dedah di (ph. v. of de, da₁, hidi) demonstrative predicate. predicates the place where people or things are; the demonstrative refers to shared information; see, they are there. <
> Ingganad uwani ya dedah di. Until now, they are there. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Demonstrative pronouns.) The plural form da is one of the components of the phrase.
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eda pers. they; this form compounds the marker e with the 3rd person plural pronoun, a member of Set 1 and 2; the form is preposed before the verb in a clause, encodes a subject grammatical relation and may or may not be cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Nadan udum ya eda maniboh wakal. Others, they go to look for vine. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
edaka pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person, singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb in the clause, encodes an object grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Am-in day tatagu ya edaka hamahamakon. All the people, they will go to look for you. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
edakami pers. we, exclusive; the form is a compound of the marker e with the 2nd person plural exclusive personal pronoun, a member of Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb in the clause, encodes the object grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb.. Kanan Juliey “Nganat edakami hinalaman binangun?” Julie asked “Why did you wake us up so early?” (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
edakayu pers. you, plural; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person plural personal pronoun; a member of Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes an object grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Te edakayu awiton am-in hanadah boblen niayan yu ta ianamut dakayuh tuh boble yu. (Ezekiel 36:24) I will call you from all of the countries where you have gone so that I can return you to your home country. (The agent-subject God is understood in the context.) (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
mapukailan hi udum an algo (id. of pukail) an idiom expressing the idea that the truth of a situation will be known some day (lit. an obstruction will be pushed away someday). Mapukailan hi udum an algo. The truth will be exposed some day. Mapukailan hi udum an algo nan inat mun nangako. The truth on the amount you stole will be exposed one of these days.
‑an₁ dervN. this suffix derives a noun from a transitive verb. Ekami makidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go and meet them in Lagawe because their arrival place is definitely there. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. Nagibbu ke, ikuyag mu tun nabinokbokan hi lopohhan ya ihukbung mu. After this, pour the rice into the fermentation container (lit. place of fermentation) and cover. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat.
1this infix is the default affix of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense; punctiliar aspect, cross references an object with a patient semantic role. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think well enough about what they will do. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your spare time in the library. Sim: ‑on. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.) 2this infix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an object with a path or destination semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 1B movement verbal roots. 3this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with an experiencer semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 2C emotion and sensation verbal roots. 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; past tense; cross-references the object. An inapatut nan apatut ku? Did you wear my shoes? Pinatlattug da on hamuti. They shot a bird. . TACR
1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑₁. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on . TACR
abigon (der. of abig₁) trans. to foretell or prophesy a particular event. [This word, as well as the past tense form, inabig, are frequently used in the Old Testament to refer to the prophecies given by God to the prophets.] Kon gulat nat inila day wadah nomnom ku ya wada ot an impainilak ke diday eda abigon hi tatagu ta ipatikod da didan mangat hi gaga-iho. (Jeremiah 23:22) If only they had known what was in my mind, I would have made known to them what they should prophesy so that they would have caused them to stop doing evil. ‑on.
adal trans. to learn; generally refers to a formal mode of learning rather than the traditional mentoring or modeling mode. Adalom an munha-ang. You should learn to cook. Mun-an-anlah inadan nangngol an dakol di inadal da. Their mother was happy to hear that they had learned so much. Man-uke kanak hidiye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.2.2 - Learn.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: aral. infl. adalon infl. maadal infl. naadalan
adinadama (comp. of adi, nadama) negpred. predicates that an action or event cannot be done or cannot happen; it is impossible. Adinadama bon magatang. It cannot be bought. Adinadaman eda umed uwani They can’t possibly leave now./It’s impossible for them to leave now. Adinadaman hituy pangatan mi. It is impossible that this is what we’ll do. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Impossible.)
agol 1comm. to be hesitant; refers to the feeling of hesitation to do a thing because of fear of consequences. Waday agol kun e mundallanan nah hilong. I am afraid to go and walk around during night time. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Doubt.) 2intrans. Umagolak an e hunggop hi baleda. I am hesitant to enter their house. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautiously walking on the slippery dikes. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Uncertain.)
agwat cross over. 1.1intrans. to cross over a body of water. Umagwat dah duwan wangwang ta ahida dumatong. They will cross two rivers before they will arrive. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Move past, over, through.) 1.2trans. to cross over a body of water, ravine or other expanse while carrying something. <
> Ambilog nan wangwang an eda agwaton. The river that they will cross is wide. Iagwat mu nan golang. Bring the child across the river. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. The choice of affix ( -on/-in- ) cross-references the object NP and highlights a feature of the water, ravine, etc. (see first example under Sense 1.2)
ahuy (sp. var. ahhuy) trans. to convince someone; to persuade. Inahuyana hi Mary an umeda. He persuaded Mary to go. Umahhuy di kalina. His words are convincing. general: This word may also be used in the sense that someone has been overwhelmed in a battle of wits. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑. Speech verb - to provoke a response.. Syn: awis. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Persuade.)
akhup 1trans. to overtake someone; to catch up with; come upon someone. Gal-an yun mundallan ta akhupan taku dida. Walk faster so we will overtake them. Inakhupak didan munlinillinih bale da. I came upon them cleaning their house. Gal-am ot wadan akhupam hi baleda. Hurry so you might catch up with them at their home. Mahmok ka ot kuman ugge nangakhup ke hiya. It’s a pity that you missed her (didn’t overtake her). ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, maN‑/naN‑. 5C Goal oriented site. Sim: lah-i. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2intrans. to meet someone. Ahi ta mun-akhup hidi. We will meet there. muN‑/nuN‑.
ako trans. 1to steal something from someone. Adiyu akawon nan manuk. Don’t steal the chicken. Eda immakoh mahapul da. They went to steal some of their necessities. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring something toward agent. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Steal.) 2the person who steals; the thief is cross-referenced by the affix. Inakhupan Santiago nan lalakin e nangako nadah manuk na. Santiago caught the man who stole his chicken. Hiya ya mangakon unga. He is a child who steals. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mangako
alana 1comm. the person who seeks revenge by prowling at night. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Revenge.) 2trans. to prowl to take revenge; hunt people for revenge; avenge; revenge seeker. [A relative of the victim of a murder goes out at night to look for someone to kill, especially a relative of the one who killed his family member.] Eda mangalana nadan iiban nan pinate da. The relatives of the slain victim are going to prowl the night to seek revenge (lit. seek the one they will kill). maN‑.
alayyon (sp. var. alayyun) 1comm. spinach variety; glabrous herb of goosefeet family, utricular (pouch) fruit. Dakol di alayyon nah pingngit di payo. There is plenty of spinach at the sides of the ricefields. Chenopodium Sim: amti. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather spinach. Eda mangalayyon nadan u-unga. The children are going to gather spinach. maN‑.
an’up trans. to hunt for animals. Eda mun-anup hi amunin nah muyung. They are going to hunt for a wildcat in the forest. Eda umanup hi ulha. They are going to hunt for wild pigs. Anupon yu nan ulha an numpai nah habal. Hunt for the wild pig that destroyed the swidden farm. Maid di maanup ad uwani. There is nothing to hunt now. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.4.1 - Hunt.)
ane 1comm. an insect that lives in colonies and eats wood; termite. Dakol di ane tuh tukud. There are many termites in this post. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Insect.) 2sta. to be eaten by termites;; termite damage. Maane nan posten di baleda. The post of their house will be eaten by termites. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 7.9.1 - Damage.)
