Search results for "eka"

eka pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person, singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Why do you go so very early when there are no rides/jeepneys yet. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

ekaw ot ya abu idiom. expresses an evaluation that an event or action is unfortunate. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

ekayu pers. you-all; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person plural personal pronoun, a member of Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. “Adik pinhod an ekayu maladaw,” kanan ina da. “I don’t want that you will be late,” said their mother. Deket ekayu makigubat hi buhul yu ya adi kayu tumakut...(Deuteronomy 20:1) When you go to war against your enemies, don’t be afraid... (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

manteka 1comm. cooking oil; lard; animal grease. Adi mungkammoy manteka ya liting. Cooking oil and water do not mix. Athituy aton: Mamangulu ya igisay amput ya danggu hi manteka. This is how to cook it: First, saute the garlic and onions in a good amount of cooking oil. Kanan nan in-inay ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka. The old woman said, I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.3.5 - Cooking oil.) 2trans. to use cooking oil in cooking. Mantekaam nan ihda taku. Use cooking oil in our viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: manteca. infl. mummanteka

mekaniko 1comm. machine repairman; mechanic. Mekaniko nan inayana. Her husband is a mechanic. (sem. domains: 6.6.8 - Working with machines.) 2trans. to repair a machine. Mekanikowom nan tolak dan napai. Repair their vehicle which is destroyed. ‑on/‑in‑. 3intrans. to work as a mechanic. Mummekanikoh tulang nad Lagawe. His brother works as a mechanic in Lagawe. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: mecanico.

mummanteka (infl. of manteka) intrans. to heat fatty portions of meat to remove the fat; to turn fat into cooking oil or grease. Mummanteka nan taba hin apuyam nan nihaang. The fat will become oil or grease if you fix the fire. Mantekaom nan taban di dotag. Remove the fat of the pork by cooking. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2 - Steps in food preparation.)

nabwekan (fr. var. of nabuukan) used in rituals to refer to a female; long-haired one. {ritual}

nabuukan (fr. var. nabwekan) (der. of buuk) sta. to have long hair or a lot of hair. [A metaphor used to refer to a woman.] {ritual} na‑ ‑an.

‑an₁ dervN. this suffix derives a noun from a transitive verb. Ekami makidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go and meet them in Lagawe because their arrival place is definitely there. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. Nagibbu ke, ikuyag mu tun nabinokbokan hi lopohhan ya ihukbung mu. After this, pour the rice into the fermentation container (lit. place of fermentation) and cover. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat.

abulut accept. Sim: tobal. 1.1trans. (prim) to agree to accept a proposal or a statement. Abulutom an hiyay mangiahawan hiya? Do you accept that he will be the one to marry her? Inabulut nan nan kinali da. He accepted what they said. Kon adi ka mo umabulut? Aren’t you accepting anything/anyone anymore. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.9 - Approve of something, 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.) 1.2trans. to consent to something, permit, allow. In-abulut nan ume da. He permitted them to go. Dahdiy nangiabulut? Who consented to it? Uggek in-abulut an ekayu ume. I did not agree that you will go. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.)

agihit comm. a bean variety. Eka umalah agihit hi garden. Go and get agihit-beans in the garden. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.)

agyaman sta. to be thankful. Agyaman ka te uggeka nate. Be thankful because you did not die. Sim: salamat. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.7.1 - Thank.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

akaw adjunct. expression of dismay or disappointment; good grief; oh no. Eka ke ibagan Sakai hin mabalin an makilugan takuh kotsa da. Akaw, adiyak te bumainak. Would you go and ask Sakai if we can ride with him in his car? Oh no, I will not because I would be embarassed. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

algo₂ 1comm. sun. Hinaniyan nan kulabut nan algo. The cloud hid the sun. Sim: big’at, pat-al, dilag, potang. (sem. domains: 1.1.1 - Sun.) 2intrans. shining of the sun. Umalgo ke ya eka mumbalbal. If the sun shines, go and wash clothes. Mun-algo kat adi ka maktol. Stay under the sun so you will not will cold. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to put something in the sun in order to dry or warm it. Ek ialgoy buuk ku ta mamag-anan. I’ll go to dry my hair under the sun. i‑/iN‑. der. ma-al-algo der. umalgo ph. v. nalimuy algo

alimahma intrans. to glean; gather last produce after main harvesting. Eka mun-alimahmah ugge dah mangga. Go to gather what they have left of the mangoes. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

alina 1comm. flour. Eka gumattang hi alina ta mangapya tah tinapay. You go to buy flour and we will make bread. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to place flour on something. Alinaam nan ihaang mun ihda. Place flour on the food you are going to cook. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: arina.

allawin 1comm. a container for snail collecting (a bamboo tube or a dried gourd, attached to the hips of the person gathering snails.). Napnu mo tun allawin kuh battikul. This container is already full of snails. Sim: bayongyong. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use the snail container. Mun-allawin kat eka mangdut. Use the container and go and gather snails. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use a particular snail container. Iallawin mu nan allawin inam. Use the snail-container of your mother. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site.

aluk 1trans. to speak comfort; to console. Mahakit di nomnom na te nateh inana; eka ta em al-alukon. She is sad because her mother died; go to console her. Al-alukom nan golang te mungkokkogga. You comfort the child because he is crying. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. (sem. domains: 4.4.4 - Respond to someone in trouble.) 2trans. to coax; to persuade by presenting nice agruements. Ena al-alukon hi amana ta mungkodo boh pihhu. He’s going to persuade his father and then he’ll ask him for money. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.4 - Peace, 3.3.3.3 - Persuade.) 3intrans. to do something to please someone. Nganne atom an mun-al-aluk ke hiya. What will you do to please her? muN‑/nuN‑. infl. al-aluk

aluwog (sp. var. alwog) comm. a bamboo container for carrying water; the nodes have been pierced; usually. about six feet in length. Alam nan aluwog ta eka humagob nah ob-ob. You get the bamboo water container and go to fetch water from the spring. (sem. domains: 1.3 - Water, 6.7.7 - Container.)

