dita pers. 1us-two; first person, dual pronoun, member of Set 3 object; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2we-two; first person, dual pronoun, a member of Set 4 subject pronouns, preposed before the verb and cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Ditan duway ahi mangala nah intalun Oltagon an balat. We-two will be the ones to get the bananas that Oltagon kept. n. ph. ke dita
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ditaku pers. 1us-all; first person, plural inclusive pronoun; member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2we-all; first person, plural pronoun; member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the subject is fronted and cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ditakuy kombahul peman. We-all are certainly the ones at fault. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading. We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo spirits or pinading spirits. n. ph. ke ditaku
ke ditaku (n. ph. of ditaku) pers. us-all; first person, plural inclusive; member of Set 4 direct and indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <
> Idat nan ditaku kanu nan ohan babuy. According to him, he is giving us a pig. Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Demonstrative pronouns.) The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.
bihuk sta. pooled water in ricefield after draining. [The pool will be filled with mud for leveling before the field is planted.] Nabihuk di payomi. Our field has a pool of water. Adita tagan hi ala hi luta nah gawwana te mabihuk. Let us not continue to get earth from the middle because water will pool (there). ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.)
bol’ad 1trans. to remove clothes; to be naked. Boladam nadan u-unga ta mun-amo da. Take off the clothes of the children so they can bathe. Adik mo pinhod an ma-operate te boladan dita. I don’t like to be operated on because they remove all our clothes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: baduy. (sem. domains: 5.3.8 - Naked.) 2intrans. to become or be naked. Mumbolad kayun u-unga ta mun-amo kayu. Children remove your clothes, and take a bath. Numbobbolad nan u-unga ya immen nah kalata. The child was naked and he went to the street. muN‑/nuN‑.
CV(C)₁ asp. 1the reduplication of the first syllable, either CV or CVC, of a verbal root is the morpheme form that encodes the continuative aspect; this aspect expresses a single, uninterrupted continuing activity; continue. Kabigabigat on nangin-innum da ya nunhahamul da nah muyung. Every day these men continue to feast and drink in the forest. Idihhan ta hin mungngangala da ta adi dita donglon ke dida. We will coincide it with when they are continuously noisy so they will not hear us. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed continuing to pick and eat the fruit. Munhaghaggeyak te nikudliyak. I am limping because I slipped. Ot matatpuuk da nah puhung, mundopdoppap dah di. Then, they splashed into the pool, continuing to grapple there. 2expresses a continuative time aspect when co-occuring with roots that have an inherent punctiliar time aspect, but have been derived to have a durative time aspect with the prefix set muN-/nuN-. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli te hidiyey pinghanan ena nakidilagan hi allama. She jumped and screamed because it was the first time she went to catch crabs with a torch. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around Nuntadtaddog kamin mundongdongngol hi kalkalyon nan mittulu. We were continuously standing as we were listening to the speech of the teacher. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206.3 - End.)
dalan₁ 1comm. a place for walking; path; trail; way. Maid di dalan hitu. There is no path here. Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then took me to the upper road. Sim: kalata, kah-on. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Road.) 2to walk. 2.1intrans. to move about on foot; to walk. <
> Mundallan mo nan golang. The child walks now. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Walk.) 2.2intrans. to walk, with a starting point in view. Dumallan mo nan unga. The child can already walk. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3to walk by, bypass or through a place. 3.1trans. to walk, passing by a place or through a medium. Indaladalan muh di yaden adim pinhod an makihummangan ke hiya. You are always passing there yet you do not like to talk with her. Idalan taku nah wa-el. We will pass through the creek. Daanay pangidalanam? Where will you pass (lit. path/walk)? i‑/iN‑. nangi‑/pangi‑ + ‑an. 3.2trans. to walk on a path, road with prominence given to the thing walked on. Maid di dalanon yuh tu. There is no place to walk here. ‑on/‑in‑. id. kay bakkukul an dumalan id. kay gawgaway pundalan id. kay kabayun dumalan infl. ipadalan Affixation: The circumfix set muN ‑ ‑ an/nuN ‑ ‑ an expresses both a durative aspect and the site-concept of a widely spread area for the walking, i.e. walking around.