antak 1comm. string beans; long variety, about 8-16 inches in length. Andukkey day antak an nitanom nah habal. The string beans planted in the forest swidden plots are long. gen: bulhe. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to go and gather string beans, usually with the purpose of selling at the market. Eda mangatak hi igattang da. They are going to gather string beans for them to sell. maN‑.
at’op 1comm. roof; roofing material. Hinnanotak di atop nan balemi. I changed the roof of our house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to construct a roof; to use as roofing. Iatop yu nan gulun. Roof with the cogon grass/Use cogon grass for the roof. Atopan yu nan baleda ad uwani. You are going to roof their house today. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3pass. to be roofed. Naatopan moy baleda. Their house is already roofed/has a roof. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to make a roof. Mun-atop da nadan mungngunu. The workers are constructing the roof. Umatop kayuh pun-hiduman taku. Make a roof for our shelter. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
ay adjunct. expression of affirmation, usually with the component of an afterthought or insight, oh yes; oh yes, it’s like that. Immimih ina ot kananay “Ay, appaw. Man bokon bibiyoh diye Mother smiled and said, “Oh I see, that isn’t a fairy; Waday ohan ayyo- wadah Pangka an immed Mammangan hi baleda There was one, er..yes, there was Pangka who went to Mammangan to their house. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)
ba-at (fr. var. be-et; fr. var. bayya-bat) 1comm. guava fruit or tree. Adim tagan hi kakan hi ba-at te matubol ka. Do not eat too many guavas because you might become constipated. 2trans. to gather guavas. Eda mama-at nadan u-unga. The children went to gather guavas. maN‑/naN‑.
Bahawit prop. a place in Lagawe along the Ibulao River. Eda nun-amod Bahawit. They went to take a bath at Bahawit.
bak’uy₁ trans. to bend something. Bakuyon da nan gulipu ta umeh baleda. They will bend the pipe so it will go to their house. Bumakuy ka nah gumok. Bend some of the iron bars. Nabakuy di gaud na. His spade is bent/crooked. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: yaku, baking₂, banguy, killu. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)
bakag 1comm. the bones of an exhumed person. [The bones are wrapped in a blanket for the exhumation rites bogwa.] Eda inalay bakag amana ta mamogwa da. They went to take his father’s bones so he’ll have the exhumation rite performed. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Custom.) 2sta. the skeleton of a person; no flesh left. Nabakag mo nan gunit te nala-u moy hintoon nipalpu dih natayana. There is no more flesh on the bones because it’s already more than a year after his death. na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: gun’it. (sem. domains: 2.1.6 - Bone, joint.)
balit’uk 1comm. refers to gold metal. Naligat di balituk an mahamak. It is difficult to find gold. Nabalol di balituk. Gold is precious. Eda nunminas hi balituk ad Benguet. They went to mine for gold in Benguet. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Metal.) 2intrans. to wear gold jewelry. Mumbalituk ka hin ume ka nah kasar. Wear your gold jewelry when you attend the wedding. muN‑/nuN‑. 3deriv V. made of gold. [Gold usually came from the Benguet area or earlier through trade with lowlanders or the Chinese.] Sim: gombang; gen: gum’ok. 4comm. ornaments made of or coated with gold; usually in the shape of an earring. [The traditional necklaces of gold stringed pieces are shaped like a horn and are generally worn with the pang-o agate necklace.] Waday balituk nan attake na. Her necklace has a golden ornament. Gen: gamgam₁. (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.) der. binalatuk
balo (sp. var. ballo) revenge 1.1trans. to injure or kill in return for an injury or death; to take revenge. Adim ibalo nah imbabalena te maid di bahul na. Do not take revenge on his child because he is innocent. i‑/iN‑. Sim: aw’it₁. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Revenge.) 1.2pass. for an act to be avenged. Mibalo nan at-atton yud uwani hi udum an algo. The evil things you are doing now will be avenged someday. mi‑/ni‑. infl. mangibalo
bangun₂ 1intrans. to awaken and get up. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe awakened/got up and er...went climbing toward Talih to his hut. “Bumangun kayu mon iimbabalek, kanan inada. “Wake up, children,” their mother said. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 5.7.3 - Wake up.) 2trans. to awaken someone; the affix cross-references the person being awakened. Kanan Juliey “Nganat edakami hinalaman an binangun? Julie asked, “Why did you wake us up so early?” ‑on/‑in‑. bumangun infl. bangunon
bata-an 1trans. to move farther away from someone or something, putting space between; move back. Mibata-an kayun u-unga teden mumpapatteda. You children, move away for they are fighting. Eta dih bata-an ta waday kalyok ke he-a. Let’s go apart (from the crowd) so I can tell you something. mi‑/ni‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.5.3 - Be at a place.) 2intrans. the space or things between two things. Hay numbata-anan da ya nan bale mi. The thing between them is our house. nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.2 - Between.)
batawil 1comm. a pole placed on the shoulder to carry rice bundles, on both ends, to and from the granary. Em alan nan batawil nah alang. Go and get the pole for carrying rice bundles to the granary. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 2trans. to carry on a pole on one’s shoulder, usually produce that can be hung such as rice bundles. Ibatawil yu nan page. Carry the bundles of rice grain on poles. Ekayu ta batawilon yu nan page. Go and carry the rice bundles. Gakodam nan balat ta ibatawil mu. Put a tie on the hands of bananas so that you can carry them. Eda mumbatawil hi page hi bigat. They are going to carry rice bundles on poles tomorrow. Bumatawil kah hindalan. Carry on the pole twenty rice bundles . Dakol nan page an nibatawil. Many bundles of rice were carried (on the batawil). i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
bayyaung (sp. var. bayyaong) comm. a native woven blanket, black with red and white stripes; rich man’s blanket. [Formerly, only the rich used a bayyaung-blanket; it was used as a carrying-blanket and for special occasions when men wore it thrown over the shoulders with the middle hanging over chests.] Em ihap-e nan bayyaung apum. Go dry the blanket of your grandfather in the sun. Eda gumatang hi bayyaung ta ieda nah nate. They will buy a blanket for the dead. Sim: gamong. (sem. domains: 5.3.4 - Clothes for special occasions.)