amping (sp. var. app’ing) trans. 1to slap the face. Iamping ku tun taklek. I’ll use my hand in slapping. Eka piamping. You are letting yourself be slapped. i‑/iN‑, pi‑. Sim: apap. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to slap; the person slapping is highlighted rather the one being slapped. Mamolta day umamping hi tagu. Those who slap people will be fined. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

anawa 1trans. to console; to pacify; to keep someone from crying; to interpose, mediate, reconcile, or settle. Ekat em anawaon didan mundinnuntuk. Go and reconcile those who are fighting with each other. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: al-aluk, alubyag. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.2 - Help.) 2intrans. someone who pacifies or reconciles others. Maid di mun-anawa. There was no one to pacify. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

anidu intrans. to warm oneself near the fire. Eka mun-anidu nah kad-an nan dalikan. Warm yourself by the hearth. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu. I thought that only a fire (can warm us) and yet even that can can warm us. La-uwanay lulug ya deyan umanidu hin tininggadan da. Its height comes to your knee and yet, it gives heat when they light it. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movment with a directional component. Sim: dangdang. der. pun-aniduwan

ap-ap 1comm. a cover for a bed or table; e.g. mat, blanket. Eka umalah ap-ap ta iap-ap ta tuh kama. Go and get some sheets so that we can spread them on the bed. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to spread a covering over a surface, such as a bed or table. Ap-apam hi ulo nan abok. Spread a blanket over the mat. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

appad 1comm. trap for birds and small animals on the ground. Ihaad mu nan appad nah dolya. Place the bird trap on the untilled part of the ricefield. Sim: hulu, lingon, bawol, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap birds Eka mangappad ta hanake ot ya waday makna. Go make a trap, by chance you might trap a bird or two. Appadon yu nan manuk. Trap the chicken. Anupon weno appadon dat ahi da alan. They hunt or trap the animal to catch it. maN‑/naN‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

appaku 1comm. fern variety; young shoots are edible, they grow in uncultivated land, especially damp areas. Munhida takuh appaku. We will have appaku-ferns for viand. Sim: ap-apat, paggalat. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2trans. to gather fern shoots. Eka mangappaku ta ihda taku. Go gather fern shoots for our viand. maN‑/naN‑.

aton (infl. of at) trans. to do something in particular, i.e. specific. Ekat em aton po nan ngunum te inat ku mo nan ken ha-on. You go and do your work because I have already done mine. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: innun. (sem. domains: 7 - Physical actions.)

attake 1comm. a necklace of ceramic beads, ordinarily they are made of a type of clay; may also be wound in the hair. Makakkaphod di attakem. Your beads are so beautiful. Sim: banungul, inipul; Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.) 2trans. to wear a necklace of ceramic beads. Iattakem nan binanok ke apum. Wear the beads I borrowed from your grandmother. Attakeyan yu nan unga. Let the child wear the beads. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3trans. to wear beads. Mun-attake kayu hin ekayu manayo. Wear your beads when you go to dance. muN‑/nuN‑.

aw adjunct. expression of displeasure, disapproval, annoyance, irritation; hmmph. Aw, antipet dekah na bo? Hmmph, why are you here again? Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

aw’it₁ 1comm. revenge object; victim of a vendetta. Eka umalah awit na. Go take his revenge on someone. Sim: buhul; Sim: balo. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.5 - Revenge.) 2trans. to kill someone in revenge for a kinsman who was killed. [This might be an extended meaning of the same form that means ‘to call for someone’.] Iawit muh tulang mu! Avenge your brother. i‑/iN‑.

awidan comm. back side of the house; backyard. Eka munggabut nah awidan di bale taku. You go and cut grass at the back of our house. Sim: kob-al.

ayuduk trans. to creep under; to bend over under something.; to walk bent over under something. Iayuduk mu nah mabilau ta ahika dumatong. You have to creep under the thick canegrass before you will reach your destination. Ayodukom nan bola nah daulon. Creep to retrieve the ball under the house. Eka mun-ayuduk nah daulon ta tibom nan nag-a. You go under the house and look for the one that fell. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, mun‑/nuN‑. Sim: uduk. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.)

ba’ing comm. 1coconut midrib. Eka umalah baing ta kapyaom hi basket. Go and get coconut midribs and make a basket. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2broom made of coconut midrib. Alam nan baing ta higidam nan dola. You get the hard broom and sweep the yard. Alam nan baing ta ihigid mun nah dalan di bale. You get the hard broom and sweep the path to the house..

badi intrans. to pluck a stalk or particle of grain usually rice; young rice grains plucked and skinned and eaten. Adi kayu bumadih page te bumoh-ol di kon payo. Don’t pluck the rice because the field owner will be angry. Tipet ekayu mumbadih page? Why are you plucking young rice grains? ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: kuttim. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.4 - Hold.)

bag’ut (sp. var. bag-ut) 1trans. to uproot; to remove something inserted in the ground. Em baguton nadan paul an nialad. You pull out the cane that have been placed as a fence. Adim baguton nan laya. Do not uproot the ginger. Binagut da nan intanom mid nakugab. They uprooted what we planted yesterday. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 6.2.4.2 - Uproot plants.) 2dig or uproot. 2.1trans. to dig and gather root crops. Eka mumbagut ad uwani aba. Go and gather aba (a root vegetable). muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, 7.8.6 - Dig.) 2.2trans. indicates the manner in which to uproot a plant. Ibagut mun nah puuna. Uproot it by holding it at the base. i‑/iN‑. 2.3trans. encodes a partitive idea; uproot some, not all. Bumagut kah ittay an danggu. Uproot/Pull out some spring onions. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

baginge comm. a fern variety; the stem is used for weaving baskets, chicken coops and hats; it is more durable than rattan. Mangala kah baginge ta mangapya taku hi basket. Get some baguinge so that we’ll make it into a basket. Hay baginge di kapyaom hi kaba. Use the baginge for making baskets. Eka umala nah baginge ta kapyaon dah kulbung. You get some baginge-fern so that they’ll make it into a rice container. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

balyag 1comm. basket used for carrying sweet potatoes, carried on back with head strap. Napnuy balyag nah gattuk. Her basket is full of sweet potatoes. Sim: kaba, gampa. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use the headstrap basket. Mumbalyag ka te eka mumboka. Get the basket because you are going to dig camote. muN‑/nuN‑.

