Search results for "bili"

bili comm. rubber plant variety; sap may be used for gluing things together. Maantam di bili. The bili fruit is sour. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.)

bilibili trans. to look closely at something; inspect. Bilibiliyok nadan tulun lalaki ya maid pinhod kun dida. I inspected the three men and I didn’t like any of them. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bidade, binbin, biling. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.3 - Examine.)

bilid 1comm. mountain. Hitu ked Ifugao ya dakol di bilid an maang-ang. Here in Ifugao, many mountains can be seen. Etaku munhabal nah bilid. Let us go to make a swidden in the mountains. Ot mungkampu dad Awwa an tap-on di bilid. And they had their camp at the top of the mountain called Awwa. Sim: duntug. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.1 - Mountain.) 2intrans. to roam from mountain to mountain. Mumbilibilid day ulha. Wild pigs roam from mountain to mountain. muN‑ CV(C)CV‑. 3sta. to be mountainous, for an area to have many mountains. Mabilid nan kad-an di kudal. The ranch is mountainous.

bilin 1comm. a message; a request. Nganney bilin dan ha-oy hi bale? What message did the people at home have for me? Sim: paad. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2trans. to give advice. Bilinom nan imbabalem ta adida munay-ayyam nah kalata. Advise your children not to play in the streets. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.5.3 - Exercise authority.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

biling₁ comm. a game of flipping coins or cards. [Names regarding winner or loser depends on th picture on either side of the coin, e.g. a person or wing on the one centavo piece.] Naapputak nah biling. I was defeated in the heads or tails game. Mumbibiling nadan u-unga. The children are flipping cards. muN‑, maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.)

biling₂ trans. to examine something carefully; to search carefully among things in a container or things that are stacked together. Bilibilingona nadan bulawati na te waday punhamak na. He is examining closely his clothes because he is looking for something. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, bidade, binbin. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

hamad 1advpred. to stabilize by fastening or attaching firmly, permanently, securely; describes structures or ties, but may be extended to abstract ideas such as belief, love, etc. Ihamad mun igakod ta adi maubad. Tie it firmly so that it will not become loose. Inhamahamad kuy pangikawotak ya pangigattinak. I carefully chose strong branches to hold and step on. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a sturdy branch so they can securely tie the hagabi-bench. i‑/iN‑. Manner. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2trans. (fig) extended meaning for non-concrete entities; strengthen. Inhamad da mon mundasal ke hiya. They strengthened their praying for him. i‑/iN‑. infl. nahamad

hammad 1stabilize. 1.1trans. to stabilize a building, fence; make something strong by supporting. Hamadon min aladan di boble We will make the fencing of the village strong. ‑on/‑in‑. 1.2pass. to be strong, stable. Nakahammad di alad na. The fence is very strong. makaC‑/nakaC‑. 1.3trans. to strengthen what one believes. [This is an extended meaning.] Ya kinalyanat ihammad kuy pundinol nah pamaptok nan ha-oy. He said that I should strengthen my trust in his care for me. Nakahhammad moy pangulug da. Their faith is now very strong. i‑/iN‑, nakaC‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1 - Believe.) 2advpred. to declare strongly that what is said will be done or come about; to promise. Hammadok an kalyon ke he-a. I will promise what I tell you. ‑on/‑in‑. Modality. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.9 - Promise.)

kabaelan (infl. of bael) 1comm. refers to the ability to do something; may also be used to refer to the power to do something. Maid kabaelanan mangibbu. He does not have the capability to finish it. (sem. domains: 9.4.2.1 - Can.) 2sta. to have the ability to perform an action or task. Maid di mabaelan da. They cannot do anything. ma‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kattog adjunct. 1expression of a feeling of uncertainty; also, there can be a sense of futility based on the inability to fulfill expectations or the futility of an action; uncertainty. Hituwe kattog di midat mi. This is only what we can give. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You may think that what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.6 - Unsure.) 2expresses a feeling of disappointment; unfortunately. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented with just following her brothers.

kihob intrans. movement of things due to instability, e.g. tables, chairs. Mungkihob tun ubunak te antikke nan ohan hukina. My chair is moving because one of its legs is short. Adika munggadit te mikihob tun imbunak. Don’t be moving around because my seat will be moved. Kumihokihob ka kinali nag-a nan impattuk ku an botelya. You are always moving, that’s why the bottle that I placed on top fell. Nikudliyak handih nikihob nan kaiw nah dalan. I slipped when the wood on the road moved. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑/ni‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: kidung. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.8 - Move back and forth.)