bentahe 1comm. an advantage; a benefit. Ongal di bentahe na te nih-up hi kalatay baleda. He has a great advantage because his house is along the road. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Help.) 2intrans. to benefit from something done; have more advantages. Munbentahe nadan iTinoc hin miphod nan kalata da. The people from Tinoc will benefit if their road will be fixed. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
bo adv. 1also; expresses the notion of in addition to something pointing backward. Oha ka bo damdama? Are you also one of them? Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Pinhod mu ke bon mun-ang-ang hi sini ya dakol di damanah pangayam. If you also want to see a movie, there are many places you can go. Additive. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - And, also.) 2again; expresses the notion of repeated action or activity. Agam bo. Do it again. Do-on ta bo tuwali. We should surely divide it again. Adika mo ume bo. Now don’t go again. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206.1 - Again.) boppo boppubo comp. adi bo comp. atbohdi comp. athidi bo comp. bope
bot’ok 1comm. a bundle of small things, e.g. rice stalks, green beans. Kaatnay ohan botok nah bulhe? How much is one bundle of beans? Kaatnan botok nan inani yun page. How many bundles of rice did you harvest? Ohan botok an balluy indawat na. He gave one bundle of immature rice grain. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Group of things.) 2trans. to bundle things that can be held in the hand. Mumbotok bulhen eda iggattang. They are bundling beans for them to sell. Bumtok kah al-alam. Bundle some for you to bring home. Botkom nan bulligan ta eta igattang. You bundle the wingbeans so we can sell them. Kaatnay nabtok? How many were bundled? ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.5.4 - Tie.) der. bintok
bub’ung (sp. var. bubong) comm. roof peak in an Ifugao house or granary usually with a vent at the side which serves as a chimney; the topmost ridge of thatch. Muntudu nan bubung nan abung. The roof of the house is leaking. Kinayat kuy bubung di baleda. I climbed to the peak of the roof of their house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)
bunag intrans. to transfer or transport something; usually done little by little; to transport specified things. Ekami numbunag hi kape. We made several trips to carry sacks of coffee. It-itayon yun e mumbunag nah lona. You carry the sand little by little. Kalyom ke dida ta eda punbunag nan karga yu. Tell them to go and carry our cargo. Binunag hanadan imbabalek nan batu. My children carried the stones little by little. Bunagon yuh tu nadan liblu. Carry the books here little by little. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: ubu. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
butik 1to run. 1.1intrans. to move by moving legs rapidly; run. Mumbubutik an limmah-un. He was running when he came out. Ya andani ya mumbubutik an manayyu nan ahawana. And after awhile, the her husband came running down. muN‑/nuN‑. Class 1A Movement, manner. Sim: bel’et. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.1 - Run, 7.2 - Move.) 1.2intrans. to continuously run in and about a particular site. Mumbutbuttikan nan golang nah danum. The child is running around in the water. muN‑ ‑an, CV(C)‑. 1.3intrans. to run about repeatedly, with the component of stopping and starting again. Adika bumanuttikan te mihubag ka. Don’t be always running around because you will stumble. ‑um‑ ‑an‑ ‑an. 2to run in a direction. 2.1trans. to run in relation to a goal-object. Butikon yu ingganah baleda. You will run until you reach their house. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.2intrans. to run in relation to a particular site-object (place of running). Butikan yu hin la-uwan yu nan ob-ob. Run when you pass by the spring. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to run away to escape danger or pursuit. Bumtik man nan babuy. The pig will surely run away. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. bumtik
buut₁ 1comm. cobweb; white cotton-like nests of small insects like spiders. Dakol di buut nah abung yu. There are many cobwebs in your house. ma‑‑an. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Insect.) 2sta. to have cobwebs. Nabuutan nan dingding di bale mi mu maid aton an munlini te nitag-e. The walls of our house have cobwebs but there is no way to clean them because they are too high. Nabuutan di baleda te adida mihdi. Their house is full of cobwebs because they don’t live in there. ma‑‑an.
dal’ang flaming. 1.1intrans. to burn brightly; refers to the process of visible burning; the flaming of a fire. Mundadalang nan baleda. Their house is flaming. Induyag ku nan pitlolyo ot tolgak ya dimmalang. I poured kerosene (on it) and lit it and it flamed. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: dalebdeb. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5 - Fire.) 1.2caus. to cause a fire to flame. Padalangon yu nan apuy. Make the fire flame. pa‑ ‑on. 1.3sta. refers to a type of wood that burns well. Madalang nan intungu. The firewood burns well. ma‑. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Plant product.)
dalom₁ (sp. var. dalum) 1to sue. 1.1intrans. to sue; to report. Mundalom ka te natalak nan nuwang mu. Report it to the authorities that your carabao is missing. Mundalom da te inako yu nan nuwang da. They are going to sue you because you stole their carabao. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Accuse, confront.) 1.2trans. to sue someone. Idalom daka hin adim kalyon di makulug. You will be sued if you do not tell the truth. Edaka idalom te iningotanak hi otak. I will sue you because you were about to strike me with your bolo. i‑/iN‑. 2comm. a case filed in court. Waday dalom dan he-a. They have filed a case against you in court. (sem. domains: 4.7.4 - Court of law.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: darum.
daplug (sp. var. duplug) knock over. 1.1trans. to knock over by bumping or overrunning as a flood. Kumaan kah na te idaplug dakan hiya. Get out of there because he will knock you over. Nidaplug nan ung-ungngan um-umbun te munhihilong an adi matibo. The child sitting there was knocked over because it was night and she couldn’t be seen. Nan olwang ya indaplug nah baleda. That flood, it overran their house. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 1.2trans. to knock over, involves the manner or reason for the action. Ikiwangan yu ot din mangali te kay nuwang an umidaplug. Give way to the one coming because he will knock you over like a carabao. Pun-idaplug muy ubunan te adim tibon di dalanom. You knock the seat over because you don’t look where you are going. Mamtikak ya wada da nan nitanom nah pangidalanak ot pun-idaplug ku. I was running and there were plants in my way so I knocked them over. umi‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3trans. to bump someone or something. Immali ot daplugonak ot bumtik. He came and bumped me and ran away. ‑on/‑in‑.
dattum (sp. var. dutum) 1trans. to touch something. Idattum mu nan taklem hi uluna. Touch his head with your hand. Nidattum nan taklena nah danum. His hand touched the water. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. Sim: dondon₂, dummit. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Touch.) 2intrans. to be adjacent. Mundattum di baleda. Our houses are adjacent to each other (side-by-side). muN‑/nuN‑.
daww’in intrans. engage to marry; to betroth. [The boy’s family brings the girl’s family the required animals and fuel for a betrothal feast.] Nundawwin hi Wakin ke Eden mu uggeda nuntuluy. Wakin and Eden were engaged but they did not continue with it. Mundawwin hi Pedro hi bigat. Pedro will be bethrothed tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)
dayyu 1intrans. to move in a downward direction; walking or riding down an incline; descend; go down, walk down a mountain or hillside. Dumayyu ka keh tu ta waday ibagak. Come down here (lit. descend) and I will ask you something. Dumayyu kad Pindongan ta em tibon hi Dulyaggan. Come down to Pindongan so that you will go to see Dulyaggan. Mundayyu kat ume kah bale da ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Go down (lit. descend), to their house and call for Kabbigat so that I will have someone to help me singe the pig. Indai ot dongdonglona, mundayyu dah wa-el nan ho kali ya- ne kinimit na. Later on, as he was hearing, they were going down to the creek and then he closed his eyes. muN‑/nuN, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Move down.) 2sta. to be sloping, a path or road, descending toward a destination. Madayyu nan dalan an umeh baleda. The path going to their house is sloping. Ya mumpadayyuy ohat mumpaed Kiangan. And one pathway goes down towards Kiangan. ma‑. 3to descend with the path or site in view. 3.1trans. the direct object refers to a specific path or something along the path. Dayyuwon yu nan madopla ta ahi kayu dumatong. You’ll go down/descend the cliff before arriving. ‑on/‑in; dayyuwon. 3.2trans. the direct object refers to a specific site for starting the descent Hidiy dayyuwan yu. There (is the place) where you will go down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.3trans. the direct object refers to an object along the path of descent. Idayyu yu nah kad-an di mangga. You’ll go down/descend where the mango tree is. i‑/iN‑.
dekoreyt 1intrans. to decorate, e.g. house, church, stage. Mundekoreyt da hi baleda. They will decorate their house. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.1.2 - Household decoration.) 2trans. to decorate something or to use things in decorating. Idekoreyt da nan indat mu. They will use the things you gave in decorating. Dekoreytan da nan baleda. They will decorate their house. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: English.
diklamu 1trans. to charge someone with a fault or wrongdoing; sue someone. Edaka idiklamu te inakom nan manuk mi. I am going to sue you because you stole our chicken. Eka mundiklamu hin pinhod mu. Go ahead and sue me if you want to. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Accuse, confront.) 2comm. complaint. [The concept of a complaint usually includes the idea of taking the complaint to a civil authority for arbitration. ] Kon waday diklamu yu? Do you have any complaints? 3intrans. to complain. Mundiklamu da hin adim idat di pinhod da. They will complain if you do not give what they are demanding. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.5 - Complain.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
dilag 1comm. artificial light. Maid di dilag ku. I have no light. Sim: big’at, pat-al, algo₂, potang. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2trans. to use a light. Eda mundilag hi bakbak. They are going to use a light and catch frogs. Mundilag hi baleda handi hilong. Their house was lit up last night. Maid di idilag ku. I have no light-to-use. Dilagan yu nan dalan. Provide a light for the path. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑.
