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‑an‑ asp. this infix encodes an aspect that expresses the concept of an action done repeatedly; frequently; iterative; co-occurs with punctiliar aspect affixes. Kumanoga din golang. The child is always crying. Nala-uy opat an oras hi nakihanummanganan da ya numpahpahmokan da nah bibiyo. Four hours passed while they negotiated and pleaded again and again with the ‘bibiyo’. Umanay-ayyam da nah dalan. They always play on the path. Mahanilngan nah dalan. Night always overtakes him on the road. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes, - Number of times.)

‑an₁ dervN. this suffix derives a noun from a transitive verb. Ekami makidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go and meet them in Lagawe because their arrival place is definitely there. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. Nagibbu ke, ikuyag mu tun nabinokbokan hi lopohhan ya ihukbung mu. After this, pour the rice into the fermentation container (lit. place of fermentation) and cover. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat.

‑an₂ TACR. this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; it encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with a site semantic role. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on the books Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. Wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut nunhituwan mid Longnga. There was a person who saw him and helped him to return to where we were staying in Longnga. Sim: ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

‑ana mod. used in the Hudhud epic to add rhythmic meter to times, places or character names, like Ambalaw[ana]. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. {literary}

‑imm‑ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. 3this infix encodes a process completive aspect and cross-references the subject. Himmapit hi Apu Paredes ot kinalikali da mu toan kay dibdib ya abun munlau. Sir Paredes gave a speech, followed by Sir Datumanong’s inspirational talk; they said many good things, but who knows if their words are just like the wind that passes by. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; cross references the subject; past tense. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi ceremony.

‑imm‑ ‑an TACR. this circumfix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect; and cross-references a topicalized place. Hituy immaliyan mi handi. Here is where we came before. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

‑in‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross references the direct object; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 5 verbal roots. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Dinulhukak nan apuy te nalutu di kanon ta. I extinguished the fire because our food is cooked. Sim: ‑an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2when this circumfix co-occurs with verbal root classes other than Class 5, the affix cross-references a specific site-object. Uhup nan tinaddogak hidi. I stood there for a long time. .

‑in‑₁ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense; punctiliar aspect, cross references an object with a patient semantic role. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think well enough about what they will do. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your spare time in the library. Sim: ‑on. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2this infix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an object with a path or destination semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 1B movement verbal roots. 3this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with an experiencer semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 2C emotion and sensation verbal roots. 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; past tense; cross-references the object. An inapatut nan apatut ku? Did you wear my shoes? Pinatlattug da on hamuti. They shot a bird.

‑in‑₂ num. this infix encodes plural for the noun roots meaning woman, babai, and man, lalaki, and some cardinal numbers. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was many women dressed in the Ifugao skirt. (sem. domains: - Noun affixes.)

‑inn‑ rec. this infix encodes a reciprocal concept. Munhinnuggutan da. They are teasing each other. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

‑on TACR. 1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

‑um‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a non-past tense process and cross-references a specific object. Ya hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. And the most important thing is to spend (your money) on those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Oha bo ya nakalligat di pumalattugan. Another reason is, their guns were hard to shoot (not automatic). Bumanidbidak hi liblu nah bakasyon. I do nothing but read books during vacation. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2non-past tense, reciprocal action. Pumanuddugan da yaden nahuyop hi inada. They keep running after each other while their mother is asleep.

=o (sp. var. no) interj. pause; these forms are used to give time to a speaker to formulate the rest of his sentence. <The final consonant of the word preceding the pause sound is duplicated as a transitional sound attaching to the vowel ‘o’ as the pause form. The transitional consonant is as varied as the number of final consonants of any word. > Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Sim: Co.

a-apo 1comm. a short story, usually sung; may be myths, legends, or folktales. Pinpinhod ku hanan a-apon mipanggep ke Kabbigat. I like the story-song about Kabbigat. Sim: istolya, bida, malamala. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2intrans. to tell a story in song. Umbun kat mun-a-apoh apum. You sit down and your grandfather will sing a story-song. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3trans. to tell a story with the story-object cross-referenced. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming-spirits. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verb: Purpose is to entertain.

a-o comm. 1reflected image in water, glass, or mirror. Tibom key a-om nah danum. Look at your reflection in the water. (sem. domains: - Pattern, model.) 2shadow. Mungkadukkey a-o te mungkalimu nan algo. The shadows are lengthening because the sun is setting. Nakakkuugak an kay mo a-oy ang-ang ku. I am so thin that my appearance is now like a shadow. (sem. domains: - Shadow.)

a-ul sta. 1to be unsatisfactory; not good enough; inappropriate; not as it should be; does not meet expectations. Naa-ul nan bulhe. The beans are unsatisfactory. (not young enough nor mature enough) ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Evaluate, test.) 2to be handicapped; born with one arm or leg; dwarfed or short in height; lacking in physical attributes. Naa-ul nan imbabalena. Her child is very short. na‑. (sem. domains: - Birth defect.)

aaa adjunct. expression of fear; Ahh! Aaa! Kanana ot mun-oga. Ahh, he said, then fell. Interjection. (sem. domains: - Afraid.)

aamm’od (infl. of ammod) comm. 1elders; ancestors; forefathers. [The traditional religion has been based on beliefs handed down by the Ifugao ancestors.] Hanadan aammod takuy nangapyah payo handih done. It was our ancestors who made the rice fields long ago. Hay pangi-e takud uwani ya nipuun hi pangi-en di aammod taku handi. Our ways today are based on the ways of our ancestors. Apu, damanan tontonom hanadan aammod ku? Grandfather, can you trace my ancestors? (sem. domains: - Related by birth.) 2those who give birth to next generation; parents. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was evidently not in good health. So he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place.

ab-abbu (der. of abu) advpred. to be separated from others; to be alone. Ab-abbu dah di. They were alone there. Ingkuyug Jesus didad Betsaida ot ab-abbu dah di. (Luke 9:10b) Jesus led them (his disciples) to Bethsaida and they were alone there. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.)

ab-abbung (der. of abung, abbung) comm. playhouse; a small temporary hut. Waday liman ab-abbung an punhiduman. There were five temporary huts for sheltering. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

ab-abig (der. of abig) 1comm. a narrative; a story, true or devised. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2trans. to tell a story. [In the past, it was believed that some persons had the ability to foretell future events.] Dakol di inab-abig na. He told many stories. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verb: Purpose is to entertain. der. ab-abigon der. mangab-abig

ab-abigon (der. of ab-abig) trans. to prophesy or predict an event or action. [This meaning was used in the translation of the Tuwali Ifugao Bible.] Donglon yu bo tun ab-abigok ke dakayu. (Matthew 21:33a) Listen again to this that I will prophesy about you. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Prophecy.)

aba 1comm. a variety of an edible starchy root crop; taro; tuber. Munhibak kah aba ta kanon taku. You boil some aba-tubers for us to eat. Pinhod kuy nihibak an aba. I like boiled aba-tubers. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to gather tubers. Etaku mangaba. Let’s go and gather aba-tubers. maN‑/naN‑.

abade 1comm. a triangle of cloth used as shawl; anything used as a shawl. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to wear a shawl. Mun-abade ka ta adi matuningan nan odog mu. Wear a shawl so that your back will not become cold. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: awako. (sem. domains: 5.3.7 - Wear clothing.)

abak trans. to compete with someone. 3H Conversive action process. 1.1defeat. 1.1.1trans. to compete with the focus on the ‘defeat’ component. Abakon dakan Juan. Juan will/can defeat you. Abakok nan mittulu I can defeat the teacher. Pangabakom nan pihhuk te bayadam ten ipaabak mu. Make my money win because you will have to pay it back if you lose it. Adika piabbak. Don’t let yourself be defeated. Inabakak ke Pedroh tugal. I lost to Pedro in gambling./Pedro defeated me in gambling. ‑on/‑in‑, pi‑, ipa‑. Sim: apput. 1.1.2sta. to be the one to lose; loser. ma‑. 1.2trans. to win 1.2.1trans. to win something; usually used in relation to gambling. Kaatnay inabak mun dih hilong hi tugal. How much did you win last night in gambling. Man-u te deket nangabak di tagu nah tugal ya mun-an-anla. It might be that when one wins in gambling he is happy. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 1.2.2nom. winnings. [The word may be used in a communication situation: 1. winning in a debate 2. being more articulate than another.] Kaatnay pangabak yu? How much are your winnings?/How much did you win? Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. pangabak infl. maabak infl. mangabak infl. nangabak

abaka (sp. var. abbaka) comm. 1(prim) hemp. [The plant is exactly like the banana plant except for the fruit which is inedible.] Adi makan di bungan di abbaka. The fruit of abaca is not edible. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.) 2(sec) rope or cord made of hemp. (sem. domains: - Rope, string.)

abako adj. a group of winged creatures, e.g. locusts, birds; a horde. [This word is commonly used about a horde of rice birds that descend upon a rice field to sip the liquid of developing rice kernels.] Imaali key hin-abakon buding ya naligat an abulon dida. If a horde of rice birds comes, it is difficult to drive them away. Inabul ku nan hin-abakon buding. I drove the horde of rice birds away. hin‑. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: - Crowd, group.)

abala comm. the breast part of fowl. Ihaang mu hanan abalan nan manuk. Cook the breast part of the chicken. (sem. domains: - Parts of a bird.)

abang 1comm. rental. Ongal di mapihhu da nah abang di tatagu. They get big money from the rentals of the people. (sem. domains: - Hire, rent.) 2trans. to rent. Abangan mi nan balen Mike. We will rent Mike’s house. Abangan da nan daulon yu. They will rent the space under-your-house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented actions. 3trans. to rent. An mun-abang kayuh balen da Bayawon? Are you renting in the house of Bayawon? Adida pinhod an umalah mun-abang. They do not want to have anyone rent it. Kaatnay pun-abang yu ohan bulan? How much are you renting it for one month? muN‑/nuN‑/puN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. maabangan

abbat 1comm. a nearby place. 1.1comm. a nearby place of the same elevation as the reference point; neighborhood. Umeyak hidid abbat. I will go there (nearby place). Immeh abbat na. He went to the nearby place. (sem. domains: - Near.) 2trans. to go to a particular or specified nearby place. Iabbat kuh balen da Kunde. I will go to Kundeh’s house. Tipet umanab-abbatan ka? Why are you going back and forth nearby. In-abat da nan bilau. The runos were taken nearby. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to go from one house to another; making the rounds of houses nearby. Mun-abbatanak hi balen di tutulang ku. I frequently go from one sister’s house to the others. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to go to or be at a nearby place. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngu bungubun mangabbat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices nearby. maN‑.

abbel trans. to repair terrace walls by adding mud. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.)

abbung trans. to cover for protection or shelter, e.g. mosquito net, leaves to cover small plants. Inabbungana nan anga nah panyuk. He covered his face with a handkerchief. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) der. ab-abbung

abig₁ trans. to predict events; to foretell what will happen. [Foretelling was not a part of the traditional religion; thought to have been introduced in the early days of Christianity.] Mun-abig hi Guinniling. Guinniling is foretelling what will happen. Abigom di maat ke hiya. Predict what will happen to him. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. (sem. domains: - Prophecy.) der. abigon

abig₂ comm. a parable; a story; invented for amusement. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) der. ab-abig

abigon (der. of abig) trans. to foretell or prophesy a particular event. [This word, as well as the past tense form, inabig, are frequently used in the Old Testament to refer to the prophecies given by God to the prophets.] Kon gulat nat inila day wadah nomnom ku ya wada ot an impainilak ke diday eda abigon hi tatagu ta ipatikod da didan mangat hi gaga-iho. (Jeremiah 23:22) If only they had known what was in my mind, I would have made known to them what they should prophesy so that they would have caused them to stop doing evil. ‑on.

