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‑an‑ asp. this infix encodes an aspect that expresses the concept of an action done repeatedly; frequently; iterative; co-occurs with punctiliar aspect affixes. Kumanoga din golang. The child is always crying. Nala-uy opat an oras hi nakihanummanganan da ya numpahpahmokan da nah bibiyo. Four hours passed while they negotiated and pleaded again and again with the ‘bibiyo’. Umanay-ayyam da nah dalan. They always play on the path. Mahanilngan nah dalan. Night always overtakes him on the road. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes, 8.1.1.3 - Number of times.)

‑an₁ dervN. this suffix derives a noun from a transitive verb. Ekami makidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go and meet them in Lagawe because their arrival place is definitely there. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. Nagibbu ke, ikuyag mu tun nabinokbokan hi lopohhan ya ihukbung mu. After this, pour the rice into the fermentation container (lit. place of fermentation) and cover. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat.

‑an₂ TACR. this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; it encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with a site semantic role. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on the books Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. Wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut nunhituwan mid Longnga. There was a person who saw him and helped him to return to where we were staying in Longnga. Sim: ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑ana mod. used in the Hudhud epic to add rhythmic meter to times, places or character names, like Ambalaw[ana]. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. {literary}

‑imm‑ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. 3this infix encodes a process completive aspect and cross-references the subject. Himmapit hi Apu Paredes ot kinalikali da mu toan kay dibdib ya abun munlau. Sir Paredes gave a speech, followed by Sir Datumanong’s inspirational talk; they said many good things, but who knows if their words are just like the wind that passes by. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; cross references the subject; past tense. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi ceremony.

‑imm‑ ‑an TACR. this circumfix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect; and cross-references a topicalized place. Hituy immaliyan mi handi. Here is where we came before. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑in‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross references the direct object; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 5 verbal roots. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Dinulhukak nan apuy te nalutu di kanon ta. I extinguished the fire because our food is cooked. Sim: ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2when this circumfix co-occurs with verbal root classes other than Class 5, the affix cross-references a specific site-object. Uhup nan tinaddogak hidi. I stood there for a long time. .

‑in‑₁ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense; punctiliar aspect, cross references an object with a patient semantic role. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think well enough about what they will do. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your spare time in the library. Sim: ‑on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this infix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an object with a path or destination semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 1B movement verbal roots. 3this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with an experiencer semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 2C emotion and sensation verbal roots. 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; past tense; cross-references the object. An inapatut nan apatut ku? Did you wear my shoes? Pinatlattug da on hamuti. They shot a bird.

‑in‑₂ num. this infix encodes plural for the noun roots meaning woman, babai, and man, lalaki, and some cardinal numbers. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was many women dressed in the Ifugao skirt. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.2 - Noun affixes.)

‑inn‑ rec. this infix encodes a reciprocal concept. Munhinnuggutan da. They are teasing each other. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑on TACR. 1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

‑um‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a non-past tense process and cross-references a specific object. Ya hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. And the most important thing is to spend (your money) on those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Oha bo ya nakalligat di pumalattugan. Another reason is, their guns were hard to shoot (not automatic). Bumanidbidak hi liblu nah bakasyon. I do nothing but read books during vacation. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2non-past tense, reciprocal action. Pumanuddugan da yaden nahuyop hi inada. They keep running after each other while their mother is asleep.

=o (sp. var. no) interj. pause; these forms are used to give time to a speaker to formulate the rest of his sentence. <The final consonant of the word preceding the pause sound is duplicated as a transitional sound attaching to the vowel ‘o’ as the pause form. The transitional consonant is as varied as the number of final consonants of any word. > Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Sim: Co.

a-apo 1comm. a short story, usually sung; may be myths, legends, or folktales. Pinpinhod ku hanan a-apon mipanggep ke Kabbigat. I like the story-song about Kabbigat. Sim: istolya, bida, malamala. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2intrans. to tell a story in song. Umbun kat mun-a-apoh apum. You sit down and your grandfather will sing a story-song. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3trans. to tell a story with the story-object cross-referenced. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming-spirits. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verb: Purpose is to entertain.

a-o comm. 1reflected image in water, glass, or mirror. Tibom key a-om nah danum. Look at your reflection in the water. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.4 - Pattern, model.) 2shadow. Mungkadukkey a-o te mungkalimu nan algo. The shadows are lengthening because the sun is setting. Nakakkuugak an kay mo a-oy ang-ang ku. I am so thin that my appearance is now like a shadow. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.2.1 - Shadow.)

a-ul sta. 1to be unsatisfactory; not good enough; inappropriate; not as it should be; does not meet expectations. Naa-ul nan bulhe. The beans are unsatisfactory. (not young enough nor mature enough) ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 3.2.2.3 - Evaluate, test.) 2to be handicapped; born with one arm or leg; dwarfed or short in height; lacking in physical attributes. Naa-ul nan imbabalena. Her child is very short. na‑. (sem. domains: 2.5.4.5 - Birth defect.)

aaa adjunct. expression of fear; Ahh! Aaa! Kanana ot mun-oga. Ahh, he said, then fell. Interjection. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4 - Afraid.)

aamm’od (infl. of ammod) comm. 1elders; ancestors; forefathers. [The traditional religion has been based on beliefs handed down by the Ifugao ancestors.] Hanadan aammod takuy nangapyah payo handih done. It was our ancestors who made the rice fields long ago. Hay pangi-e takud uwani ya nipuun hi pangi-en di aammod taku handi. Our ways today are based on the ways of our ancestors. Apu, damanan tontonom hanadan aammod ku? Grandfather, can you trace my ancestors? (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2those who give birth to next generation; parents. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was evidently not in good health. So he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place.

ab-abbu (der. of abu) advpred. to be separated from others; to be alone. Ab-abbu dah di. They were alone there. Ingkuyug Jesus didad Betsaida ot ab-abbu dah di. (Luke 9:10b) Jesus led them (his disciples) to Bethsaida and they were alone there. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.)

ab-abbung (der. of abung, abbung) comm. playhouse; a small temporary hut. Waday liman ab-abbung an punhiduman. There were five temporary huts for sheltering. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

ab-abig (der. of abig) 1comm. a narrative; a story, true or devised. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2trans. to tell a story. [In the past, it was believed that some persons had the ability to foretell future events.] Dakol di inab-abig na. He told many stories. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verb: Purpose is to entertain. der. ab-abigon der. mangab-abig

ab-abigon (der. of ab-abig) trans. to prophesy or predict an event or action. [This meaning was used in the translation of the Tuwali Ifugao Bible.] Donglon yu bo tun ab-abigok ke dakayu. (Matthew 21:33a) Listen again to this that I will prophesy about you. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.6 - Prophecy.)

aba 1comm. a variety of an edible starchy root crop; taro; tuber. Munhibak kah aba ta kanon taku. You boil some aba-tubers for us to eat. Pinhod kuy nihibak an aba. I like boiled aba-tubers. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to gather tubers. Etaku mangaba. Let’s go and gather aba-tubers. maN‑/naN‑.

abade 1comm. a triangle of cloth used as shawl; anything used as a shawl. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to wear a shawl. Mun-abade ka ta adi matuningan nan odog mu. Wear a shawl so that your back will not become cold. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: awako. (sem. domains: 5.3.7 - Wear clothing.)