ma-₃ abl. this prefix encodes an abilitative modality; able to do something. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu. I can remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. Makeke nan lobong te atappo. The lake can be swam because it is shallow. Magibok nan wadan nah pingngit di wa-el. He could sense that he was by a creek. Sim: maka-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

maka- mod. this prefix encodes expertise on the part of an agent; co-occurs with intransitive verb roots. Makammunwit hi amam. Your father is a skilled fisherman.

paka- mod. non-past form; functions to encode the negative ability of an agent to do what the verb expresses; cannot do something. <This prefix co-occurs with the negative form adi.> Athidi bon nah hilong ta adi ka pakahuyop. It’s like that at night, too, so that you cannot sleep. Mu hanada ken iibana ya adi da pakatibo kediyen golang. But as for his companions, they could not see that child. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

tamak 1comm. refers to an object placed underneath an uneven board, rock or anything that needs to be stabilized in place, e.g. an unbalanced table. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to place a wedge under something to stabilize it. Nan mungkidung an ubunan ya mahapul an tamakan. A chair that is not sturdy needs a stabilizing wedge placed. Tamakam tun lamesa teden mungkidug. Put a wedge under the table leg to make it stable. Nan ongal an batu di panamak mu. Wedge the big stone underneath. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, paN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding somthing. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

adi 1neg. negation of intentional and abilitative actions; will not; cannot. Adiyak ume. I will not go. Adiyak paka-adal nan kumalih English. I cannot learn to speak English. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi-ceremony. (sem. domains: 9.4.6.1 - No, not.) 2neg. negative answer to a question regarding intention to act; no. 3neg. negative of the command to perform or execute an action; don’t. Adim alan. Don’t get it. Iadim di humgop hi baleyu. Don’t let anyone enter your house. i‑/iN‑. 4trans. to prohibit or prevent an action. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an gimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4.1 - Disagree.) comp. adi bo comp. adinadama comp. adin-abu der. addi-addi der. ad-addi der. ad-adi der. adiyon der. miadi der. mun-addiaddi

balin₁ advpred. refers to the possibility of an action or process. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom If possible, you should already prefer to read informative books Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. Adi mabalin nan batu. The stone cannot be overturned. ma‑ . Modality. (sem. domains: 9.4.2.1 - Can, 9.4.4.4 - Possible.) infl. mabalin

baybay-an (der. of bay-an) advpred. 1to consider something to be one’s responsibility or business; for this meaning, it must be negated. Adim baybay-an muntudok ya itudok mun am-in di problemam. Don’t neglect to write regularly; write anything that bothers you. Manner. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.1 - Think about.) 2to neglect or ignore a situation, responsibility or task. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

bayyon sta. inadequate; lacking in ability or expected characteristics. Bayyon hihiyen tagu. That person is inadequate. Bayyon di otak. The bolo is dull. Bayyon di lattik. The slingshot has lost its elasticity. Bayyon ka kattog anhan! You are a coward- what a pity! (sem. domains: 8.3.7.7.1 - Wrong, unsuitable.)

boltan 1trans. to transfer from one person to another; to take turns, change of responsibility. Boltanom an mun-adug tuh golang. You take over caring for this child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: tawid, odon. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 2trans. to inherit something. Binoltan na nan payon amana. He inherited his father’s ricefields. Maid di maboltan an payowon. No land can be inherited to be planted with rice. Nan payon ambilog di boltanon Jose. It is the wide field which Jose will inherit. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. 3comm. change of ownership, from parent to child. Cultural note: Inherited objects include ricefields, houses, wine jars, gongs, jewelry. (sem. domains: 6.8.1.1 - Own, possess.) infl. mumbinbinoltan infl. mumboltan

C1 this form symbolizes the gemination of the first consonant of the root word; when it co-occurs with the prefix paka-, it intensifies the ability of the agent-subject to perform something very well or completely. Dimmin-ong ta pakaddonglona ya impidwanan bon pimmalak an palak di babai. He was quiet so that he could carefully listen and the groan of a woman was repeated. Sim: pakaC1-.