abilod proc. to become swollen and reddened, an area of skin is inflamed; welt. [Usually caused by being whipped or hit with something.] Immabilod di tipana te hinuplit nan mittulu. His buttocks has become swollen and red because the teacher whipped him. Immabilod di matana te kinumga. Her eyes became swollen and red because she cried. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2E Body/Physiological function. Sim: abnul. (sem. domains: - Swell, 2.5.3 - Injure.)

abkiya 1sta. a group of people, birds or animals scatter in different directions usually as a result of fear. Dingngol da nan tinumkuk ot maabkiya da. They heard a shout and so they scattered in all directions. ma‑. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.) 2proc. (fig) each family member chooses to go their own way, resulting in no family unity. Immabkiyay pamilyan Maria te mun-aawit da. Maria’s family have each gone their own way because they are always quarreling. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movment from one place to another. (sem. domains: 4.1.6 - Disunity.)

ablan comm. the loom for weaving; refers to all of the separate pieces. [Formerly, women did a lot of weaving as the grain was ripening so that everyone would have new skirts and loin clothes when people joined together for harvesting and celebrating.] Maid day mun-abol ad uwanin dakol te natalak day ablan. Not many weave today because the looms have been lost. Part: uluwan, lolottan, gul-unnan, baliga, hikittan, kalabig. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.)

ablat intrans. to climb up to a higher place. [This is still used in Lagawe area as common language; Lagawe is thought to be the original area of the Ifugao and the Hanglulo language.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Immablatak ad tap-o ot inhabyat ku nah tuktuk di bilid. I climbed upwards and reached the top of the mountain. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Syn: tikid. (sem. domains: - Move up.)

abnul proc. to swell. Umabnul nan kinalat di ulog. The snake bite is swelling. Immabnul di taklek. My hand is swollen. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2E Body/Physiological functions. Sim: abilod. (sem. domains: - Swell.)

abobok intrans. 1a rattling sound in throat, in old age or when dying. Mun-abobok di kalin din am-ama. That old man speaks with a rattling sound. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds . (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2the clattering sound in rapid succession as of automatic guns.

abok 1comm. a mat, anything used to spread on the floor to sleep on. Mahuyopak nah abok. I will sleep on the mat. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to spread a mat or blanket for sleeping. Iabok mu nan ulo. Spread the blanket. Abokam nan dulung ta pungkaddapanan nan golang. Spread a mat on the floor so that the baby can crawl on it. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Class 3A Move and position object. Syn: api.

abol 1comm. the native loom-woven skirt. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2weave. 2.1intrans. to weave on a hand loom. Mun-abol hi apu. Grandmother is weaving/weaves. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Weaving cloth.) 2.2trans. to weave a particular product on a loom. Nganney iabol mu ad uwani? What will you weave with now? (referring to the thread which is to be used) Wano nan in-abol ku ad nakugab. A loincloth is what I wove yesterday. An maphod di pun-abol nah ampuyo? Does she weave skirts well? i‑/iN‑, puN‑. Class 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2.3trans. to weave with a site-object cross-referenced by affix. Abolan dakah ampuyo. I will weave a skirt for you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

abono₁ 1intrans. to work without pay, free labor. Mun-abono kayu. You will work for free. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class . Sim: baddang, tulung, dang-a. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2trans. to pay for something for someone, making it free for them. [If the payment is offered without being requested, it will not be reimbursed.] Abonowam ta ahik bayadan. Pay for me and I will pay you later. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

abono₂ 1comm. fertilizer. 2to fertilize. (sem. domains: - Fertilize a field.) 2.1intrans. to apply fertilizer; a durative activity. Mun-abono takuh bigat. We are going to apply fertilizer tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. to apply fertilizer to plants. Abonowam nan bulhe. Put fertilizer on the beans. Em abonowan nan intanom mu. Go and fertilize what you have planted. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Class 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

abtu (sp. var. aptu) to anticipate. 1.1trans. to look forward to something; eagerly await someone or something; the affix cross-references that which is anticipated. Abtuwan day aliyana. They are eagerly anticipating her arrival. Abtuwan nay ayan da. He was eager for them to leave. Naabtuwan ka yaden ugge ka immali. You were waited for eagerly, yet you did not come. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . (sem. domains: - Hope.) 1.2intrans. to anticipate something with impatience; the negative component of waiting and time passing is highlighted; the person feeling the impatience is cross-referenced by the affix. Uma-abtuh Bugan an nunhood ke he-a. Bugan was impatiently waiting for you. Umabtuwak hi kahilongana. I am waiting impatiently for nighttime. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. umab-abtu

abu 1adv. (prim) an adverb that limits and minimizes whatever concept that it modifies, e.g. an action, process, number, emotion. <Morphology: Derivation and compounding are common word formation processes with this morpheme.> Ha-on ya abu di ume. I only will go. Hanada ya abu makahhapul muy gatangom. Spend only for things that you really need. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us was only two basins of rice. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: ampod. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.) 2adv. (sec) an expression of restriction or limitation. Abu moh nae! Stop that! Abu moy kumodokodoh pihhu. Enough of your begging for money! 3trans. can become a derived verb that cross-references an object. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. comp. abuna comp. adin-abu comp. ot ya abu der. ab-abbu der. abuwan der. abuy

abugadu 1comm. one who is legally qualified to act for another in matters of civil law; attorney; lawyer. Umayag kah abugadu ta hiyay mangitakdog ke he-a. Call an attorney to defend you. (sem. domains: - Legal personnel.) 2intrans. to do the work of an attorney; practice law. Mun-abugadu nan imbabalena hin maongal. His son will be an attorney when he grows up. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to defend someone in court. Abugaduwan dakan hiya. He will defend you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Defend against accusation.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: abogado.

abul trans. to drive away, e.g. small animals, birds. Abulon yu nadan manuk ta adida kanon nan page. Drive away those chickens so that they will not eat the rice. Imme dan mun-abul hi buding. They went to drive away the rice birds. Dahdiy e mun-abul hi payo ad uwani? Who will go to drive away (the rice birds) in the ricefield today. Eyak mun-abul hi buding hi payo. I am going to drive away the rice birds in the fields. Abulom nan manuk ta adi na kanon nan boga. Drive the chicken away so it won’t eat the rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, dulun, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

abulut accept. Sim: tobal. 1.1trans. (prim) to agree to accept a proposal or a statement. Abulutom an hiyay mangiahawan hiya? Do you accept that he will be the one to marry her? Inabulut nan nan kinali da. He accepted what they said. Kon adi ka mo umabulut? Aren’t you accepting anything/anyone anymore. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: - Approve of something, - Agree with someone.) 1.2trans. to consent to something, permit, allow. In-abulut nan ume da. He permitted them to go. Dahdiy nangiabulut? Who consented to it? Uggek in-abulut an ekayu ume. I did not agree that you will go. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Agree with someone.)

abuna (comp. of abu) advpred. 1it was only; there was only Abunay babuy ya manuk an mundallan. It was only the animals walking about (that she had to play with). Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: - Unique.) 2 it is only; the predicate modifies and constrains what is asserted. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. This is only what I have heard about that case. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu ta. I thought that it is only a fire (that we can acquire heat) and yet even as for that metal (thing), we can warm ourselves. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was very big so I had to hang from a branch. comp. abunadi

abunadi (comp. of abuna) advpred. a compound that expresses the idea that time and effort have been invested in accomplishing a task with little or no result; enough already, don’t bother with more effort. Abunadi ya mun-oonan. Don’t bother anymore, it’s just taking up space. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

abut comm. a hole, generic term. Waday abut nah dingding. There’s a hole in the wall. Sim: lokong, butbut, uwang, guk-ang. (sem. domains: - Hollow.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

abuwan (der. of abu) advpred. this predicate expresses the idea that there is only one reason for what someone is doing or the only thing that is involved; the affix cross-references the action or thing. {This is a modality adverbial predicate that modifies an action.} Hay abuwan tun at-atton dan dakamid uwani ya dog-alon dakami tuh boble. The only thing that they want to do to us now is to drive us away from this barrio. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things that can be seen in Manila. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: - Unique.)

abuy (der. of abu) exispred. a substitutionary form of an existential predicate that asserts a restriction by referring to the only one or only thing that qualifies in relation to the statement being made. Dadiye ya abuy Ippangyol an niha-ad ad Kiangan. They are the only Spaniards who stayed in Kiangan. Kediye ya pitu ya abuy kinnanan littalit. Those seven were the only bats that he trapped. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: - Exist.)

abyang comm. a tree variety; the wood is often used for studs in building houses because it is a hard wood; yellowish in color. Abyang di ingkapya da. They built, using abyang-wood. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

abyu trans. to caress the cheeks of someone, usually only women do this to children or older women. Ab-abyuhanah apuna. She is caressing the cheeks of her grandmother. {literary} ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: - Touch.)

ad 1determiner 1.1det. this determiner marks spatial-place common nouns. Ipaem ad da-ul. Send her down (to lower place). (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 1.2det. marks place proper nouns. <morphophonemics: When a preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘a’ drops and the ‘d’ consonant is attached to the verb.> Umed (ume ad) Manila. He will go to Manila. 2det. marks time words: today, yesterday, and day before yesterday. Nuntudokak ke hiya ad ohhandi. I wrote to him the day before yesterday.

ad dalom₁ (n. ph. of dalom) comm. the area below the surface of the earth. Man-ut gagala ya tinummol da, mu ugge da immed dalom di lamut da. (Mateo 135-6b They quickly sprouted, but their roots did not go deep (under the surface of the earth). ...ta hidiye nan am-in wadah luta, hi langit, ad dalom ya mundukkun dah pundayaw dan hiya. (Philippi 2:10) ...therefore, everyone on earth, in heaven and under the earth will kneel in their worship of him. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

ad dalom₂ (n. ph. of dalom) prop. residence of spirits and deities. (sem. domains: 4.9 - Religion.)

ad kabunyan₁ (n. ph. of kabunyan) comm. sky area; sky dome above the earth. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

ad nakugab (n. ph. of nakugab) adv. yesterday. <Inflected form kugaban for topicalization of the time with delimiter abu.> Ad nakugab di immaliyak. I arrived yesterday. Ad kugaban ya abuy nangang-angak ke hiya. It was only yesterday that I saw him. Time. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.)

ad ohhandi (n. ph. of ohhandi) adv. day before yesterday; one day ago. Ad ohhandiy nangayana. The other day is when he went. Time. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.)

ad uwanin toon (n. ph. of toon) adv. refers to the present year. Time. (sem. domains: - Year.)

ad-ad’ing comm. a large red ant that gives a painful sting from its tail-end. Linumbag ya immingit nan tinilod di ad-ading. The place that was stung by the red ant became red and swollen. gen: gutul. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

ad-addi (der. of adi) advpred. expresses a negative evaluation; displeasing manner; inappropriate; bad; improper. Ad-addiy nangat na. He did it badly. Ad-addiy punggibogibok ku. I don’t feel well. Mangad-addi nan indat mun bulwati. The dress you gave is ugly. Evaluative. (sem. domains: - Wrong, unsuitable.)

ad-ading comm. an ant species. Sim: bubuwit, allaga. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

ad-adiyon (infl. of ad-adi) trans. to disapprove of something that others do. Ad-adiyonah diyen eda inat ke hiya. He did not approve of what they did to him. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Disagree.)

ada-din (sp. var. inda-din) 1comm. boiled rice. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Igammal day ada-din ot ahida lumahun. They ate the cooked rice before they went out of the house. {literary} (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to cook rice. Mangada-din/Mun-ada-din da. They are cooking rice. muN‑, maN‑.

adal trans. to learn; generally refers to a formal mode of learning rather than the traditional mentoring or modeling mode. Adalom an munha-ang. You should learn to cook. Mun-an-anlah inadan nangngol an dakol di inadal da. Their mother was happy to hear that they had learned so much. Man-uke kanak hidiye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.2.2 - Learn.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: aral. infl. adalon infl. maadal infl. naadalan

adalon (infl. of adal) trans. to learn something in particular. Man-uke kanak kediye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.2 - Learn.)