dalluyun comm. the waves of the sea or ocean. [There are no bodies of water in the Ifugao area that have waves. The current or movement of water is called kibyayung.] Ongal di dalluyun nah baybay ad uwani. The waves in the sea are big now. Katatakut hin-uddum nan dalluyun te alan dita. The waves are at times fearful for they tend to carry one. Sim: kibyayong. (sem. domains: 1.3.2 - Movement of water.)
dangpa₁ 1trans. to be unsuspecting of someone or something. Dangpahom nan at-attona ot maki-e kan hiya?. You are unsuspecting about what he does and yet you went with him? ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Stupid.) 2intrans. naive; innocently childlike. He-a ken manangpa ni-an ya op-opya ka. As for you, you are still childlike so you should keep quiet. Dita ke boppon makannangpa ya adita oggan maki-kie hanadah nakannomnoman te talatalammon dita. Those of us who are very naive should not be going around with those who are clever because they will trick us. maN‑, maka‑.
dihhan advpred. 1to coincide; simultaneous; do at the same time; occupying the same space and time. Idihhan ta hin mungngangala da ta adi dita donglon ke dida. We will coincide it with them when they are noisy so they will not hear us. Antipet idihhan muy tukuk mu ten mungkaliyak. Why do you shout while I’m talking? i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. Sim: paddi. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2to do something at the same time. Ahita mundihhan an mangan ta muntinnamtam tah ihda. Let’s eat together so that we can taste each other’s viand. muN‑/nuN‑. Time.
espiritu (sp. var. ispiritu) 1comm. spirit. Kon waday espiritun di babuy? Does a pig have a spirit? Cultural note: The traditional religious system involved a belief that animals had spirits. Animals were sacrificed during a religious ritual, and the spirits of the dead animals would then go to other worlds to provide for the spirits of gods, ancestors or dead relatives. Linnawa is the traditional word used to refer to the spirit of a person and to the spirit of an animal that is sacrificed. Sim: linnawa, alimadduwan. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2prop. refers to the Spirit of God. Hay itanuttudu mi ya nalpuh nah Espiritun Apu Dios, kinali bokon hay kinalaing di taguy pundinolan mi, mu nah Espiritun Apu Dios an wadan ditakun mangulug. (I Corinth 2:12) What we are teaching comes from the Spirit of God, that’s why it is not the wisdom of a person that we are trusting, but instead it’s from the Spirit of God who is with us believers. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
gappat 1pass. to be included, related to a group, e.g. kin; to be a part of a group. Nigappat kami ke dakayu te hintulang di apu taku. We are related because our grandparents are siblings. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: laggat, hayyup, lak-am, lanud, sakup. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Crowd, group.) 2trans. to include. Aton takuy kabaelan takut igappat ditakun dida. We’ll do our best to include ourselves with them. i‑/iN‑.
gub’at 1comm. war; refers to a violent, armed conflict. [Within the history of Ifugao, this word when used alone usually refers to World War II.] Waday dawdawwatonah pensiyon te tindalu handih gubat. He is receiving a pension because he was a soldier during the war. Dakol di nate handih gubat. Many died during the war. Waday duwan gubat an impala-u taku mo. We have already experienced two wars. (lit. we have been caused to pass through) Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.) 2wage war. 2.1intrans. to wage war. Munggugubat da ad Vietnam. They are at war in Vietnam. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. the information focus is the people upon whom a war is being waged. Gubaton ditaku nadah gaga-ihoy nomnom da. The evil-minded will wage war on us. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.3trans. the information focus is on those who will be involved, i.e. participate in waging war. Inamung nan am-in nadan tatagunan damanan makigubat. He gathered all the people who could join in waging war. maki‑. der. mangubat infl. makigubat
gun-ud intrans. to obtain something of value or useful. Adika umeh di te maid gun-udom. Do not go there because there’s nothing to be gained. Hi Apu Dios nangamung an mangidat hi gun-udon di hin-oh-an ditaku, mipuun hi ingngunu taku. (1 Corinth 3:8b) It is up to God to give what each of us will obtain (reward) based on the work we have done. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: gunguna. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.)