C2 this form symbolizes the gemination of the medial consonant of the root word; when it co-occurs with the circumfixes paka- -on and paka- -an, it intensifies the ability of the agent-subject to perform something very well or completely. Pakabayyuon dah maphod nan page. They will pound the rice very well. Sim: pakaC2- -on, pakaC2- -an, pakaC1- -on.

dadag destroy. 1.1trans. refers to the destruction of concrete objects; may also refer to people or their reputations; to ruin; to destroy; to damage. Adim dadagon nan intanom ku. Do not destroy what I planted. Wada boppoy ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whatever toy that I buy, you destroy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object . (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 1.2pass. the passive form refers to the state of being damaged or destroyed, without an agent. Madadag am-in di nitanom te itotool nay udan. All the plants will be damaged because it keeps raining. Nadadag nan ingkail ku te makudang di inha-ad kun binokbok. The rice wine I prepared is ruined because I did not put enough yeast into it. ma‑/na‑. 1.3mod. expresses the facility with which an undergoer-object can be put into a condition or state; easily destroyed. Kadinaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. ka‑ ‑inn‑. 1.4nom. the derived noun refers to the concept of destruction. Hay tumbuk di kadadagan di dakol an tagu. It is gossip that is the destruction (reputation) of many men. ka‑ ‑an. 1.5trans. to destroy, with an added component of having the ability to do this. Dumadag hi bale nan puwok an umali. The storm that is coming can destroy houses. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

damana advpred. refers to what is within the limits of circumstances, ability or power; can; is possible; is allowed. Datuwen bibiyo ya damanan ipkod day tagu. Those bibiyo-spirits can take hold of a person’s life. Kinalin nan mittulun di grade one an ume ka te damana mon munggrade one ka. The grade one teacher said that you can go to school and be in grade one now. Modality. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.4 - Possible.) der. nadama ph. v. damana man nin ph. v. damanat nangamung

dinol 1rely on. 1.1trans. to trust someone or something; to believe in the reliability of another. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1.1 - Trust.) 1.2trans. to rely on; depend on. Gapu bot mauleyak ya pundinlam ta hay pinhod muy at-attom. Just because I am kind, you depend on that and do whatever you like. Pundindinlam hi inam an mangingunuh kanom. You are always depending on your mother to provide your food. Idinol muh kalyon da inam. Trust in what your mother says. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ ‑an. Sim: piyal. 2trustworthy. 2.1sta. to be worthy of confidence; to be trustworthy, one who can be relied on. Adi midinol te hinaulak. He is not trustworthy because he deceived me. mi‑. 2.2sta. to be and feel confident; to trust in someone or something. Madinol kami an hi Apu Dios an mamaddang dakami. We are confident that God will help us. Naapput da te makadinnol da te hay inila da ya makattakut di Ipugao. They were defeated because they were unsuspecting because they thought (were confident that) the Ifugao were cowards. ma‑, maka‑. 3comm. trust. Maid dinol kun he-a. I have no trust in you. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1.1 - Trust.) der. madinol infl. idinol infl. makadinnol infl. mangidinol infl. midinol

dohhok₁ intrans. inability to see well when dark; to have night blindness. Mundohhokak. I cannot see after the sun goes down. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.5.4.2 - Poor eyesight.)

hablag intrans. to bring a 3rd-day bereavement gift, particularly the responsibility of the in-laws of the family. [The 3rd day of a death vigil is the day of feasting so that is when relatives and in-laws bring the bereavement gifts.] Himmablag hi Juan dih natayan aman baket na. Juan brought a pig when his father-in-law died. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. wh: Dangli. (sem. domains: 6.8.3.1 - Give, donate.)

hin bokon (comp. of hin, bokon) negpred. this is a predicate assertion that what follows is the only possibility of a true fact. Maid di udum an tatagu tuh lutan makabbendisyonan hin bokon dakayu ya abu. (Deuteronomy 7:14) There are no other people here on earth that he has blessed so greatly if not you only. (sem. domains: 9.4.5.1 - Evaluator.)

humilong di nomnom (id. of hilong) confused; refers to the inability to think or understand (lit. darkened mind). (sem. domains: 3.2.4.1 - Misunderstand.)

innu adjunct. refers to a doubtful evaluation about the ability to do something. Nonomnomok hin nganney innuk an kumayat. I kept wondering how I could climb the tree. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.2.1 - Can.)

iukod (infl. of uk’od) intrans. to entrust something by giving responsibility to someone. Iukod ku tun pihhu ke he-a ta idat mun tulang ku. I will entrust this money to you so that you will give it to my brother. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.5.3 - Entrust to the care of.)