disaag 1intrans. to alight from vehicle; to get off a vehicle. Mundisaag taku hi bale. We will get off the vehicle at home. Dumisaag taku nah pottok di baleda. We will get off directly in front of their house. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Leave.) 2trans. to unload from a vehicle, usually cargo. Idisaag mu tun kargak. Unload my cargo. i‑/iN‑.
dol-ak 1comm. a poisonous vine or coffee-bean-like poison for use in fishing; the vine is crushed then dried to be placed in the ricefields to catch fish. E immalah dol-ak hi ama. Father went to get the poisonous vine. Sim: ipe₂, tuba₂. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to use the vine to catch fish. Eda manol-ak. They are going to catch fish using the dol-ak-vine. maN‑. 3intrans. to use the vine to catch a particular kind of fish. Dol-akon da nadan yuyu nah payo hi bigat. They will put the poison vine in the ricefield tomorow to get the Japanese fish. 4intrans. extended meaning to refer to something that tastes strong and may cause drunkenness. Dumol-ak nan impainum da. The thing they had me drink is strong. Nadol-ak te intaganah inum hi baya. He is drunk because he kept on drinking rice wine. ‑um‑.
dolog 1comm. fish, generic; mudfish; found in rice paddies, rivers and small lakes. Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. spec: yuyu, dalit. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Fish.) 2trans. to catch fish. Eda manlog nah payon Bugan. They are going to catch fish in Bugan's field. maN‑/naN‑. 3trans. to have fish in pond or ricefield; to place fish into pond or ricefield. Nadlogan di payomi. Our rice field has mudfish in it. Dologan yu nan payoyu. Place mudfish in your ricefield. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
du-uti (dial. var. dudduti) 1comm. dragonfly, generic. [All species of dragonflies are edible.] Adik pinhod an ihda di du-uti. I do not like to have dragonflies for viand. Spec: ballahang, wittan, ku-ing, buggan₁, bongngot, u-uhlung. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Insect.) 2intrans. to catch dragonflies. Eda manu-uti ta ipakan da nadah gawgawa. They are going to catch dragonflies and feed them to the ducks. maN‑/naN‑.
dulung 1comm. floor. Kakukudli nan dulung da te udyo. Their floor is slippery because it’s of narra-wood. Tablay dulung di baleda. The floor of their house is of boards. 2trans. to place floor boards or strips; to place flooring. Dulungan yu nan balen di maunk. Place flooring strips on the chicken house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <
> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. < This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb. > Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume The object is cross-referenced.
gag-a trans. to urge someone to do something that the speaker doesn’t want to do. [The word may be obsolete.] Pun-igag-an Tayaban nadan imbabalena ta eda ibaloy namatayan da nah tulang da. Tayaban urged his sons to go and revenge the death of their brother. puN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Persuade.)
galeled trans. to drag or slide something roughly, people or animals. Inggaleled nan in-alih tu. He dragged him roughly when he brought him here. Nigaleledak nah madayyun dalan. I slid roughly on the slope. Odnam nan bulwatim ta adi migaleled. You hold up your dress so that it will not be dragged along the ground. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: guyud, lapdit. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Pull.)
gamlang (sp. var. gamulang) 1comm. knife for harvesting rice. 4” stick with a blade horizontal; fits in hand with blade protruding between 2nd and 3rd fingers which are used to grab the rice stalk. [The knife has a 4” stick with a blade horizontal; fits in hand with the blade protruding between 2nd and 3rd fingers which are used to grab the rice stalk.] Kinapyan ama nan gamlang ku. My father made my harvesting-knife. (sem. domains: 6.7.1 - Cutting tool.) 2intrans. to use the knife. Munggamlang day ammod hin eda mun-ani. Our parents use the harvesting-knife when they go to harvest rice. muN‑/nuN‑.
ganga sta. to be hard; durable; referring to wood. Maganga nan tukud di baleda. The post of their house is hard. Maganga nan kaiw an kinapya nah ubunan. The chair he made is from a durable wood. ma‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture, 6.5.3 - Building materials.)
gidi 1intrans. to move restlessly; to fidget. Munggidi nan unga te pinhod nan umeh baleda. The child was moving about restlessly because she wanted to go home. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: gad’it. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.) 2sta. to be fidgeting. Nagidi kinali nag-a nah ubunan. He was fidgeting that is why he fell down from the seat. ma‑/na‑.
git’ak 1comm. ritual ceremony related to headhunting. Mumbaki dah gitak te eda mangalana. They are performing the gitak-ritual because they are going to prowl at night (with the intention of revenge). Sim: him-ung, bangibang. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Custom.) 2intrans. to perform the ritual ceremony for headhunting. Munggitak dah bigat. They will perform the headhunting ritual tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑.
hag-on 1trans. to be alongside; to be beside each other; to be adjacent. Nunhag-on kami nah simbaan. We were beside each other in church. Hinag-on mi nan baleda. We are beside their house. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: paldang₁, dongte, hunnup. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Beside, 184.108.40.206.1 - Next to.) 2nom. neighbor. Hidiyen tagu ya adina tumtumbukon di hinag-ona. As for that person, he does not gossip about his neighbor. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 4.1.4 - Neighbor.) der. hinag-on
hagabi 1comm. (prim) a bench belonging to rich people; a carved and decorated bench, with carabao head figures at each end. Waday inang-ang yuh hagabi? Have you seen a hagabi-bench? Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished. Sim: Ang-ang. 2comm. the name of a ceremony which signifies wealth and prestige. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Cultural note: There is a great amount of feasting, drinking and dancing during this prestige ritual. The playing of gongs and dancing may take place for five or six nights. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Custom.) 3intrans. to perform the prestige ceremony. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi-ceremony. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - High status, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) der. himmagabi
halaman 1advpred. to be early in the morning. Humalaman kan umalih bigat. Come early tomorrow. Ohan biggatna ya himmalaman dan nangan. One morning they ate very early. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Time. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.3 - Time of the day.) 2trans. to do something specific early. Halamanom an umali. You come early. Kanan Juliey “Nganat edakami hinalaman an binangun?” Julie asked, “Why did you wake us up so early?” ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. der. himmalaman
hay det. a determiner that marks a topicalized constituent noun phrase in an equational sentence; the person or thing referred to is indefinite and non-specific. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. As for the name of that benchlike figure that they get in the forest, it is hagabi also. Takon di hay dangli na ya maid ta daana mo peman di e pangal-an nan inayana. Even as for his death ritual, there was nowhere for his wife to go to get money for it. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
hayud trans. to scavenge for food. [This is always associated with the poor or needy. They are the ones who munhayud or get what others do not need and so have thrown away.] Ek pe kattog hayudon din uggedan hinamal. I’ll go to pick up the leftover rice. Eka humayud hi inwele dah makan. Go pick up any food thrown away by others. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.) infl. manayud
hiblot sta. the good or bad remarks of certain people that can result in severe stomach pains or loose bowel movement; a type of curse. Nahiblotan kanu nangayanah bobleda teden mahakit di putuna. He believes he was cursed when he went for a visit to their place because his stomach is painful. Ipaptok yuh diyen tagu ta adina hiblotan tun makan. You take care of the needs of that person so that he will not make any remarks about the food. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Sim: idut, dug-a, duhngil, Ayak, Hagoho, gamud, bong’eg. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Curse.)
