut. It is a sin to curse. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to affect recipient.

igatang (infl. of gatang) trans. to sell something. <The affix cross-references what is being sold.> Igattang ku tun bale te mahapul kuy pihhu. I will sell the house because I need money. An igattang da nan bulhe? Are they selling the beans? i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: - Sell.)

iliw sta. to be homesick; to feel lonely or to miss someone. Nun-oppot da Juan ke Maria an maka-iliw dan duwa. Both Juan and Maria miss each other. Mailiw nadah imbabalena ot umanamut. He missed his children so he came home. ma‑, makaC1‑. Sim: ilmu, ingle. (sem. domains: - Sad.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

imas sta. to be delicious. Naimas di kinan mi hi bale da. The food we ate in their house was delicious. Umimas di kanon hin ahinan. Food becomes delicious when salt is added. na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Syn: hong-o. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

imbitar (sp. var. imbital) trans. to invite someone for an occasion. Hi uncle nan hi Taguiling inimbitar nah bale da te mumbaki da. His uncle, Tuguiling, was invited to their house because they were to perform the baki-ritual. Eka mun-imbitar hi tatagu ta makihamul da. Go and invite people so that they will join the feast. Imbitarom am-in di iibam. Invite all of your relatives. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Invite.)

immatun (sp. var. imatun) 1trans. to recognize something or someone; to identify. Immatunam hin hituwe nan gaud mu. See if you can recognize this spade as yours. Maimmatun nan manuk ku te maid iwit na. My chicken is recognizable because it has no tail. Hanada ken aammod ya adida pakaimmatun hi inap-apu da. Our old folks hardly recognize their grandchildren. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑, paka‑. 5C Goal oriented site. Sim: bigbig, matmat. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.) 2comm. sign. Nganney immatun hi indat amam an pangimmatunan dan imbabale daka. What identifying sign did your father give for their recognition of you as his child. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.)

impakaiC1- this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. <The C1 geminate is not always pronounced or written.> Hanan tagun mangngol hi kalik ya un-unudona ya miingngo nah nanomnoman an tagun nangapyah balenan impakaihammad nay tukud na. (Mateo 7:24) The person who hears what I say and follows it can be compared to the intelligent person who has built his house and strongly stabilized its posts. Sim: pakaiC1-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

importante (sp. var. impoltante) 1advpred. important. Importante an eka bumotos. It is important that you go out and vote. Importante tun ayak ad Lagawe. My going to Lagawe is important. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on your books. Evaluative. Sim: mahapul, kinwani. 2trans. to make important. Adika mumpaimportante hin ume taku hi balen tulang mu. Do not make yourself important when we go to your sibling’s house. mumpa‑/numpa‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

inayan (der. of ine) comm. mate; husband; wife; spouse. Duwa di inayana te makibabai. He has two wives because he just loves women. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Maid pangal-anah ipakanah inayana ya imbabalena dida. He had no way of providing food for his wife and his children. Syn: ahawa. (sem. domains: - Husband, wife, 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

Inglish 1prop. English. Inglish di kali da hi bale da. They speak English in their home. (sem. domains: 3.5.3 - Language.) 2intrans. to speak in English. Mun-inglish ka hi umali nadan bisita. Speak English when the visitors come. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

iphod (infl. of pohod) trans. to fix or repair something. <Morphology: The form paka-ip-iphod, is superlative, to fix perfectly> Iphod muy adol mu te mangali day tatagun e mangidung-on he-a. Fix yourself up because people are coming to visit you. Mahapul an mun-iphodak hi bale mi te dandani moy Krismas. I’ve got to fix up things at home because Christmas is almost here. Adiyak pakaiphod tuh napa-in ubunan. I cannot repair this destroyed seat. i‑/iN‑, muN‑ i‑, pakai‑. 3I Direct action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Improve.) infl. mangip-iphod

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

iskert 1comm. skirt. Atikke nan iskirt na. Her skirt is short. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a skirt. Mun-iskert ka te deyan maka-atung. Wear a skirt because it is very hot. Iskertan yu nan imbabale yu. Have your child wear a skirt. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: skirt.

iskuwala 1comm. a carpenter’s instrument used for measuring angles usually right angles; a square. Nan iskuwala di idawat mu. Hand me the square. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) 2trans. to use a square. Iskuwalaom nan ipataddog mun bale ta adi kay natilon. Use the square in building the house so that it will not look s if it was twisted. ‑on/‑in‑.

ispesyal adj. special. Ispesyal nan kinapyanan bale. The house he built is special. Qualifier. (sem. domains: - Unique.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: especial.

