Search results for "dala"

dala 1comm. blood. Dakol di dalan nan manuk. The chicken has a lot of blood. (sem. domains: 2.2.5 - Bleed, blood.) 2intrans. to bleed. Dimmalay olong na. His nose bled. Mundadala nan napalang. The cut caused by the machete was bleeding. Madala nan ginogod dan manuk. The chicken they butchered had a lot of blood. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. 3trans. to bleed an animal in the butchering process. ‑on/‑in‑. 4comm. animal blood mixed with innards and meat cooked to make a dish. der. dalaan der. dinaldalaan id. mumbabayakbak di dalana

dalaan (der. of dala) trans. to bleed an animal before butchering. Dalaan ta tun manuk aga! Let’s bleed this chicken, please. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2 - Steps in food preparation.)

dalakan comm. a tree variety of second class wood, medium-soft. may be used for walling; as firewood it sparks too much to be considered good. [The wood may be used for walling but as firewood, it sparks too much to be considered good.] Adi maphod di dalakan an itungu te mumbubuti. Dalakan is not good firewood because it sparks. Dalakan di inhaad dan dinangal. They used the dalakan-wood for floor joists. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

dalalu 1comm. refers to any form of frozen water; hail, ice cubes; sleet. (sem. domains: 1.1.3.4 - Snow, ice.) 2intrans. to hail. [There have been rare instances of hail in the Ifugao area, but no reports of ice on bodies of water or sleet.] Mundalalu handi mangali kami. It was hailing when we were coming. Dimmalalu handi June, 1983. It hailed in June, 1983. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 1.1.3 - Weather.)

dalan₁ 1comm. a place for walking; path; trail; way. Maid di dalan hitu. There is no path here. Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then took me to the upper road. Sim: kalata, kah-on. (sem. domains: 6.5.4.1 - Road.) 2to walk. 2.1intrans. to move about on foot; to walk. <Affixation: The circumfix set muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an expresses both a durative aspect and the site-concept of a widely spread area for the walking, i.e. walking around. > Mundallan mo nan golang. The child walks now. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2.2intrans. to walk, with a starting point in view. Dumallan mo nan unga. The child can already walk. um/imm. 3to walk by, bypass or through a place. 3.1trans. to walk, passing by a place or through a medium. Indaladalan muh di yaden adim pinhod an makihummangan ke hiya. You are always passing there yet you do not like to talk with her. Idalan taku nah wa-el. We will pass through the creek. Daanay pangidalanam? Where will you pass (lit. path/walk)? i‑/iN‑. nangi‑/pangi‑ + ‑an. 3.2trans. to walk on a path, road with prominence given to the thing walked on. Maid di dalanon yuh tu. There is no place to walk here. on/in. id. kay bakkukul an dumalan id. kay gawgaway pundalan id. kay kabayun dumalan infl. ipadalan

dalan₂ comm. measuring unit for ten bundles of rice. Gumawatak hi hindalan an page. I will borow ten bundles of rice. general: can be combined with other numbers e.g. duwan dalan; tulun dalan; etc. hiN‑. Sim: bainti, duwampulu; Meas: bongle, dalan, upu. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, 8.1.1.1 - Cardinal numbers.) comp. hindalan

dalang intrans. for wood or other inflammable material to ignite and flame. Ka-dikhal nan kaiw kinali adi dumalang. That wood is newly split, that's why it won't ignite. -um-/-imm-.

dalapong 1comm. a block of wood that serves as a stool. Umbun ka nah dalapong. Sit on the stool. Sim: tilya, bangko. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) 2trans. to sit down on this particular type of stool. Mundalapong ka. Sit down on the stool. Mundalapongak ten umbunak. I got the stool because I’ll sit down. muN‑/nuN‑.

dalat₁ 1trans. to mention something or someone. Adim oggan dalaton hiya. Don’t ever mention it again. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2comm. a well-known person who is frequently talked about. Hiyay madmaddalat ta nangamung. He is the one mentioned all the time. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

dalat₂ 1comm. sand. Hina-adan dah dalat nan kalata. They placed sand on the road. Sim: lon’a, pantal. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.) 2intrans. to spread sand. Dalatan yu nan dola. Place sand in the yard. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language of Borrowing: Ilocano: darat.

dalayap 1comm. lime fruit. Maka-antam di dalayap. A lime is very sour. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.2 - Food from fruit.) 2trans. to squeeze lime into something. Dalayapam nan ihda. Squeeze lime into the viand. Maphod an madalayapan di battikul. It is good to add lime juice to the battikul-shellfish. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

dinaldalaan (der. of dala) 1comm. a food dish of blood and internal organs, with a little flesh and fat included. Adina kanon di dinaldalaan. He does not eat blood pudding. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to cook blood pudding. Mundinaldalaan taku hin paltiyon taku nan babuy. We will cook dinaldalaan if we butcher the pig. muN‑/nuN‑. Language of Borrowing: Ilocano: dinardaraan.

hindalan (comp. of dalan, hiN-) adj. ten bundles of rice, one unit of ten bundles. Imbatawil nay hindalan an page. He carried on a carrying-pole ten bundles of rice. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.)

ipadalan (infl. of dalan) trans. to cause to pass through or by. [This has a specific meaning in the New Testament translation; meaning to pray in the name of Jesus Christ or through him.] Hituwen pumpasalamt kun Apu Dios ya ipadalan kun Jesu Kristo. (Rom.1:9b) For this I thank God through Jesus Christ. {ritual} ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.5 - Move past, over, through.)

kay gawgaway pundalan (id. of dalan) idiom. she sways her hips when she walks (lit. like a duck walking/waddling).

mumbabayakbak di dalana (id. of dala) an idiom meaning that someone is very angry (lit. his blood is boiling).

naadalan (infl. of adal) sta. to be learned; knowledgeable; to have learned a given thing or an area of knowledge. Naadalan mo kinali adi na ipidpidwan aton. He is now knowledgable so he won’t repeat it. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

bainti (sp. var. bahinti) 1adj. the count twenty of something. Bainti an tatagu di mahapul. Twenty people are needed. Number quantifier. Sim: dalan, duwampulu. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.1 - Cardinal numbers.) 2sta. to be worth twenty. Idatanak hi mabainti kindi. Give her candies worth twenty pesos. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: veinte.

bangko₁ comm. wooden bench. Alam nan bangko ta waday ubunan tun tatagu. Get the bench so these people can sit. Nahuyop nan nabutong nah bangko. The drunk man slept on the bench. Natukad nan imbunak an bangko. The wooden bench I was sitting on collapsed. Sim: tilya, dalapong. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) Llanguage Of Borrowing: Spanish.

bongle 1sta. fifty, a unit of measurement by the count of fives; the measure is related to bundles of rice. Inuyap ku hin kaatnay bintok da ya nabongle. I counted the number of bundles, it was fifty. na‑. Sim: nalima; Meas: bongle, dalan, upu. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.1 - Cardinal numbers.) 2comm. monetary unit of fifty pesos. [This is probably an extended meaning from the traditional. meaning related to number of rice bundles.] Nabongle nan indat nan balun ku. He gave me fifty pesos as my pocket money. na‑.

duwampulu (comp. of pulu) quan. two tens; twenty. Duwanpulu kilon nan bulhe. The weight of the beans is twenty kilos. Sim: bainti, dalan. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.1 - Cardinal numbers.)

kah-on comm. a way on which to walk; path. Punpaldangon yu nadan kawayan ta mihaad an kah-on. Place the kawayan in a line to serve as a pathway. Daan di kah-on yu? What way will you take? Sim: kalata, dalan. (sem. domains: 6.5.4.1 - Road.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

kalata 1comm. road; street. Mangapya da hi kalata an umed Tinoc. They are making a road to Tinok. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to an ant when you are walking along the road. Sim: dalan, kah-on. (sem. domains: 6.5.4.1 - Road.) 2trans. to build a road. Kalataon da nan lutan da Juan. They will build a road along Juans’ land. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object.

lon’a 1comm. sand. Eda immalah lona nah pingngit di wangwang. They went to get sand from the riverside. Sim: pantal, dalat. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.) 2trans. to spread sand somewhere. Lonaan yu nan daulon. Place sand under the house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3sta. a sandy place. Malona nan bobleda. Their place is sandy. ma‑. infl. malona

pantal comm. sand or gravel. Iwahit mu nan pantal nah mapitok an dalan. Spread the sand on the muddy path. Sim: lon’a, dalat. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.2 - Rock, 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.)

tilya comm. a chair. Dakol di tilya nah opisina. There are many chairs in the office. Sim: bangko, dalapong; gen: ubunan. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: silla.

upu₁ adj. one hundred rice bundles. Hin-upuy naani tuh ohan banong. There were one hundred rice bundles harvested from this one paddy. hiN‑. Number quantifier. Meas: bongle, dalan, upu. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.1 - Cardinal numbers.)