kal-ina (sp. var. kaina) adjunct. indicates a possibility; might; maybe. Kal-ina ya umali nan hadhad-ok kinali magawidak. The person I am waiting for might arrive so that’s why I must go home. Adim tagan hi ha-ang hi kanon te kal-ina adida umali ya dakol di masubla ya sayang hin madang-o. Don’t keep on cooking food because they might not come and there would be much left-over and it would be wasted if it spoils. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.4 - Possible.) comp. kal-ina ket comp. kal-ina ot

kalgadu trans. to take responsibility for certain tasks or duties; take charge. Hiyay impumbalinan ingkalgaduh nunhituwana. He is the one who has been made responsible for his household. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 4.1.2.1 - Working relationship, 4.3.1.2 - Meet a standard.) Language of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kananat adjunct. expresses either a possibility or probability. <The word always co-occurs with the conjunction hin.> Ya hin kananat manganga ta adi pakakalit maid di innunan mumbaki. And if he cannot speak, then there is no one who can say the rituals and prayers. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.3 - Probably.) comp. hin kananat comp. kananaket

kandama 1comm. power, unusual ability to perform acts. Maid di kandama nan agayup na. His love-charm has no power. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.3.4 - Power, force.) 2adj. to be very powerful. Makandamah Apu Dios. God is very powerful. ma‑.
Qualifier
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katulelo comm. to have the responsibility of handling money; treasurer. (sem. domains: 6.8.7 - Accounting.)

ke ot nin adjunct. includes components of optative (wish) and possibility; contrasted with a present reality. Wada ke ot nin da aman inad uwani ya diday mun-adug tudah u-unga. Maybe if only father and mother were here now. they would be the ones to watch over the chldren. Attitudinal. Sim: kuma. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.4 - Possible.)

kidung intrans. movement of things due to improper footing, e.g. tables, chairs; movement due to instability. Mungkidung tun ubunak te antikke nan ohan hukina. My chair is moving because one of its legs is short. Adika munggadit te mikidung tun imbunak. Don’t be moving around because my seat will be moved. Kumidukidung ka kinali nag-a nan impattuk ku an botelya. You are always moving, that’s why the bottle that I placed on top fell. Nikudliyak handih nikidung nan kaiw nah dalan. I slipped when the wood on the road moved. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑/ni‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: kihob. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.8 - Move back and forth.)

lapuy trans. 1to think something is easy to do; to regard something lightly. Lapuyom udot di ngunum. You take your work in an easy manner. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: langkuyya. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.6 - Attitude.) 2to disregard the competence or ability of an opponent. An laplappuyonak ke he-a? Do you take me lightly? (You think you can challenge me?) ‑on/‑in‑.

lulok 1sta. to be deaf; refers to the inability to hear. Nalulok hi apu. My grandmother is deaf. Deke bo udot ya kahinlullokon da ot inila takun adida unudon intugun taku. If they keep pretending to be deaf, then, we know that they will not follow what we advised. ma‑/na‑, kahin‑ ‑on. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: pukit. (sem. domains: 2.5.4.3 - Deaf.) 2proc. refers to the process of becoming deaf. Mungkalulok te naam-ama. He is becoming deaf because he is getting old. mungka‑. 3caus. the affix gives prominence to the cause of becoming deaf. Lumulok nan buduk di palattug. The burst of guns causes deafness. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

maala (infl. of ala) trans. this form highlights the capability of an agent to obtain something; able to get something. Imbabainak ke dakayuh hinangngab di tataguk gapu anhan te gamgaman yuy maala yun dida takon di ittay an boga weno tinapay. (Ezekiel 13:19a) I am ashamed of you before my people, the reason being because you pursue whatever you are able to get from them, even a little rice or bread. ma‑.

mabangngad di puhog na (id. of puhog) Indian-giver; give something, then get it back later (lit. will-return the umbilical-cord his)

mahlu (infl. of hulu) sta. to be industrious; to be diligent in work or responsibilities. Hituwen babai ya maddikit ya mahlu. This woman is beautiful and industrious. ma‑. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.2 - Meet a standard.)

munlapu (der. of lapu) nom. the village leader who announces the obligatory rest day following certain traditional religious rituals; the village leader is usually both kadangyan ‘rich’ and a mumbaki ‘shaman’; this leader also has the responsibility for starting all seasonal work in the ricefields.