istolya (sp. var. ittolya; sp. var. istorya) 1comm. the telling of events or happenings; story; tale. Dakol di istolya hi donglon yuh di. You will hear many stories there. Handih kaittay ku ya dakol di istolyan di aammod ya nadan umali bale. When I was small, I heard many stories from older folks and from those who came to our house to visit. Sim: a-apo, bida, malamala. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2tell a story. 2.1intrans. to tell a story; the activity of telling is in view. Mun-istolya kah mipanggep dih gubat. Tell a story about the war. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say, - Report.) 2.2trans. to tell a particular story. 2.2.1trans. to tell a specific story. Iistolyam di inat mun immalih tu. Relate the story about how you came here. i‑/iN‑. 2.2.2trans. to tell about a particular set of events. Istolyaon da nan inang-ang dad baliwon. They will relate to you a story about what they saw in the lowlands. Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. on/in . Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: historia.

iwe intrans. 1to be independent from parents; married couples to live independently from parents. Immiwe da Pedro ke Maria. Pedro and Maria are living independently from their parents. Nabayag dan nun-ahawa yaden ugge da ni-an immiweh. They have been married a long time now and yet they are not yet independent from their parents. Maphod di umiwe ta hin nalahin ta. It’s proper and fitting to live separately (from parents) when married. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. 2to live alone, separated from family or others. [It is unusual for anyone to live alone in Ifugao society.] Immiweh Mattimah baleda. Maxima lives alone in their house. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

iyan intrans. to stay overnight. Takomboy ahi taku mun-iyan hi bale mi ten umali ka. Never mind, we will stay overnight in our house if you will come. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 8.5 - Location.) infl. mun-iyan

iyo intrans. to cry, as in mourning; wail in lamenting a death. Mun-iyo dad da-ul handi hilong te nate nan imbabaleda. They were wailing last night because their child died. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Cry, tear, - Mourn.)

ka pers. you; second person, singular pronoun; member of Set 2 subject pronouns; cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Hin-uddum an adika mangan. At times you don’t eat. Joan, deyan ume ka mo ahan tut-uwah college. Joan, you are now finally going to college. Maid ka handi hilong hi balen da Juan. You were not in the house of Juan last night. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

ka- CV(C)CV- comm. this affix combination inflects nouns with the meaning of each and every referent of the noun undergoes the action of the verb. Kaalgoalgo on umeh di. Every day he goes there. Kabulabulan an umali da. They come every month. Kabigabigat on imme da nah Templo ya hi kabalebale an e muntuttuduh mipanggep ke Jesus an hiyah Kriston mangipaptok hi tagu. (Acts 5:42) Every day they go to the Temple and from house to house to teach about Jesus who is the Christ who cares for people. (sem. domains: - Noun affixes.)

kaasi 1comm. pity; mercy. Maid di kaasi yu nadah nawotwot. You have no mercy for those who are poor. (sem. domains: - Mercy.) 2trans. to pity someone. Kanan Pangkayyo- “Lammooy, pangpangaasim man adika nah dalan te umeyak hi bale a, an nahilong.” Pangka said er...”Lammooy, will you please (lit. pity me) get out of the path because I am going home, see, and it’s dark.” paN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

Kabbigat₁ prop. name of man, common in traditional society; can be surname. Kabbigat di ngadan apu da. Kabbigat is the name of their grandfather. Mundayyu kat ume kah baleda ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Descend and go to their house to call Kabbigat so that I will have his help in singeing this pig. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.)

kadwa₁ (der. of duwa) 1comm. companion; chaperone. Hi Juan di kadwa na an umali. Juan will be his companion in coming. Maid di kadwa na hi baleda. He has no companion in their house. Sim: kuyug, ibba. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2trans. to accompany. Kadwaam hi baleda. Accompany him to their house. Ikadwam nan indat kun pantalon. Include the pants I gave. (lit. use it to accompany another one) ‑an/in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.)

kagu 1intrans. to be worried; be concerned. Deket tinaynak nadan imbabalek ya kumakkaguwak te kanak di kal-ina ya waday ma-at ke dida. Mu maid di hilbinan eta kumagukagu. Idasal ot ya abun Apu Dios ta hiyay nangamung. Whenever I leave my children I’m always worried that something might happen, but there is no use worrying, it is better to leave it to God. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: danag. (sem. domains: - Worried.) 2trans. to be worried or concerned about a particular person or thing. Ikaguk an waday maat ke hiya ot iek hi bale da. I am afraid something might happen to him, that is why I brought him to their house. Antipet hiyay ikagum? Kon bokon kat-agu mo? Why are you worried about him? Isn’t he a young man already? i‑/iN‑.

