dikhal split wood. 1.1trans. to split wood. Dikhalon yu nan udyo. Split the narra-wood. Dinikhal na nan ongal an kaiw. He split the big log. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: giha, gihgi, potw’ak. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 1.2trans. to split with a component of manner, place, or instrument in view. Idikhal mu nah dola. Split the wood in the yard. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. to split wood with a durative activity in view. Mundikhal hi Jose hi itungu. Jose is splitting firewood. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. to split wood involving a partitive component, i.e. split a limited amount; some. Dumikhal kah itungun da apum. Split some wood for your grandparents’ firewood. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.5trans. to split wood with the component of contrasting the agent with others. <
> Manikhal ka. You split wood. maN‑/naN‑. 1.6trans. to split wood for a beneficiary. Indikhalan Juan nan nain-ina. Juan split wood for the old woman. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 1.7pass. refers to wood that will be split or has been split. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. ma‑/na‑. Morphophonology: The final consonant of the prefix maN- assimilates to the point of articulation of the initial consonant of the root, and then, reduces that consonant.
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giha trans. to split wood into small pieces; either an ax or bolo may be used. Gihaon yu tun tukud. Split this post. Ekah muyung ta eka munggiha. Go to the forest to split wood. Gumiha kah itungun da apum. Split some wood for your grandparents’ use. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: gihgi; Sim: dikhal, gihgi, potw’ak. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.)
dalang intrans. for wood or other inflammable material to ignite and flame. Ka-dikhal nan kaiw kinali adi dumalang. That wood is newly split, that's why it won't ignite. -um-/-imm-.
damag 1trans. to move an object and place it on a site in order to perform an action, e.g. to split or cut something. Idamag mu nah kaiw ta ahim dikhalon. Place it on the wood so that you can split it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 2comm. chopping board. ‑an. 3trans. to place one thing on top of another with the site being prominent. Damagan yu nan papel hi liblu. Place a book on top of the paper. Nah kaiw di pangidamagam ta ahim dikhalon. It’s on the wood you should put it so that you can split it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, pangi‑ ‑an. der. dammagan
1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. . TACR
1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-₁. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well. . TACR
ke₁ (deke) conj. 1if; marks a conditional clause, hypothetical or real. Maid ke hi Juan ya uggeyak immali. If Juan had not been around I would not have come here. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan prayer for him. Wada ke ot di pihhu yu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Condition.) 2follows a predicate and marks a time phrase or clause. <
> Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Mala-u key duwan hinlingguwan ya damanan hiitom nan baya ta inumon taku! After about two weeks, pour out the wine from the jar and we’ll drink with you. 3when; marks a time clause. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. Nagibbu ke nan kapkapyan di hagabi, kalyon day algoh pangihakyatan da. When the hagabi-bench is completed, they say the day that it will be brought home. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Clause conjunctions.) The allomorph y of the linker di is an enclitic.
ma-₁ sta. this prefix encodes the state or property of a referent. Matukatukal ka an e makitugaltugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You do not sleep at night because your gambling goes on night and day. Madam-ot di hagabin (name), hahaggiyon! “The hagabi-bench of (name of owner is inserted) is heavy, hahaggiyon.” (This is chanted as a cheer at the hagabi ceremony.) Nan matadom an wahey maphod hi pundikhal. The sharp ax is the good one for aplitting wood. Sim: na-₁; Sim: na-₁. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
1this prefix encodes an intensifying modal of a state. < . mod > Makangnganta din unga. That child loves to sing. Maka-aliy kogak. I was just at the point of crying. (lit. really coming my crying) Hituwen amayyu ya makahammuy This animal is very odorous. Maka-atung ad Manila. It is very hot in Manila. 2this prefix intensifies the state of the subject referent; co-occurs with stative verbs. Makayyam-oy tinapay ni kinapya na. The bread that she makes is very soft. Sim: nakaC1-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) 3this prefix intensifies the passive state of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Maphod di makaddikhal nan itungu te gagala ya mahap-ayan It is good if the firewood is well-split because it will dry quickly. The first consonant of the root is geminated.
maphod (der. of pohod) sta. to be good; describes any event, person, place or thing as good. Mabalin bon kalyok an maphod di memory na. He probably has a good memory too. Maphod di makaddikhal nan itungu te gagala ya mahap-ayan. It is good if the firewood is well-split because it dries quickly. ma‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) infl. makaphod
nangipa- top. this prefix encodes a topicalized causative agent; the causative agent is cross-referenced; past tense. Hanan taguy nangipadikhal. That man is the one who had the wood split. Hi Mariay nangipaen hiyah iskul. It is Maria who sent him to school. Sim: mangipa-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
pangipa- -an caus. this circumfix has a topicalized agent, a causative agent in the subject position in the clause, and a definite cross-referenced object. Dahdiy pangipaalian da nadah liblu? Who will they have bring those books here? Hi Juan di pangipadikhalak nah ongal an kaiw. Juan will be the one that I will have split the big piece of wood. Sim: nangipa- -an₁. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.)
puN- -on 1caus. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a causative concept; the object is cross-referenced. Mumpundikhal da nan pungngunuom. Your workmen are splitting wood. Pundallomom tun balituk nah kaban mu. You put this gold at the very bottom of your trunk. Sim: impuN--, pun-i-. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.) 2mod. this circumfix encodes a mitigated causative; Class 4 verbal root. Pun-ang-angom hi mama. Let mama watch. Punha-angon dakan ha-on. I’ll let you cook. Pumbakkaom din golang nah dulung. Let the baby crawl on the floor.
wahe 1comm. a small ax. [This is an old term for ax, but it is still used today.] Nan wahey panikhal mu. Use the axe for splitting wood. Nganney pundikhal muh kaiw? Hay wahe. With what do you split wood? With an axe. Syn: putaw, wasay. (sem. domains: 6.7.1 - Cutting tool.) 2trans. to chop with ax. Winahe na nan tongod nan nuwang. He chopped the neck of the water buffalo with an axe. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)