ditaku pers. 1us-all; first person, plural inclusive pronoun; member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2we-all; first person, plural pronoun; member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the subject is fronted and cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ditakuy kombahul peman. We-all are certainly the ones at fault. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading. We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo spirits or pinading spirits. n. ph. ke ditaku
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ke ditaku (n. ph. of ditaku) pers. us-all; first person, plural inclusive; member of Set 4 direct and indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <
> Idat nan ditaku kanu nan ohan babuy. According to him, he is giving us a pig. Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Demonstrative pronouns.) The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.
dalan₁ 1comm. a place for walking; path; trail; way. Maid di dalan hitu. There is no path here. Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then took me to the upper road. Sim: kalata, kah-on. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Road.) 2to walk. 2.1intrans. to move about on foot; to walk. <
> Mundallan mo nan golang. The child walks now. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Walk.) 2.2intrans. to walk, with a starting point in view. Dumallan mo nan unga. The child can already walk. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3to walk by, bypass or through a place. 3.1trans. to walk, passing by a place or through a medium. Indaladalan muh di yaden adim pinhod an makihummangan ke hiya. You are always passing there yet you do not like to talk with her. Idalan taku nah wa-el. We will pass through the creek. Daanay pangidalanam? Where will you pass (lit. path/walk)? i‑/iN‑. nangi‑/pangi‑ + ‑an. 3.2trans. to walk on a path, road with prominence given to the thing walked on. Maid di dalanon yuh tu. There is no place to walk here. ‑on/‑in‑. id. kay bakkukul an dumalan id. kay gawgaway pundalan id. kay kabayun dumalan infl. ipadalan Affixation: The circumfix set muN ‑ ‑ an/nuN ‑ ‑ an expresses both a durative aspect and the site-concept of a widely spread area for the walking, i.e. walking around.
espiritu (sp. var. ispiritu) 1comm. spirit. Kon waday espiritun di babuy? Does a pig have a spirit? Cultural note: The traditional religious system involved a belief that animals had spirits. Animals were sacrificed during a religious ritual, and the spirits of the dead animals would then go to other worlds to provide for the spirits of gods, ancestors or dead relatives. Linnawa is the traditional word used to refer to the spirit of a person and to the spirit of an animal that is sacrificed. Sim: linnawa, alimadduwan. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2prop. refers to the Spirit of God. Hay itanuttudu mi ya nalpuh nah Espiritun Apu Dios, kinali bokon hay kinalaing di taguy pundinolan mi, mu nah Espiritun Apu Dios an wadan ditakun mangulug. (I Corinth 2:12) What we are teaching comes from the Spirit of God, that’s why it is not the wisdom of a person that we are trusting, but instead it’s from the Spirit of God who is with us believers. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
gappat 1pass. to be included, related to a group, e.g. kin; to be a part of a group. Nigappat kami ke dakayu te hintulang di apu taku. We are related because our grandparents are siblings. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: laggat, hayyup, lak-am, lanud, sakup. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Crowd, group.) 2trans. to include. Aton takuy kabaelan takut igappat ditakun dida. We’ll do our best to include ourselves with them. i‑/iN‑.
gub’at 1comm. war; refers to a violent, armed conflict. [Within the history of Ifugao, this word when used alone usually refers to World War II.] Waday dawdawwatonah pensiyon te tindalu handih gubat. He is receiving a pension because he was a soldier during the war. Dakol di nate handih gubat. Many died during the war. Waday duwan gubat an impala-u taku mo. We have already experienced two wars. (lit. we have been caused to pass through) Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.) 2wage war. 2.1intrans. to wage war. Munggugubat da ad Vietnam. They are at war in Vietnam. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. the information focus is the people upon whom a war is being waged. Gubaton ditaku nadah gaga-ihoy nomnom da. The evil-minded will wage war on us. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.3trans. the information focus is on those who will be involved, i.e. participate in waging war. Inamung nan am-in nadan tatagunan damanan makigubat. He gathered all the people who could join in waging war. maki‑. der. mangubat infl. makigubat
gun-ud intrans. to obtain something of value or useful. Adika umeh di te maid gun-udom. Do not go there because there’s nothing to be gained. Hi Apu Dios nangamung an mangidat hi gun-udon di hin-oh-an ditaku, mipuun hi ingngunu taku. (1 Corinth 3:8b) It is up to God to give what each of us will obtain (reward) based on the work we have done. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: gunguna. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.)