nangamung hi Gallman pred. a phrase that referred to the American military governor, Jefferson D. Gallman (1905-1911), indicating his responsibility for judgment and decisions on disputes. {hist} Lourdes S. Dulawn: Ifugao Culture and History

nganga comm. unclear speech; can produce sounds, but can’t pronounce words correctly; to be dumb, i.e. inability to speak. Adi maawatan di pinhod na te nanganga. One can’t understand what he wants because he can’t talk properly. Ya hin kananat manganga ta adi pakakalit maid di innunan mumbaki And if he cannot speak, then there is no one who can say the rituals and prayers. ma‑/na‑. Class 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.5.4.4 - Mute.)

nin adjunct. modifies a statement as expressing a tentative possibility; perhaps; possibly; maybe. Umali nin hi biggatna. He may possibly come tomorrow morning. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You think maybe what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangmung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.4 - Possible.) comp. deke pe nin ta comp. wada nin ph. v. damana man nin

olden 1comm. rule; command; law. Mipangat an unudon takuy olden di boble. We must obey the laws of the country. (sem. domains: 4.7.1 - Laws.) 2trans. to order someone to do something; to make into a rule or ordinance; to delegate responsibility to someone. Inolden dan maid di mangiweleh lugit hitu. They ordered that no one will throw his dirt here. Oldenam nan kamanelo ta gaatan da nan dalan. Order the road maintenance men to cut the grass along the road. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 4.5.3.2 - Command.) Language Of Borrowing: English: order.

opot (sp. var. oppot) 1comm. the fault of person, implies the assigning of responsibility for something bad. Opot mu te adika magilat. It is your fault because you never learn your lesson. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.1 - Bad.) 2intrans. to act together similarly; to collaborate in wrongdoing; to ape or imitate with a negative connotation. Nun-ooppot di pangat yu. All of you act in the same bad way. muN‑/nuN‑ CV‑. 3trans. to imitate others in wrongdoing. Ip-ot mu damdaman adim donglon di kalin amam. You are also imitating them, not listening to your father. i‑/iN‑.

pakat₁ trans. to put forth effort; to try with all one’s capability. Ipakat mun mun-iskul ta magibbu ka kaya. You put forth your effort in schooling and you’ll finish. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.1 - Try, attempt, 6.1.2.3.2 - Work hard.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

pensiyon 1comm. pension; retirement pay; disability pay. Waday dawdawwatonah pensiyon te tindalu handih gubat. He is receiving a pension because he was a soldier during the war. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money.) 2intrans. to receive a pension. Mumpensiyon te nan imbabalenan tindalu. He receives a pension because his son was a soldier. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish. der. pensiyonado

puhog comm. navel; refers to the umbilical cord and the abdominal scar where the umbilical cord was attached. Tinalak day puhog ku, kinali nalakan kal-iwwak di nganneh diye. They lost my umbilical cord, that is why I easily forget everything. (sem. domains: 2.1.2 - Torso.) id. mabangngad di puhog na

pukit 1comm. the inability to hear; deafness. An waday agan di pukit? Is there medicine for deafness? Sim: lulok. (sem. domains: 2.5.4.3 - Deaf.) 2sta. to become deaf; not capable of hearing. It-itayom nan ladyu te pumukit. Lower the volume of the radio because it causes deafness. Napukit ka gayam kinali adika pakadngol. So you are deaf, that’s why you cannot hear. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6A Physiological Process - State.

tuddu trans. 1to show; to point out. Ituddum di dalanon. Show us the way. i‑/iN‑. Sim: lod’ong. (sem. domains: 3.6.1 - Show, explain.) 2to name someone to a position or assign someone to a task or responsibility. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.5.3.4 - Appoint, delegate.)

uk’od (sp. var. okod) advpred. to assume responsibility for a decision or task; to be given responsibility; depends on someone to take charge of things. Ukodak an mibangngad. It’s up to me to come back. He-ay ukod ke hiya. You are responsible for him. Ukod ka, umeka weno adika. It’s up to you whether you go or not. ‑an. Manner. Sim: nangamung. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) infl. iukod

ukkon comm. refers to a puppy until he has the ability to bark. Duway ukkon mi mu kindotan da dida. We had two puppies but they poisoned them. (sem. domains: 1.6.3 - Animal life cycle.)