kah-o 1comm. rafters of house. Inhaad da mo nadan kah-on di bale. They already placed the rafters of the house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to place rafters. Kah-owan yu mo nan bale hi bigat. Place the rafters of the house tomorrow. Ikah-o yu nan nalagadin kaiw. Use the sawed wood for rafters. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.)

kaittay (der. of ittay) refers to the time of life when one is young; childhood; youth. Handih kaittay ku ya dakol di istolyan di aammod ya nadan umalih bale. When I was small, the older folks and those who came to our house told many stories. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

kakawwa comm. spider species. Dakol di kakawwa dih pikdol. There are many spiders in the corner. Dapaom ke nan balena ya mumbuttikan nan kumbale. (kakawwa) riddle Touch his house and the owner runs around. (spider) (sem. domains: - Insect.)

kal-ina ot (comp. of kal-ina) adjunct. to wish or hope for something to happen. Dumasadasal hi inana ta kal-ina ot kanu ya pumhod nan imbabalena. It is reported that his mother is hoping that her child will get well. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Hope.)

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kalimangan comm. frame of house; house skeleton; framework of any building. Binohwat da moy kalimangan di baleda. They have already erected the frame of their house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

kampu (fr. var. pungkampuwan) 1comm. camp. Daan di kampu yu? Where is your camp? (sem. domains: 4.6.7 - Region, 5.9 - Live, stay.) 2intrans. to build a camp; to stay temporarily in someone’s house. Mungkampu da nadan tindalu nah tap-on di wangwang. The soldiers will build a camp above the river. Mungkampu da nadan imbabalen Juan nah balen Pio. The children of Juan will lodge in the house of Pio. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to build a camp or place to lodge temporarily. puN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: campo.

kan 1intrans. to eat, indefinite as to what is eaten. <This root is never used alone.> Mangan taku. Let’s eat. Hin-uddum an adika mangan. At times you don’t eat. Da Pedro ke Ben di nangan hanah inha-ang mu. It was Pedro and Ben who ate what you cooked. maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2to eat. 2.1trans. the food being eaten is specific and cross-referenced. Kanon yun am-in nan ginatang na. Eat everything he bought. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.2trans. to eat a specific food continuously; the food being eaten is cross-referenced. Kanokanona nan inhaad kun tinapay nah basket. He was always eating the bread I placed in the basket. Kanokanon nadan buding nan page. The birds keep eating the palay. ‑on/‑in‑ + CV(C)CV‑. 2.3intrans. to join in eating. Immali da ke nan imbabalek hi baleyu on nakikan da. Whenever my children go to your house they eat there. maki‑/naki‑. 2.4trans. indicates utensil used for eating. Hituwe nan nangikanan min duyu te teyay marka na. This is the plate we used for eating because here is the mark. mangi‑ ‑an/nangi‑ ‑an. 3nom. edible food, usually used for snack, fruit, bread, etc. Imme nah muyung ot e umalah makmakkan. He went to the forest to get some edible food. nganan der. makan der. panganan der. pinnangan id. kay hamutin mangan id. kay ka babuy an mangan id. kay munhabun mangan id. kay nanganan di ahuy nanganan yu id. kay nanganan di gulding id. kay nanganan di kabayu infl. ikan infl. mangan infl. pakan

kanayun adv. implies an habitual aspect of an action or event; always. Kanayun an maid di tagu hi bale da. Always, there is no one in their house. Time. Sim: ta nangamung, ta inggana, latta, nanong. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.)

kapkaphodan (infl. of pohod) adj. superlative form of good; best, nicest. He-ay kapkaphodan hi bale nah tud Kiangan. You have the nicest house in Kiangan. CVC‑ ka‑ ‑an. Qualifier. (sem. domains: - Better.)

kapun 1comm. a castrated animal. Nan kapun an poltan di ilagim taku. The castrated rooster will be the one we will singe. (understood butcher) Nal-ot di kapun an pun-aladuwon. A castrated carabao is strong for plowing. Sim: kubhil, pulin. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2trans. to castrate an animal. Kapunon yu nan nuwang ta pun-aladuwon taku. Castrate the carabao so that we will use it for plowing. Kinapun da nadan manuk. They castrated the roosters. Mungkapun da hi balen da Jose. They are castrating in the house of Jose. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4D Releast, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Castrate animal.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: capon.