ban’o trans. to borrow something. Ekat em banhon nan ligau da. Go and borrow their winnower. Maid di ena banhan. He had no one to borrow from. Bumano kah gaud da. Borrow their long-handled spade. Maid di mabano. There is nothing that could be borrowed. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑, ma‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.8.5 - Borrow.) infl. mumbanno infl. pabanhan

bangngaan comm. palm tree variety, used for flooring in huts and for channeling water; fruit is the size of a fist. Ekayu lumnoh bangngaan ta etaku itulaluk. Go and cut down some palm so that we will use it in channelling water. Sim: bangi. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

batawil 1comm. a pole placed on the shoulder to carry rice bundles, on both ends, to and from the granary. Em alan nan batawil nah alang. Go and get the pole for carrying rice bundles to the granary. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 2trans. to carry on a pole on one’s shoulder, usually produce that can be hung such as rice bundles. Ibatawil yu nan page. Carry the bundles of rice grain on poles. Ekayu ta batawilon yu nan page. Go and carry the rice bundles. Gakodam nan balat ta ibatawil mu. Put a tie on the hands of bananas so that you can carry them. Eda mumbatawil hi page hi bigat. They are going to carry rice bundles on poles tomorrow. Bumatawil kah hindalan. Carry on the pole twenty rice bundles . Dakol nan page an nibatawil. Many bundles of rice were carried (on the batawil). i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

baung 1comm. a plot for planting sweet potatoes. Sim: habal, uma. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 2intrans. to prepare a sweet potato plot for planting. Ekayu mumbaung ad Atade. Go prepare a plot for planting sweet potatoes at Atade. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: bangbang, gaud, pala, huklay.

bitu 1comm. a pit trap; a pit. Nangapya dah bitu nah habal. They made a pit-trap in the swiden farm. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap animals using a hole in the ground. Wada key bituwon yu ya idatan dakami. If you trap anything give us some. Ekayu mamitu Go and make a pit-trap. Nabitu nan mangakon dih hilong nah bitun kinapya mi. Last night the robber fell into the trap which we had made. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑, ma‑/na‑.

bok’a 1comm. tool to dig tubers; a metal rod pointed at one end, flat at the other end; original was made of coffee wood which was heated over a fire to harden it. Alam nan boka ta eta mumbokah gattuk nah habal. Get the digging tool and we will go to dig some sweet potatoes in the swidden plot. Sim: baw’ok. 2intrans. to dig with tool. Bumoka kah hin-latan gattuk. Dig a can of sweet potatoes. Eka mumboka ad uwani gattuk. Go and gather sweet potatoes now. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 3trans. to dig all root vegetables. Ibaam hi inam ta eyu bokaan nan habal. Accompany your mother to dig all of the tubers in the swidden plot. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

bote 1comm. refers to any bottle container. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place something in a bottle. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria bottled the paint that we had left-over. Umeyak ked Solano on binoten mantekay gattangok te nalaklaka. When I go to Solano I buy bottled cooking oil because it is cheaper. nuN‑ i‑, ‑in‑.

bud’al 1nom. an exit or opening to go out. Maid di buddalan nan gando. The rat has no exit. ‑an. Sim: buddu, lah-un. 2intrans. to exit; come out; go out. Bumudal kayu ni-an ta liniyan mi tun bale. Go out for a while and we will clean the house. Hinumgop kami nah balen ongal ya ekami bumudal ya hinnatkon di bimmudalan mi. We entered the big house but when we came out we came out from a different exit. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.4.1 - Move out.) 3trans. to bring something out. Ibudal mu nan it-ittalum. You bring out what you are hiding. Adiyu ibudal am-in hanan makan te dakol da pay di ugge nangan. Do not bring out all the food because many did not eat yet. Dahdiy nangibudal bo tuh intaluk an otak. Who brought out again this bolo which I had hidden. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3E Move an object directionally. ph. v. bumudal nah hospital

bud’ing (sp. var. budding) comm. ricebird; two species. Eka mun-abul hi buding nah payo. You go to drive away the rice birds in the fields. Naligat di mun-abul hi buding. It’s hard to drive rice birds away. Upuwon di buding di page hin adi adugan hanan page hin mamunga. The ricebirds will consume the grains of rice if the rice is not guarded when the grains begin to form. Sim: banukung, bikongkong; gen: hamuti. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.) id. kay nomnom di buding

bunag intrans. to transfer or transport something; usually done little by little; to transport specified things. Ekami numbunag hi kape. We made several trips to carry sacks of coffee. It-itayon yun e mumbunag nah lona. You carry the sand little by little. Kalyom ke dida ta eda punbunag nan karga yu. Tell them to go and carry our cargo. Binunag hanadan imbabalek nan batu. My children carried the stones little by little. Bunagon yuh tu nadan liblu. Carry the books here little by little. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: ubu. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bunwit 1comm. fishhook. Nipanot nan bunwit nah matan nan dolog. The fishhook was stuck in the eye of the fish. (sem. domains: 6.4.5 - Fishing, 6.4.5.3 - Fishing equipment.) 2trans. to hook fish; to go fishing. Etaku mumbunwit ad Ambuwaya? Shall we go fishing at Ambuwaya? Mamunwit dah dolog nah payo. They are fishing for mudfish in the ricefield. Maid di bunwiton yuh na. You will not catch anything there. Eka bumunwit hi ihda taku. You go and hook a fish for our viand. Ibunwit mu nan bunwit amam. Use the fishhook of your father. muN‑/nuN‑, maN‑, ‑um‑, ‑on, i‑.

buyat trans. to water; to pour water on. Eka mumbayat te deyan nakleng day intanom mu. Go water because what you planted is withered. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

CV intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable of a verbal root is the form of a morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in very dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Anakkayang peman hi Bugan tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Wow (how excited you must be) Bugan, why do you go very early when there are no jeepneys yet. Gadgadam nan bila te dakol di lamut na ya napipitok. Scrape the tubers because they have many roots and they are very muddy.

dagga v. to go beyond a given place. Deket ume kah balen da ya madagga ka ni-an hi Shrine ta eka mangala nah lappaw ta waday ahi ta idecorate nah simbaan. If you are going to their house, go beyond to the Shrine first to get sunflowers so we will have something to decorate the church. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.5 - Move past, over, through.) Daggana

danglol 1sta. to be slippery. Madanglol nan dalan an umed Linda. The path which goes to Linda is slippery. Madanglol nan manteka nah dulung. The cooking oil on the floor is slippery. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.) 2proc. to become slippery. Dumanglol nan kalata hin umudan. If it rains, the road will became slippery. Ha-adam hi lana nan buuk mu ta dumanglol. Put oil on your hair so that it will be soft (lit. slippery). ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. madanglol

dapan comm. sole of the foot; the whole foot including the toes and heel. Ekat em ulahan nan dapan mu. You go wash the soles of your feet. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.2 - Leg.) id. kay hukbung di dapana