adamayon comm. a tree variety. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

adame trans. to spin thread. [In the old days, people would spin thread at death vigils; the men would remove the seeds from cotton while the women would do the spinning.] (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.)

adang₁ intrans. to reach out with foot or hand; to take a step or pace. Iadang mut alam hanan basuh. Step over there and get the cup. Iadang muy taklem ta alam dadiye. Stretch out your hand so that you can get those things. i‑/iN‑. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. (sem. domains: - Extend.)

adang₂ trans. to measure with hand, length is measured from outstretched thumb tip to little finger tip; hand span. Adangom. Measure it. Umadang kah himpulu nah linubid. Measure ten spans of the rope. Adangon yu nan kadukkena. Measure its length. Adi maadang di kadukkena. Its length cannot be measured. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) der. hin-adang

adawe comm. a tree variety that produces soft, lightweight firewood. [The tree becomes somewhat black after the bark has been torn off and dark brown when it is dry; not as good as other kinds of firewood because it is soft.] (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

Addallom (infl. of dalom) prop. refers to a spirit world believed to be below the earth. (sem. domains: 1 - Universe, creation, 4.9 - Religion.)

addi-addi (der. of adi) intrans. 1to be unwilling to act because of disagreement with or dislike of the proposal for action; to refuse. Mun-addiaddih Ana. Ana is unwilling. Mun-addiaddih tulang kun ume. My brother is unwilling to go. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Refuse to do something, - Disobey.) 2intensified negative. Addi-addik pinhod an mabutong ka te uggem inilay at-attom. I really do not like you to be drunk because you do not know what you are doing.

addu intrans. to increase in number. Hana ot ta umaddu da! May their tribe increase! ‑um‑. (sem. domains: - Increase.)

addum unite. 1.1trans. to unite by bringing two or more things together; to combine; to merge; Nun-addumon mi nan patani ya immeh ohan botok. We combined the lima beans and it exceeded one bundle. muN‑ ‑on/nuN‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach, - Include.) 1.2trans. to add something to another thing Iaddum mu tun bulhe nah pun-ihaang mun dotag. Add these beans to the pork you are cooking. i /iN . (sem. domains: - Increase.) infl. nun-addum

adi 1neg. negation of intentional and abilitative actions; will not; cannot. Adiyak ume. I will not go. Adiyak paka-adal nan kumalih English. I cannot learn to speak English. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi-ceremony. (sem. domains: - No, not.) 2neg. negative answer to a question regarding intention to act; no. 3neg. negative of the command to perform or execute an action; don’t. Adim alan. Don’t get it. Iadim di humgop hi baleyu. Don’t let anyone enter your house. i‑/iN‑. 4trans. to prohibit or prevent an action. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an gimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Disagree.) comp. adi bo comp. adinadama comp. adin-abu der. addi-addi der. ad-addi der. ad-adi der. adiyon der. miadi der. mun-addiaddi

adi bo (comp. of adi, bo) neg. negation of an additional statement related to a previous one; also, not this. [The sentence example is one of the 10 commandments in the Bible.] {This phrase is used when there is a series of negated statements in a communicative context.} Adi bo nalgom di pangiusalan yuh ngadan ku. (Deuteronomy 5:11) Also, you must not carelessly use my name. (sem. domains: - No, not.)

adi maboblayan sta. this phrase refers to an uninhabited and uncultivated area; wilderness. Ot bumtik da nah adi maboblayan ta ibtikan da nadan tindalun di holag Israel, mu pindug da dida ot patayon da dida. (Hanadan Huwes 20:42) And so they ran away toward the wilderness, running away from the soldiers, the descendants of Israel, but they chased them and they killed them. (sem. domains: - No, not.)

adi maimid di toko (id. of imid) talkative. an idiom describing someone who is very talkative. Adi maimid di tokona. Her mouth cannot be closed. (She is very talkative.) (sem. domains: 4.3 - Behavior.)

adi manghop (ph. v. of ngohop) . implies that a person has a desire that is unlikely to be fulfilled, but continues to have hope; fits the English saying ‘to hope against hope’. {The Christian Bible references are given for the purpose of encouraging research as to how this phrase is used in a story context.} Adi manghop hi Juan an emun-adal. John is not without the desire/hope to go and study. Hidiyen babai ya adi manghop ot mundukkun hi hinangngab na. (Matthew 15:25) That woman, she did not lose hope and so she knelt before him. Mu hi David ya adi manghop. (1 Samuel 17:34) But as for David, he did not lose hope. Kapyanan wadada nadan adi manghop. As expected, there were those who did not lose hope. Nanongnan adi kayu manghop. You still did not lose hope. (sem. domains: - Hope.)

adi mumbayag (ph. v. of bayag) v. by negating the verb meaning ‘long time’, the concept of short time is expressed. Hay ittolyah dingngol ku handi ya handi dandani mitungo nan tulang ku ya kumananta nan kilkilang nah nih-up hi balemi ot adi mumbayag ya nakatte nan tulang kun golang. The story I heard before is that when it was nearly time for my brother to be born, there was this night bird that always sang near our house, and so the baby died in a short time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.)

adin-abu (comp. of abu, adi) advpred. to the greatest degree, describing only negative circumstances; very; extremely. <Morphology: abu as a compound with the negative, adi, takes the maximizing absolutive of abu and adds a negative extremity notion and functions as a predication.> Adin-abuy hakit tun nag-od. My cut is unbearably painful. Adin-abuy paminhod nan hiya. She loves him very much. Modality - Intensive. (sem. domains: - To a larger degree.)

adinadama (comp. of adi, nadama) negpred. predicates that an action or event cannot be done or cannot happen; it is impossible. Adinadama bon magatang. It cannot be bought. Adinadaman eda umed uwani They can’t possibly leave now./It’s impossible for them to leave now. Adinadaman hituy pangatan mi. It is impossible that this is what we’ll do. (sem. domains: - Impossible.)

adiyon (der. of adi) trans. to reject what is suggested or what is done. Adiyon da man anhan di atona They surely will not accept what he does. (sem. domains: - Disagree.)

ado₁ trans. to remove grasses from rice paddy and pile against the dike to make paddy mounds during the fallow season; used for planting vegetables. Umeyak hi payo te eyak mangado. I’ll go to the field to make paddy mounds. maN‑. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.) der. inado infl. mangado

ado₂ (sp. var. adaw) trans. to get cooked food, root crops and vegetables from a pot; to dish up cooked food. Adawom nan gattuk. Dish up the camote. Umado ka nah ihda. Dish up some viand. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/ bring objects toward agent. Sim: bano, ak’ud, haklung, hoklad; Sim: bak’uy. (sem. domains: - Serve.)

adod-’on₂ (sp. var. odod-on) intrans. to do housekeeping work; housework. Mun-adod-on ka hin wada ka tuh bale. Do household work when you are at home. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 5 - Daily life, 6.1 - Work.)

adol comm. 1physical body with all its parts. Mahakit di adol ku. My body aches. Oha bo ya mahmok di adol. One more thing is that you should pity your body. Indani ya magibok nan mahakit am-in di adol na, ya nakakkaktol. Later, he felt pain all over his body and he began to feel the cold. Sim: kaha. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2trunk of tree. Nadunut di adol nan akasya. The trunk of the acacia tree is rotten. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was big so I had to hang from a branch. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) der. nangadol

adug to guard something or someone. 1.1trans. to watch over; to guard. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented actions. Sim: bantay. 1.2trans. to guard a baby implies one babysits; take care of a baby. Mun-adug kah golang hi bigbigat. You will baby sit tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Care for.) 1.3caus. to have someone babysit. Ipaadug ku nan golang ke he-ah bigat ta umeyak ad Lagawe. I will have you babysit the baby tomorrow so that I can go to Lagawe. ipa‑/impa‑. comp. ahiadug

adugayyap intrans. 1to be scattered everywhere, due to a large number. Umadugayyap da. They are scattered everywhere. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.) 2to put out runners like a creeping plant, e.g. sayote; to spread. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 6.2.1 - Growing crops.)

adukke (fr. var. of andukke)

ae comm. kind of vine used to tie bundles of wood in forest or as a rope for carabao; it has some elasticity. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

Aeta (sp. var. of Ayta)

ag-agak interj. interjection that emphasizes and draws attention to what is being said. Ag-agak di ngina nan am-in ad uwani. There, everything is expensive now. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ag-agam (infl. of ag-aga) adjunct. expression of annoyance; may also express irony. Ag-agam kah-in di ha-oy. Why must it always be me (to be required to do something)? Ag-agam di halaman mu. Why is it that you are so early. (expresses irony, the person is late) Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)

ag-agan advpred. modifies a verb by adding a continuing aspect. Deket ag-agan mu mangat hi ga-ga-iho ya madismaya inam. If you continue to do bad things, your mother will be dismayed. Time. Sim: tuluy. (sem. domains: 8.4.7 - Continue, persevere.)

ag-agawat sta. dreams resulting from memory, not related to omens given by spirit-beings. Katatakut di banig an istoryaon nah hilong te miag-agawat hi hinuyop. It’s frightening to tell stories about ghosts at night because dreaming may result while sleeping. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: in-in’op, mamayabbayang. (sem. domains: 5.7.2 - Dream.)

ag’a adjunct. 1a polite expression; please; excuse me. {This is a polite expression that can be used to soften a request or demand; also, it can be used to excuse oneself from an event or communication situation.} Idat yu agah tuwe ke Maria? Will you please give this to Maria? Agak, apapon daka? Agam, ten pinhod mu. Shall I go ahead and slap you? Go ahead, if it pleases you. Aga ta mangmangngeyak pe. Excuse me, I’m going ahead. Agat ek aton hanan ngunuk ta magibbu. Excuse me, I will go to finish my work so that it will be done. Aga, nangamung boh pidwana. There now, till next time. Aga, di inalam ad Manila. Please (let me see) what you got in Manila. Aga ke ta ha-oy di muntudok. Move away so I’ll (be the one) to write. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.) 2expression that means to go ahead and do something or continue action. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. Agam, deket pinhod mun makie ya mundadaan kah pihhum ta deke ya imme ta. Go ahead. If you want to join in going, save your money so that we can go. (sem. domains: 3.5 - Communication.) der. agannat

aga nangamung boh pidwana (id. of pidwana) idiom. Bye, until next time; Bye, see you again. Agat ume kami, nangamung boh pidwana. We are leaving, see you next time. This expression is used to politely break off a conversation. (sem. domains: - Leave.)

aga’mang 1comm. sleeping house or sleeping quarters for young people. [In times past, there were separate houses for young women and young men; young women usually stayed with a widow; traditionally there were evenings when young men went to ‘serenade’ the young women. ] (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2intrans. to sleep in someone’s house, other than the home of the nuclear family. Eyak mun-agamang hi balen da Bugan. I will go to sleep in Bugan’s house. muN‑/nuN‑.

aga₁ 1comm. medicine. [This word may refer to any herbal plant or medicine used to treat sickness.] Inumom hanan agam. You drink your medicine. (sem. domains: - Medicine.) 2treat medically. 2.1trans. to treat with medicine. Makat agahan ta hanan sugat mu. Come and we’ll treat your wound. Iaga ta tun ginattang inam. We’ll treat it with what your mother bought. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.3 - Injure.) 2.2pass. to be treated with medicine; to be cured of sickness. Inumom nan aga ta maagahan ka. Take the medicine so that you will be cured. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Recover from sickness.) 3intrans. one who treats with medicine; doctor; healer. Hiyay mun-aga nah nag-od. He will be the one to treat the wound. muN‑/nuN‑. der. mun-aga der. pun-agahan infl. agahan

agaag intrans. to squeal, high piercing sound made by humans or pigs. Mun-agaag nan babuy an pinah-on da. The pig they carried was squealing. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. Sim: alagaag. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

agab 1trans. to peel citrus fruit. Agaban yu nan tabuyug ta kanon taku. Peel the pomelo so that we can eat it. Umagab kayuh kanon yun tabuyug. Peel some pomelos and eat them. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Remove shell, skin.) 2comm. peeling of citrus fruit; rind. Iwele yu nan agab ta adi miwahit. Throw away the peelings so that they will not be scattered. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something.