‑an‑ asp. this infix encodes an aspect that expresses the concept of an action done repeatedly; frequently; iterative; co-occurs with punctiliar aspect affixes. Kumanoga din golang. The child is always crying. Nala-uy opat an oras hi nakihanummanganan da ya numpahpahmokan da nah bibiyo. Four hours passed while they negotiated and pleaded again and again with the ‘bibiyo’. Umanay-ayyam da nah dalan. They always play on the path. Mahanilngan nah dalan. Night always overtakes him on the road. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes, 8.1.1.3 - Number of times.)

‑on TACR. 1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on

agol 1comm. to be hesitant; refers to the feeling of hesitation to do a thing because of fear of consequences. Waday agol kun e mundallanan nah hilong. I am afraid to go and walk around during night time. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.3 - Doubt.) 2intrans. Umagolak an e hunggop hi baleda. I am hesitant to enter their house. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautiously walking on the slippery dikes. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.5 - Uncertain.)

alad 1comm. fence; enclosure of ground. Napa-i nan alad taku. Our fence was destroyed. Inyapana nah kad-an di alad. He jumped into a place near the fence. Sim: iya, luhud. (sem. domains: 6.5.1.5 - Fence, wall.) 2intrans. to build a fence. Mun-alad hi Jose. Jose is building a fence. Umalaka hi lappao ta pun-alad ku. Get some Jerusalem artichoke so that I can use to make a fence. Umalad kah pukungan di gawgawa. Fence a space for a duck pen. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to focus is on what is used for building a fence or what is being fenced. Ialad mu nan bilau. Use the canegrass for in building a fence. Aladon yu nan dola. Build a fence around your yard. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 4pass. to be fenced. Naaladan nan ek pangidalanan. The way I will pass by is fenced. ma‑/na‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ap-apid comm. crabgrass, two varieties, one grows in the ricefields, the other on dry ground; leaves are used to make baskets, placemats, mats, or for tying things. Kinan di gulding nan ap-apid nah dalan. The goat ate the crabgrass along the road. Digitaria sanguinalis Sim: balili; Sim: hagaga, balili. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

apitong comm. tree variety, used for firewood, medium hard. Madalang di kaiw an apitong. Apitong is wood which flames easily. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

appit₃ 1comm. in the direction of something; the side of something; right or left part of something. Hanan appit nah diy pangidalanam. You walk on that side. (sem. domains: 8.5.2 - Direction.) 2trans. to go in a particular direction. Daanay pangiappitam? In what direction will you go? pangi‑ ‑an/nangi‑ ‑an. nangappit

ba’ing comm. 1coconut midrib. Eka umalah baing ta kapyaom hi basket. Go and get coconut midribs and make a basket. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2broom made of coconut midrib. Alam nan baing ta higidam nan dola. You get the hard broom and sweep the yard. Alam nan baing ta ihigid mun nah dalan di bale. You get the hard broom and sweep the path to the house..

baladd’ong trans. to stretch across; stretchable things. Nibaladong nan ulog nah dalan. The snake was stretched across the road. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.7 - Extend.)

ban’ong 1comm. lip of ricefield dike which contains the water; projecting edge of ricefield dike sometimes stepping stones are laid for walking on the lip. Niphod mo nan banong nan payo? Is the ricefield dike already fixed? Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Sim: botnge. (sem. domains: 6.5.2.1 - Wall.) 2trans. to build ricefield dikes. Banongan dan nan payo ad uwani. They are going to build the ricefield dike today. Mumbanong da ama nah payon da Juan. Father and his companions are building mud dikes in the Juan’s field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

bananu comm. a metaphor for ricefield. Indalanah bananu. She passed through the ricefields. {ritual} Sim: payo, pukung. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.)

banawat comm. a metaphor for fire. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Madalang nan banawat da. Their fire is blazing. {literary} Sim: ap’uy.

bangiw trans. to turn something towards another direction; to divert towards another direction. Bangiwom nan ubunan hidi ta adi mihani nah dalanon. You turn the chair to that side so it won’t block the passage. Adi mabangiw nan talak. The vehicle cannot be turned. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.3.5 - Turn something.)

banniya comm. lizard, yellow spots on gray and black skin with a cream belly; found in big trees and big stones with cracks or underneath where they dig in the earth for their homes. Ongal an banniya nan inang-ang min nah dalan. The lizard we saw on the road was big. Sim: kutkutli, banbanaggo, kallulu. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.)

bat’u 1comm. stone; rock, generic. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu. I remember that when we were children, there were big rocks beside the same spring. Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Um-umbun nah tap-on nan ohan ongal an batu. She was sitting on top of a big rock. spec: dulmug, muling, talugtug. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.2 - Rock.) 2sta. to be rocky, refers to ground that is full of rocks. Mabatu nan luta da. Their land is full of rocks. Mabatu nan habal da. Their camote patch has lots of rocks. ma‑. 3use rocks. 3.1trans. to lay rocks for a path or road. Batuwan yu nan dalan/kalata. Place stones/rocks on the road/path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.2trans. to throw a stone or rock. Adim ibnal nan batu. Do not throw the stone. der. binattu

batawil 1comm. a pole placed on the shoulder to carry rice bundles, on both ends, to and from the granary. Em alan nan batawil nah alang. Go and get the pole for carrying rice bundles to the granary. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 2trans. to carry on a pole on one’s shoulder, usually produce that can be hung such as rice bundles. Ibatawil yu nan page. Carry the bundles of rice grain on poles. Ekayu ta batawilon yu nan page. Go and carry the rice bundles. Gakodam nan balat ta ibatawil mu. Put a tie on the hands of bananas so that you can carry them. Eda mumbatawil hi page hi bigat. They are going to carry rice bundles on poles tomorrow. Bumatawil kah hindalan. Carry on the pole twenty rice bundles . Dakol nan page an nibatawil. Many bundles of rice were carried (on the batawil). i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

bayag 1sta. a long time. Nabayag di nundalanan mi ot ahi kami dumatong. We walked a long time before we arrived. Adika makabayyag nah pangitud-akak ke he-a te mabayag ka ke man ya tayanan daka. Do not be a a very long time where I will send you because if you stay there long, we will leave you. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: ehem, uhup. (sem. domains: 8.4.2.2 - A long time.) 2duration of an activity. 2.1intrans. for someone to take a long time in doing an activity. Adi mumbayag ya ume da. It will not take long and they will go. Adi mumbayag hidiyen at-attona. He will not continue for a long time in that which he is doing. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. to take a long time in accomplishing a specific task with the task cross-referenced by the affix. Adim baybayaggon nan at-attom. Do not take so much time in what you are doing. Deket waday insapata yu ya mahapul an adiyu baybayaggon. If you have vowed to do something, it is necessary that you do not delay a long time (before doing what you vowed).. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. nabayag ph. v. adi mumbayag

bilabil comm. a blood sucking worm which lives in water; a leech. Nipkot ke nan bilabil nah hukim ya huphuponay dalam. If the leech sticks to your feet, it will suck your blood. Sim: matok. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.)

botak trans. to lie-in-wait; to attack unexpectedly from a hidden position. Dehdih Juan an od-odnanay otak an botakonah Pedro. Juan is there with a bolo lying in wait for Pedro. Adika ot maohhan ume te wada man kanu on mangalanan mumbotak nah dalan. Don’t go by yourself because they say that someone who is seeking revenge is going to ambush you. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: bolaad. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.3.1 - Ambush.)