diklamu 1trans. to charge someone with a fault or wrongdoing; sue someone. Edaka idiklamu te inakom nan manuk mi. I am going to sue you because you stole our chicken. Eka mundiklamu hin pinhod mu. Go ahead and sue me if you want to. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.7.5.3 - Accuse, confront.) 2comm. complaint. [The concept of a complaint usually includes the idea of taking the complaint to a civil authority for arbitration. ] Kon waday diklamu yu? Do you have any complaints? 3intrans. to complain. Mundiklamu da hin adim idat di pinhod da. They will complain if you do not give what they are demanding. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.8.5 - Complain.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

dola comm. refers to the area around and outside of a building; yard; outside. Ekad dola. Go outside. Munhigid kad dola. Sweep the yard. Mihaynod ya mun-aallodah dayakkot an nidadaan nah dola. Next is the free-for-all throwing of rice at each other which has been readied and placed in the yard. Sim: ayugu, aldattan, ta-angan. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

dopap 1rec. to struggle or contend with by grappling; wrestle. Mundopap dan hintulang. The siblings are grappling with each other. Bimmoh-ol mo kanuh Pangka ya ho- mundopap da. So, according to Pangka, he got mad and er...they grappled with each other. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: hommol, alibadbad; Sim: tiliw. 2catch; seize; arrest. 2.1trans. to take hold of by catching. Eka dumpap nah manuk ta gogodon taku. Go catch a chicken and we’ll butcher it. Dumpap kayuh ihda takun gawgawa. Catch one of the ducks for our viand. Etaku mampap hi dolog. Let’s go catch fish. 2.2trans. to take hold of with force; seize, arrest. Dopapon yu nan mangako. Arrest the thief. Dimpap da nan mangako. They arrested the thief. Nadpap nan nangako. The thief was arrested. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile actions. (sem. domains: 4.6.6.1.1 - Arrest, 7.2.6.1 - Catch, capture.)

gagala (fr. var. galgala) 1advpred. may refer to the speed with which something is done, i.e. quickly, or a short duration of time; soon. Gagalay pangapyaan Fely hi cookies. Fely makes cookies quickly. Gagala ya nap-uy makan. Soon the food was gone. Gagala ya dimmatong da nah balen nan inaona. Soon they arrived at Aunt Magappid’s house. Time. Sim: alittu; Sim: galgala. (sem. domains: 8.4.8 - Speed.) 2to hurry. 2.1advpred. to hurriedly do something; do something with haste. <The action is cross-referenced by the affix on the adverbial predicate.> Galgal-am ta magibbu. Hurry it (the thing being done) so that it will be finished. Tipet galagalaam an mangan? Why do you eat so fast? (hurriedly) Gal-am an ume. Hurry and go. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.4.2 - Take time.) 2.2advpred. the information focus is on the hurried manner rather than the action that is modified. Inggagalanan in-e. He hurriedly brought it. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 2.3intrans. the information focus is on the person hurrying. the agent-subject is cross-referenced by the affix.. <The agent-subject is cross-referenced by the affix. on the adverbial predicate.> Tipet eka gumalagala? Why are you hurrying? Kanan Josey “Tipe eka munggagalan manayyu?” Jose said “Why are you hurriedly going down?” ‑um‑/‑imm‑; muN‑/nuN‑.

giha trans. to split wood into small pieces; either an ax or bolo may be used. Gihaon yu tun tukud. Split this post. Ekah muyung ta eka munggiha. Go to the forest to split wood. Gumiha kah itungun da apum. Split some wood for your grandparents’ use. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: gihgi; Sim: dikhal, gihgi, potw’ak. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.)

ginga 1comm. a small snail, fragile-shell; found in rice paddies. Pinhod mun ihday ginga? Do you like ginga-snails to eat? Sim: kuwiwwiw, battikul, kohol. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to gather snails. Eka manginga. Go and get ginga-snails. maN‑/naN‑.

gisay trans. to fry food in small amount of oil. Athituy aton: Mamangulu ya igisay amput ya danggu hi manteka. This is how to cook it: First, saute the garlic and onions in cooking oil. i‑/iN‑. 3D Move an object with a resulting change of state. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.)

gogod 1comm. a slice of something, usually meat. Alam di ohan gogod. Get a piece (which has been sliced). Sim: ngulungul. (sem. domains: 7.8.5 - Make hole, opening, 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2trans. to cut with knife or bolo, e.g. meat. Gogodon yu nan bagang di manuk. Cut off the chicken's head. Eka munggogod hi dotag. Go to cut meat. Gumogod ka hi ittay nah dotag. Cut a piece of meat. Nagogod di takle na. He cut his hand. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑, ‑um‑. 4A Changing the structure of an object.

guhing 1comm. water outlet in dikes to let water flow to lower terrace. Eka mun-ulah dih guhing. You go and wash in the water outlet of the ricefield. 2trans. to make a water outlet. Guhingan yu nan banong ta tudukon yu nan payo. Make a water outlet on the dike so the field will be drained. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.)

ha-ob 1comm. the side of someone or something. Eka dih ha-ob na. Go beside him. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.2 - Beside.) 2comm. opposite or other side of something. Eka umbun hi ha-ob na. Go sit opposite him. Dahdi din taguh ha-ob mayor? Who is that person seated opposite the mayor? Sim: bah-el. 3intrans. refers to both sides of someone or something. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by both of my shoulders. infl. hinna-ob

hagad 1comm. a soft broom, usually made of palm fronds. Em alan nan hagad ta munhagad ka. Go and get the broom and sweep. Gimmatangak hi duwan hagad handih Sabado. I bought two brooms last Saturday. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to sweep away something; to sweep a particular area. Adim hagadon tun papel. Don’t sweep away this paper. Hagadan yu tun dulung. Sweep this floor. Ihigid mu tudan papel. Sweep away these papers. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 5 - Daily life.) 3intrans. to sweep. Eka munhagad te mungngalini. You go and sweep because it’s very dusty. muN‑/nuN‑.

hagob 1intrans. to go to the spring to get water; fetch water. Eka humagob hi liting. Go and fetch water. Himmagob, nana-ang ya nunhigup hi bintok. He got water, cooked, and carried bundles of rice into the shade. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 2trans. to fetch water with a container-object or the place to fetch water cross-referenced. Em hagoban nan angang. Fill the jar with water. Ihagob mu nan aluwog. Fetch water with the bamboo-tube. Daanay punhagoban. Where do we fetch water?