hidiye (diye, hi) demonstrative. demonstrative pronoun that does not require a co-occurring noun; that over there, definite reference to something, away from both speaker and hearer. Hidiye di balen da Juan. That one over there is the house of Juan. Man-uke kanak hidiye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Demonstrative pronouns.) hidiyen hidiyey
hikug 1trans. (prim) to seek shelter. Maid pundag-uhan da Jose ke Maria ot eda mo kattog mihikug nah abung. Joseph and Mary had no place to stay so they sought shelter in a hut/stable. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 2trans. (fig) to seek help, an extended meaning. Deket maligatan ka, ihikug mun Jesus. Whenever you have hardships, seek shelter in Jesus. i‑/iN‑. 3comm. a shelter especially of last resort. ki‑ ‑an. der. kihikugan
hingit (sp. var. hingngit) 1to hate. 1.1trans. to feel a strong dislike for someone or something; to hold a grudge and detest; the victim of the hate is cross-referenced by the affix. [This feeling about a person usually develops from envy or personality conflict.] Kahingitanak ke he-a mu uggek inilay gapuna. You really hate me but I don’t know the reason. Hingitan di tataguy mangako. People hate thieves. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . Sim: hiwo. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Hate, ill will.) 1.2trans. to hate, the person who hates is cross-referenced by the affix. Adika pubo humingit ke ha-oy te maid di inilak hi ad-adih inat kun he-a. Please don’t hate me because I know I have not done you wrong. Antipe nin ta eda humingit ke hiya? Why did they have to hate him? Mahingitak nah at-attom. I hate what you are doing. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.2 - Hate, detest.) 1.3trans. to incite to anger or resentment; to provoke. Adim hinghingiton te mahingit ot munlaban kayu. Don’t provoke him because he will be provoked and you will fight. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.2 - Quarrel.) 2comm. hatred. Namahig di hingit nadan Judyu ke Jesus. The Jews had much hatred for Jesus.
hingkatang (infl. of katang) adv. 1refers to a short period of time; sometimes thought of as unexpected; a moment; short time. Hingkatang di nanib-ak ot ume. I saw it for a moment then it was gone. Hingkatang an immaliy udan. The rain came for a short time. Nuntikod nan radyo hi hingkatang. The radio stopped for a moment. Hingkatang ya ammunay nala-u ya timmaddog nan inhinyero ot eda mo mihanin duwat The engineer was able to stand seconds after the worker finished praying so they both went to seek cover. Time. Sim: bigla, maid maptok, na-ala, maag. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - A short time.) 2indicating there is no time lapse, something happens instantly and unexpectedly; suddenly. Tibom te hingkatang ya mag-a ka. Look out, because you might fall suddenly. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Quick.) infl. hingkakatang
hingngot (sp. var. hongot₂) 1comm. engagement to marry, engagement offerings; the main offering is usually three pigs. [The engagement offerings are brought by the man’s family to the woman’s family; the word also refers to gifts, other than animals, such as bundles of wood, and a basketful of malagkit rice with coins placed on top. The animal engagement offerings are specifically referred to as the imbango.] In-eday hingngot Juan ad Bae. They brought Juan’s engagement offerings to Bae. Ine day hingngot Bugan. They brought the animals needed for the marital engagement of Bugan. Sim: Hongot; Sim: bango₂, Tokop di mom-on. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Custom, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to give animals and other paraphernalia used in the marital engagement arrangements. Mumpakan he dakel an babuy ta waday ihngot na hin malahin. He is feeding a lot of pigs so that he will have animals to use if he decides to be married. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to bring the betrothal gifts for the engagement ceremony. Munhongot da Juan hi bigat. Juan will bring the animals needed for his engagement tomorrow. Munhongot hi Juan ke Ana. Juan will bring his engagement offerings to Ana. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to bring necessary animals for the marital engagement. i‑ ‑an.
hopnak 1trans. to sow rice in a seedbed. [This is done by laying the rice heads on the mud and afterwards filling the paddy with water.] Ek ihopnak tun dayakkot. I will sow this glutinous-rice. Kadwaanak an munhopnak. Come with me to sow rice. Eda manopnak. They are going to sow rice. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 6.2.3 - Plant a field.) 2comm. season for sowing. 3comm. rice seedbed. comp. ahihopnak der. inhopnak der. punhopnakan
hulu₂ 1comm. a noose trap; a string is placed in such a way as to catch an animal by the feet or by the head. Inha-ad na nan hulu nah dinalan di ulha. He placed the noose-trap where the wild pig passed. Sim: appad, lingon, bawol, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2intrans. to set a noose trap. Eda manuluh amunin. They are going to noose-trap squirrels. maN‑/naN‑.
iwe intrans. 1to be independent from parents; married couples to live independently from parents. Immiwe da Pedro ke Maria. Pedro and Maria are living independently from their parents. Nabayag dan nun-ahawa yaden ugge da ni-an immiweh. They have been married a long time now and yet they are not yet independent from their parents. Maphod di umiwe ta hin nalahin ta. It’s proper and fitting to live separately (from parents) when married. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. 2to live alone, separated from family or others. [It is unusual for anyone to live alone in Ifugao society.] Immiweh Mattimah baleda. Maxima lives alone in their house. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
Kabbigat₁ prop. name of man, common in traditional society; can be surname. Kabbigat di ngadan apu da. Kabbigat is the name of their grandfather. Mundayyu kat ume kah baleda ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Descend and go to their house to call Kabbigat so that I will have his help in singeing this pig. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.)
kad-an (sp. var. kawad-an) comm. near the place where someone or something is located. Hituy kad-an da Berto. This is the place of the Berto family. Ad Makati ke ya hituy kad-an di kakadangyan. In Makati is where the rich people are. Bimmangun da ot umedah kad-an ina da. They got up and went to their mother. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Vicinity.)
kadwa₁ (der. of duwa) 1comm. companion; chaperone. Hi Juan di kadwa na an umali. Juan will be his companion in coming. Maid di kadwa na hi baleda. He has no companion in their house. Sim: kuyug₁, ibba. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2trans. to accompany. Kadwaam hi baleda. Accompany him to their house. Ikadwam nan indat kun pantalon. Include the pants I gave. (lit. use it to accompany another one) ‑an/in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.)
kanta 1comm. refers to a song or music in general. Mundonggol ka hi kanta nah ladyu. Listen to songs/music from the radio. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Sing.) 2intrans. to sing. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who sang and danced did not eat. Kanan Juliey, “Dakol di in-innat mi. Nungkanta kami ya pimmaytuk kami. Julie said, “We did many things. We sang and we jumped, muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to sing a particular song. Ikantam nan intuddun tulang mu. Sing the song taught by your brother. i‑/iN‑.