bud’al 1nom. an exit or opening to go out. Maid di buddalan nan gando. The rat has no exit. ‑an. Sim: buddu, lah-un. 2intrans. to exit; come out; go out. Bumudal kayu ni-an ta liniyan mi tun bale. Go out for a while and we will clean the house. Hinumgop kami nah balen ongal ya ekami bumudal ya hinnatkon di bimmudalan mi. We entered the big house but when we came out we came out from a different exit. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.4.1 - Move out.) 3trans. to bring something out. Ibudal mu nan it-ittalum. You bring out what you are hiding. Adiyu ibudal am-in hanan makan te dakol da pay di ugge nangan. Do not bring out all the food because many did not eat yet. Dahdiy nangibudal bo tuh intaluk an otak. Who brought out again this bolo which I had hidden. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3E Move an object directionally. ph. v. bumudal nah hospital

bugit sta. the skin responds to fear, causing goose bumps. Dalanona yaden nabugibbugit. He will walk on and yet he is having many goose bumps. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.1.4 - Skin.)

bugol comm. black ant species, with hooked horns. Dakol da nadan bugol nah dalan. There are many horned ants along the way. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

bungot sta. 1to be angry, stronger than boh-ol. [To be at the height of anger.] Bumungot da hin idalan muh na. They will be angry if you pass there. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: bimmoh-ol. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry.) 2to be ferocious, furious. [With the makaC- prefix, the word often describes a person who is habitually angry.] Makabbungot hi amana. His father is ferocious. Makabbungot ka kinali adi daka pinhod an iahawa. You are always very angry, that’s why I don’t want to marry you. makaC‑. id. bimmungot ya kay umila-ut id. kay gumalikom hi bungot na infl. bungotan say. Hay mabungot an tagu, ikate nay bungot na.

butas 1comm. boots, rubber or leather. Alam nan butas te pitok nan dalan. Get those boots because the way is muddy. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear boots. Mumbutas ka tedeyan pitoppitok di dalan. Wear the rubber boots because the road is very muddy. muN‑, ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

buttigi 1comm. white stones with yellow or brownish grains. Buttigi nan intuping da. They used the buttigi-stone for riprapping. Kanak pen on buttigi kanan ot bakkukul. I thought it was a buttigi-rock but no, it was a turtle. Gen: dulmug. 2sta. to be full of buttigi stones. Mabuttigi nan dalan an umed Haliap. There are lots of buttigi-stones on the road to Haliap. ma‑.

dadang 1comm. cooked rice that is crusted and browned; found at the bottom of the cooking pot. Idatam nadan u-ungah dadang. Give the children some crusted rice. Pinpinhod di uunga an mangan hi dadang. Children like to eat the crusty rice. Pinpinhod di udum di dadang immam-ana hin maatung pay. Others like very much the crusted rice especially when hot. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2sta. for rice to become crusted and browned. Deket natduk nan hinamal ya kaanon nan mundadalang to abuna nan bala ta madadangan. If the cooked rice is dry, remove the burning wood so that only the coals remain and the rice will become crusted and brown. muN/nuN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6C Process or state of inanimate object.

dahada trans. to feel with hands or feet for something that cannot be seen. Dahadaom nan takkalang kun nag-a nah kad-an di batu nah payo. Feel with your hands for my rings which fell near the stone in the ricefield. Dinahadak nan dalan an immeh bale di hilong te tapottapol. I had to feel for the path when going to our house last night because it was so dark. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 2.3.5 - Sense of touch, 7.3.4.1 - Touch.)

dal’ang flaming. 1.1intrans. to burn brightly; refers to the process of visible burning; the flaming of a fire. Mundadalang nan baleda. Their house is flaming. Induyag ku nan pitlolyo ot tolgak ya dimmalang. I poured kerosene (on it) and lit it and it flamed. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: dalebdeb. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5 - Fire.) 1.2caus. to cause a fire to flame. Padalangon yu nan apuy. Make the fire flame. pa‑ ‑on. 1.3sta. refers to a type of wood that burns well. Madalang nan intungu. The firewood burns well. ma‑. (sem. domains: 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.)

danglol 1sta. to be slippery. Madanglol nan dalan an umed Linda. The path which goes to Linda is slippery. Madanglol nan manteka nah dulung. The cooking oil on the floor is slippery. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.) 2proc. to become slippery. Dumanglol nan kalata hin umudan. If it rains, the road will became slippery. Ha-adam hi lana nan buuk mu ta dumanglol. Put oil on your hair so that it will be soft (lit. slippery). ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. madanglol

daplug (sp. var. duplug) knock over. 1.1trans. to knock over by bumping or overrunning as a flood. Kumaan kah na te idaplug dakan hiya. Get out of there because he will knock you over. Nidaplug nan ung-ungngan um-umbun te munhihilong an adi matibo. The child sitting there was knocked over because it was night and she couldn’t be seen. Nan olwang ya indaplug nah baleda. That flood, it overran their house. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 1.2trans. to knock over, involves the manner or reason for the action. Ikiwangan yu ot din mangali te kay nuwang an umidaplug. Give way to the one coming because he will knock you over like a carabao. Pun-idaplug muy ubunan te adim tibon di dalanom. You knock the seat over because you don’t look where you are going. Mamtikak ya wada da nan nitanom nah pangidalanak ot pun-idaplug ku. I was running and there were plants in my way so I knocked them over. umi‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3trans. to bump someone or something. Immali ot daplugonak ot bumtik. He came and bumped me and ran away. ‑on/‑in‑.

dayyu 1intrans. to move in a downward direction; walking or riding down an incline; descend; go down, walk down a mountain or hillside. Dumayyu ka keh tu ta waday ibagak. Come down here (lit. descend) and I will ask you something. Dumayyu kad Pindongan ta em tibon hi Dulyaggan. Come down to Pindongan so that you will go to see Dulyaggan. Mundayyu kat ume kah bale da ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Go down (lit. descend), to their house and call for Kabbigat so that I will have someone to help me singe the pig. Indai ot dongdonglona, mundayyu dah wa-el nan ho kali ya- ne kinimit na. Later on, as he was hearing, they were going down to the creek and then he closed his eyes. muN‑/nuN, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.) 2sta. to be sloping, a path or road, descending toward a destination. Madayyu nan dalan an umeh baleda. The path going to their house is sloping. Ya mumpadayyuy ohat mumpaed Kiangan. And one pathway goes down towards Kiangan. ma‑. 3to descend with the path or site in view. 3.1trans. the direct object refers to a specific path or something along the path. Dayyuwon yu nan madopla ta ahi kayu dumatong. You’ll go down/descend the cliff before arriving. ‑on/‑in; dayyuwon. 3.2trans. the direct object refers to a specific site for starting the descent Hidiy dayyuwan yu. There (is the place) where you will go down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.3trans. the direct object refers to an object along the path of descent. Idayyu yu nah kad-an di mangga. You’ll go down/descend where the mango tree is. i‑/iN‑.

dilag 1comm. artificial light. Maid di dilag ku. I have no light. Sim: big’at, pat-al, algo, potang. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2trans. to use a light. Eda mundilag hi bakbak. They are going to use a light and catch frogs. Mundilag hi baleda handi hilong. Their house was lit up last night. Maid di idilag ku. I have no light-to-use. Dilagan yu nan dalan. Provide a light for the path. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑.

dipendal trans. to defend or protect someone. Hanadan tindalu ya uggeda dinipendalan nan boble da. As for those soldiers, they did not defend their own village. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.4 - Defend.)