hap-e trans. to dry something under the sun. Ihap-e mi nan page te natina. We will dry the rice because it is wet. Ekayu munhap-eh kape. Go dry the coffee. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3D Move object with a resulting change. Sim: langu. (sem. domains: 1.3.3.1 - Dry.) der. hap-ayan

hayobhob intrans. to crowd around someone or something. Adiyu hayobhoban nan nahalangob. Don’t crowd around that one who fainted. Antipe ekayu humayobhob hitu? Why do you crowd around here? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: alibungbung. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

hayud trans. to scavenge for food. [This is always associated with the poor or needy. They are the ones who munhayud or get what others do not need and so have thrown away.] Ek pe kattog hayudon din uggedan hinamal. I’ll go to pick up the leftover rice. Eka humayud hi inwele dah makan. Go pick up any food thrown away by others. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.) infl. manayud

helmet 1comm. helmet; hard plastic or steel helmet. gen: taddung. (sem. domains: 5.3.4 - Clothes for special occasions.) 2intrans. to wear a helmet. Munhelmet ka hin eka mungngunu. Wear a helmet when you go to work. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

hiklop sta. twilight time; evening darkness; dusk. Eka ot te mungkahiklop. You better go because it’s getting dark. Nahiklop mo. Evening darkness has set in. ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.)

hilong 1comm. night; total darkness. Kaatnay hilong an uggeka nahuyop? How many nights did you not sleep? Adika lumahun hin hilong. Don’t go out at nighttime. Ume da kahilohilong. They go out every night. Sim: hodom, tapol, labi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.1 - Night, 8.3.3.2 - Dark.) 2intrans. darkness is durative, continually dark. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. muN‑/nuN‑. 3intrans. riddle, big man = night. Ongal an tagu, deket immali, nate day tagu. (hilong) When the big man comes the people die. (night) der. hinilong der. munhilhilong der. mungkahilong id. humilong di nomnom id. humilong di pangang-ang na.

hingal trans. to scold loudly; especially an elder sibling scolding a younger one, parents scolding their children, or superiors scolding subordinates. Ihingal mu din unga te deyan munhapuke. Scold that child because he is playing with the dirt. Antipet eka umihingal? Why do you scold? i‑/iN‑, umi‑. 3I Direct action toward object. Sim: hanggik, hong-ak, bugtak. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.3 - Angry, 3.5.1.8 - Criticize.) Language of Borrowing: Central Ifugao.

hodom 1sta. darkness of evening. Eka ot tedeyan mahdom. Go now because it will soon be dark. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It comes out and flies around quietly at night. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: hilong, tapol, labi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.1 - Night, 8.3.3.2 - Dark.) 2adv. this evening; tonight. Hi mahdom di aliyana. He will come tonight. ma‑. Time. 3adv. last night. Maid dilag dih nahdom. There was no light last night. na‑. 4pass. will arrive late or in the evening; night catches up with someone along the way. Tibom ta adika mahdoman. Be sure that night will not overtake you on the way. ma‑ ‑an. infl. hoddomna infl. mahmahdom

holod trans. to boil pigs’ food; to cook for pigs, usually yam leaves, yam and other edible tubers and leaves. Ihlod mu nan bila. Cook the bila-tuber for the pig. Eka munholod. Go cook the pigs’ food. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.)

holok di hapon comm. Japanese grass variety. Eka umalah holok di hapon ta kanon tudan labit. Go and get Japanese grass for the rabbits to eat. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

homok 1pass. having the property of or being in the state of arousing the pity of others. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Oha bo ya mahmok di adol. One more thing is your body is pitiful. Adik bo pinhod an eka mahmahmok an maoh-ohha. I don’t want you to be pitiful, always alone, by yourself. ma‑. Sim: amuyu. (sem. domains: 4.4.4.1 - Mercy.) 2feel pity. 2.1trans. to feel compassion for someone in trouble or who is suffering, and do something to alleviate the suffering; usually results in giving material aid; the person receiving the pity and help is in view. Homkonak anhan. Please pity me. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.4.4.1 - Mercy.) 2.2intrans. to show compassion. Mipangngat an hummok tah ibban tagu. It is one’s duty to have pity on others. Hummok kayu ahan ta umidat kayu hi ittay an boga. Please have pity and give us a little rice. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3comm. the feeling of sympathy for another’s plight or suffering. Namahig di homok di Dios ke ditaku. God has much pity for us. infl. numpahpahmok

hon’an trans. to hurry someone in what he is doing; to urge someone to hurry. Adim honahonanon nan golang te adi pakadallan. Don’t hurry the child because he is not big enough to walk fast. Adiyak honanon. Don’t hurry me. Antipe tuwali eka humnan? Why do you make me hurry? Mahananak ot idat ku nan pihuk. I was being hurried and so I gave my money. Adi mahanan. He cannot be hurried. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑ ma‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 3.3.3 - Influence.)

hongba trans. 1to broil over live coals or hot ashes; roast meat; also root vegetables and corn. Ihongbam nan gattuk. Broil the sweet potato. Eka munhongbah aba. Go, broil some tubers. i‑/iN‑. 3D Move object with resulting change of state. Sim: pul’uk, dangpa, halab. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.) 2(fig) to get involved in an argument or contention; get into trouble; to get embroiled. He-a pe inhongbam di adol mu. You are the one who got yourself into trouble. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.) id. ena ihongbay adol na

hugud 1comm. a tool for arranging the hair; a comb. Gimmatangak hi hugud. I bought a comb. Sim: taytay. (sem. domains: 5.4.3.1 - Comb hair.) 2trans. to comb hair. Hugudom di buuk din golang. Comb the baby’s hair. Munhugud ka ta ahika lumahun. Comb your hair before going out. Eka munhugud. Go and comb your hair. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact.

hukhuk 1trans. to hide behind someone or something. Tipet ihukhuk mun inam? Why do you hide behind your mother? i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: hukyab, hulbuk. (sem. domains: 7.6 - Hide.) 2pass. to be hidden or sheltered. Binumtik nan manuk ot nihukhuk nah maholok. The chicken ran away and hid itself among the grasses. Eka mihukhuk dih gulun. Go hide yourself in the cogon-grass. mi‑/ni‑.