hana ot ta adjunct. 1an expression of wishing for something; used like an invocation for good; may it be so. Hana ot ta munnananong an wadan ditakun am-in di hayudut an malpun Jesu Kristo an hi Apu taku. (Rom. 16:24) May the grace that comes from our Lord Jesus Christ always be with us all. Hana ot anhan ta pumhod di nomnom na. May it be that his mind will change for the better. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2a good event Hanahana ot kaya an matagu ka. It’s good that you are alive after all. (speaker heard the person was dead) (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 3a subjunctive meaning to have a wish or hope. Hana ot ta umaddu da! May their tribe increase! (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Hope.)
homok 1pass. having the property of or being in the state of arousing the pity of others. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Oha bo ya mahmok di adol. One more thing is your body is pitiful. Adik bo pinhod an eka mahmahmok an maoh-ohha. I don’t want you to be pitiful, always alone, by yourself. ma‑. Sim: amuyu. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Mercy.) 2feel pity. 2.1trans. to feel compassion for someone in trouble or who is suffering, and do something to alleviate the suffering; usually results in giving material aid; the person receiving the pity and help is in view. Homkonak anhan. Please pity me. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Mercy.) 2.2intrans. to show compassion. Mipangngat an hummok tah ibban tagu. It is one’s duty to have pity on others. Hummok kayu ahan ta umidat kayu hi ittay an boga. Please have pity and give us a little rice. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3comm. the feeling of sympathy for another’s plight or suffering. Namahig di homok di Dios ke ditaku. God has much pity for us. infl. numpahpahmok
iday adjunct. oh dear!; expression of surprised dismay or fear. [Intonation and facial expression disambiguates the meaning of this expression] Iday, antipe mampet em impakga? Oh, dear, why did you let him cry? Iday, tipet dekah tu? Oh dear, why are you here? Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)
impaN- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root; co-occurs with Class 4 and 5 verbal roots. <
> Hanadan u-ungan impanaptok ku ya mangohe dan ha-on. (Isaiah 1:2b) The children that I have cared for are rebelling against me. Man-uket makakkahlu kamin mangitaniuttuduh mipanggep ke Kristo ya gapuh impaminhod nan ditaku. (2 Corinth 5:14a) The reason that we are so very industrious to constantly teach about Christ is because of his love for us. Sim: impangi-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.) The use of this prefix is related to syntactic structure that has a topicalized constituent.
impangi- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root. Ahina bo ipainilay makulug an impangi-en di hin-oh-an ditaku, takon nadan ugge nainilan inat taku ya nadan wada nomnom taku. (1 Corinth 4:5b) He will cause to be known the truth about the way of each one of us, even what is not known about what we have done and thought about doing. Sim: impaN-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
Ipugaw prop. refers to an ethnic group of people living in the province by the same name located on the island of Luzon, Philippines; also refers to the language of the people. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo-spirits or pinading-spirits (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Family, clan.)
kipuunan nom. refers to the foundation or the logical basis for something described or explained. Kinali halipat-an takut maphod am-in di aton taku ya kalyon taku te ketuwen tugun di kipuunan di ahina punhumalyaan ke ditaku. (James 2:12b) That’s why we should be careful about everything that we do and say because this advice is based on the fact that he (God) will judge us. Sim: nipuunan. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Logical.)
kulug 1to believe. 1.1trans. to believe in something or someone. Kulugon da nan kinalina yaden makallay-a. They believed in what he told them yet he is a liar. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading. We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo spirits or pinading spirits. ‑on/‑in‑ . (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Believe.) 1.2trans. the affix cross-references those who believe; believers; Christians. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the Christians (lit. those who believe in God) would become ill, there would be no more priests of the traditional religion. maN‑. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Religious person.) 2intrans. the process of becoming true or fulfillment of a predicted event or happening. Kimmulug nan kinalim. What you said became true, (it happened) ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kakulugana der. makulug der. pangulug infl. mangulug
libli 1comm. free of charge; no charge. Libli nan inalam an kindi. The candy you got is free. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Pay.) 2trans. to cause something to be free of charge. Ilibli daka hi pasahem. I will pay for your fare. Libliyon da nan dotag. They will get the meat for free. Malibli ka hin miunud kan hiya. You will be free of charge if you go with him. Hi Tayyaban di mangiliblin ditaku. It will be Tayyaban who will pay for our bills. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: libre.