dongol (sp. var. dongngol) 1to listen. 1.1trans. to listen, giving concentrated attention to specific things being heard; to allow oneself to be persuaded to give heed to and follow a suggestion or advice. <morphophonemics: When infixed, the vowel ‘o’ in the first syllable of the root is deleted.> Donglon yuy kalyon apuyu. Listen to what your grandfather will say. Dingngol mu? Did you hear it? He-a ken ohan ap-apuk ya donglom tun kalik. My grandson, listen to me. Dingngol ku an makattugal ka. I heard that you are an habitual gambler. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 1.2trans. the affix focuses on the manner of listening. Tipet idngol muh kalin di tatagu? Why do you listen (pay attention) to what people say? i‑/iN‑. 2to hear. 2.1trans. to perceive sound with the ear; to make an effort to hear something with durative aspect. Mundongol kah kanta nah ladyu. You hear music from the radio. Mundongol kayu ke tuwalit maawatan yuy kalkalyona? Why don’t you listen so that you’ll understand what he is saying? Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 2.2pass. refers to what can or cannot be heard. Deya ot an madngol di tatawa da. There, their laughter can be heard. Adi pakadngol di ingak te nahulatan. My ear cannot hear because it’s obstructed. ma‑, paka‑. 3cause to be heard. 3.1caus. to cause something to be heard. Impadngol nay kantana. He caused his song to be heard. Dahdiy nangipadngol? Who let it be heard? ipa/impa‑, mangipa‑/nangipa‑.. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) id. Donglom tun pangiha-adak id. Madngol di bangluna infl. midngolan infl. mundingngol infl. padngol

dul’ig 1trans. to move something aside. Duligom ke nan ubunan, wada man di nitalud dalom. Move the seat, there’s something hidden underneath it. Duligom nan kaban ta waday dalanon. Move the box aside so there will be a passageway. Idlig mu di nan ubunan. Move the bench that way. Madlig ka ya- ta makib-unak ke he-a. Move over so I can sit by you. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: gonad; Sim: bakwet. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2intrans. an agent moves. Eta tuwali madlig on mahapul an mitakke ta kinali ongal di umeh piliti. Every time you move you have to ride, that is why a big amount goes for fare. Madlig ka, Juan, ta waday atok. Move aside, John, so that I can do something. ma‑/na‑. infl. dumlig

gaat trans. to trim grass; mow grass with bolo; to clear a path of grass. [This is usually done for the purpose of clearing a path or area around a house or the sides of roads.] Gaatam nan dalan an umeh bale taku. You clear out the path going to our house. ‑an/ ‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 6.2.4.1 - Cut grass.)

galeled trans. to drag or slide something roughly, people or animals. Inggaleled nan in-alih tu. He dragged him roughly when he brought him here. Nigaleledak nah madayyun dalan. I slid roughly on the slope. Odnam nan bulwatim ta adi migaleled. You hold up your dress so that it will not be dragged along the ground. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: guyud, lapdit. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.8 - Pull.)

gattin (sp. var. gatin) 1trans. to step on something. Inggattina on ulog. He stepped on a snake. Handi ek igattin ya kimmol-owak te innang an eyak mag-a. When I tried to step down I became frightened because I almost fell. Inhamahamad kuy pangikawotak ya pangigattinak. I carefully chose strong branches to hold and step on. i‑/iN‑, pangi‑ ‑an. 3G Move body parts directionally. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.) 2comm. imprint of the foot. Ongal di gattin nan nangidalan nah banong. The footprints of the one who passed on the dike are big. 3trans. to step on something; the object being stepped on is cross-referenced. Gattinan yu nan udun di kaiw ta adi mahwit. Step on the end of the wood so it will not overturn. Inhamahamad kuy pangikawotak ya pangigattinak. I carefully choose strong branches to hold and step on. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, pangi‑ ‑an. id. namahig an kadangyan ke bo ya igatgattin dita.

gibok 1comm. perception of sensations related to the physical being, the body; a feeling. Nganney gibok mud uwani? What is your feeling now? Ad-adiy gibok kud uwani. I am not feeling well now. Sim: mama-uwan. (sem. domains: 3.1.2.2 - Notice.) 2trans. to feel a sensation; to be conscious of sensations; to become aware. An igibok muy kotol?/An gibokom di kotol? Do you feel cold? Inggibok mu nan kolyog? Did you feel the earthquake? Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then brought me to the upper road. i‑/iN‑. 3sta. to be aware; to sense something. Magibok nan wadan nah pingngit di wa-el mu adina maibaga nu daan hidiy kad-ana te mun-hihhilong ni-an. He could sense that he was by a river but he couldn’t tell exactly where he was as it was still dark. (sem. domains: 3.1.2.1 - Alert.)

goh’ang 1comm. landslide of ricefield wall; slide or cut in a mountain side caused by erosion; may be caused by landslide or digging. Adim idalan nah gohang. Do not pass by the landslide. Sim: god’e. (sem. domains: 1.7 - Nature, environment.) 2trans. to purposely dig an opening in a ricefield dike. Em gohangon nan banong ta umey liting. Go and dig an opening in the terrace wall of the rice paddy so that the water can go through. E munggohang hi Pedro. Pedro will go to dig an opening. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

goma 1comm. rubber substance; may be used to refer to the tires of vehicles or other things made of rubber. Hannotam nan goman di talak. Change the tire of the vehicle. Waday goman apatut mu? Do you have rubber shoes? (sem. domains: 7.2.4.1.1 - Vehicle.) 2intrans. to wear rubber shoes or boots. Munggoma ka hi bigat te napipitok nan dalan. Wear rubber shoes tomorrow because the path is muddy. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ha-ad (sp. var. haad) 1to place something. 1.1trans. to move an object away from agent and place or position it somewhere. Iha-ad mu nan od-odnam ne immali kah tu. Put down the thing you are holding, then come here. i‑/iN‑ . 3A Move and position object. Sim: patuk. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 1.2trans. to move and place an object on/at a site, the site is cross-referenced. Ha-adan takuh kodot nan gattuk ta kanom nan gando. Let’s put some poison on the yam so that the rat will eat it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3trans. to move and place an object, the spatial placement is important. Ha-adom nan kaiw ne pinatak mu. Set the wood vertically then nail it. ‑on/‑in‑. 2pass. something is placed. Ya kananay “Pun-aniduwan” ot to tukabana ot alana nan niha-ad ad dalom. And he said “It’s a heater”, so he uncovered it and got something placed inside. mi‑/ni‑. 3pass. something or someone stays in a place. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs mi‑/ni‑. infl. makiha-ad

hablal trans. to place something in order to block the outlet or inlet of water. Hablalon yu nan liting an umed Ambabag. Block the water outlet which goes to Ambabag. Ihablal mu nan ongal an batu. Use the big stone to block the water. Waday nihablal dih dalanon di danum. There’s something that blocked the outlet of the water. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. ‑on/‑in‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put, 1.3.2.1 - Flow.)

hable 1trans. to place something on a line, peg or hook; to hang up something. Em ihable tun bulwatim. You go and hang up your clothes. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: ahyadang. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 2pass. (fig) to be detained or delayed; to be hung-up [An extended meaning of the word.] Adika bo mihabhable dalan. Don’t get hung-up on the way. {col} 3comm. a hook or line for hanging things such as clothes. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. ‑an. der. hablayan id. mihable

hak-ot (sp. var. huk-ot) 1trans. to hang up something. Ihak-ot mu nan ulom nah tukud. Hang up your blanket on the post. Ihak-ot mu ya- tun basket ku dih patak. Please hang my basket on the nail above. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: hab-ut. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 2pass. to be hooked and hanging on something; get caught on something protruding. Handih binumtik hi Absalon an nuntakkeh kabayu ya nihak-ot di buuk na nah hapang di kaiw nah dalan ot muntattayun mo. (2 Samuel 18:9) When Absalon ran away riding a horse, his hair was caught in a branch of a tree and so he was left hanging there. Nihak-ot din bolak dih kaiw. My ball got caught in the tree. mi‑/ni‑.

hamma sta. 1to be lost; to have lost one’s way in situations or circumstances. Ya kon wada key tagun nahamma ya kon adina ibangngad ta idalan nah ustun dalan? As for a person who has lost his way, won’t he return to walk on the correct path? ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. Sim: tama. (sem. domains: 3.2.3.1 - Known, unknown.) 2to be ignorant; to lack knowledge about the right way to go or do something.