agae intrans. to swim; to splash while swimming. Inilam an mun-agae? Do you know how to swim? muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: keke, an’uy, languy. (sem. domains: - Swim.)

agag trans. to shorten life span, e.g. someone kills another and shortens his life span. Inagaganan pinoppog di nitaguwan nan ibak. He brought about the early end of my brother’s life. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. (sem. domains: 2.6.6 - Die.)

agahan (infl. of aga) trans. to treat sickness with medicine. Hay agahan di doktor ya hay mundogo, bokon hay maid di dogona. (Luke 5:31) A doctor treats the sick person, not one who has no sickness. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. (sem. domains: 2.5.7 - Treat disease.)

agalin 1pass. to transfer; a process of change. Adim ikamo nan maingit an bulwati nah mabayak te maagalinan. Do not mix the red dress with the white because the color will transfer. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Change color.) 2trans. for one person to influence another, particularly used in a negative sense. Hay gaga-ihon tagun takon di ohana ya mabalin an agalinana nadan udum. A bad person, even if he is the only one, can influence others. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Use a person.)

agamid trans. 1to bring something to oneself; draw towards one’s self. Agamidom din ulo. Draw that blanket towards you. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: akuy. (sem. domains: - Pull.) 2to adopt a child Inagamid na nan imbabalen nan inayana ya nan tindalu. He adopted the child of his wife and the soldier. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Adopt.) 3to take personally something that is said. Adim agamidon di kinalik te bokon he-a. Don’t take personally what I have said because it doesn’t pertain to you. Antipet agamidom am-in di kalida? Why do you listen to everything they say? ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Upset.)

agannat (der. of ag’a) advpred. to go ahead and do something with stress on the intentionality of the action. Agannat ek pakatibbon. I’ll go ahead so that I can see it well. Manner. Sim: nguddan, atta. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.)

agat comm. spicy taste; pungent or acrid taste, may refer to the taste of peppers, ginger. Ag-agam di agat hanan paktiw! How acrid the pepper tastes! (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.)

agayap comm. a legume like a string bean, but shorter. Muntanom ka hi agayap. Plant agayap legumes. Sim: pingwi. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

agayup 1comm. a charm carried by boys to attract girls, may be a house-lizard, female hair, or special grass that has been blessed. Waday agayup nah uppig Tuguinay. Tuguinay has a charm in his bag. Sim: kodla, kiwil. (sem. domains: 4.9.4 - Miracle, supernatural power.) 2trans. to make use of a charm. ‑on/‑in‑.

Agba 1prop. a ritual usually performed to find the cause of an illness, or to find out who stole something that has been lost. Hay aton da ya mundinol dah Agba. What they do is trust the divination ritual. Sim: Ketema, Pakko. (sem. domains: - Prophecy, - Religious ceremony.) 2intrans. to perform the agba ritual. Hiyay mun-agba ta mainila hin dahdiy nangako. He will be the one to perform the agba-ritual so that the thief will be known. Immen e numpaagbah Bugan te waday nangakoh pihhuna. Bugan went to have the agba-ritual performed because someone stole her money. {ritual} muN‑/nuN‑, mumpa‑/numpa‑.

agdan comm. steps that ascend; a stairway. Wadah diy agdan an mumpae nah mikadwa. There is a stairway that goes to the second story. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

agdaw (sp. var. agdao) comm. fish species. (sem. domains: - Fish.)

aggayam 1comm. animal, domestic; quadruped. Dakol day aggayam hituh luta. There are many kinds of animals here on earth. Sim: amayyu. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to raise domestic animals. Maphod di mun-aggayam ta waday ihda. It’s good to raise domestic animals in order to have meat. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.)

aggub comm. grass variety, used as an antiseptic. Nag-od nan taklena ot ha-adana hi aggub. He cut his hand so he placed aggub-grass on it. (sem. domains: - Medicine, 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

aggudung 1comm. snail, long, edible, conical-shape; lives in rice fields and rivers. [The shells of the snails are burnt and pounded as lime for betelnut chewing.] Eyak umalah aggudung nah payo. I will go to get some snails in the rice field. Sim: hiyok, kullipaw. (sem. domains: - Fish.) 2trans. to gather snails. Eyak mangaggudung. I am going to gather snails. maN‑/naN‑.

agid trans. to sharpen to a point, e.g. wood, sticks, rattan strips. [The end of rattan strips are sharpened for weaving baskets.] Nipniphod an naagidan nan patanong nan am-ama. The walking stick of the old man was nicely sharpened. Inagidan Pedro nan uwe. Pedro sharpened the point of the rattan strips. Mun-agid nadan u-ungah uwe. The children are sharpening the tips of the rattan strips. Umagid kah bilau ta puntobong. Sharpen some canegrass sticks for spits. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Class 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

agihid comm. space, between a fence and a building, usually related to a house or granary. Natu-i nah agihid di baleda. He fell near the fence of their house. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area, - Vicinity.)

agihit comm. a bean variety. Eka umalah agihit hi garden. Go and get agihit-beans in the garden. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

agimayu₁ (sp. var. alimayu) comm. wind-like sound before a thunderstorm. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

agimayu₂ comm. a class of spirits that are always called on in ritual invocations. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

Aginaya (sp. var. Aginnaya) prop. a woman’s name. [The name of female characters in folklore oral literature.] (sem. domains: - Personal names.)

agip 1sharpen or align by cutting. 1.1trans. to sharpen to a point; to align by cutting [The traditional method for killing a pig for sacrifice was to pierce the heart with a sharpened stick.] Agipan yu nan bilau. Sharpen the tip of the canegrass stick to a point. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by the removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 1.2trans. to sharpen, an indefinite object to be sharpened is in view. Umagip kah bilau ta pun-wiwik. Sharpen a canegrass stick for piercing (a pig). 2trans. to align teeth by cutting. Kay inagip di bab-ana It’s as if her teeth have been aligned by cutting. ‑on/‑in‑.

agnap comm. older betelnut leaves. [The older leaves of betelnut are not good for chewing; sometimes they are pounded to a pulp, mixed with a little lime and applied to fresh wounds to stop bleeding.] (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant, - Medicinal plants.)

agob-ob comm. walls of huts, especially if made of woven reeds. Nalukkambut di agob-ob di abung na. The walls of his hut are tattered. (in a state of ruin) (sem. domains: - Wall.)

agol 1comm. to be hesitant; refers to the feeling of hesitation to do a thing because of fear of consequences. Waday agol kun e mundallanan nah hilong. I am afraid to go and walk around during night time. (sem. domains: - Doubt.) 2intrans. Umagolak an e hunggop hi baleda. I am hesitant to enter their house. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautiously walking on the slippery dikes. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: - Uncertain.)

agpo comm. edge of a village. Restrictions: Hudhud. Dimmatong hi agpawan da ad Matanibung. He arrived at the edge of Matanibung village. ‑an. (sem. domains: - Boundary.)

Agtap prop. residence of the god, Punholdayyan. (sem. domains: 1 - Universe, creation, 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

agtu carry. 1.1trans. to carry something on head. [Women are usually the ones who carry things on their heads.] Iagtu na nan bintok nan page. She will carry the bundle of palay on her head. Agtuwon yu nadan page. Carry the palay on your head. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. Sim: pah-on. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 1.2trans. to carry an indefinite object or some of an indefinite object on head. Mun-agtuh bulhe hin dumayyu. She will carry beans on her head when she comes down. Umagtu kah page. Carry some rice on your head. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) id. ammunay uluk an in-agtuk id. In-agtunay langkak na.

agub intrans. to become smelly; to have an offensive odor. Mun-agub nan danum nah butilya. The water in the bottle stinks. Mun-agub nan dotag te nabuluk. The meat is smelly because it is rotten. Ibalbal muy bulwatim ta adi umagub. Wash your clothes so that they will not become smelly. mun‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.)

agum sta. to be greedy; describes one who wants everything for himself. Hay naagum an tagu ya pinhod nan ibagin am-in nganneh diyen maid di kanana on abu mo. (Job 20:20) As for the greedy person, he wants to own everything without ever being satisifed (never saying no more is needed now). ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: - Lust.)

aguteet (sp. var. agutuut) intrans. for something to smell; a bad smell that is very strong; stink. Mun-agutuut di dolada. Their yard stinks. Mun-ageteet di ihbuna. Her urine has a bad smell. Umaguteet di awidan te pun-ihbuwan di kaunga-unga. Backyards become smelly because the children make them their urinals. Mun-agutuut nan hinamak dan nate. The dead person they found smells rotten. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑,. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.)

agwat cross over. 1.1intrans. to cross over a body of water. Umagwat dah duwan wangwang ta ahida dumatong. They will cross two rivers before they will arrive. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: - Move past, over, through.) 1.2trans. to cross over a body of water, ravine or other expanse while carrying something. <The choice of affix (-on/-in-) cross-references the object NP and highlights a feature of the water, ravine, etc. (see first example under Sense 1.2)> Ambilog nan wangwang an eda agwaton. The river that they will cross is wide. Iagwat mu nan golang. Bring the child across the river. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

ah adjunct. expression of recognition or agreement; Oh. Ah athidi. Oh! so it’s like that. Ah, o. Oh, yes. Ah, he-a gayam. Oh! so it’s you. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ah’a (sp. var. ahh’a) adjunct. expression of disapproval; expression of disagreement; expression of refusal. Aha! Mangan kayut ahiyak mangan hi bale. No. You go ahead and eat, I’ll eat at home. Aha, tipe bo anhan ta em boh-olan. Oh come on, why do you have to scold her? Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ah’el 1comm. the sound of river current. Adi kami pakahuyop te hay ahel di wangwang. We could not sleep because of the sound of the current of the river. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. to make the sound of water current. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds.

ah’in 1comm. salt. Ialim nan ahin ta ahinak tun ihda. Bring me the salt and I will salt the viand. (sem. domains: - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to add salt to something. Ahinan yu nan ihda. Salt the viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3intrans. to give salt to an animal. He-ay mun-ahin nadah baka. You will be the one to give salt to the cows. muN‑/nuN‑. 4nom. salt container. [The tubung bamboo container was formerly used to store salt.] Ihaad mu nan ahin nah pun-ahinan. Put the salt in the salt container. puN‑ ‑an.

ah’ol intrans. to be envious; to be jealous. Adika umahoahol. Do not always be jealous. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: amo. (sem. domains: - Jealous.)

ahal 1comm. a barrier of sticks placed in the water outlets of rice paddies; fish barricade. [The barriers are placed in the water outlets of rice paddies to prevent mudfish from swimming into the next field.] 2trans. to place an obstruction as a barrier. Maid da mo nan dolog hi payomi te kinaan da nan in-ahal ku. There are no more fish in our field because they removed the barrier I placed at the water outlet. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

ahan (sp. var. of anhan) adjunct. a polite expression used to make a request, to disagree, or to contradict; usage may be understood only in context; it may express a polite or pleading ‘please’ or an emphatic ‘very’. Tipe ahan di imut mu? Why are you very selfish? Homkom ahan hi ina. Please pity my mother. Indop da tut-uwa ahan ot indani ya pun-itulud dan kalyon day Hidi ay di dalan! True enough, one of them blew out his torch and then, they began pushing him, saying “There’s the way.” (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.) (comp. daan mo ahan ta infl. ni-ahan)

ahap 1comm. meat, small uncooked pieces given to helpers and neighbors at a feast. Sim: atal. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to distribute pieces of meat at a feast. Nun-iahap da nan natdaan an dotag. They distributed the extra meat in small pieces. muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: - Distribution.)