ung-ung sta. to be lacking in intelligence, reasoning ability or good judgment or to become stupid. Naung-ung ka, uggem inilan mangiw-ang hi adol. You are so stupid that you don’t know how to save yourself. Umung-ung tan maki-kien he-a. I become stupid going around with you. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. Sim: gunggung, nengneng. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.4 - Stupid.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bidade trans. to scrutinize something by holding and turning, usually done when buying something. Bidabidadeom yaden adim gatangon. You are turning it over and over and yet you will not buy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, binbin, biling. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

binbin trans. to examine closely; look closely at something. Bininbin ku nan igatang da an sweater ot gatangok nan maingit. I carefully examined the sweaters they were selling and bought the red one. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, bidade, biling. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

duntug 1comm. a slight elevation of land; a hill. Nah duntug di nangiha-adan da nah bale da. On the hill is where they placed their house. Sim: bilid. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.1 - Mountain.) 2sta. to be hilly. Maduntug nan kudal da. Their pasture land is hilly. ma‑.

paad 1comm. a message sent through someone. Hay paad amam ya umanamut ka hi bigat. The message of your father is for you to go home tomorrow. Sim: bilin. (sem. domains: 3.5.2.1 - Report.) 2trans. to send message verbally to another through someone. Impaad da an alam kanu nan bulwatina. He sent word that you are to bring his clothes along with you. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - General.

ablat intrans. to climb up to a higher place. [This is still used in Lagawe area as common language; Lagawe is thought to be the original area of the Ifugao and the Hanglulo language.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Immablatak ad tap-o ot inhabyat ku nah tuktuk di bilid. I climbed upwards and reached the top of the mountain. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Syn: tikid. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.4 - Move up.)

Atade prop. name of a mountain in the area. Naakhop an bilid di Atade. Atade is a low mountain. Nagdey Atade handih nalauy duwampuluy toon. There was a landslide in Atade twenty years ago. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.1 - Mountain.)

bonyag₂ intrans. 1to twinkle; to shine in the dark. Mumbonyag day bittuwon hi kabunyan. The stars are twinkling in the sky. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2to light up and shine. Bumonyag nan bilid te inapuyan. The mountain will be lighted up because they burned it. Impadilag na talak ya bimmonyag nan dola. He switched on the vehicles lights and the yard was lighted up. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

bunne 1comm. a tree variety with sour fruit similar to galiwgiwon, only bigger; the wood is used for posts. Waday bunne nah bilid. There are bunne-fruit trees in the hills. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2intrans. to gather bunne fruit. maN‑. der. mamunne

diing 1intrans. to twirl; to spin. [The most common use of the word is in relation to children spinning the bowwot tops.] Dumiing nan kinapya nan bowwot. The top he made spins. Adi dumiing te maid patak na. It cannot spin because it has no nail. Mundi-ingan nadan bowwot da. Their tops were spinning. Madiing nan bowwot na. His top spins beautifully. Madiing di bowwot Pedro. The top of Pedro spins beautifully. Mumbibiling da ke, ne mahapul an pakaipaddiing da nan kalang on ahida kinaluban. If they are playing biling, they must make the coin spin very well before they cover it. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: tiyong. (sem. domains: 7.3.5 - Turn something.) 2comm. toy top. der. paddiing

duplanu (sp. var. diplanu) 1comm. airplane. Lanikkodon nan duplanu nan bilid. The airplane kept circling the mountain. (sem. domains: 7.2.4.1.1 - Vehicle.) 2intrans. to fly in an airplane. Mun-duplanu dan ume. They will ride in a plane when they leave. muN‑/nuN‑.

gongaak intrans. the roar or splashing sound of a waterfall. Mungongaak nan liting an nalpu nah bilid. The water cascading down the mountainside was roaring. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

habyat trans. 1to bring or take something to a higher level or elevation. Ihabyat mu nan cargam ta ahika mun-iyatu. Bring up your cargo before you rest. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.) 2to go over the top of something like a mountain. Habyaton taku nan bilid ta ahi taku dumatong ad boble. We will go over the top of the mountain before we reach our village. ‑on/‑in‑.