Ketema (sp. var. Kitema) 1prop. a divination ritual; performed to determine what spirit being has caused the sickness. Sim: Pakko, Agba. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Prophecy, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2intrans. to perform the ritual; may also refer to the one who performs the ritual. [This ritual is performed by a woman. As a medium she goes into a trance in order to perform the ritual.] Eda inang-ang nan mungketema. They went to see the one who performs the divination ritual. Mungketema da te mundogoh Mary. They are performing the Ketema-divination-ritual because Mary is sick. muN‑/nuN‑.
kina- 1mod. this prefix expresses the concept of a quality or characteristic being inherent or evident. Hi Apu Dios ya impatibo na kinaDios na. As for God, he has shown his Godness. Bumobboh-ol damdama ke dadiyen tulun gayyum Job te uggeda kinabaelan an hinumang hi Job hi ustu ta kay mo hi Apu Dios di nihalla an bokon hi Job. (Job 32:3) He was also very angry with Job’s three friends because they did not have the ability to adequately answer Job so that it was like God was mistaken, not Job. Deket mundama kayun tulang mu wenu hay udum an tatagu ya adi nalgom di kalyon hi kinagaga-iho da. When you quarrel with your brother/sister or other people, don’t tell about their evil. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.) 2dervN. the prefix derives a noun. Impakiala da nadan limmu da ya am-in di kinadangyan da. They got their property and all of their riches. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Derivational affixes.)
kitkitog 1comm. a small bat; lives in the eaves of houses, tree holes, caves; looks like a mouse with wings. Hay udum an tatagu ya ihda day kitkitog. Some people eat the kitkitog-bat. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2trans. to gather small kitkitog bats. Eda mangikitkitog nah liyang ad Atade. They are going to gather kitkitog-bats in the cave in Atade. mangi‑/nangi‑.
klinik 1comm. clinic. In-eda nan mundogo nah klinik. They brought the sick (person) to the clinic. (sem. domains: 2.5.7 - Treat disease.) 2intrans. to consult and conduct medical examinations. Mungklinik hi doktor hi bigat. The doctor will hold consultations tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.
Kolan 1comm. a ritual to drive away death, strong winds, or other evil forces from a newly constructed building. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2trans. to perform the Kolan ritual for a particular building. Kolanan da nan baleda. They will perform the Kolan ritual for their house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented site.
konnat (sp. var. konna ket) adjunct. if such a thing were to happen; supposing that; to conjecture. Konnat ipatna yun idat yu athidin aggayam nah gobernador, kon umamlong ke dakayu weno kon edakayu baddangan? (Malachi 1:8b) Supposing you try to give an animal like that to the governor, would he be happy with you or would he help you? general: The sentence quotation from the book of the Bible, Malachi, is in the context of God speaking to the Israelites about their sacrificing of defective animals to him. Attitudinal. Sim: hin, deket, nu. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Condition.)
kuling₁ (sp. var. koling) comm. main beams of native house or granary; girders on which a floor is laid. Ip-iphod yun ihaad nan kuling na ta ahi ihaad tudan tabla. Carefully place the girders before we put the flooring. Hay mahmahdol an udyo di iha-ad an koling. The thicker narra boards will be placed as the girders. Dulawon di kuling di baleda. The main beams of their house are made of dulawon-wood. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)
kulinti (sp. var. kuryente) 1comm. electricity; electric current. Maid boy kulinti te waday puwok. There is no electricity again because there is a storm. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206.4 - Power, force.) 2pass. to be electrocuted. Nakulinti nan ahu. The dog was electrocuted. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Kill.) 3intrans. to fish using electric current shock. Eda mangulinti ad Ibulao hi uggadiw. They are going to fish uggadiw in Ibulao with electric current. maN‑/naN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: corriente.
likkod trans. to go around something; to circle around. Illikod mu nah payo ta ahika dumatong hi baleda. Go around the field then you will arrive at their house. Lanikkodon nan eroplanu nan bilid. The airplane kept circling the mountain. i‑/iN‑, ‑an‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Move in a circle.) infl. likkodon infl. nunlinikkod
lingon 1comm. a bird trap. Impakat na nan lingon nah tap-on di habal. He placed his bird trap above the swidden. Sim: appad, hulu₂, bawol, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap birds using the lingon trap. Eda munlingon nah muyung. They are going to trap birds in the forest. Liningon na on ut-ut. He caught a wild dove with the trap. An dakol di malingon nah eyu punlingonan? Are there many birds to be trapped in the place where you go trapping? ‑on/‑in‑ muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent.
lob’ong 1comm. a body of water; a lake; a pond. Eda mungkeke nah lobong ad Ambuwaya. They are going to swim in the lake at Ambuwaya. Sim: baybay, wangwang, wa-el. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.) 2trans. to fill depression in earth with water, e.g. a ricefield, a pond; to flood. Em lobngon din payo taku. Go fill our ricefields with water. Limbong da nan payo ot ha-adan dah tilapia. They flooded the ricefield and placed tilapia-fish. Nal-ot di dinlu kinali nalbong di kanal. There was a strong rain that is why the canal was flooded. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑.
lon’a 1comm. sand. Eda immalah lona nah pingngit di wangwang. They went to get sand from the riverside. Sim: pantal, dalat₂. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Soil, dirt.) 2trans. to spread sand somewhere. Lonaan yu nan daulon. Place sand under the house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3sta. a sandy place. Malona nan bobleda. Their place is sandy. ma‑. infl. malona
Lunes (sp. var. lunit) 1comm. Monday. Lunis ke on eda mungngunu. On Mondays they go to work. Syn: pinghana. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199.1 - Days of the week.) 2sta. refers to the coming Monday; when it will be Monday. Malunis kayu ya ume takud Lagawe. Come on Monday we will leave for Lagawe. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: lunes.
mahang-an sta. to be spared from a disaster. Mahang-an po udot di edaka patayon. They will not go to the extent of killing you. Mahang-an ken bokon he-a eyak immalih tu. Were it not for you I would not be here.
malalao (infl. of lalao) sta. to be immoral. Adita makihayyup nadah tatagun mangat hi malalao. Let’s not join in friendship with those people who do immoral things. Hay pangi-eda ya gaga-iho te aton day malalao. As for their way, it’s bad because they do immoral things. ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Bad, immoral.)
mami 1comm. Chinese or Japanese noodles flavored with pork, beef or chicken, onions and vegetables. Nunha-ang da hi mami. They cooked Chinese noodles. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to eat noodles. Eda nummami hi kad-an da Sion. They went to eat mami-noodles at Sion's place. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Chinese.
maN- 1TACR. the prefix encodes a non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized subject-agent; it co-occurs with Classes 4 and 5 verbal roots. <
> Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Da Juan ke Maira din mange. It’s Juan and Maria who are passing by. Sim: naN-. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.) 2asp. the prefix encodes a present continuative aspect; it co-occurs with roots that have an innate punctiliar aspect. Manatong kami nah ohan bale ya namodwongak an nanibo nah ohan lalaki. As we were arriving near one of the houses, I was surprised to see a man. Hay kalyona ya, kediyen hilong an manganamut, an gawan mon di hilong... He explained to us that the night before while he was on his way home at about midnight... (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) Morphophonology: The N in the form symbolizes a nasal that assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant. If the first consonant of the root is followed by the ‘o’ vowel, the vowel will also be reduced.
man-uke (comp. of man-u, ke₂) adjunct. the reason being; the reason for. Man-uke kanak hidi ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. Man-uke ya maid di ammod da kinali umat hina da. The reason that they behave in that manner is because they do not have parents. Man-uke ya maddikit ya man-uke ya natalam. It’s partly that she’s good-looking and partly that she’s clever. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Cause, 18.104.22.168.1 - Reason.)
mittala (sp. var. mittulu) 1comm. teacher, female; mentor, female. Mittala mi hi inam. Your mother is our teacher. 2intrans. to become a teacher. Mummittala nan imbabaleda hin maongal. Their child will be a teacher when she grows up. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: maestra.
mungki- TACR. this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action; non-past tense. Datuwe kan duduplanu ya mungkakalpu da mungkidadawwin boble. These airplanes come from faraway places. Mungkitalu nadan allama ya umipit da hin eda howngon di baleda. The crabs hid and pinched the children’s hands when they reached inside their holes to get them. Sim: nungki-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.)