kaput trans. 1to repair things made of rattan; may be generalized to repair other things. [Repairs are usually made with strips of rattan.] Ingkaput da nan napain gampa. They repaired the head-basket with rattan vine. Paputam nan pahiking. Repair the back pack with rattan. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2to tie something using rattan strips. Dahdiy adi bumoh-ol an ingkaput ku nan panton di balen di manuk on eyak ume on naubad di kaput na. Who wouldn’t get angry, I tied the door of the chicken house and when I went, it was untied. Kinaputan Mariah uwe nan karton yaden binukatan yu pay. Maria tied the carton with rattan and you still opened it. Pun-ikaput yun am-in hanadan carga te mangali nan talak. Tie all the baggage, the truck is coming. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else.

kasal 1comm. wedding celebration. Waday kasal ad Ambabag an pakihamulan. There is a wedding celebration in Ambabag where we could attend the feasting. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to marry someone. Kasalon nan padi dida. The priest will be the one to marry them. Ikasal da nan imbabalen Doming hi toon. They will marry the daughter of Doming next year. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Ceremony.) 3intrans. to marry. Nungkasal da Nita ke Pedro. Nita and Pedro got married. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: casar.

kasinsilyu (sp. var. katintilyu) 1comm. undershorts; underpants E gimmatang hi kasinsilyun nan inbabale na. She went to buy undershorts for her son. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear undershorts. Mungkasinsilyo ka eno. You wear your undershorts, okay? muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kat-agu (der. of tagu) 1adj. young adult male or female; adulthood ranges in age from about 15-35 years old. Kat-agu mo nan imbabalem. Your child is already a grown-up. Qualifier. Sim: hikon. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.) 2proc. to become an adult. Kimmat-agu di nagibbuy gubat. He became an adult after the war. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kimmat-agu

katlu₂ (der. of tulu) 1sta. the third in a sequence of count objects. Ha-oy di mikatlu ke dakamin liman hintutulang. I am the third of us five brothers. Hantuh mikatlu mipalpud uwani ya umalih tulang ku. On the third day from today, my brother will come. (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) 2nom. one-third share of a crop. (sem. domains: - Fraction.) 3trans. to divide into three equal parts. (sem. domains: 7.8 - Divide into pieces.) 4comm. third day of the week. [first day is Monday.] Umali kah bale hi katluna. Come to the house on Wednesday. 5quan. refers to the third entity or event in a sequence. Hi katlun di algo nah biggat na, ihudum mo nan bubud ya tono hi buhi. On the third day in the morning, put the fermented rice and the juice into a wine jar. der. ingkatlu

kattog adjunct. 1expression of a feeling of uncertainty; also, there can be a sense of futility based on the inability to fulfill expectations or the futility of an action; uncertainty. Hituwe kattog di midat mi. This is only what we can give. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You may think that what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Unsure.) 2expresses a feeling of disappointment; unfortunately. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented with just following her brothers.

kayu pers. you plural; second person, plural, Set 2 subject pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ume kayu nah payo an mangdut. You all go to the ricefield and gather snails. “Bumangun kayu mon iimbabalek, kanan inada. “Wake up, children,” their mother said. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

ke₂ adjunct. occurs within an NP encoding a contrastive concept, setting apart the reference of that person or thing from other possible references. Hanada ken maid di happiyo na, nangapya da. As for them, they had no shields so they made them. Ad Makati ke ya hituy kad-an di kakadangyan. In Makati is where the rich people are. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It is at night that it comes out and flies around. Hi ke Butale ya binugtung an imbabale. As for Butale, he was an only child. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Different, - Markers of emphasis.) hantu ken comp. man-uke

keket intrans. to squeak; to produce squeaking sound, e.g. loose flooring, rubbing of tree branches, rusty hinges of doors and windows. Inumbun nah kama ya mungkeket te madam-ot. He sat on the bed and it squeaked because he is heavy. Kumeket tun bale hin kumolyog. The house will squeak if there is an earthquake. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

kihal 1intrans. to move self. Adika ni-an kumihal ta malau da. Don’t make any movement until they pass by. Mungkihhalan nan bale. The house is moving (by itself). ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ ‑an. 2B Change of position. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2trans. to move something or someone. Kihalom nan batu. Move the stone. Nganney kihakihalom? What are you always moving? ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.3 - Move something.) der. makihal

kihang intrans. to be loose fitting. Kumihang di pantalon ku te kimmuugak. My pants became loose because I became thin. Mungkihkihang tun pantalon mun ha-on. Your pants are a bit loose for me. Gumattang ka boppoh apatut nan imbabalem on kumikihang. Whenever you buy shoes for your child they are very loose. Makakihhang hituwen bulwatin indat tulang ku. This dress that my sister gave is very loose. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ muN‑, maka‑. 2G Processes. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.)