hulul 1trans. to barter something; to trade something for another thing. <The prefix cross-references what is being given for the trade transaction.> Kanan nan in-inay ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka. The old woman said, I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard. Em ihulul tun babuy taku. You go to trade our pig. i‑/iN‑. 3H Conversive action process. Sim: hannot. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.1 - Buy, 6.8.4.2 - Sell.) 2trans. to barter or trade for something that is wanted. <Morphology: This affix set cross-references what is being traded for, i.e. bought.> ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3comm. this refers to the small pig that a girl’s family takes to the boy’s house during the engagement process; this is optional, but if the hulul is given, the bride’s family does not need to repay the bride price if the engagement or marriage should be dissolved. infl. hululan infl. munhulul

huyop 1sta. to sleep. Eka mahuyop te gawan mon di hilong. Go to sleep because it is already midnight. Handih nadilagan nan danum ya tinibon Malyay dakol an allaman mahmahhuyop nah babatu. When the torches lit the water, Malya saw many crabs sleeping on the stones. Athidi bon nah hilong ta adi ka pakahuyop. The same is true at night so that you cannot sleep. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: ka-ok, yongyong. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.) 2trans. to sleep with someone; euphemism for committing adultery. i‑/in‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.2.3 - Sexual immorality.) der. kahuyopan infl. ihuyop

iday adjunct. oh dear!; expression of surprised dismay or fear. [Intonation and facial expression disambiguates the meaning of this expression] Iday, antipe mampet em impakga? Oh, dear, why did you let him cry? Iday, tipet dekah tu? Oh dear, why are you here? Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

idda intrans. to lie down. Mahakit key ulum ya eka mun-idda. If you have a headache, go lie down. muN‑/nuN‑. Syn: bakne. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 - Lie down.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ila-ila intrans. to invite trouble; to court trouble; to do something that causes trouble. Umila-ila kah katayam. You are looking for your death. Antipe umila-ila ka hi pakidamaam? Why are you looking for a cause to quarrel? Tipet nganney ilailam? Why, what are you looking for? Eka umilailah patayon dakan dida. You are giving them a reason to kill you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2H General class. Sim: angit. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.1 - Bad, immoral.) infl. mangila-ila

imbes advpred. instead of. Imbes an um-umbun kah na ya daan mot eka muntanom. Instead of sitting there why not go plant. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: tonna, deman. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.9 - Concession.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: envez.

imbitar (sp. var. imbital) trans. to invite someone for an occasion. Hi uncle nan hi Taguiling inimbitar nah bale da te mumbaki da. His uncle, Tuguiling, was invited to their house because they were to perform the baki-ritual. Eka mun-imbitar hi tatagu ta makihamul da. Go and invite people so that they will join the feast. Imbitarom am-in di iibam. Invite all of your relatives. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.1 - Invite.)

importante (sp. var. impoltante) 1advpred. important. Importante an eka bumotos. It is important that you go out and vote. Importante tun ayak ad Lagawe. My going to Lagawe is important. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on your books. Evaluative. Sim: mahapul, kinwani. 2trans. to make important. Adika mumpaimportante hin ume taku hi balen tulang mu. Do not make yourself important when we go to your sibling’s house. mumpa‑/numpa‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

in-ina (der. of ina) 1comm. old woman. In-ina mo nan nangiabban ha-oy handi. The one who cared for me when I was a child is already an old woman. Kanan nan in-inay ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka. The old woman said, I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard.” CV(C)‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.5.2 - Woman.) 2sta. to be old. Nain-ina moh ina. Mother is already an old-woman. na‑ CV(C)‑.

ingal 1comm. shouting noise. Donglom di ingal din u-unga. Listen to the shouts of the children. Sim: tukuk. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2trans. to express excitement by cheering in competitive play or exhibition. Nganney ingaingalan di tatagu di hilong? What were the people cheering about last night? CVCV ‑an. 3intrans. to make a shouting noise. Tipet ekayu umingal? Why do you make noise? ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ingngo 1intrans. to be similar; to be alike; to resemble; to be equal. Nun-ingngo di bulwati da. They have the same clothes. Adinadaman eka miingngon nah apum. You cannot be equal to your boss. muN‑, mi‑. Sim: obot, umat, paddung. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2.1 - Same.) 2trans. to imitate; to follow or copy what someone does. Ining-ingo nay pungkalkalin inana. She imitated the way her mother talks. Ing-ingo nay pumbulwatin tulang na. She imitates the way her sister dresses. Iingngo yu nah kinapya dan ubunan. Imitate (make one the same) the chair that they made. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.3.1.2 - Meet a standard.) 3sta. to be identical. Naka-ingngoy angada te dappilda. Their faces are identical because they are twins. naka‑. 4proc. to become the same. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. muN‑ i‑. der. kaingngo der. kiingngohan

kabit₁ trans. 1to hang or attach something. Umeka ta eyu ikabit am-in nan decorasyon. You go and hang all the decorations. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach, 7.3.2.4.1 - Hang.) 2to install electrical wiring. Ikabit taku nan dilag da hi hilong. We will install their lights tonight. Ha-on di e mangikabit nah alambrin di kuryente. I will be the one to install your electrical wiring. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kame trans. to crush cooked food into small pieces by squeezing with hand; to feel or grope for something with hand, e.g. in washing of rice, looking for shellfish in paddy. Kinamekame na nan kanon di babuy. He crushed the food of the pig with his hands. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Syn: kamli. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press, 7.3.4.5 - Actions of the hand.)

kamkam 1comm. wood, small pieces of branches; splinters of wood. Sim: bunhik, lamka. (sem. domains: 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.) 2trans. to gather small pieces of branches or splinters of wood. Eka mangamkam ya eno? Would you mind picking up pieces of wood? maN‑.

kamo (sp. var. kammo) to mix. 1.1bitrans. to combine or mix one thing with another. Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot ihaang mu. You just mix the sugar with the flour and then you cook it. i‑/iN‑ . 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.3 - Mix.) 1.2trans. to mix or combine something, with the focus on the site-object . Kamowam hi dayakkot nan boga. Mix the sticky rice with the other rice. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3sta. to be mixed; refers to a mixture of things. Nungkammo di kinan na kinali mahakit di putuna. What he ate was a mixture, that is why his stomach is painful. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4pass. refers to the two things being mixed together. Eka mikamo didah tatagu. Go and be mixed with the people. Nikamo nan danum nah asukal. The water has been mixed with the sugar. Mahapul an makaikammo nan binokbok. The yeast must be well-mixed with the rice. mi‑/ni‑.

kangeb trans. to bite into food; to bite off pieces of food. Kinangeban di gando hanan intaluk an gattuk. The rats bit a part of the camote I hid. Tipet athituy ang-ang na an kay nakangekangeban. Why does it look like it has been bitten on all sides? Takon di pustisuy bab-am ya pun-ikangeb ot. Even if your teeth are false, just bite with them. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an + CV(C)CV‑, puN‑ i‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.1 - Bite, chew.)