loktat adv. refers to a passage of time; until; there will come a time; after awhile. Matukatukal ka ta loktat ya nundogo ka. You are having sleepless nights and there will come a time when you’ll get sick. Tagan takuy dasal ta loktat ya donglon ditakun Apu Dios. Let us continue praying until God hears us. Loktat bo kaya ya wadaday inin-innilak an gagayyum ku. Then, I met some people who became my friends. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)
mamaddang (infl. of baddang) trans. this form cross-references the agent-subject, i.e. the person who will help. Hiyay mamaddang ke ha-on nah tiempon punligatak. He will be the one to help me at the time I have hardship. Te hi Apu Dios an makaiddat ya mun-am-amlong an mamaddang ke ditaku. (James 1:5b) Because as for God who is generous, he is happy to help us.
man-u 1adjunct. to be fortunate; for something to be good for someone. Man-un ditaku te mangan takuh mumpitlu hin-algo yaden dakol day agun maid kanon da. Good for us because we can eat three times a day when there are many who have no food at all. Kanak hi nomnom kuy “Makamman-un dida te kay nakalakka. I said to myself, “It’s really good for them because it seems easy.” Evaluative. (sem. domains: 4.4.1 - Prosperity.) 2advpred. something is possible, but is not certain; modifies the main clause; implies that it would be a good thing. Man-u te deket nangabak di tagu nah tugal ya mun-an-anla. It might be that when one wins in gambling he is happy. Modality. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Possible.) comp. man-uke comp. man-upo
mangihwang (infl. of ihwang) trans. refers to the one who saves. Hiya ya abuy mangihwang ke ditaku. (Acts 4:12b) He is the only one who saves us. Mu hi Apu Dios an mangihwang ke ditakun mangulug ya impatibo nay ulena ya pamhod nan ditaku ot ihwang ditaku, mu bokon gapuh nangatan takuh maphod, mu gapuh homok na. (Titus 3:4) But God who saves us believers, he shows his kindness and his love for us and so he saves us, but not because of the good we have done, but because of his mercy. mangi‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.3 - Theology.)
mangitakdog (infl. of takdog₂) trans. one who defends another or acts as an advocate. Ta hidiye nan namammam-a mon madinol taku te hi Jesus di mangitakdog ke ditakuh hinangngab Apu Dios ya mihwang taku nah ena pangastiguwan ke ditaku. (Romans 5:9b) Therefore, our trust should be even greater because Jesus defends us before God and we are saved from his punishment of us. mangi‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.3 - Theology.)
matagu (der. of tagu₂) sta. to be living; alive. Naligat di matagu te munligat ta. It’s hard to be alive because we experience hardship. Ya hay mamangulun maat ya mamahuwan nadan nungkakaten mangulug ke Kristo, ta ditaku ken matagu kediyen tiempo ya maki-e takun dida e manamu ke Apu taku nah kulabut ta makiha-ad takut nangamung ke hiya. (1 Tesalonika 4:16b-17) The first thing to happen is the resurrection of the believers in Christ who have died so that we who are alive at that time will join them to go to meet our Lord in the clouds so that we all will stay forever with him. ma‑. (sem. domains: 2.6 - Life.)
muN- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references the agent-subject. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. As for us people, we believe that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. After awhile, he was approaching the creek, oh my, there were voices conversing. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.)
nganneh diye (comp. of nganne) 1ind. refers to whatever is not clearly defined or stated. Mu ditakun mangulug di nangipainilaan nan Espiritun Apu Dios kediye te inila nan am-in nganneh diyen wadah nomnom Apu Dios. (1Corinth 2:10) But as for us believers, the Spirit of God makes that known to us because he knows all of whatever is in the mind of God. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Indefinite pronouns.) 2int. what is that; the question is asked about something that is distant from both speaker and hearer or related to a third party. Nganneh diyen balen kapyaon yun kiha-adak? (Acts 7:49b) What is that house that you will build for me to live in? (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Question words.)