hawang (sp. var. hawwang) 1intrans. to come out; to emerge from a building or enclosure of some kind. Nganney himmawang? What came out? Ihawwang muh tu. Come out here. Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, i‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2intrans. to emerge or show up in various places. Ingkuyukuyugak ot e kami nunhawhawang ad Cubao, Makati, Pasay ya Manila Bay. They accompanied me and we went to Cubao, Makati, Pasay and Manila Bay. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. place where someone or something emerges. Daanay hawwangon hin idalan ad Banaue? Where will we emerge when we pass through Banaue? ‑on. der. hawwangan id. humawang di langkak na. infl. munhawwangan

haybong sta. to have thick foliage; to be full of leaves. Mahaybong nan dalan an umeh bale da. The road to their house is bushy. Himmaybong nadan intanom ku. My plants have become bushy. ma‑, ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

hayyup 1intrans. to be grouped together emotionally or physically; to reconcile. Hiyay gumapu nunhayyupan min munggayyum. He is the cause of our reconciliation. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: laggat, gappat, lak-am, lanud, sakup. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.8.3 - Belong to an organization.) 2trans. to bring things close together. Ihayyup mu tun dalapong nah dalikan. Bring this wooden block stool near the hearth. Nihayyup nan bulwati nah pantalon. The shirt is attached to the pants. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.5 - Arrange.)

hiku₁ 1comm. the elbow. Andukkey taklen di bulwatina ta adi matiboy hiku na. The sleeves of her dress are long so that her elbows cannot be seen. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.1 - Arm.) 2trans. to hit something or someone with elbow. Adika mih-up te hikuwon dakan hiya. Do not go near him because he will elbow you. Hiniku nah tulang na kinali mundadalay olong na. He elbowed his brother, that is why his nose is bleeding. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: hiknul. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

hingngi 1trans. to detour; make a side stop somewhere instead of going directly to destination; go out of the way. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2intrans. to detour; to take a different way than the normal one. Adi kami humingngi ta adi kami mataktak. We will not detour so that we will not be delayed. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to take something, going toward a destination Inhingngi na nah makape. He went towards the place with many coffee plants.

hinna-ob (infl. of ha-ob) intrans. on opposite sides. Pangdalam hi nunhinna-ob ta adi matu-i. Shore it up on both sides so that it will not fall down. nuN‑ ‑inn‑. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.6 - Across.)

hipngat₂ intrans. to meet unexpectedly; to have a chance meeting. Nunhipngat da Juan ke Tomas nah dalan. Juan and Tomas met each other unexpectedly on the way. Ume ka ad Manila ta kal-ina ot anhan ya munhipngat kayun tulang mu. Go to Manila where we hope you will have a chance meeting with your sister. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.)

hiwahiw trans. to slash with machete, e.g. to clean away grasses from a path. Natoan nan dalan kinali hiwahiwon yu nadan holok hidi. The path cannot be seen so slash the grasses there. Ihiwahiw mu nan otak mu. Use your machete in slashing. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

hiwang trans. 1to bypass; choose another way or path to avoid destroying plants or to avoid harm to one’s feet. Ihwang mu nah dalanom ta adi ka mag-od. Bypass the path you are walking so that you will not hurt yourself. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2to be kept from trouble, danger or disaster; particularly used about God helping people. Mu he-a ke ya waday planuk an ipaannung ku, kinali ihwang dakayun ha-on. (Genesis 6:18) But as for you, I will fulfill my plan, that’s why I will save you. (God said this to Noah.) i‑/iN‑. Sim: mangibaliw, salbal. (sem. domains: 4.4.4.4 - Save from trouble, 4.9.5.7 - Salvation.) infl. ihwang infl. mihwang

hol’ok 1comm. grass, generic term. Ginabut ku nan holok nah dalan. I cut the grass on the way. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2sta. to be very grassy; describes an area that is very grassy. Maholokan bo tedeyan immudan. It will be grassy again because it rained. ma‑ ‑an. 3comm. medicinal grass; usually made up of hapid with oil and ginger with Japanese grass. Eyak mungkodoh holok hi clinic. I went to ask for medicine at the clinic. 4trans. to treat with medicine; to cure with medicine. Doctor, holkam anhan hi ina. Doctor, please cure/treat my mother. Adi humlok di alcohol. Alcohol does not cure anything. Damanan mahlokan/maholkan di tibi. Tuberculosis can be cured. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an, um‑/‑imm‑. 5comm. marijuana. Kumdowak hi holok yu. May I have some of your grass.

holtak 1trans. to slam something down; to set down hard. Adim iholtak di patanong mu. Don’t slam down your cane. Inholtak na nan buhi ot maphik. He slammed down the rice wine jar and it broke into pieces. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: tupak, pakpak. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.3 - Put down.) 2sta. to fall down hard; to fall on one’s buttocks. Niholtak nah dalan te madanglol. He fell down hard on the road because it was very slippery. mi‑/ni‑.

hub’it 1comm. thorn, short and straight; splinter. Kaanom aga tun hubit tu hukik. Please remove the splinter from my foot. Pingngotan nadan Judyu hi Jesus hi hubit. The Jews crowned Jesus with thorns. Sim: pagit, palahyang; Syn: pagit. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2intrans. to be pricked by something sharp, e.g. thorns, shards of glass, wood splinters. Adika umeh na te takol di humbit. Do not go there because there are lots of thorns to prick you. Adim idalan hina te mahbit kah palunggu. Don’t pass by there because you will be pricked by splinters of glass. Nahbit di taklena. His hands were stuck with thorns. Nahubitan di kahhel. An orange tree has thorns. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

hubag sta. to stumble and fall. Mun-ul-ule ka ta adika mihubag. Walk slowly so that you will not stumble and fall. Mundadalay tokona te nihubag. His mouth is bleeding because he stumbled and fell. mi‑. Sim: hupdug, huttet. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.)

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

ikkang trans. to step over someone or something so as not to harm. [Both sentence examples express the belief that harm will come to the agent of the action or the person that undergoes the action.] Adim ikkangan hi tulang mu te adi man umongal. Do not step over your brother else he will not grow. Ikakangam nadan naphik an butilya nah dalan. Step over the broken glass on the path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.)

im-ut trans. to bar passage; to block passage. Adiyu im-ut nan ngunut yuh na te dalanon. Do not block the way there with your things because it is a passageway. Umutam nan alad. Block the opening in the fence. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

ispalto 1comm. asphalt. Ispalto di inha-ad da nah kalata. They placed asphalt on the road. (sem. domains: 8.3.6 - Made of, material.) 2trans. to pave with asphalt. Ispatowon da nan dalan an umed Tinoc. They will pave the road going to Tinoc with asphalt. ‑on/‑in‑.

itlug 1comm. egg. Ihibak mu nan itlug. Boil the egg. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to lay eggs. Makangngitlug tun manok ku. My hen lays many eggs. Nun-itlug nan manuk di linggu. The hen laid an egg last Sunday. muN‑/nuN‑. 3comm. a nest for laying eggs. Wada nah daulon di pun-itlugan nan gawgawa. The nest of the duck is under the house. Duway dalanom ta ahim datngan di bulan. (itlug)(riddle) You take two steps before you reach the moon. (refers to the removal of the shell and white of an egg before reaching the yolk) pun‑ ‑an.

ka-ut 1to dig. 1.1trans. to dig a hole. Ka-utan yu nah daul di mangga. Dig a hole below the mango tree. Mange kamid Lagawe ya pungka-utan da hanadan kanal an dalanon di liting. We were going to Lagawe and they were digging the canals for the water to pass. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.6 - Dig.) 1.2trans. the activity or act of digging is in view. Mungka-ut da nadan tatagu hi balituk. The people are digging for gold. Kimma-ut dah uwang nah gawwan di dola da. They dug a hole in the middle of their yard. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3pass. for something to be dug up or a hole to be dug. Naka-utan nan balituk ad Hungduwan handih mo tuwali ot ahi kayu umeh di. The gold at Hungduan had been dug up long before you went there. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 2trans. to dig a hole to bury an animal. Ingka-ut mi hanan ahum an nate. We buried your dog that died. i‑/iN‑.