ahbu comm. the edge of a stone wall; may also refer to the edge of a rice terrace wall. Ingkadap nan nah ahbuwan. She crawled by the edge of the stone wall. ‑an. (sem. domains: - Fence, wall.)

ahenten comm. those who trade and do business. Gintang nadan ahenten hi silber. Those traders bought silver. (sem. domains: 6.9.4 - Commerce.)

ahhing intrans. to assault or abuse someone alternately, may be verbal or physical; to take turns assaulting. Nun-aahhingan dan dinuntuk nan mangako. They took turns in hitting the thief. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

ahhud trans. to pound alternately with pestles; to remove the husk from rice. [More than one person is pounding in a mortar] Mun-ahhud dan mumbayun nah page. They are alternating the pounding of rice. Ahhudan da nan bayuwon. They are alternately pounding the rice. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

ahi₁ 1asp. future time aspect verb auxiliary when co-occurring with a non-past tense verb; there is also a modal component, i.e. a determination or an intention to act or a certainty that something will happen component. {This form is used primarily in clauses expressing time sequences having purpose or prediction.} <This form occurs before the verb; pronouns become enclitics> Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaippaptok am-in. Perhaps the next time, it will be well-planned. Ahitaku bo ume. We shall go again. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangmung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2asp. encodes a sequential aspect of events encoded in the verbs when co-occurring with past tense verbs; before. <Occurs preceding the second event verb in a sentence.> Ne dinanuman ta ingganay lumuwag ya ahi inha-ad nadan udum an midum. Then, add water and bring to boil before adding the other ingredients. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It is night before it comes out to fly around. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a pagan priest has to perform a ritual to make him well (before he will be well). comp. ta ahi

ahi₂ dervN. time-of; season-of; compounds with verbs to indicate important event times. Mun-uubbu hanadan tatagu te ahigabut. The people will share-work because it is the season for cleaning ricefields. Ahi taku umeh did bobleh ahiani. We will go to the barrio during the harvest season. Spec: ahiani, ahibungaan, ahigabut, ahigaud, ahihagophop, ahikotolan, ahikulpi, ahilai, ahipaad, ahipuwok, ahitul-u, ahitunod, ahikagokoh, ahiadug. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) ahiudanan comp. ahiadug comp. ahiani comp. ahibakle comp. ahibungaan comp. ahigabut comp. ahigaud comp. ahihagophop comp. ahihopnak comp. ahikagokoh comp. ahikotolan comp. ahikulpi comp. ahilai comp. ahilida comp. ahitul-u

ahiadug (comp. of adug, ahi) nom. refers to the time when ricefields need to be guarded to prevent rice birds from eating the grain; season for guarding. Dakol di buding nah ahiadug. There are many rice birds during the season for guarding the fields. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 6.2.4 - Tend a field.)

ahiani (comp. of ani, ahi) nom. season for harvesting rice. [This is also a time for homecomings, drinking, making rice cakes, and merry-making; months of June and July] Magibbuy ahiani ne ahiyak umali. After rice harvest time, then I will come. Dakol di baya nah ahi ani. There is much rice wine during harvest season. Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani; Gen: ahi; Syn: ahitul-u. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahibakle (comp. of bakle, ahi) nom. season for thanksgiving celebration. Naken ahibakle ya dakol day umalin bumaddang an mumbayu nan dayyakot. During Thanksgiving many come to help in pounding the sticky rice. (sem. domains: - Festival, show.)

ahibungaan (comp. of bunga, ahi) nom. refers to the time of maturing fruit. Maid pey bungana yaden ahibungaan. It had no fruit even though it was fruit season. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

ahigabut (comp. of gabut, ahi) nom. one phase of the ricefield agricultural cycle; cleaning the fields of weeds. Mun-uubbu handan tatagu te ahigabut. The people will share-work because it is the season for cleaning the ricefields. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahigaud (comp. of gaud, ahi) nom. a phase of the agricultural cycle; plowing of ricefields to prepare for planting; the plowing is done by hand using wooden spades. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahigaud. The men have much work during the plowing season. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahihagophop (comp. of Hagophop, ahi) nom. the season of the sprouting of new leaves on transplanted rice plants. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahihopnak (comp. of hopnak, ahi) nom. season for sowing rice seeds; making seed beds. Ahihopnak yaden ugge naaladu nan payo. It is the season to sow rice yet the field is not yet plowed. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahikagokoh (comp. of kagokoh, ahi) nom. time of year when ricefields are weeded; season of weeding. Ahikagokoh ad uwani. The time for weeding the ricefields is now. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahikotolan (comp. of kotol, ahi) nom. cold season during the months from November to February. Mabuut bo nadan bulhe hanatuh ahi kotolan. The beans will be moldy during the cold season. Oh-oha day munhawwangan te ahi kotolan. There are very few roaming around because it’s the cold season. Dakol day mate nah ahikotolan, namam-a nadan aam-ama ya iin-ina. Many die during the cold season, especially old men and old women. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

ahikulpi (comp. of Kulpi, ahi) nom. the season of the sprouting of rice plants. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahilai (comp. of lai, ahi) season for the removing of the old leaves of rice plants. nom. season for removing old leaves of rice plants. Munbaki da te ahilai. They are performing the ritual because it is the season for removing the old leaves. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahilida (comp. of lida, ahi) nom. season for cutting grass in the ricefields. Ahi mibangngad nan imbabalem hi ahi lida. Your child will return when it is the season for cutting grass in the rice fields. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahim adjunct. an expression meaning something will be proved to you, and then, you will understand. Kulpigon dakan ahim. I will hit you and then, you’ll see. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)

ahinut adjectival predicate. little by little; to do something little by little. Ahinutom an ie nan kaiw. Take the wood little by little. Ahinutom an bayadan nan ongal an utang. Pay your large debt little by little. Mu dakdakol di kaapputan ta maahinut ot ya abun am-in. But one loses more times than he wins such that eventually, everything will be lost. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. Time adverbial predicate. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs, 8.4.2 - Take time.)

ahipaad (Paad) nom. the season of the rice grain forming on the rice plants. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahipuwok (puwok) nom. typhoon season, usually June-November. Deket ahi puwok on tumakutak hi katu-iyan tun abung ku. Whenever it is typhoon season, I am afraid my hut will be blown over. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

ahitul-u (comp. of tul-u, ahi) nom. the rice harvest season. [This is the time of homecomings, drinking, making rice cakes and merry-making; June and July.] Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani; Gen: ahi; Syn: ahiani. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture, 6.2.5 - Harvest.)

ahitunod (tunod) nom. season for transplanting rice from seedbeds to the fields. Dakol di ngunu nah ahi tunod. There’s a lot of work during the transplanting season. Nagibbuy ahi tunod tuh boble. The season of transplanting here in our village is finished. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahiudanan (udan, ahi) nom. rainy season. Miha-ad hidi inggana handih inlappu nay ahiudanan. He stayed there until the time when the rainy season started. Hanah bulan di July di ahiudanan hitu. The month of July is the rainy season here. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, - Rain.)

ahuk 1comm. smoke. Ibughul mu nan panto ta ume nan ahuk. Open the door so that the smoke will go out. Munluluwaak te nan ahuk. I am shedding tears because of the smoke. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5.5 - What fires produce.) 2intrans. for a fire to be smoking. Mun-ahuk nan apuy. The fire is smoking. Umahuk nan ilukut. The cigarette emits smoke. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to direct smoke toward something. Ahukan yu nan iyyukan. Direct the smoke towards the honeybees. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

ahuti comm. a sweet potato variety, white outside and yellow inside. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

ahuy (sp. var. ahhuy) trans. to convince someone; to persuade. Inahuyana hi Mary an umeda. He persuaded Mary to go. Umahhuy di kalina. His words are convincing. general: This word may also be used in the sense that someone has been overwhelmed in a battle of wits. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑. Speech verb - to provoke a response.. Syn: awis. (sem. domains: - Persuade.)

ahyadang trans. to hang up something horizontally. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. In-ahyadang nay tete. He hung up the ladder. {literary} iN‑. Sim: hable; Syn: had-ang. (sem. domains: - Hang.)

ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language.

ak-ak 1trans. to separate thread; pull apart without breaking as in separating thread; untangle. Ak-akom nan tinayum. Separate the threads of your weaving. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.) 2intrans. to separate the strands of thread, rope. Mun-ak-ak hi tulang na. Her sibling is separating thread. Umak-ak ka nah linubid. Unwind some strands from the rope. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ak’i comm. little girl; child, used as vocative. [It is used when addressing a little girl who is closely related or one who is very dear to the speaker.] Makakeh tu aki. Come here, dear little girl. Aki, adika kumga. Child, do not cry. Sim: i-inggi. (sem. domains: - Child.)

aka adjunct. expression that questions the reason for something; implies surprise, denial and doubt; a why expression. Aka? Kon ha-oy di nangala? Why? Was it me who got it? Aka- maid ot di inalak. Why, I did not get anything. Interjection. (sem. domains: - Markers of emphasis, 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

akad 1intrans. to step forward; to pace. Umakad kah himpulu. Make ten paces. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: akdang. (sem. domains: - Walk.) 2trans. this form focuses on the manner of moving, a step. Iakad mu. Take a step.

akasya 1comm. acacia tree or wood. Pinaot na nan akasya. He carved the acacia wood. Nakahhappangan tun akasya. This acacia tree has many branches. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2sta. to be full of acacia trees. Maakasya nan muyung. The forest is full of acacia trees. ma‑.

akaw adjunct. expression of dismay or disappointment; good grief; oh no. Eka ke ibagan Sakai hin mabalin an makilugan takuh kotsa da. Akaw, adiyak te bumainak. Would you go and ask Sakai if we can ride with him in his car? Oh no, I will not because I would be embarassed. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

akbab comm. a plant variety with fruit hooked on roots which are above ground. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.)

akdang (sp. var. akkang) 1comm. a stride; a pace or step. Andukkey akdang di Amerikano. Americans have long strides. (sem. domains: - Walk.) 2intrans. to be walking rapidly. Kaakdaakdang nadan binabai. The women were striding rapidly. ka‑ CVCV‑. Sim: akad. der. hin-akdang

ake (sp. var. amke) adjunct. an expression emphasizing the demand for someone to look at something. Akeh tu! Look at this! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

akhop 1sta. having little relative height; situated below normal height; low. Naakhop nan kaiw di be-et. The guava tree is very low. Umakhop nan duplanu. The airplane will lower itself. Naak-akhop di kad-an nan baleyu. Your house is on a lower place. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6D Descriptives. ant: tag-e. (sem. domains: - Low.) 2intrans. to be aware of one’s shortcomings; to show respect for others; to be humble. Maphod di mun-akhop namam-a hin waday bahul. One should be humble especially if he is at fault. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Humble, - Low status.)

akhup 1trans. to overtake someone; to catch up with; come upon someone. Gal-an yun mundallan ta akhupan taku dida. Walk faster so we will overtake them. Inakhupak didan munlinillinih bale da. I came upon them cleaning their house. Gal-am ot wadan akhupam hi baleda. Hurry so you might catch up with them at their home. Mahmok ka ot kuman ugge nangakhup ke hiya. It’s a pity that you missed her (didn’t overtake her). ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, maN‑/naN‑. 5C Goal oriented site. Sim: lah-i. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2intrans. to meet someone. Ahi ta mun-akhup hidi. We will meet there. muN‑/nuN‑.

