e-ele 1comm. refers to an area that is outside of a residential area, Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. 2move away. 2.1intrans. to move away from a particular area. Ume-ele kayu te bumduk man nan bomba. Move away because the bomb will surely explode. Imme-ele da ot datngan da nadan babalen nihag-on nah ob-ob. They went further and reached the houses near the spring. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2.2trans. to move something away from a particular area. Ie-elem nan ngalam. Move your noise away. i‑/iN‑.
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busit (sp. var. buhit) trans. to have bad luck. Adiyak ke busiton. Do not give me bad luck. Ume-ele kah di tedeyan bumusit ka. Move a bit farther because you are causing me bad luck. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
da₁ pers. 1they; third person, plural pronoun; the form is a member of both Set 1 and Set 2 and encodes the subject grammtical relation, whether or not it is cross-referenced. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hiyo dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka some small er...meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They left the basket in our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2third person plural, possessive pronoun, Set 1; equivalent to the English possessive pronoun ‘their’. Ume kamih bale da. We are going to their house. Loktat mo anhan ya nauman am-in di odon da. Soon enough, nothing was left of their heirlooms. Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. comp. dehdida ph. v. dedah di ph. v. dedah tu
e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <
> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. < This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb. > Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume The object is cross-referenced.
gopak (sp. var. goppak) 1trans. to strike with the foot; to kick; considered real kicking when done with the whole foot. Gopakon daka man ot mag-a kad da-ul. They will kick you and you will fall down. Igpak mu nah odog na. Kick him at the back. Inila na mon gumpak. He already knows how to kick. Ume-ele kah na ta adi ka magpak. Move away there so that you will not be kicked. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: huga-id, tikdud; Spec: hipduy, hikyad. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2comm. a kick. Nal-ot di gopak di kabayu. A horse has a strong kick. 3comm. footprints; step; stamp. Ongngal di goppak na. His footprints are big.
hip’ag₂ trans. 1to bump something. Adim ot ihipag nan buhi te maphik. Take care not to bump that ricewine jar on anything because it will be broken. Adi humgop tun tabla nah panto te adukke ya mihipag. This board cannot fit into the door because it is too long and bumps the walls. Ume-ele ka ta adika mahipag. Move a bit further away so you will not be bumped. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ma‑/na‑. 3I Direct an action twoard an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to strike or hit someone; any method but kicking. Hipagom nan kumalikali. Strike that person who is always talking. Maka ot hitu te humipag man din tagu. Come here because that person will hit you. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. < . TACR > Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp. Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.
nangappit (appit₃) v. a grammaticalized verb used to mark the direction of a place; in the direction of. Immeh Jonah e-elen di bobleh nangappit hi timilan algo ot e um-umbun hidi. (Jonah 4:5a) Jonah went outside the village in the direction of the sunrise (east) and went to sit there. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.)
pilid 1comm. tire; wheel; circular frame or disk of wood or metal capable of turning on an axis. Oongngal di pilid din tolak. The wheels of that truck are very big. (sem. domains: 6.7.8 - Parts of tools, 8.6 - Parts of things.) 2trans. to place wheels on something, a cart, vehicle, or toy Pilidam hi lablabong nan ay-ayyam tulang mu. Place lablabong-fruit for the wheels of your brother's toy. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to run over something. Ume-ele kayuh na te pumilid nan tolak. Move further because the truck’s wheels will run over you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
talu to hide something. 1.1trans. to move an object and place it where it cannot be seen. Intaluk nan papel. I hid his paper. Italum. Hide it. Italum nan biniklam ta ahim usalon hi udum an algo. Save your salary and use it some other day. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object. Sim: hum-ok. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 1.2trans. to place something in a container; the container site is prominent and cross-referenced by the affix. <
> Talwam hi liting nan basu. Put water into the glass. Tinalwan nan golang hi pitok nan banga. The child placed mud into the pot. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3ref. to hide oneself. Muntalu ka nah pikdol. Hide yourself in the house corner. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. muN‑/nuN‑. der. talluan infl. mitalu The container site is prominent and is cross-referenced by the affix.
uta 1comm. vomit. Nitayap nan uta nah bulwatina. The vomit was blown to his shirt. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.) 2intrans. to vomit. Immutaak te wada nan hinamuy kun ad-adi. I vomited because I smelled something unpleasant. Mun-uuta te naaliwot. She is vomiting because she is dizzy. Ume-ele kah na te utaan daka tuh unga. Move away there because this child will vomit on you. In-uta na nan ininum nan aga. She vomited the medicine she drank. Nautaan di bulwati na. Her dress had been vomited on. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ an. 2E Body/physiological functions.
utut₂ 1comm. the normal sound of breaking wind; fart. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions, 220.127.116.11 - Sound.) 2intrans. to expel intestinal gas; to break air. Umtut ka ke ya ume kad dola. If you break air, go outside. Mun-uutut yaden taganah kakan. He is farting while he is eating. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. 3trans. to expel gas with a site-object cross-referenced by the affix. Ume-ele kah na te tumaddog ke man ya ututan daka. Move away from there because if he stands he will fart on you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.