kaasi 1comm. pity; mercy. Maid di kaasi yu nadah nawotwot. You have no mercy for those who are poor. (sem. domains: 4.4.4.1 - Mercy.) 2trans. to pity someone. Kanan Pangkayyo- “Lammooy, pangpangaasim man adika nah dalan te umeyak hi bale a, an nahilong.” Pangka said er...”Lammooy, will you please (lit. pity me) get out of the path because I am going home, see, and it’s dark.” paN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kahin- mod. this prefix encodes an unexpected or unacceptable action. Kudukdulnay gibbuwon di inlappun ngunu mu nan eta bo kahinlappuh oha. It is better to finish work that has been started then to start something else. Deket natu-iy baka weno kabayun di hinag-on yu nah dalan ya adi kayu kahin-ang-ang hi hinnatkon an kay hanan uggeyu tinibo. If the cow or horse of your neighbor falls over on the trail, don’t look at something different as though you didn’t see that.

kidung intrans. movement of things due to improper footing, e.g. tables, chairs; movement due to instability. Mungkidung tun ubunak te antikke nan ohan hukina. My chair is moving because one of its legs is short. Adika munggadit te mikidung tun imbunak. Don’t be moving around because my seat will be moved. Kumidukidung ka kinali nag-a nan impattuk ku an botelya. You are always moving, that’s why the bottle that I placed on top fell. Nikudliyak handih nikidung nan kaiw nah dalan. I slipped when the wood on the road moved. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑/ni‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: kihob. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.8 - Move back and forth.)

kihob intrans. movement of things due to instability, e.g. tables, chairs. Mungkihob tun ubunak te antikke nan ohan hukina. My chair is moving because one of its legs is short. Adika munggadit te mikihob tun imbunak. Don’t be moving around because my seat will be moved. Kumihokihob ka kinali nag-a nan impattuk ku an botelya. You are always moving, that’s why the bottle that I placed on top fell. Nikudliyak handih nikihob nan kaiw nah dalan. I slipped when the wood on the road moved. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑/ni‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: kidung. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.8 - Move back and forth.)

kilib 1trans. to touch many things. Dakol di kilibon hin imme kah balen da apum. You touch many things whenever you go to the house of your grandparents. Bimmoh-olak ke dakayuh nungkiliban yun nah ek intalu. I got mad at you when you were touching what I had hidden. Umali Maria dih tendaan mo ena kinikinilib hanadan wada nah estante. Maria comes to your store and touches what are on the shelves. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.1 - Touch.) 2intrans. to grope for one’s way. Mungkilkilib an immanamut te adi pakatibo nah dalan. He was groping while coming home because he could not see the path. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C).

killu 1intrans. to curve or be curved, e.g. a road. Nungkillukilluy dalan taku. Our road is curving. Nakillu nan kalata. The road is curved. Adi makillukillu nan kalata. The road is not curving. muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: bak’uy, yaku, baking, banguy. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.5 - Bend.) 2trans. to bend something with the resulting appearance of being curved. Killuwom nan gulipu. Bend the pipe. Makillu nan gulipu hin tumaddog kah na. The pipe will be bent if you stand there. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kimit intrans. to close the eyes. Kimitom ta adi umey sabon hi matam. Close your eyes so that the soap will not go in. Handih nangikimitak di binuddalan yu. It was when I slept for a moment that you went out. Pungkimit ku ot kuma mu muntukuk ka. I was about to close my eyes when you were shouting. Kon ahan di pinhod kun mahuyop ot adi makimit di matak. Though I wanted so much to sleep, I could not close my eyes. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑, muN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 2.1.1.1 - Eye.) infl. mungkimikimit

kuhipit intrans. 1for a dog to be scared and have its tail between its legs. Mungkukuhipit nan ahun Boy handi nala-uh tu. The dog of Boy had its tail between its legs when it passed by here. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4 - Afraid.) 2(fig) to be shy; timid. Mungkukuhipit day aammod ten mikamkamo dah nungkaadalan. The old folks are shy when they are among the educated. muN‑/nuN‑. infl. mungkukuhipit

la-uwan (la-u) trans. to overtake someone. La-uwan daka nah dalan ya maunna kamin dumatong. We will overtake you along the way and arrive first. Lina-uwan dakami mu ugge dakami immatunan. You overtook us but you did not recognize us. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.)

labi₁ 1comm. night; darkness of night. Adita mundallanan hi labi. One should not walk about at night. Sim: hodom, hilong, tapol. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 8.3.3.2 - Dark.) 2sta. to be overtaken by darkness. Mun-iyan taku te malabian takuh dalan. We’ll sleep here because night will overtake us on the way. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3v. a metaphorical name used for an unidentified spirit; may imply that this is a type of spirit that is active at night. der. munlabi

liyang 1comm. cave. Adika maohhan humgop hi liyang. Do not enter a cave alone. Waday inang-ang kun liyang ad Kalao, Tuguegarao. I’ve seen a cave in Kalao, Tuguegarao. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo, it is said, stay or live in caves, near springs. 2sta. to have a cave formed. Naliyangan nan nagden nah payo. A cave was formed in the landslide in the field. na‑ ‑an.

loh’ot 1comm. shortcut. Idalan taku nah lohot. Let us go by the short-cut. (sem. domains: 6.5.4.1 - Road.) 2trans. to take a shortcut. Inlot taku. We took the short-cut. i‑/iN‑.

madanglol (infl. of danglol) sta. the condition of a surface that tends to cause someone or something to slide or fall. [The word is often used to refer to a muddy, slippery path.] Madanglol nan dalan an umed Linda. The path that goes to Linda is slippery. ma‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.)

mag-a₁ sta. to be dry; often refers to ground which lacks moisture. Namag-a nan nangiha-adan dah lubukan. The place where they built the tomb is dry. Namag-a nan lutan ena gardenon. The land he is going to make into a garden is dry. Maphod ta ugge immudan ta mamag-ay dalan taku. It’s good it didn’t rain so our way is dry. ma‑/na‑. Sim: tuduk. (sem. domains: 1.3.3.1 - Dry.) infl. mamag-anan

maid di maptok (ph. v. of potok) predicates that there is no certainty about an action or event. Maid di maptok moh dalanon da. There is no certainty now where they will walk/go. Maid di maptok di ahik kibangngadan. There is no certainty regarding (the time) of my return.

matok comm. a blood sucking worm which lives in trees, grasses and damp places; a land leech. Dakol di matok nah dalan an ume ad Tinok. There are a lot of leeches on the trail to Tinok. Sabun di pangaan hi matok. Soap is used to remove leeches. Sim: bilabil. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.)

mi- pass. this prefix encodes the passive of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Sim: ni-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mim-ut (infl. of um’ut) pass. for the way to be blocked by people or things. Adi kayu mim-ut nah dalan. Do not block the way by placing yourselves on the path. mi‑/ni‑.

mungkukuhipit (infl. of kuhipit) to be shy. [This word is a figurative meaning extension of kuhipit a word that describes a dog with his tail between his legs.] Mungkukuhipit day aammod ten mikamkamo dah nungkaadalan. The old folks are shy when they are among the educated. muN‑/nuN‑ CV‑.

munhilhilong (der. of hilong) intrans. to stay out late, implying being out when it is the darkest part of night. Adi kayu munhilhilong nadah dalan te wadaday mangalana Do not stay out late at night on the roads because there are many revenge seekers. muN‑/nuN‑ CVC‑.

olden 1comm. rule; command; law. Mipangat an unudon takuy olden di boble. We must obey the laws of the country. (sem. domains: 4.7.1 - Laws.) 2trans. to order someone to do something; to make into a rule or ordinance; to delegate responsibility to someone. Inolden dan maid di mangiweleh lugit hitu. They ordered that no one will throw his dirt here. Oldenam nan kamanelo ta gaatan da nan dalan. Order the road maintenance men to cut the grass along the road. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 4.5.3.2 - Command.) Language Of Borrowing: English: order.