impakaiC1- this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. <The C1 geminate is not always pronounced or written.> Hanan tagun mangngol hi kalik ya un-unudona ya miingngo nah nanomnoman an tagun nangapyah balenan impakaihammad nay tukud na. (Mateo 7:24) The person who hears what I say and follows it can be compared to the intelligent person who has built his house and strongly stabilized its posts. Sim: pakaiC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

kenae dem. that; a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns; the form occurs without determiners or linkers only at the end of sentences; it has endophoric back reference in context. Nangamung kayun munnomnom kenae. (1 Corinthians 4:21b) It is up to you (your responsibility) to think about that. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) kenaen kenaey

kilaw comm. a young carabao. Impattol da nadan kilaw nah bilid. They pastured the young carabao on the hill. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

kina- 1mod. this prefix expresses the concept of a quality or characteristic being inherent or evident. Hi Apu Dios ya impatibo na kinaDios na. As for God, he has shown his Godness. Bumobboh-ol damdama ke dadiyen tulun gayyum Job te uggeda kinabaelan an hinumang hi Job hi ustu ta kay mo hi Apu Dios di nihalla an bokon hi Job. (Job 32:3) He was also very angry with Job’s three friends because they did not have the ability to adequately answer Job so that it was like God was mistaken, not Job. Deket mundama kayun tulang mu wenu hay udum an tatagu ya adi nalgom di kalyon hi kinagaga-iho da. When you quarrel with your brother/sister or other people, don’t tell about their evil. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.) 2dervN. the prefix derives a noun. Impakiala da nadan limmu da ya am-in di kinadangyan da. They got their property and all of their riches. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

likkod trans. to go around something; to circle around. Illikod mu nah payo ta ahika dumatong hi baleda. Go around the field then you will arrive at their house. Lanikkodon nan eroplanu nan bilid. The airplane kept circling the mountain. i‑/iN‑, ‑an‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.7 - Move in a circle.) infl. likkodon infl. nunlinikkod

log’ab intrans. to burn, house or vegetation. Miadiy munlogab hi bilid. It is forbidden to burn mountainsides (vegetation and trees). Ihaad mu nan apuy mahikon te lunggab ka man. Put down that fire, little boy, because you might burn the house. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.)

ma-uwan 1trans. to become aware suddenly; to get one’s bearings; realize suddenly. Ek imama-uwan ya deyak nah bilid. All at once I became aware that I was in the mountains. Indani ya ena imama-uwan ya maid mo nadan e nangikuyug ke hiya, an wada nin an alas kuwatro mon diye. Then, at about 4:00 a.m. he suddenly noticed that he was left alone by his abductors. i‑ CV‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.) 2v. to pay close attention; watch carefully; to be alert. Ma-uwam hin mala-u da nadan tindalu. Pay close attention if the soldiers pass-by. (sem. domains: 4.7.7.3 - Imprison.)

makawa comm. deer. [Deer are sometimes captured and sold as pets.] Dakol di makawa nah bilid. There are many deer in the mountains. Maphod an ihda di makawa te makahhong-o. Deer viand is good because it is very delicious. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

mann’u 1intrans. to equalize two things; to be just in equalizing; to be fair. Mummanno kayu mo nah hummangan yu. Be fair in your agreemnet. Nummannu da mo. There, their winnings are equal now (in gambling). muN‑/nuN‑. 2trans. to equalize a particular thing. Imannu da nan bultung. They have equalized their wrestling ability. i‑.

na- -an pass. this circumfix derives the past tense passive form of Class 5 verbal roots. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day came. Impundallan da nan nasugatan. They let the wounded person walk. Natanoman hi kaiw nan bilid. The tree was planted on the mountain. Sim: ma- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

na-ud₂ adj. for something to be described as inherent or intrinsic; there is a meaning component of certainty about the truth of the statement. Dayawok hi APU DIOS hi am-in di kabaelak te hiya ya nunna-ud an maphod. (Psalm 103:1) I will praise the LORD with all my ability because he is inherently good. Qualifier. infl. nunna-ud

ngobngob intrans. refers to very strong heat from a blazing fire. Mungngobngob nan apuy nah bilid. The heat from the fire in the mountain is strong. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 8.3.4 - Hot.)

pakaC2- -an this circumfix intensifies the action of the agent-subject and cross-references a definite object. Ot pakaguwwalyaan da ot maid moy oggan madngol nadah bibilid ad Israel hi katatakut an olmom na. (Ezekiel 19:9a) They carefully guarded him and so never again would his fearful roar be heard in the mountains of Israel. Sim: C2, pakaC2- -on, pakaC1- -on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

puul trans. to burn something. Puulam nan galut nah dola. Burn the litter in the yard. Ipuul mu nadan tubun di mangga. Burn the mango leaves. Deyan mumpuul da boh bilid! There they go again, burning the mountains. Napuulan di balemi. Our house was burned to ashes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, na‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: gohob, geeng. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.)