aki 1comm. very strong jealousy of someone’s advantage. [Someone would rather throw away or destroy something than to let it be for another’s advantage; this type of jealousy is considered to be worse than the imut-type.] Namahig di akin Allaga. Allaga is jealous of others well being. 6B Characteristic of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: - Jealous.) 2sta. to be selfish, jealous. Maka-akin hinag-on. He is such a selfish neighbor. ma‑, makaC‑.

akid comm. an invented excuse; reason for something; alibi. Hay pangiakidanan ugge immali ya mahakit kanuy uluna. His excuse for not having come is that he had a headache. pangi‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Defend against accusation.) der. immakid

akkang (sp. var. of akdang) trans. to take a step. Iakkang muh tu kad-ak. Take a step towards me.

aklib trans. to scatter things while searching for something; to get things and scatter them, mostly done by children when parents have put things up or away. Tipet umanaklib kayu? Why do you keep searching among things and scattering them. Nganney anaklibon yu? What are you always searching for? ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.)

ako trans. 1to steal something from someone. Adiyu akawon nan manuk. Don’t steal the chicken. Eda immakoh mahapul da. They went to steal some of their necessities. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring something toward agent. (sem. domains: - Steal.) 2the person who steals; the thief is cross-referenced by the affix. Inakhupan Santiago nan lalakin e nangako nadah manuk na. Santiago caught the man who stole his chicken. Hiya ya mangakon unga. He is a child who steals. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mangako

aksidente comm. an undesirable and unexpected event. Sim: disgrasya. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.)

aktor comm. an actor. Aktor di tulang Juan. Juan’s brother is a movie actor. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) Language Of Borrowing: English: actor.

akuy₂ trans. to be kind to someone; to have compassion for someone, the feeling always results in giving help. Hi Maria ya inakuy na nan in-ina. Maria had compassion on the old woman. Maphod di akuyon nadan u-ungan maid di ammod da. It’s good if orphans are adopted. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: agamid. (sem. domains: - Help.)

akyam trans. refers to vines and roots of plants that spread over an area. Ambilog di inakyaman nan apapet te maluwab. The bitter herb has spread widely because it’s robust. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing site by adding something. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

al-ala trans. to make fun of or joke about someone’s characteristics or behavior. Adim al-alaon hi Maria te kumga. Don’t tease Maria because she’ll cry. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Insult.)

al-alikap comm. sweet potato variety. Gen: ballaan. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

al-alkus 1comm. refers to any type of decoration. (sem. domains: 8.3.8 - Decorated.) 2trans. to decorate something. Al-alkusan dah silber. They will decorate it with silver. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

al-aluk (infl. of aluk) trans. 1to comfort, console; to pacify, placate, appease. [The word is often used regarding the attempt to keep a child from crying.] Ena al-alukon hi amana ta mungkodo boh pihhu. He’s going to appease his father so that he can ask him for money again. Al-alukon yu nan golang. Comfort the child. Adi maal-aluk. She could not be placated. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: alubyag, anawa. (sem. domains: 4.4.4 - Respond to someone in trouble.) 2to use something to placate. Ial-aluk ku tun tinapay ke Lisa. I’ll appease Lisa with this bread. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Reconcile.)

al-u comm. pestle for pounding rice kernels to remove husk and for pulverizing coffee beans. Madam-ot nan al-u. The pestle is heavy. Alam nan al-u ta mun-ahhud kayu. Get the pestle so that both of you can pound alternately . Waday ohan tatammak, indonak key gitang na ya mumpaypaytuk. (al-u) I held the waist, it jumped and jumped. (pestle)(riddle) Ogman di gitang na ya munpaypaytuk. (al-u) riddle: Hold its waist and it keeps on jumping. (pestle) (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.)

ala obtain. 1.1trans. to become the receiver or owner of something; get. An inalam nan agam nah butilya? Did you get your medicine from the bottle? E inalan Gaby nan lata mu dakol moy imme nadah allama. Gaby got the can but many of the crabs got away. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Move object toward agent. (sem. domains: - Take something from somewhere.) 1.2intrans. to get a restricted quantity of something. Umala ka hi lappaw ta pun-alad ku. Get some Jerusalem artichoke so I can make a fence. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a sturdy branch or pole and to this, they tie the hagabi-bench. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3pass. for something to be gotten. Dakol di maalan mangga hidi. There’s a lot of mangoes which could be taken from there. ma‑/na‑. der. mangalana infl. maala

alabat intrans. to interrupt a conversation. <The prefix maN- is the only affix allowed.> Mangalabat ka. You are interrupting. maN‑. Sim: bibyang. (sem. domains: - Stop moving.)

alad 1comm. fence; enclosure of ground. Napa-i nan alad taku. Our fence was destroyed. Inyapana nah kad-an di alad. He jumped into a place near the fence. Sim: iya, luhud. (sem. domains: - Fence, wall.) 2intrans. to build a fence. Mun-alad hi Jose. Jose is building a fence. Umalaka hi lappao ta pun-alad ku. Get some Jerusalem artichoke so that I can use to make a fence. Umalad kah pukungan di gawgawa. Fence a space for a duck pen. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to focus is on what is used for building a fence or what is being fenced. Ialad mu nan bilau. Use the canegrass for in building a fence. Aladon yu nan dola. Build a fence around your yard. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 4pass. to be fenced. Naaladan nan ek pangidalanan. The way I will pass by is fenced. ma‑/na‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

aladdu 1comm. key. Nangihdiyam nah aladdun di bale? Where did you put the key to the house? Pudugom hi Jose ta em idat tun aladdu. Run after Jose and give this key to him. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, - Rope, string.) 2trans. to lock up. Ialaddum nan bale hin lumah-un ka. Lock the house when you go out. Aladduwom nan kaban. Lock the wooden crate. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Shut, close.)

alagaag intrans. squealing of pigs. [The usual way of killing pigs is by piercing the heart with a sharpened stake.] Mun-alagaag nan babuy te binalud da. The pig was squealing because they had bound it. Umalagaag nan babuy hin wewekon da. The pig will squeal when they pierce it. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1D Sounds. Sim: agaag. (sem. domains: - Animal sounds.)

alal 1sta. to be dizzy from chewing betelnut or smoking strong tobacco. Naalalak nah mimmak. I felt dizzy after chewing betelnut. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.4 - Body condition.) 2intrans. to cause someone to become dizzy. Umalal nan indat mun moma. The betelnut you gave causes dizziness. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

alalahi comm. a tree, cloth fiber variety, has white flowers. [The bark fibers of this tree are used for weaving cloth; the fibers must be soaked to prepare them.] (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

alamanu intrans. to shake hands in agreement. Nakialamanu dan dakamih pangipatib-an dan abuluton dakami. They shook hands with us to show that they accepted us. maki‑/naki‑. (sem. domains: - Agree with someone.)

alambri 1comm. barbed wire. Aladam hi alambri nan kudal. Fence the ranch/pasture land with barbed wire. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, - Rope, string.) 2trans. to fence with wire. Alambrian yu nan kudal. Build a barbed wire fence around the pasture land. Naalambrian nan dolada. Their yard is fenced with barbed wire. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3intrans. for someone to fence an area. <With this affixatrion, the subject -agent is fronted and cross-referenced.> Hiyay mangalambri nah kudal. He will be the one to fence the pasture land with barbed wire. maN‑/naN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

alana 1comm. the person who seeks revenge by prowling at night. (sem. domains: - Revenge.) 2trans. to prowl to take revenge; hunt people for revenge; avenge; revenge seeker. [A relative of the victim of a murder goes out at night to look for someone to kill, especially a relative of the one who killed his family member.] Eda mangalana nadan iiban nan pinate da. The relatives of the slain victim are going to prowl the night to seek revenge (lit. seek the one they will kill). maN‑.

alanganin advpred. predicates the uncertainty of something. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na And the reason he does not stop is he thinks his life would be uncertain. Evaluative.

alangngaang comm. throat; esophagus. Makakakiyakiy alangnga-ang ku. My throat is very itchy. Mahakit tun alangnga-ang ku. My throat is painful. (sem. domains: - Mouth.)

alate (sp. var. alatte) intrans. to move across something narrow suspended in the air, e.g. a tree branch, foot bridge. Tumakutak an umalate nah langtay an kaiw te nadunut. I am afraid to cross that wooden bridge because it’s rotten. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

alatte (sp. var. of alate)

alawa trans. 1to meet an omen bird on the way; the bird crosses over the path. Inalawan nan pitpit ot ibangngad na. He met an omen-bird so he returned. Uggeyak imme ad Bilong te inalawaak hi ido. I did not go to Bilong because the omen-bird crossed my path. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: - Omen, divination.) 2to cross someone’s path; to meet someone on the road who stops you from going your intended way. Inalawaak ke Felisa ot maki-eyak ke hiya. Felisa crossed my path and so I went with her. Alawaom hi Idad ta kumdo kah moma. Block (with arms) the path of Idad so you can ask for betelnut. ‑on/‑in‑.

Alawag 1comm. name of thanksgiving ritual, follows rice harvest. Sim: bakle. (sem. domains: - Thank, - Religious ceremony.) 2trans. to perform the thanksgiving ritual by blessing rice cakes. Inalawag da nan binakle. They performed the alawag rite with the rice cakes. ‑on/‑in‑.

alawit sta. to be influenced by someone or something. Naalawit kah malumiin kalina. You were influenced by his sweet talk. na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: - Attitude.)

alayag comm. rope halter for carabao. Nakhat nan alayag dih mun-aladu da. The halter of the carabao snapped when they were plowing. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, - Rope, string.)

alba trans. to gather fallen fruit; something that most people don’t want to do. Pinhod mu upe ahan manga-alba hi nag-an mangga. You like to pick up fallen mangoes. maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

albuwang comm. boisterous laughter. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Ag-agam di albuwang didan binabai. How those ladies laugh so boisterously. {literary} Sim: tatawa, gegek, gigi, titit, bog-ak, halekhek, anggak; Sim: bog-ak, halekhek, anggak, bughak. (sem. domains: - Laugh.)

aldan trans. to transfer; to move something to another place. Ialdan mu nan boga nah lata. Transfer the rice to the can. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: otan. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

aldo comm. first row of planted rice near the mud dike and slope. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

alebet intrans. 1to rain in heavy steady drops. Mun-alebet di udan. There’s a steady downpour. (raining cats and dogs) Umalebet di udan kinali umanamut taku. The rain is going to be strong so let’s go home. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: - Rain.) 2to have too much seepage from mud dikes and slopes of ricefield, plants do not grow well. Mun-alebet nan banong kinali naghang. The mud dike is seeping that’s why it’s eroded. muN‑/nuN‑.

aleglo trans. to settle differences; to reconcile. Bokon hay pihhuy pun-aleglon diye. It isn’t money that will settle that (dispute). puN‑. (sem. domains: - Reconcile.)

alek-ek (sp. var. of halekhek) intrans. to laugh with a glottal catch; loud, hearty laughter; unstoppable laughter. (sem. domains: - Laugh.)

ali 1come. 1.1intrans. to move from a place thought of as ‘there’ by a speaker or hearer, to a place thought of as ‘here’; to come. Umaliyak ot hi baleyu ta ialik tun binakle muden immali ka. I was about to come to your house to bring these rice cakes but then you came. Immalih ina an nalpu nah indoggan di bale. Mother came from behind the house. 2A Movement, from one place to another. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2intrans. progressive aspect of come. Mangali amam. Your father is coming. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. Later on, he was approaching the er...creek, he saw..there were voices conversing. maN‑/naN‑. 2trans. to bring; come with something. <The prefix set, i-/iN-, cross-references the object being brought.> Iali yu nan babuy hi andani. Bring the pig later. In-ali dah ka-anin pagey. They brought newly-harvested rice. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

alibadbad intrans. wrestling; continuous wrestling without anyone being pinned. Restrictions: Hudhud. Mun-alibadbad da mu maid maapput. They were wrestling but not one of them could be defeated. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: dopap, hommol; Syn: bultung. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight.)