onan intrans. to occupy a big space; crowded around a place; blocking the way. Nun-onan nan ongal an kama da. Their big bed took all the space. Nun-oonan di page nah alang. The rice in the granary occupied the whole floor area. Kumiwang kayu ya adi kayu mun-oonan nah dalanon. Give way and don’t block the way. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 8.1.8 - Full.)

otyob intrans. over-grown vegetation along paths. Mun-otyob di bilau nah dalan an umed Magguk. The road to Magguk has over-grown cane-grass along the path. muN‑. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

pa-i (sp. var. pai) 1trans. to destroy. Pa-iyon di puwok nan kinapya takun ab-abung. The storm will destroy the toy house we made. Puma-ih nitanom di dalalu. Hail destroys plants. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 4 Change of structure of object. Syn: bahbah. (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 2intrans. to disrupt something, e.g. conversation, relationships. Pumappa-i kah te hay tutut mu. You disrupt kinship relationships because of your being quarrelsome. Puma-i kah hummangan mi te nabutog ka. You are disrupting our conversation because you are drunk. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to break an agreement, an extended meaning. Pina-i nay hummangan mi ta idat nad uwani nan binano na. He broke our agreement and so he will pay what he borrowed now. ‑in‑.

pagit 1comm. a curved thorn, on rattan and roses. Nahbit nah pagit nah dalan. The thorn stuck (into his foot) along the path. Sim: palahyang, hub’it; Syn: hub’it. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2proc. to be pricked with thorns or by something sharp like a thorn; to have thorns. Pumagit nan inhaad yu nah dalnon an hapang. The branch you placed in the path pricks like thorns. Napagitan nan kawayan. The bamboo has thorns. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, na‑ ‑an.

pakdal 1comm. plank used in crossing creeks or climbing trees. Umalah kah pakdal ta pakdalan taku tun akasya ta ek alan din orkid. Go and get a plank so we will use it here by this acacia to get that orchid. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to use a plank as a bridge. Pakdalam nan kanal ta ipabah-el ta tun kamatilya. Place a plank across the canal so that we will push this wheelbarrow to the other side. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 3comm. a tall ladder, more than 6 feet.

pangdal trans. 1to shore up or prop something up; may be diagonal or horizontal positioning. Pangdalam hi nunhina-ob ta adi matu-i. Shore it up on both sides so that it will not fall down. Ipangdal mu nan kawayan Use the bamboo in shoring it up. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 2to lean something against another thing. Ipangdal mu nah kaiw nan hinogpat. Lean the bundle of canegrass sticks against the tree. i‑/iN‑.

pangdo comm. protruding stones in a mud dike for access to a higher terrace. Idalan mun nah pangdo hi em alan nan gaud ta gagala. Pass through the protruding stones when you go to get the spade so that it will be faster.

pat-u trans. to beat someone or something with a stick. Adiyu pat-uwan di ahu yu. Do not beat your dogs. Ipat-um nan bilau hin laylay-ahan daka. Beat him with a stick if he is teasing you. Adik pinhod an idalan hina hin nahilong te wadaday pumat-u. I do not like to pass there at night because there is someone who beats with a stick. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

patpat trans. to cut down brush, small plants and branches. Patpatom nadan lappao nah dalan. Cut down the sunflower plants along the road. Impapatpat ku di lappao. I had the bush trimmed. Patpatom am-in nan mungkaongal an kakaiw ta adi mahiduman tun tingting. You cut down all the growing trees so that the sweet potato plantation will not be shaded. ‑on/‑in‑, impa‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

payo 1comm. ricefield. Dakol di payo da. They have many ricefields. Maki-eyak nah payon apu kanan Butale. “I will go with you to grandfather’s ricefield,” said Butale. Mu nan dalanona ya hi pingngit diyen payo ot munnomnom an iliglig na. But he was walking at the edge of that ricefield and so he decided to detour. Sim: bananu, pukung. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.) 2trans. to cultivate a ricefield; to farm. Pumayo kayu. Cultivate another’s ricefield. Daan di pinayo da? Which one did they farm? muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

pitok 1comm. mud. Nihutakak nah pitok. I fell on my seat in the mud. Munbutas ka te pitoppitok di dalan. Wear boots because it is raining and it is very muddy outside. Sim: puyok. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.) 2v. may be derived to be a process or a state; become muddy; is muddy. Pumitok nan dalan hin adiyu kapyaan hi kanal. The road will become muddy if you do not provide a canal. Mapitok nan dalan. The road is muddy. Gadgadam nan bila te dakol di lamut na ya napipitok. Scrape the tubers because they have many roots and they are muddy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.)

pudung 1comm. a sign of prohibition; no trespassing sign. Waday pudung nah pingngit di munkat-og an page. There is a prohibition sign beside the maturing rice grains. Sim: pile, bayyube. 2trans. to place the prohibition sign. [In the past, this was a sign that a pile-spirit guarded the area and if people disregarded the prohibition sign, the spirit would cause sickness. The sign was also placed outside of a home with a newborn baby to prohibit visitors until the amung-ritual was performed.] Pudungam tun tabuyug ta maid di umalah bungana. Place a knotted reed on this pomelo tree so no one will pick its fruit. Adim idalan hina te deyan napudungan. Don’t pass there because there’s a knotted reed there. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

pukail trans. to push away obstructions to expose something, e.g. part the hair to get lice, part tall grasses to pass through or to find something. Pukailom nan holok ot wadah na nan bola. Push away the tall grasses and you will find the ball. Nim-ut da nan tatagu nah dalanon ot pumpukail ku dida. The people blocked the way so I pushed through them. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.) id. mapukailan hi udum an algo

pukpuk₂ trans. 1to drive a nail into something. Pukpukom nan patak ta mihamad tun kaiw. Drive in the nail so that the wood will hold firm. Ipukpuk mu nan mantiyu. Use the hammer in driving the nail in. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to hit someone on the head. Pukpukon dakn dida te linukum dida. They will hit you in the head because you fooled them. Ipukpuk da nan dinikhal. They will use the split firewood in hitting you in the head. Pinukpuk day uluna ot mundadala. They hit him in the head and it is bleeding. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

pulut 1comm. the stickers from grass which adhere to clothing. Dakol di pulot di bulwatim. There are many stickers on your dress. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2sta. to have grass stickers adhering to body or clothing. Mipulut ke he-a nan wadan nah dalan. The grass stickers on the road will cling to you. Mapupulut ka idalan mun nah gawwana. You will be full of grass stickers if you pass through the center. mi‑, ma‑. 6D Descriptives.

putik intrans. to spurt liquid; a forcible gush of liquid. Mumputik di dala nah napalang. The blood is spurting from the wound. Pumutik nan gulipu hin kaanok tun taklek. The pipe will spurt water if I remove my hand. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.2 - Move quickly.)

semento 1comm. cement; concrete. Semento nan dulung di bale da. The flooring of their house is cement. (sem. domains: 6.5.3 - Building materials.) 2trans. to cement something. Sementowon da nan kalatan umed Linda. They will pave (cement) the road going to Linda. Isementom nan batu ta adi mianud. Cement the stone so that it will not be washed away. Munsemento da nah dalan an umed Lagawe. They are paving the road to Lagawe. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2.2 - Stick together.) Language Of Borrowing: English: cement.