tag-e 1adj. having an extension upward, vertically; high, tall. Atag-e nan alad da. Their fence is high. Nakattag-e nan ek pinaytuk, kinali nahpung tun hukik. The thing I jumped from was very high, that’s why I sprained my ankle. Hidiyen bilid di katagtag-yan hitu. That mountain is the tallest here. a‑/an‑, naka‑ C, ka‑ CV(C) ‑an. Dimension quantifier. ant: akhop; Sim: banawe, tayag. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.3 - High, 8.2.2.2 - Tall.) 2nom. height. Hay kinatag-en di balemi ya umat nah kinatag-en di katagtag-eyan an tagu. The height of our house is like the height of the tallest person. Athituy kinatag-en nan alad an ek pinaytuk. The height of the fence I jumped over was like this. ka‑, kina‑. 3trans. to raise something to a higher position. Itag-em nan page. Lift up the rice-stalks. Itagtag-em nan paul ta paytukok. Raise the stick higher so that I will jump over it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.4 - Lift.) 4sta. to have a high status. Ipadayaw kuy kinatag-em ta inggana. I will honor/praise your inherent high status forever. (referring to God’s status) Natag-e saad tuwen tagu. This person’s rank is high. kina‑, na‑. (sem. domains: 4.5.6.1 - High status.) 5proc. refers to the process of becoming tall. Immongal ka mo gayam ya timmag-e ka pay. You are grown now and have also become tall. der. kinatag-e id. muntag-etag-e infl. atag-e

tikid 1intrans. to move in upward direction; to ascend; to climb a mountain or hill. Tumikid ka, adika dumayyu weno mundiretyo. Ascend, don’t descend or go straight. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Syn: ablat. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.4 - Move up.) 2sta. refers to a steep slope or path. Adiyak paka-en nah matikid. I can hardly go on a steep path. Lumingot ta nah matikid. One perspires on a steep trail. ma‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.) 3to ascend with something or to ascend at a particular place. 3.1trans. to ascend with a conveyed-object being carried. Itikid mu nan aluwog. Ascend with the bamboo tube for water. i‑/iN‑. 3.2trans. to ascend, a path-object is significant. Tikidon yuy tulun bilid ta ahi kayu dumatong nah baleda. You will ascend three mountains before you will reach their place. Tinikitikid da nan bilid ad Asipulo. They have been climbing the mountain in Asipulo. ‑on/‑in‑.

tuktuk comm. 1the forehead or the top of head. Nakammuttag di tuktuk na. His forehead is well exposed. Linaddin David di tuktuk Goliath. David struck (with a stone) the forehead of Goliath. Syn: altugan. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.) 2top of anything, highest point, e.g. mountain, house. Imme kamin nah tuktuk di bilid an umalah galiwgiwon. We went to the top of the mountain to get galiwgiwon-fruit. (sem. domains: 8.5.5 - Spatial relations.)

uhdung 1trans. to look down on something from a high elevation. Wada nah kaiw ot uh-dungganan dakami. He was in the tree and looked down at us. Uhdungan yu din nag-an baka. Look down at that cow that fell. Deket wada tah tud Awwa ya mauhdungan di Amduntug hi South ya maudungan di Hulungan ya Nagacadan hi North. Anyone who is in Awwa is overlooking Amduntog to the South and overlooking Hulungan and Nagacadan to the North. Muntikid ka ta datngam nan tap-on di bilid ta ahika mun-uhdung ya ahi matibo nan balemi. Ascend until you reach the top of the mountain and look down and you will be able to see our house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 2intrans. to look down. Muntikid ka ta datngam nan tap-on di bilid ta ahika mun-uhdung ya ahi matibo nan bale mi. Ascend until you reach the top of the mountain and look down and you will be able to see our house. muN‑/nuN‑.

ulu comm. 1the head. Punggung-uwak di uluk te uggek inilay itudok kuh tu. I am scratching my head because I do not know what to write here. Ammunay uluk an in-agtuk. I have nothing. (lit. I’m only carrying my head.) Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like two carabao heads, one on each end. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.) 2riddle Waday ohan bilid an pituy uwang na. (ulu) There is a mountain that has seven holes. (head) der. mamangulu der. pangulu der. panguluwan der. ulluwan id. nimamantuk hi ulu