alibaddu intrans. to move about in a restricted area; mill around; to move about continuously. Adiyak pakangngunu te mun-alibaddu day u-unga. I cannot work because the children are moving about everywhere. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

alibungbung trans. to gather closely around someone or something; to encircle. Inalibungbungan da nan munggattang. They gathered around the vendor. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Sim: hayobhob. (sem. domains: - Around.)

alid intrans. to move around restlessly and without purpose. Ag-agam an mun-alid ka. Why are you so restless? Umalid nan golang te immingle. The child is restless because he is bored. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

alidogdog intrans. rumbling noise; reverberating, pounding noise. Mun-alidogdog di pumbayu da. Their pounding is reverberating. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. Sim: anikdul, alikudukud. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

alig comm. 1a species of small honeybee, nests inside tree trunks in forest, also in walls inside homes; light brown striped color. Nabukal da nadan alig. The small honeybees scattered. Sim: babayung, balingog, pahok, pappahluk, iyyukan. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2honey (from this bee); considered to be second class honey. Malumiiy alig. Honey is sweet. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

Aliguyun prop. name of man; name of folk hero. [Aliguyun is the husband of Aginnaya in the Hudhud literature. The Lambrecht dictionary states that he is the elder brother of Aginnaya.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic. {literary}

aligwa intrans. to spring up violently or suddenly after being quiet and still. Handih immaligwah Dulnuan ya binumtik da mo nan tatagu. When Dulnuan sprang up, the people ran away. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Movement, change of position. (sem. domains: 7.1.1 - Stand.)

alihb’uk intrans. a great number of anything continuously moving, compared to swirling dust. Mun-alihbuk di pihhu hidih puntutugalan da. Money was swirling like dust where they were gambling. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movment with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

alikamen comm. personal belongings; possessions. Inal-ala nan am-in di alikamen na. He took all of his things. Sim: ngunut. (sem. domains: - Own, possess.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

alikbu (sp. var. alikbut) trans. to search for and catch something; implies using the hands and feet and also that the thing being searched for is partially obscured, e.g. fish in a pond, an animal in tall grass. Alikbuwon na nan dolog. He was searching for the mudfish. Alikbuwon na nan manuk an nihukhuk nah maholok. He searched for the chicken by parting the grass. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.6.2 - Find.)

alikudukud 1comm. sound of stamping feet, done in anger or vexation. Sim: alidogdog, anikdul. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. rumbling noise of thunder. Mun-alikudukud di kidul an kay da mumpupuddug hi kabunyan. The thunder made a rumbling noise as if there were people running after each other in the sky. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Lightning, thunder.) 3intrans. to make a rumbling noise from stamping feet, e.g. children running around the house. [Ifugao houses are built off the ground so that running feet create a reverberating sound.] Mun-alikudukud/Umalikuddukud day u-unga. The children are making a stamping noise. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1D Sounds.

Alim 1prop. a ritual ballad, one form of Ifugao literature and a part of some sacrifical rituals. Sim: Hudhud. (sem. domains: - Verbal tradition.) 2intrans. to perform the Alim ballad. Mun-alim dah alang da te mun-ani da ad uwanin algo. They are performing the Alim in their granary because they are harvesting today. muN‑/nuN‑.

alimahma intrans. to glean; gather last produce after main harvesting. Eka mun-alimahmah ugge dah mangga. Go to gather what they have left of the mangoes. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

alimit comm. a small variety of tree, grows on uncultivated land; fruit is eaten by birds and squirrels. Lingngo da nan alimit. They cut down the alimit-tree. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

alimudung (sp. var. alimudat) sta. to be dizzy from standing up quickly. Mun-ul-uleyak an tumaddog te maalimudungak. I stand up slowly because I might get dizzy. Naalimudungak mo kinali ule-uleyak an timmmaddog ta adik giknaon hidiyen giniknak. I had gotten dizzy before so I stood up slowly so that I wouldn’t experience it again. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.4 - Body condition.)

alimungmung trans. to crowd around; to cluster around someone or something. Inalimungmungan da nan igattang Maria. They crowded around the things Maria was selling. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Sim: bingil, bungul, amung, kampeg, panu. (sem. domains: - Crowd, group.)

alin’u sta. tingling of teeth and numbness of gums; usually felt after eating sour fruit. Naalinuy bab-ak an nangan hi mangga. My teeth had a tingling sensation after eating the mangoes. Umalinu nan ugge nal-um an mangga. Unripe mangoes cause tingling of the teeth. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: - Pain.)

alingangnga intrans. to be confused; disconcerted; bewildered; thrown into disorder, e.g. when there are too many tasks to do, and by hurrying, some things are forgotten and others are not done. Mun-al-alingangngah Jose hi ena panamakan nah imbabalena. Jose was bewildered as to where to look for his child. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.)

alingonga sta. to be dizzy; stunned, the result of being hit on head or ears. Binakdungan day uluna ot maalingonga. They hit him on the his head and he was stunned. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.4 - Body condition.)

alino 1comm. tree variety, has bark fibers which are used for bundling; the fibers are slippery; the trees chosen are the long straight ones. Immeh aman e immalah alinoh muyung. My father went to get alino-bark from the forest. Sim: bulyu. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree, - Plant product.) 2intrans. to get alino-tree fiber. E mangalino da amah pamobod. Father and his companions are going to get alino-fiber for tying. maN‑/naN‑. 3trans. string made from alino-tree fiber. [The alino-tree fiber is soaked in water and drained. If steeped properly, the fiber is white; if over-steeped, the fiber turns black.] Impamtok mi nan inalino da ama. We used the alino-string which father made for binding. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, - Rope, string.)

alipit₂ comm. space between two dikes with water, for irrigating purposes. Nag-a nan taddung na nah alipit. His hat fell into the space between the two dikes. (sem. domains: - Between.)

alipuhhapu comm. small rotating wind, inward and upward motion; dust devil; small whirlwind; seen on the streets or dusty, open grounds. Hin tialgo ya waday uggan matibon alipuhhapu nah kalata. During summer, sometimes dust devils can be seen on the streets. muN‑. (sem. domains: - Wind.)

alittu (sp. var. alistu) 1adv. quickly. Alittun mungngunu. He works quickly. (implies he is industrious) Time. (sem. domains: - Quick.) 2advpred. to do something quickly. <The adverbial predicate governs the action with the affix cross-referencing the verbal action object.> Alittuwan yun mungngunu. Work fast. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Time. Sim: gagala. 3intrans. to move quickly. Immalittu da te mangali nan ap-apu da. They moved quickly because their leader was approaching. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: alistu.

aliwahhang 1comm. (prim) a transparent item, e.g. glass for drinking. Ihaad mu nah aliwahhang nan baya. Place the rice wine in the drinking glass. (sem. domains: - Transparent, 6.7.7 - Container.) 2sta. an image of something or someone that is not easily identified due to lack of light, or having only a glimpse of it. Naaliwahang hi Rosa ya nama-id. Rosa was briefly seen and then was gone. na‑. (sem. domains: - Transparent.)

aliwot dizzy 1.1sta. to be dizzy, refers to feeling dizzy. Adika muntillonan te maaliwot ka. Don’t twirl around because you’ll get dizzy. Naaliwotak nah ek inumbunan nah ayod. I got dizzy when I sat in the hammock. ma‑/na‑. Sim: ulaw. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.) 1.2sta. refers to the process of becoming dizzy due to motion; motion sickness Umaliwot di umbun nah ayod. Sitting in a hammock causes dizziness. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

aliwwan comm. 1the clotted blood and pieces of placenta which are sometimes retained following childbirth. Makahakkit ten adi bumudduy aliwwan. It is so painful when pieces of the placenta are not all expelled. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 2refers to the painful uterine contractions meant to expel retained placenta pieces and clotted blood.

alkus (sp. var. arkus) 1comm. decorations Waday alkus nah kalata te waday piyesta. There are decorations along the street because there’s a feast. 2trans. to decorate Inalkusan da nan simbaan. They decorated the church Alkusan yu nan simbaan. Decorate the church. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

Alla prop. name of a mountain west of central Kiangan. (sem. domains: - Mountain.)

allaga 1comm. red ant species. Waday allaga nah mangga. There are red ants in the mango tree. Sim: bubuwit, ad-ading. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2intrans. to gather red ant hives Etaku mangallaga ta ikamo taku tuh dotag. Let’s go and gather red ant eggs and mix them with this pork. maN‑.

allage 1comm. lamentations; mourning cries of women for the dead. [They tell anecdotes about the life of the dead person; they also say or express their grief in words.] Adi maphod nan logmonay allagen nan in-ina. The lamentations of the old woman were insincere and senseless. Nun-allageh Tipanay handih natayan Rosario. Tipanay sang the lamentations at the time Rosario died. (sem. domains: - Mourn.) 2intrans. to mourn or lament a death. muN‑.

allate intrans. to move, by walking carefully to maintain balance on a strip or narrow path. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: - Walk.)

allawin 1comm. a container for snail collecting (a bamboo tube or a dried gourd, attached to the hips of the person gathering snails.). Napnu mo tun allawin kuh battikul. This container is already full of snails. Sim: bayongyong. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use the snail container. Mun-allawin kat eka mangdut. Use the container and go and gather snails. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use a particular snail container. Iallawin mu nan allawin inam. Use the snail-container of your mother. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site.

allilaw 1intrans. to confuse; to cause others to be bewildered. Umallilaw nan pungkalim. What you are saying is confusing. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) 2trans. to confuse someone; to bewilder someone. Inallilaw da nan unga. They confused the child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Misunderstand.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

allung 1comm. a shelter; hut with no walls; a lean-to. Etaku munhidum dih allung. Let’s take shelter in that hut. Sim: bale, kihikugan, abung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2trans. to build a lean-to or shelter. Allungan yu nan nun-impan babuy nah mabalat. Make a shelter for the pig which gave birth near the banana plants. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

alluwang 1comm. culvert made of bamboo, fern trunk, or large palm trunks. 2trans. to make a channel for water by making culverts. Mangalluwang dah bigat te makleng di intanom da. They are going to get water tomorrow by making culverts because thier plants are almost withered. maN‑. Sim: tulaluk.

almador 1comm. white, sleeveless, native blouse. Nan almador di usalom hantuh manayo kayu. Use your native blouse when you dance. Sim: lamma; Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear the native blouse. Mun-almador ka tedeyan maka-atung. Wear the native blouse because it is very hot. muN‑/nuN‑.

almas (sp. var. armas) 1comm. refers to weapons that are largely used in wars. 2intrans. to be armed with weapons. Nun-almas dat makigubat. They are armed so that they can join in war. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.)

almot 1to feel upset 1.1intrans. to feel or show bad feelings about something that is said or done. Adika umalmot hi pangalyak ketuwe. Don’t resent what I’m going to tell you. um/imm . (sem. domains: - Angry.) 1.2intrans. to be feeling resentful or peeved. Mun-al-almot te ugge naunud nan pinhod nan maat. He is feeling peeved because the way he wanted something done was not followed. muN/nuN. 2C Emotion and sensation. 2trans. to be upset or peeved about something, with the source of the feeling in focus. Almotanay ongal an kalik. She is peeved at my loud voice. ‑on/‑in‑.

alnus (sp. var. alnut) comm. tree, a variety that produces wood that burns easily. Makadallang di alnus takon di ugge nakammag-anan. Alnus-wood burns easily even when it is not well dried. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

alog sta. to have a cold. Adik pinhod an maalog mu natinaak ad nakugab kinali waday naalogak. I don’t want to have a cold but I got wet in the rain yesterday, that’s why I have a cold. Kakon-anay naalogana? When did he get the cold? Ahialogan ad uwani te mangayyokay moma. It’s the time for colds now because the betelnut palms are blooming. ma‑/na‑, na‑ ‑an, ahi‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

altap comm. 1 a place in the sky. Restrictions: ritual language. (sem. domains: 1 - Universe, creation, - Custom.) 2a level grassy area of land. Restrictions: used only in ritual language.. {ritual} (sem. domains: - Forest, grassland, desert.)