nan det. that, the; a determiner that marks a definite noun referent; the noun may have either a subject or object grammatical relation to the verb and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They left the basket in our house. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. As for the name of that benchlike figure that they get in the forest, it is hagabi also. nadan
naN- TACR. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 4 verbal roots; past tense. <
> Himmagob, nana-ang ya nunhigup hi bintok. He got water, he cooked and carried rice bundles into shade. Hi manang ya dingngol na damdama ot mundihhan namtik nah panto. As for my older brother, he heard it too and ran to the door at the same time. Hiyay nangalah kadukkayan kawayan. He is the one who got the longest bamboo. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who participated in the songs and dances did not (eat). Mun-an-anlah inadan nangngol an dakol di inadal da. Their mother was happy to hear that they had learned so much. Sim: maN-. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.) Morphophonology: The final nasal of the prefix assimilates to the first consonant of the root, and then, reduces the consonant; if the vowel o follows the root consonant, the vowel will also be reduced.
ngalotongot₂ intrans. inarticulate murmuring, words cannot be understood; often done when complaining or because one is annoyed. Mungngalotongot handi uggeda indatan hi pihhu. He was murmuring when they did not give him any money. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. Sim: mutmut, ngutuwol, ngudu, ban-uk. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.5 - Complain.)
nganat (sp. var. ngana-) int. why; interrogative pronoun that asks the reason for something. Kanan Juliey “Nganat edakami hinalaman an binangun?” Julie asked, “Why did you wake us up so early?” Oha bo ya ngannat etaku bayadan? One thing more, why should we pay? Sim: tipe. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206.1 - Reason.)
ngayo intrans. 1to headhunt; headhunter. [The civil government outlawed headhunting.] Kanan day mungngayo di Ipugaw. They say that the Ifugao are headhunters. muN‑. 2to go on a headhunting expedition; to join a headhunting expedition. Eda mungngayo ad baliwon di ammod handi. In the old days, our ancestors went to the lowlands to headhunt. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Kill.)
nomnom 1comm. refers to the mind, both the intellect and emotions reside in the mind; the mind thinks and feels. Mahakit di nomnom na. His feelings are hurt. Maid di nomnom mu. You have no sense at all. Ta hay mamangulun umalih nomnom na ya nunna-ud an mate. So the first thing that comes to his mind is he is sure to die. Sim: laing. (sem. domains: 3.2.1 - Mind.) 2sta. to be intelligent; mature in thought. Nanomnoman te inilanay kalkalyona. He is mentally matured because he knows what he is talking about. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Mature in behavior.) 3think. 3.1intrans. to think; to recall; durative aspect in the thinking. Munnomnomnom hi kalyona. He is thinking on what to say. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) 3.2trans. to think about something specific. Nomnomom ta ahika kumali. Think before you talk. Nomnomom di kinalim ke hiya. Recall what you told him. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonio. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, told him. Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think about what they will do. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. 3.3nom. refers to the knowledge which results from thinking. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom/knowledge and we may become proud and boastful. ka‑ ‑an. 3.4trans. to do something in remembrance of something or someone. Inomnom mu nah inat dan he-a handi Do it in remembrance of what they did to you before. i‑/iN‑. 3.5nom. refers to a noun-like thought process. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na. And the reason he does not stop is he thinks his life would be uncertain. puN‑. der. kanomnoman id. had-om ta maba-oy nomnom da id. mahakit di nomnom. id. maid nomnom na. id. malumman di nomnom id. nabuluk di nomnom id. nalatiyan di nomnom id. napat-alan di nomom id. natalak di nomnom id. ugge nanomnoman infl. manomnom infl. nomnomon
nungka- proc. this prefix encodes the distribution of a process or state over a number of objects; completive aspect. <
> Nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. Ya nada ke bon kakaiw an sycamore an nungkalngo ya hannotan takuh sedar an kapkaphodan an kaiw. And also as for those sycamore trees that were felled, we will replace them with sedar which is the best tree. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) This prefix generally co-occurs with process-state verbal roots or with passive forms of active verbs.
paddi 1sta. for two actions or events to occur at the same time; coincidentally. Eyak umali mu nipaddi an immudan. I was about to come but it happened to rain. Mipapaddih aliyan yu ya dumatong hi Bugan. Your coming will coincide with Bugan’s arrival. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: dihhan. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 2trans. to do something at the same time as another event. Paddiyom hi baleda ot dehdi nah himbatangan. Go see him in their house; anyway he is there in the afternoon. Ipaddi yun umali tu hin maidak hitu. Come here when I am not here. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions.
palattug 1comm. gun. Waday palattug na te pulit. He has a gun because he is a policeman. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to shoot with a gun. Pinatlattug da on hamuti. They shot a bird. Palattugon da nan ahun natagal. They will shoot the dog that is rabid. Pumalattug ka hi hamuti. Shoot some birds. Eda mamalattug hi hamuti nah muyung. They are going to shoot birds in the forest. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, maN‑/naN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: paltug.
pamukot (infl. of pukot) 1comm. sap of trees; sticky substance from trees. Limmitig nah kakaw hi pamukot na. He got sticky sap from the jackfruit tree. 2intrans. to catch birds by placing the sap of trees where they land. Eda mamukot nah muyung. They are going to catch birds in the forest with sticky sap. maN‑/naN‑.
paN- -an₂ TACR. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and cross-references a topicalized time or place; it co-occurs with Class 4 transitive verbs and some members of Class 1 and Class 2 intransitive movement verbs. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling? Pinhod mu ke bon mun-ang-ang hi sini ya dakol di damanah pangayam. If you want to see a movie, there are many places you can go. Takon di hay dangli na ya maid ta daana mo peman di e pangal-an nan inayana? Because they had nothing, he was not even given the customary death ritual for how could his poor wife afford it? Kinali kediyen eda panggopan ke dida ya inila da moy aton da ya hay eda kipustuwan. That’s why on the day of the raid, they knew what to do and where to post themselves. Em hanhanan ten kakon-anay pangayan da ad Manila. Go ask him when they will go to Manila. Sim: naN- -an. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.)
Pan’al prop. the ritual for sowing rice in seedbed. Pun-ingunu day panal te in-eda nan binong-o nah punhopnakan. They are performing the panal-ritual because they already brought the selected rice for planting in the seedbed. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History)
pihing 1comm. a vegetable with edible rootstock, taro leaves and stalk. Iutum mu nan pihing. Cook the taro. Inggat-una nan pihing nah gattuk. She put the taro on top of the sweet potatoes. Sim: bila; gen: nateng. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather vegetables, including rootcrops, legumes and leafy vegetables. Dakol di pinihing Mattima kinali ena inggattang di udum. Mattima gathered many taro vegetables, that is why she went to sell the rest. Eda namihing nah galden. They went to gather vegetables in the garden. ‑on/‑in‑; maN‑/naN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)
piknik 1comm. a picnic; to have an outdoor meal. Waday piknik nadan u-unga. The children are having a picnic. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to go on a picnic. Eda mumpiknik ad Ibulao. They are going for a picnic at Ibulao River. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.
pinit 1comm. a bright red berry; a wild berry, like a raspberry. Makalummii nan pinit. The pinit-berry is very sweet. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11.2 - Food from fruit.) 2intrans. to gather wild berries. Eda maminit nadan u-unga nah muyung. The children are going to gather pinit-berries in the forest. maN‑/naN‑.