kattad 1comm. a fish trap pushed into water to surround fish; made of bamboo and rattan strips. Inhable na nan kattad nah alang. He hung the kattad-fish-trap at the rice granary. (sem. domains: 6.4.5.3 - Fishing equipment.) 2trans. to catch fish with a kattad fish trap. Kinattad on ongal an dolog. He caught a big mudfish with the kattad-trap. An ekayu mangattad? Are you going to catch fish? Kattadon yu nan inan nadan dolog. Catch the mother of the fish with a kattad-trap. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.4 - Hunt and fish.)

kob-al comm. an area at the side of the house; yard. Ekayu mun-ay-ayyam nah kob-al tun bale da. Go and play in their yard. Sim: awidan. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

kotse comm. car. Eka ke ibagan Sakai hin mabalin an makilugan takuh kotse da. Akaw adiyak te bumainak. Would you go to ask Sakai if we can ride with him in his car? Oh no, I will not because I would be embarrassed. (sem. domains: 7.2.4.1.1 - Vehicle.)

kuldi 1comm. pigeon pea; a bushy plant with a trunk, usually found along fences in the upland, dry land farm. Id-um mu nan kuldi nah dotag. Mix the pigeon-peas with the meat. cajanus cajan (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2intrans. to gather pigeon peas. Eka manguldi hi ihda ta. Go and gather pigeon-peas for our viand. maN‑/naN‑.

kultud trans. to snap off young shoots or leaves, usually with fingers, the thumb and forefinger. Kultudom nan haping nan ba-at. Snap off the twig of the guava. Eka mangultud hi uhiyok di tingting ta ihda taku. Go and snap off some camote tops for our viand. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.8.4 - Tear, rip.)

kunde 1comm. weed which is edible. Ingkamo da nan kunde nah manuk. They mixed the kunde-weed with the chicken. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1 - Food from plants.) 2intrans. to gather kunde weed. Eka mangunde ta waday ihaang taku. Go and get kunde-weed so we have something to cook. maN‑/naN‑.

ladaw sta. to be late. Naladawak bo. I’m late again. Lumadaw nan munlugan tah adi paka-en tolak. A cause for being late is riding a vehicle that is slow. Adik pinhod an ekayu maladaw, kanan inada. I don’t want you to be late, their mother said. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.) infl. maladaw infl. munladaw

lah-ot trans. to bar someone’s way; to stop the progress of something; to intercept someone or something. Lah-otom hi Tomas an mangali. Intercept Thomas who is coming. Eka lumah-ot hi punluganan taku. Go, stop a ride for us. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.6.2 - Prevent from moving.)

laliw intrans. the wish to go with someone you like, e.g. children who want to go with their parents wherever they go. Makilaliw hi Tony ken inana. Tony wants to go with his mother. Nalaliw tuwali. He has that characteristic of wanting to go with people. Adi mumpatibo hin umeka te milaliw bo. Do not show yourself to her when you leave because she will insist on tagging along. maki‑, mi‑, na‑. (sem. domains: 3.3 - Want.)

lamtung comm. sweet potato leaves for planting. Eka umalah lamtung ta kanon di babuy. Go and get sweet-potato-leaves for the pig’s food. Sim: tingting. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

lamu trans. to put oil or grease on something. Neyan ilamulamum di taban di babuy. There, you are oily with pork fat. Milamulamu nan manteka nah hubil na. His mouth is oily from shortening. i‑/iN‑, mi‑. 3A Move and position object. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

lanat trans. to melt lard or plastic by heat or fire. Lanatom nan manteka ta mumpulituwak. Melt the lard and I will fry (food). Em ilanat nan manteka ta mumpulitu tah dolog. You melt the lard and we will fry the fish. Nalanat nan manteka nah butilya. The lard in the bottle is melted. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2 - Steps in food preparation.)

lappog (sp. var. lappod) 1comm. woman’s skirt; one-piece dress. Andukkey lappog na. Her skirt is long. (sem. domains: 5.3.2 - Women's clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a skirt. Eka munlappog. Go put on your skirt. muN‑/nuN‑.

latud 1comm. taro leaves. Pinhod kun munhidah latud. I like to have taro-leaves for my viand. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2intrans. to gather taro leaves. Eka munlatud hi ihda taku. Go and gather taro-leaves for our viand. muN‑/nuN‑.

lau₁ comm. the leaf of a certain palm-like plant used for wrapping rice cakes before cooking. Eka umalah lau ta punlibbut takuh binakle. Go get some lau-leaves for wrapping our rice-cakes. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

lawid 1comm. tiny fishing hooks. Nangapyah lawid hi Juan. Juan made small fishing hooks. (sem. domains: 6.4.5.2 - Fish with hooks.) 2trans. to fish with hooks in the river or creeks. Eka munlawid hi wangwang. Go fish with your hook in the river. Hay dakol di lawidom. Catch many fishing with a hook. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent.

layut₁ 1comm. rags; ragged clothing. Umidat ta keh bulwati nadah nawotwot ya bokon kay layut di idat. If you give clothes to the poor, don’t give rags. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear ragged clothes. Tipet eka munlaylayut? Why do you wear rags? muN‑/nuN‑. 3intrans. discarded ragged clothes. Idat mu nan nunlayutam. Give me your ragged clothes. (the ones you have already discarded.) nuN‑ ‑an.

liting 1comm. water. [The potable water in the area comes from the springs flowing out of the mountains.] Eka umalah liting te nauwoak. Go and get some water because I’m thirsty. Mada-idaih ya pakayahyaak moppe te impainumanak hi liting. After a while, I could breathe again because she gave me a drink of water. Syn: danum. (sem. domains: 1.3 - Water.) 2trans. to put water on plants. Litingan yu nadan nitanom. Water the plants. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3proc. the process of something becoming moist or watery. Lumiting di ahin. Salt turns watery. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. malting

low’ok trans. to dip out, e.g. fermenting rice wine, mud in a field. Ilwok mu nan basu nah buhi. Use the glass to dip from the wine jar. Eka lumwok dih lagat ta inumon ta. Go and dip some of the old rice wine and we’ll drink it. i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.4 - Lift.)

makipatte (infl. of pate) intrans. to participate in a serious fight. Adika e makipatte te eka man ot maniboh kateyam. Do not be fighting with anyone because you will only be looking for your death. maki‑.