alte comm. liver; may refer to the internal organ of humans or animals. [Boys chasing dragonflies say it in frustration when they nearly catch one but it gets away.] Ihaang yu nan alten di manuk ta hinaey ihdan nan golang. You cook the chicken’s liver and that will be the child’s viand. Ibtik muy altem te tuwe da nan mampap ke he-a. Run for your life (lit. liver) because the people coming to catch you are nearing you. (sem. domains: 2.1.8 - Internal organs.) id. ibtik muy altem

altista 1comm. actor or actress. Waday altista an immali. An actor has come here. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.) 2intrans. to play-act so as to fool someone. Mun-altista na golang. The child is play-acting. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: artista.

altugan comm. top of the head; forehead. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. {literary} Syn: tuktuk. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.)

alubyag 1trans. to comfort in time of sorrow; to console. Alubyagom hi inam te oha ka mon wada. You console your mother because you are the only one around now. Maal-alubyag hi inana. Her mother is consoled. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. Sim: al-aluk, anawa. (sem. domains: 4.4.4 - Respond to someone in trouble.) 2intrans. to try to obtain someone’s favor. Mangal-alubyag bo te waday pinhod nan ibaga. He is trying to be in your favor because he wants to ask for something. maN‑ + CV(C). (sem. domains: 4.4.1 - Prosperity.)

aluhi-i (sp. var. haluhii) comm. algae used for fertilizing mulch mounds; floats on water, at first it’s green, then turns violet. Inamung na nadan aluhi-i ot iabono na nadah intanom na. He gathered the algae and fertilized his plants with it. (sem. domains: 1.5.4 - Moss, fungus, algae.)

aluk 1trans. to speak comfort; to console. Mahakit di nomnom na te nateh inana; eka ta em al-alukon. She is sad because her mother died; go to console her. Al-alukom nan golang te mungkokkogga. You comfort the child because he is crying. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. (sem. domains: 4.4.4 - Respond to someone in trouble.) 2trans. to coax; to persuade by presenting nice agruements. Ena al-alukon hi amana ta mungkodo boh pihhu. He’s going to persuade his father and then he’ll ask him for money. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.4 - Peace, - Persuade.) 3intrans. to do something to please someone. Nganne atom an mun-al-aluk ke hiya. What will you do to please her? muN‑/nuN‑. infl. al-aluk

alukiki (sp. var. alukikki) comm. the white, inner part of the heart of a banana plant; it is cooked and eaten. Pinhod kun ihda nan alukiki di puhun di balat. I like the inner part of the banana heart. general: Especially good with the bagoong-condiment. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

alumenta comm. a kind of metal, e.g. iron. Uggeda in-usal kumpulmin alumentan gumok. They didn’t use any kind of metal tool. (sem. domains: - Metal.)

alup comm. betelnut palm leaf container. [The container is made by folding and then closing the side of the base of the leaf of the betelnut palm.] In-alup na hanan moma. He placed the betelnuts inside a betelnut leaf container. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

alupingping comm. the temple area of forehead Ginyang day alupingping na ya naalingonga. They hit him on the temple with a stone and he was stunned. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.)

alut’on comm. firewood with smoldering end. Adim pid-on di aluton nah golang. Don’t let the child hold smoldering firewood. Sim: unuun. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.)

alutiptip sta. burning sensation when urinating; urge to urinate Aga, aga ta ha-oy ni-an di humgop teden naalutiptippak. Please, let me be the first to use the comfort room for I really need to urinate. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological process - State. (sem. domains: 2.2.7 - Urinate, urine.)

aluwog (sp. var. alwog) comm. a bamboo container for carrying water; the nodes have been pierced; usually. about six feet in length. Alam nan aluwog ta eka humagob nah ob-ob. You get the bamboo water container and go to fetch water from the spring. (sem. domains: 1.3 - Water, 6.7.7 - Container.)

am-am trans. to get almost everything for oneself regardless of the needs of others; greed causes one to get all of something; characteristic of selfish children. Inam-am na nan tinapay. He got almost all the bread. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: bukud. (sem. domains: - Greedy.)

am-ama-an comm. thumb; big toe. Mulmulmulanay am-ama-ana. He is sucking his thumb. Whole: takle; Sim: ik-ikingngan, gawgawa-an; Gen: gam’at. (sem. domains: - Finger, toe.)

am-amhik comm. a small grasshopper species. Sim: ba-atong, golp’ak, yadit, paggepagge, am-amuna. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

am-in adj. all; referring to people, i.e. everyone, or things, i.e. everything. Makakkaphodan am-in di matiboh tu. Everything that is seen here is beautiful. Am-in on ipabahul nan ha-oy. He blames me for everything. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.6 - Whole, complete, 8.1.5 - All.)

am’o bathe 1.1trans. to bathe someone or something, e.g. a child or dog Amohom na ahu. You bathe the dog. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 5.6.2 - Bathe.) 1.2ref. to bathe oneself. Etaku mun-amoh wangwang. Let’s go to bathe in the river. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day. muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions.

ama 1comm. refers to a man who has biologically produced a child; used in reference to one’s own father. Mauleh ama. Father is kind. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonio. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, told him. Syn: papa. (sem. domains: - Father, mother, - Related by birth.) 2comm. term used in addressing one’s biological father or the respectful address of a man who is older, within the generation of one’s father. Ama, daaanay pangayam. Mister, where are you going? (sem. domains: - Uncle, aunt, 2 - Person.) 3trans. refers to the action of a man in adopting or treating someone as his child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. der. ama-on der. am-ama der. hin-ama der. hin-am-a der. mungka-am-ama der. naka-am-ama

ama-on (der. of ama) nom. refers to the male sibling of either parent, uncle. (sem. domains: - Related by birth, - Uncle, aunt.)

amad trans. to wipe or rub eyes; especially to remove dirt particles or in order to see better. Munluluwa nan matanah nun-amadana. His eyes are tearing as a result of rubbing them. Amadom nan inik mu. Wipe away the dirt from your eyes. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Eye.)

aman 1comm. a bet; a wager. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2trans. to bet; to wager. Umaman kayu. Place your bets. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. someone who bets for someone else. Nangapputak mu indat kuy udum ke hiya te in-amananak. I won but I gave him some because he was the one who bet for me. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

amayyu (sp. var. ammayu) 1comm. domestic animal; referring to cows, carabao, pigs. [Generic term for all larger mammal-like animals. The Ifugao consider these as the only animals.] Sim: aggayam. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to raise animals, take care of cows, carabao Mumbabuy takun mangatang. Let’s raise pigs to sell. muN‑/nuN‑. 3comm. have an animal as a pet. Tipet hay ahuy pun-amayyum? Why make a dog your pet? puN‑.

ambabala comm. gemmed puffball mushroom, edible, medium size, violet in color; grows in clumps in ricefield or in and around piled ricestalks; delicious flavor, similar to yellow Jack O’lantern. Inalak nan ambabala nah pingkol ot ihdak ya makahhong-o. I got the mushrooms from the mound and ate them and they were delicious. Gen: uung. (sem. domains: 1.5.4 - Moss, fungus, algae.)

ambayung comm. betelnut bag used by both women and men, hooked on belt at the hip or the back; woven with red and black yarn and has a coiled brass handle. Inhudunay pihhuna nah ambayung na. She put her money inside her betelnut bag. Sim: pinuhha, amduko, libbutan. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

ambilog di toko (id. of tok’o) gossiper. an idiom describing someone who gossips. Ambilog di tokona. She is good at spreading gossip. (lit. her mouth is wide)

ambilog₁ comm. large earthworm. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

ambilog₂ 1adj. wide; extending over large area from side to side. Ambilog nan wangwang an e mi gawaon. The river we are to cross is wide. Ambilog tun abok. This mat is wide. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is very wide and there are plenty of people. aN‑. Dimension quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.4 - Wide.) 2trans. to widen something. Ambilogom nan abolom an ulo. Make the blanket that you are weaving wider. Bumillog nan pantalon mu. Your pants will widen. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3adj. wide; for something to be described as large in size. Timmawid hi Juan hi muyung an ambilog. Juan inherited a wide forest. aN‑. (sem. domains: 8.2.4 - Wide.) der. kinabilog

ambubulan comm. upper frame of house, consisting of four pieces of wood forming a rectangle and supported by two parts called baknang. pt: baknang. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

Ambulan (bulan) prop. moon deity. [Ambulan is the child of the god, Maknongan; chickens are offered to keep the moon shining - a result of the fear of an eclipse; during an eclipse, people shout and call for the moon to shine again.] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

ambule advpred. No wonder!; So that’s why!; an exclamation of understanding the reason for something. Immeyak ad da-ul. Maid hi Josephine ot ibagak. E numboka, ambuley maid hidi. I went downtown. Josephine wasn’t there so I asked about her. She went to dig camote, that’s why she wasn’t there. Evaluative. Sim: kinali, hana mon. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.)

Ambumabbakal prop. fighter god. [The son of brother-sister gods, Kabbigat and Bugan; Ambumabbakal fathered the Matungulan gods who must be appeased.] <The root of the name is bakal which means to quarrel.> (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

amduko (sp. var. duko) comm. ceremonial hip bag. Sim: pinuhha, libbutan, ambayung. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

Amduntug prop. a barrio/village south of Kiangan. Deket wada tah tud Awwa ya mauhdungan di Amduntug hi South ya mauhdungan di Hulungan ya Nagacadan hi North. Anyone who is in Awwa is overlooking Amduntug to the South and overlooking Hulungan and Nagacadan to the North.

aminul 1intrans. to salivate; mouth watering, especially. when induced by sour food, delicious food, or when hungry. Mun-am-aminulak handi tinibok nan mangga. My mouth watered when I saw the mango fruit. Mun-am-aminul nadan u-unga te inang-ang dakan mangan hi mangga. The childrens’ mouths were watering because they saw you eating mango. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.) 2trans. to swallow something; swallow something without chewing by allowing saliva to soak it first before swallowing. Aminulom nan agam ta waday atom an pumhod. You swallow your medicine so that you will get well. ‑on/‑in‑.

amke (sp. var. of ake)

amki comm. gray squirrel-type animal with a long bushy tail. Dakol di amkih muyung. There are many squirrels in the forest. Sim: tabaw, amunin. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

Amkidul (kid’ul) prop. thunder deity. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

Amkolyog (kolyog) prop. earthquake deity (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

Amlag 1prop. a ritual, something is offered to the spirit of a dead relative. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2intrans. to gather clothing and other things such as ampuyo ‘skirt’, attake ‘necklace’ balko ‘belt’, coins and place them in a winnowing basket, ligau. They are then offered to a dead relative for appeasement. Mun-amlag da te mundogoh inada. They are performing the Amlag-ritual because their mother is sick. muN‑/nuN‑.

amlid trans. to smooth out; to disentangle. [This word is especially used in regard to tangled thread.] Amlidom nan abolom. Smooth the thread that you are weaving. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.)

ammayyu comm. domestic animal; pet. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)

ammod 1comm. parents; elders; kin of parent’s generation; relatives. Handih kaittay ku ya dakol di istolyan di aammod ya nadan umali bale. When I was small, I heard many stories from older folks and from those who came to our house to visit. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.) 2trans. to be related to. Ammodok diday iAmbabag. Those from Ambabag are my relatives. ‑on. infl. aamm’od

ammu sta. to be of sufficient quantity; to be enough of a quantity. <The frozen form is ammuna.> Umammuy hinamal? Will the rice be enough? Ammuna! Ag-agam di kalim. Enough! You talk too much. Ammunah.