singyal (sp. var. sinyas; sp. var. sinyal) 1comm. a prearranged signal. Hay singyal taku ya duwan adukken ihiw. Our signal will be two long whistles. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2comm. an identifying mark. Waday singyal nah tuktuk na kinali inimatunan da. He had an identifying mark on his head, that’s how they recognized him. 3intrans. to signal. Munsingyal da an umali dah tu. They are signalling that they are coming here. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to place a sign or to signal someone to give a message. Singyalam nan dalan ta adida matalak nan mungkitun-ud. Place a sign on the road so that those who are following will not be lost. Siningyalan da hi krus. They placed a cross-mark. Singyalam dida an wada taku moh tu. Signal them that we are already here. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Change state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

tabas₁ 1comm. a lowland machete with wooden handle; primarily used for cutting grass. Nan tabas di punggaat mu. Use the lowland machete to cut grass. Sim: pinahhig, kalatyaw. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to cut with lowland machete. Tabasom nadan holok nah dalan. Cut the grasses along the path. Adika mih-up ke hiya te tumabas Do not go near him because he will cut you. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

taktak trans. 1to delay someone. Tinaktak daka ot ya abuwan. I’m sorry that I’ve delayed you. Adik pinhod an miunud ke hiya te tumaktak hi dalan. I do not want to go with him because he will delay us on the road. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.3 - Behavior.) 2to disturb or interrupt someone. Taktakon dakayu ni-an. I will disturb you for a while. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

tayan trans. to leave behind; to abandon; to depart. Tinayanan di inayana. She was abandoned by her spouse. Adiyak tayanan. Do not leave me. Tinayananak nah dalan. I was left behind on the way. Intayan kun hiya nan imbabalek. I left my child with her. Maid di makan hi itayan mo ya eka ume. You aren’t leaving any food for them and you are going. Tipet hay babaiy tumayan hi inayana? Why is the woman the one to leave her husband? Timmayan ka ya maid di em intayan ke dida. You abandoned them and you didn’t leave anything for them. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 5C Goal-oriented site. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.1 - Move away.)

ten (sp. var. tehin) conj. 1the shortened form of tehin ‘because, when’. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to an ant when you are walking along the road. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a loud noise when it is about to land. Antipet idihhan muy tukuk mu ten mungkaliyak. Why do you coincidentally shout while I’m talking? (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) 2the shortened form of tehin ‘because, if’ which combines a reason and condition; in case that. Maid umali ten adika umayag. Nobody will come if you do not invite anyone. Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. I don’t know if it is true, but if it is true, you heed my advice. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way.

tinelat 1comm. slippers; flip-flops; rubber sandal. Kaanom nah tinelat mu te napipitok. Remove your slippers because they are very muddy. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2v. to wear rubber slippers. Muntinelat ka te dakol di palunggu nah dalan. You wear slippers because there are many broken bottles along the way. Itinelat mu nan ginattang dad Lagawe. Use the slippers they bought in Lagawe. Tinelatam nan golang ta ahi kayu mun-ay-ayyam. Have the child wear slippers before you go out to play. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: chinelas.

tiptip (sp. var. titip) trans. to suck to obtain liquid. Tiptipom nan kinalat di ulog. Suck on the snake bite. Tumiptip hi dala nan matok. A leech sucks blood. Tibom ke din puntiptip nan golang. Look at how the child sucks. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, puN‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.4 - Manner of eating.)

toan₂ sta. to be abandoned, farmland or uncultivated land; an abandoned path, overgrown with weeds. Natoan di galden da. Their garden has not been attended to for a long time. Natoan di dalan an umeh kad-an da. The road going to their place has been abandoned. Nakatto-an nan payo da. Their ricefield is uncultivated. ma‑/na‑, naka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: walong. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.) infl. matoan

tolok trans. to bore into something; to pierce a hole through something. Tolkom di ingak ta munhingatak. Pierce my ears so that I can wear earrings. Tolkom nan latan puntanmam hi plawer ta waday dalanon di danum hin sibugam. Put a hole at the bottom of the can you use for planting flowers so that there will be a passage for water when you water them. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.5 - Make hole, opening.)

tuddu trans. 1to show; to point out. Ituddum di dalanon. Show us the way. i‑/iN‑. Sim: lod’ong. (sem. domains: 3.6.1 - Show, explain.) 2to name someone to a position or assign someone to a task or responsibility. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.5.3.4 - Appoint, delegate.)

tudu₂ 1intrans. to teach or train. Muntuttuduh Juana an munha-ang. Juana is teaching how to cook. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 3.6 - Teach.) 2trans. to show; to point out; to teach something specific. Ituddum di dalanon. Show us the way. Naligat an adalon nadan mapmaphod an mitudtudu mu deket nan gaga-iho gagala on inadal di tatagu. Good teaching is hard to learn but as for the bad, people easily learn it. Ituddu nad uwani aton an muntanom. He will teach us now how to plant. Dakami ke ya intuddu day iskul hi sentral ot ume kamihdi. As for us, we were told to go to the Central School, so we went there. Adi maphod nan itudtudum hantudah iibam. What you are teaching your brothers is not good. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to teach a particular person. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Tudduwan ditakun mungkugut. She will teach us how to sew. Adim tuttuduwan tun imbabalek an e munduka. Don’t influence (lit. teach) my child to go roaming around. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal Oriented Sites. id. manuttudu infl. mangituttudu

tugun 1comm. advice; instruction. Dakol di tugun din hi aman ha-oy. My late father had a lot of advice. Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. (sem. domains: 3.3.3.2 - Advise.) 2to advise. 2.1trans. to give specific advice. Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. i‑/iN‑. 2.2trans. to advise a particular person. Tugunon yu nan imbabale yu ta adida mun-ay-ayyam nah kalata. Advise your children not to play in the streets. ‑on/‑in‑. 4G Tactile - Touch contact. 2.3comm. refers to the activity of giving advice. Adida maphod di iin-inan tumugun te naduti da. It isn’t fitting for old women to advise because they just keep repeating the same thing. Makannugun ka udot yaden mummumutog ka. So, you are advising and yet are inexperienced. ‑um/‑imm‑‑, makaC‑.

tukbu 1comm. a nettle shrub with violet fruit and leaves which cause itch and stinging pain on the skin. Patpattom nadan tukbu nah dalan ta adida dumakol. Cut the nettles along the path so that they will not multiply. (sem. domains: 1.5.2 - Bush, shrub.) 2sta. to be stung by a nettle shrub. Natukbuwak ya mumpaypatukak. I was stung by the nettle and I was jumping. (lit. nettled) ma‑/na‑.

tulud₂ trans. to push; to shove. Itulud mu nan nabutong te deyan mangalin ha-oy. Push that drunk away because he’s coming toward me. Muntitinnulud da nan tatagun nah pilaan. The people are pushing each other in the queue. Indop da tut-uwa ahan ot indani ya pun-itulud dan kalyon day Hidi ay di dalan! True enough, one of them blew out his torch and then, they began pushing him, saying “There’s the way.” i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑ i‑. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.9 - Push.) der. tulludan

tunaw sta. to be melting, refers to the melting of ice. Gagalan matunaw dalalu. The ice melted quickly. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.2.3 - Solid, liquid, gas.) Language of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ule 1sta. to be kind; to be calm. Indai ya kanana pay di “Maphod ta hiyo- nan bumdang ya- maule. Later on, he added “It’s good that the bumdang-spirits are kind.” Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina? an kanak bo. “Mother, fairies are kind aren’t they because they give us candy,” I said. Makaulle kan ha-oy. You are very kind to me. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristis of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2intrans. to be careful; do something carefully; do something slowly Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. Tibom ta mun-ul-ulen malutu. See that it cooks slowly. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.4.3.4 - Caution.) infl. maule infl. ul-ule

um’ut 1trans. to occupy a space in order to block or obstruct a passage or pathway; obstruct. Umutam nan dalan di gando. Obstruct the passageway of the mouse. Adika mun-umut hi dalan. Don’t block the way. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.6.2 - Block, dam up.) 2trans. to place things where they will obstruct. <The prefix set i-/iN- cross-references the thing used to obstruct and the affix set ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an cross-references the site being obstructed.> Adiyu im-ut nah dalanon nan lona. Do not block the passage with the sand. Umutam nan abut ta adi dumalan nan utut. Block that hole so that the rat cannot pass through it. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. 3pass. something is obstructing a pathway. Kaanon yu nan nim-ut nah panto. You remove the one that is blocking the door. Mim-utak nah pantot adika pakalah-un. I will be an obstruction in the doorway so that you will not be able to go out. mi‑/ni‑. infl. mim-ut

wal-e v. to lie down due to weakness or feeling faint. Naala ya niwal-e nan tagu nah pingngit di dalan. That person just laid down at the side of the path. mi‑/ni‑. 2B Movement, change of position. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 - Lie down.)