pinunnog (sp. var. pinnunog) (infl. of punnog) comm. sausage made of chopped meat with condiments and seasoning stuffed into animal intestine. Nangapya dah pinunnog ot eda igattang nah malkadu. They made sausages stuffed with chopped meat and sold it in the marketplace. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.1 - Meat.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
pugo₃ trans. to leave a plant alive when cutting grass or trees. Pinugo da nan tabuyug handi eda nun-uma. They left the pomelo-tree alive when they went to make a clearing. Eda mamugo nah muyung hi tanman dah kaiw. They are going to cut grass and leave selected trees alive in the forest. ‑on‑/in‑, maN‑/naN‑.
pulu 1adj. ten. Himpulu day tatagun nala-u. Ten people passed by. hiN‑. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Cardinal numbers.) 2intrans. ten times. Numpipuluak mon immeh baleda. I went to their house ten times. mumpi‑/numpi‑. 3quan. for each of the twenties, the words are formed by adding the cardinal numbers to the word for ten as proclitics. comp. duwampulu comp. duwampulut lima comp. himpulu
punduwa trans. to plan and manage an event. Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who managed it because they didn’t think well enough about what they will do. mangi‑ ‑an/nangi‑ ‑an.
sini 1comm. a movie; a motion picture. Maphod nan sini an eda inang-ang. The movie they saw was good. Pinhod mu ke bon mun-ang-ang hi sini ya dakol di damanah pangayam. If you want to see a movie, there are many places you can go. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to join in watching a movie. Eyak makisini hi hilong. I will go and watch a movie tonight. maki‑/naki‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: cine. der. siniyan
tabukul 1comm. a large fishing net with bamboo frame. 2trans. to fish with net. Maid day muntabukul hitu te maid di wangwang hitu. No one fishes with large nets here because there are no rivers here. Tabukulon da nadan dolog nah adalom an payo. They will use a net in getting the fish in the deep field. Eda manabukul ad Ibulao. They are going to fish with nets in Ibulao River. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Fishing equipment.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
takdog₂ trans. 1to defend or represent someone. Deyan edaka indiklamuh ya dahdiy nomnomom an mangitakdog ke he-a? There, they sued you in court and who do you think will defend you? Itakdog dakan ha-oy. I will defend you. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Defend against accusation.) 2to supervise. Em takdogan nadan mungngunu nah kalata. Go and supervise those people working in the road. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. mangitakdog
te conj. the logical connection that marks a reason; because. Maka te ume ta. Come because we are leaving. Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is worthless without education and without a job. Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think about what they will do. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Cause, 220.127.116.11.1 - Reason.) comp. tedeya
tibo (sp. var. tigo) 1to see. 1.1trans. to see or look at something. Tinibona. He saw it. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice. Iwingim ad Lagawe ta tibom an waday dilag da. Turn your head towards Lagawe and see whether they have lights. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: buya₂, ang-ang; spec: tokkol. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2trans. to search, looking for something. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ke tuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Manibo dah ohan magangan ongngal an kaiw They search for a large, hard-wood tree maN‑/naN‑. 1.3trans. to look toward a particular place. Itibom hitu. Look this way. Intibon ama nah pottok nan pumpangituludan dan hiya. My father looked in the direction where they were pushing him. i‑/iN‑ . 2trans. to watch over more than one object. Pakitibom tun basket ku. Watch my basket (along with yours). paki‑. 3caus. to cause something to be seen; to show something. Ipatibom. Show it. (lit. cause it to be seen) ipa‑/impa‑. 4pass. something can be seen very clearly; obvious. Hay bahul mu ya makattibo. Your fault can be clearly seen. makaC‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Known, unknown.) der. kitib-anan id. mahakit di panibo infl. makattibo infl. manibo infl. matibo
tikid 1intrans. to move in upward direction; to ascend; to climb a mountain or hill. Tumikid ka, adika dumayyu weno mundiretyo. Ascend, don’t descend or go straight. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Syn: ablat. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Move up.) 2sta. refers to a steep slope or path. Adiyak paka-en nah matikid. I can hardly go on a steep path. Lumingot ta nah matikid. One perspires on a steep trail. ma‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.) 3to ascend with something or to ascend at a particular place. 3.1trans. to ascend with a conveyed-object being carried. Itikid mu nan aluwog. Ascend with the bamboo tube for water. i‑/iN‑. 3.2trans. to ascend, a path-object is significant. Tikidon yuy tulun bilid ta ahi kayu dumatong nah baleda. You will ascend three mountains before you will reach their place. Tinikitikid da nan bilid ad Asipulo. They have been climbing the mountain in Asipulo. ‑on/‑in‑.
tungo₂ 1intrans. to give birth. Adi nalakay muntungo. It’s not easy to give birth. Nuntungo hi Maria ya dappil. Maria gave birth to twins. muN‑/nuN‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 2trans. to give birth to a child. Itungo nah baleda nan imbabalena. She will give birth to their child in their house. Mitungo ke nan golang ya ngadanam hi Juan. When the child will be born, name him Juan. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. infl. nitungawan
ubun 1to sit. 1.1intrans. to sit down. Umbun ka ni-an ta ek ayagan hi ama. Sit down while I go and call for father. Inumbun da nah luhung ot mummoma da. They sat down on the mortar and chewed betelnut ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: halupinnak. (sem. domains: 7.1.2 - Sit.) 1.2intrans. to continue sitting. Aga, mangmangbun kayu pet umeyak. Come on, you all keep sitting while I go. maN‑ CV(C). 2to sit. 2.1trans. the place for sitting is cross-referenced by the affix. Tibom ta adim ubunan nan puha. Be careful not to sit on the cat. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. 2.2advpred. to sit as a manner of doing something else. <
> Inib-un dan mungkanta. They sat as they sang. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to be idle; to sit around constantly, doing nothing. Umubuubun kah kabigabigat. You are idle everyday. ‑um‑ CV(C)CV. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199.2 - Lazy.) 4a seat. 4.1nom. a thing to sit on; seat, bench, chair. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The name of that thing like a bench which they get from the forest is also hagabi. ‑an. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) 4.2sta. for seats to be occupied. Nab-unan am-in di ubunan kinali tumataddog kami. All the seats are taken, that is why we are standing. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. der. ubunan id. umubuubun Morphophonology: The first vowel is lost, and the initial glottal stop and the second consonant metathesize.
udum₂ (sp. var. uddum) 1adj. other; distinct in contrastive reference; distinct in a certain unspecified quantity. Nadan udum ya eda maniboh wakal. Others go to get vine. Daan day udum an ibban tuwe? Where are the others like this one? (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.3 - Different.) 2quan. some; distinct in a partial, unspecified quantity. Alam udum an balat. Get some of the bananas. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Some.) infl. udman
ugge neg. the negative form used with verbs in the past tense. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who participated in the songs and dances did not (eat). Uggek ni-an inilan kumayat handi te ittayak. I didn’t know how to climb trees then because I was small. Sim: bokon. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - No, not.) der. ug-ugge
wada nin (comp. of wada, nin) exispred. an existential predicate phrase that asserts that something is probable; possible; something possibly exists or is in place. Bokon an nan eda adiyan mu wada nin an maid punnomnom dan hiya. It’s not that they reject him but it’s probably that they don’t think about him. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Probably.)
ya 1conj. and; a conjoining conjunction that expresses an additive relationship between clauses or constituents of a noun phrase. Imme kami ya maid kayu. We went and you were not there. Maka ya ta baddanganak. Please come and help me. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is wide and there are plenty of people. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They get rice and they make wine. Coordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - And, also.) 2lk. links the constituents of an equational clause. Umboy biggatna ya munlilingot ka. Even in the morning, you perspire. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. comp. deke ya comp. deya comp. yaden