gunggung₂ 1intrans. refers to the sound of the barking of dogs. Munggunggung day aahu handi hilong. The dogs were barking last night. Gumunggung di ahu hin ugge dita inila. Dogs bark at us if they don’t know us. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: aluul. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Animal sounds.) 2trans. for a dog to bark at someone. Gunggungan daka ya abu nadah ahu da. Their dogs will only bark at you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
habad trans. to encounter misfortune by chance. Hinabad na on pumate. He chanced to encounter a killer. (was killed) Adita munhilhilong ta maid di habadon hi gulu. One should not be going out at night so as to avoid encountering misfortune. Nganne kattog bo tuwen hinabad mu. Oh! what a thing to encounter again. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.)
hana ot ta adjunct. 1an expression of wishing for something; used like an invocation for good; may it be so. Hana ot ta munnananong an wadan ditakun am-in di hayudut an malpun Jesu Kristo an hi Apu taku. (Rom. 16:24) May the grace that comes from our Lord Jesus Christ always be with us all. Hana ot anhan ta pumhod di nomnom na. May it be that his mind will change for the better. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2a good event Hanahana ot kaya an matagu ka. It’s good that you are alive after all. (speaker heard the person was dead) (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 3a subjunctive meaning to have a wish or hope. Hana ot ta umaddu da! May their tribe increase! (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Hope.)
homok 1pass. having the property of or being in the state of arousing the pity of others. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Oha bo ya mahmok di adol. One more thing is your body is pitiful. Adik bo pinhod an eka mahmahmok an maoh-ohha. I don’t want you to be pitiful, always alone, by yourself. ma‑. Sim: amuyu. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Mercy.) 2feel pity. 2.1trans. to feel compassion for someone in trouble or who is suffering, and do something to alleviate the suffering; usually results in giving material aid; the person receiving the pity and help is in view. Homkonak anhan. Please pity me. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Mercy.) 2.2intrans. to show compassion. Mipangngat an hummok tah ibban tagu. It is one’s duty to have pity on others. Hummok kayu ahan ta umidat kayu hi ittay an boga. Please have pity and give us a little rice. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3comm. the feeling of sympathy for another’s plight or suffering. Namahig di homok di Dios ke ditaku. God has much pity for us. infl. numpahpahmok
iday adjunct. oh dear!; expression of surprised dismay or fear. [Intonation and facial expression disambiguates the meaning of this expression] Iday, antipe mampet em impakga? Oh, dear, why did you let him cry? Iday, tipet dekah tu? Oh dear, why are you here? Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)
impaN- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root; co-occurs with Class 4 and 5 verbal roots. <
> Hanadan u-ungan impanaptok ku ya mangohe dan ha-on. (Isaiah 1:2b) The children that I have cared for are rebelling against me. Man-uket makakkahlu kamin mangitaniuttuduh mipanggep ke Kristo ya gapuh impaminhod nan ditaku. (2 Corinth 5:14a) The reason that we are so very industrious to constantly teach about Christ is because of his love for us. Sim: impangi-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) The use of this prefix is related to syntactic structure that has a topicalized constituent.
impangi- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root. Ahina bo ipainilay makulug an impangi-en di hin-oh-an ditaku, takon nadan ugge nainilan inat taku ya nadan wada nomnom taku. (1 Corinth 4:5b) He will cause to be known the truth about the way of each one of us, even what is not known about what we have done and thought about doing. Sim: impaN-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)