kil-at 1comm. a natural electrical discharge in the air; lightning. Linhitan di kil-at nan akasya. Lightning burned the acacia tree. Sim: luhit, kimat. (sem. domains: - Lightning, thunder.) 2intrans. to discharge an electrical flash; to lightning. Humgop kayu tuh bale te kumil-at. Come in the house because there will be lightning. Mungkikil-at yaden wada nah payo hi Jose. There are flashes of lightning yet Jose is in the field. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2F Meteorological.

kilib 1trans. to touch many things. Dakol di kilibon hin imme kah balen da apum. You touch many things whenever you go to the house of your grandparents. Bimmoh-olak ke dakayuh nungkiliban yun nah ek intalu. I got mad at you when you were touching what I had hidden. Umali Maria dih tendaan mo ena kinikinilib hanadan wada nah estante. Maria comes to your store and touches what are on the shelves. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Touch.) 2intrans. to grope for one’s way. Mungkilkilib an immanamut te adi pakatibo nah dalan. He was groping while coming home because he could not see the path. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C).

kiling₁ comm. bamboo, thorny variety. Kiling di inhaad dan indamyun nan balen kapyaon da. They used the kiling-bamboo for scaffolding in the house they are making. Gen: kawayan. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

kilkilang (sp. var. kelkelang; sp. var. kilkiling) comm. a bird species. [It is believed that they sing omens at night.] Hay ittolyah dingngol ku handi ya handi dandani mitungo nan tulang ku ya kumananta nan kilkilang nah nih-up hi balemi ot adi mumbayag ya nakatte nan tulang kun golang. The story I heard before is that when it was nearly time for my brother to be born, there was this night-bird that always sang near our house, and so the baby died in a short time. (sem. domains: - Bird.)

kimma (der. of moma) sta. to chew betelnut; implies going with someone to chew because one is lacking some part of a ‘chew’. [Sharing what one has and talking are two important meaning components of this word.] Umali dah bale an makimma te dakol di hapid. They come to my house to chew because there is plenty of betel leaves. ma‑. (sem. domains: - Bite, chew.)

kimong 1comm. claws; talon. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.) 2trans. to scratch with fingers, claws or talons. Komngon dakan hiya hin laylay-aham. She will scratch you if you tease her. Hinaen imbabalem ya kimmong na nan taklen nan golang ot bumtik. That child of yours, he scratched the baby’s arm and ran away. Nangikmongan nan puha? What part did the cat scratch? Nundama da ya pun-ikmong diyen babai. They quarreled and that girl was scratching. Nakomokomong di tamel na. Her face is badly scratched. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, nangi‑ ‑an. 4B Tactile -touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7 - Physical impact.)

kiput trans. to hold back urine or bowels; to control the movement of urine or feces. Kiputom ni-an ta dumatong ta dih maholok. Control your urine for a minute or two till we reach the grassy spot. Kiniput na inggana dimmatong kami nah bale. He held back his urine until we reached the house. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Prevent from moving.)

kob-al comm. an area at the side of the house; yard. Ekayu mun-ay-ayyam nah kob-al tun bale da. Go and play in their yard. Sim: awidan. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

Kolan 1comm. a ritual to drive away death, strong winds, or other evil forces from a newly constructed building. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2trans. to perform the Kolan ritual for a particular building. Kolanan da nan baleda. They will perform the Kolan ritual for their house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented site.

kolor 1comm. color; tint. Mangitit di kolor nan ahumi. Our dog is colored black. (sem. domains: - Color.) 2comm. crayons. Gimmattang hi kolor na. He went to buy crayons. 3trans. to use crayons to color something. Mungkolor nadan u-unga hi bale. The children are coloring a house. Koloran yu hi maingit. Color it red. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

kon₂ nom. refers to the one who owns the thing being discussed; owner. Deket munda-guh da ya mahapul an painuman ya ipaltiyan nan kon bale. If they stop (at a house), the owner of the house must give them drink (wine) and butcher (a pig) for them. (sem. domains: - Own, possess.)

kudu comm. stamping sounds on the floor or ground; rumbling noise, e.g. children running on floor boards, a number of hoofed animals running. Nganneh naen kudu? What is that stamping sound? Mungkukudu da bo nadan u-unga nah bale. The children are making rumbling noises again in the house. Sim: anikdul. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

kugit trans.