maladaw (infl. of ladaw) sta. for someone to be late for an event based on a time schedule. “Adik pinhod an ekayu maladaw,” kanan ina da. Their mother said, “I don’t want you to be late.” ma‑. (sem. domains: 8.4.5.3.3 - Late.)

malkadu (sp. var. markadu; sp. var. malket) 1comm. market place, open-air stands selling a variety of food, clothing and other things. Eka munggattang hi malkadu. Go and sell in the market. E nuntenda hi malkadu. He went to sell in the market. Sim: tendaan. (sem. domains: 6.9.3 - Marketing.) 2intrans. to go to buy things in a market place. E mummalkadu hi pihda na nadah mungngunu. He is going to buy food for the workers. Eyak mummalkadu hi ihda. I am going to buy viand. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to buy things offered in a market. Minalket kuy duwan dolog. I bought two mudfish in the market. Imalketam hi ihda da. Buy viand for them. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: mercado.

mamugbug (infl. of bugbug) intrans. to harvest coffee; pick the coffee beans from the tree. Eka mamugbug hi kape. Go and harvest coffee. maN‑/naN‑.

mangabal (der. of maabal) trans. to gather beetles generally with the purpose of using them for food. Ekayu mangabal hi hilong ta ihda takuh bigat. Go and get beetles tonight for tommorow’s viand. maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

muntu-un (der. of tu-un) ref. to commit suicide by leaping off a height; an extended meaning of tuun ‘to turn something upside down’. Eka muntu-un hin immingle kah nitaguwam. Go jump off a cliff if you’re bored with life.

ob-ob₁ comm. a spring of water. Eka humagob nah ob-ob. Go and fetch water from the spring. Sim: otbol, hobwak. (sem. domains: 1.3 - Water, 1.3.1.4 - Spring, well.)

oha 1quan. one, cardinal number. Oha ya abuy Dios. There’s only one God. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.1 - Cardinal numbers.) 2trans. one time; once. Naminghan dakan dinamu. I only met you once. namiN‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.3 - Number of times.) 3trans. to repeat an action on one thing at a time; one-by-one. Ohhaohhaom didan ayagan. Call them one by one. ‑on/‑in‑ CV(C)CV. 4adv. one each. Hin-oh-ay idat kun dakayu. I’ll give you one each. hin‑. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: 9.6.1.7 - Distribution.) 5trans. to do something alone. Mu adik bo pinhod an eka mahmahmok an maoh-ohha. But also, I don’t want you to be pitiful, always alone. ma‑ CV(C)‑. comp. himpulut oha comp. oha bo der. hin-oh-a der. maoh-ohha der. maoh-ohha der. naminghan der. naohha der. numpinghan der. ohhaan der. oh-ohha der. pinghan der. pinghana infl. o-oha

ohab intrans. to open the mouth involuntarily in reaction to fatigue or sleepiness; to yawn. Mun-oohab din golang. The baby is yawning. Umohab ke nan golang ya iabbam te umaliy hinuyop na. If the child yawns, carry him because he is becoming sleepy. Eka mahuyop te mun-ooyab ka. Go to bed because you are yawning. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

olwang 1comm. flash flood in a river due to heavy rains in upper portion of the river. Adi kayu madinol an mungkekeh nah te mianud kayu hin umali nan olwang. Don’t just swim there for all you know the flash-flood will just carry you away. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.) 2intrans. to have a flash flood. Immolwang ya nianud nadan oongal an kaiw. There was a flash-flood and the big trees were swept away. Mun-olwang handi ekami umali kinali imbangngad mih bale. There was a flash-flood when we were about to come, that is why we went back home. ‑um‑/imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

onom 1adj. six, cardinal number. Onom day imbabalek. I have six children. Kanan nan in-inay "Ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka." The old woman said, "I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard." Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.1 - Cardinal numbers.) 2adj. sixty. Nan-om dan am-in an immed Lagawe. They were sixty in all who went to Lagawe. na‑. 3comm. six each. Hin-on-om kayuh pah-onon nah itungu. Carry six apiece of the firewood. hiN‑. 4adj. sixth in a sequence. Ha-oy di mikan-om ke dakamin hintutulang. I am the sixth in the family. mika‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.2 - Ordinal numbers.) comp. himpulut onom der. hin-on-om der. nan-om

pagpag trans. to beat on something with the palm of the hand. Pagpagam nan gampa ta makakkaan nan nihudu. You beat on the basket so that it will be empty. Pagpagom nan panto te nakahhuyop da. Beat on the door because they are fast asleep. Eka mamagpag hi gumattangam hi ilukut. Go and beat on someone’s door to buy cigarettes. (understood that storekeeper is asleep) ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, maN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

puhu₂ 1comm. banana blossom. Mahong-on ibayuh allama nan puhu. Banana blossoms pounded with crabs are delicious. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to gather banana blossoms. Eka manungpup ta eyak mamuhu. You go and gather bamboo shoots while I go to gather banana blossoms. maN‑/naN‑.

pul-ut 1comm. a leafy reed; small variety of canegrass primarily used in roofing. Hay pul-ut di iatop da nah balaybayan di bale. They will use the reeds as roofing for the overhang of the house. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to gather canegrass for roofing. Eka mamul-ut te nadunut mo nan atop taku. Go and gather canegrass for roofing because our roof is already rotten. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mamul-ut

pulis (sp. var. pulit) 1comm. policeman. Eka umayag hi pulis. Go call a policeman. (sem. domains: 4.5.1 - Person in authority.) 2trans. to police someone, to go after a culprit. [An extended meaning can be a wife going after a husband who does not go home on time.] Mumpulis da hi nabutong. They will police the drunk people. Pulison da nan nangako. They will go after the thief. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

ta₁ The conjunction links a statement of means with a statement of purpose. conj. 1so that. <Morphophonology: Following words ending in vowels ta can be reduced to a clitic form t attached to the preceding word.> Kah-in di he-ay ume ta he-ay e makihummangan ke hiya. You must go so that you’ll be the one to talk to him. Coordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.7 - Purpose.) 2and, with a purpose. Ekat em iabba nan duyat. Go to carry the baby on your back. Manginbubuttik ka aga dih tendaan ta eka gumattang hi suka. Please run to the store to buy vinegar. 3in order to. Immaliyak ta awitok tun golang. I came in order to take this baby. Hay atom ta matikod nan pumbabahhulan yu ya tayanam tun boble. What you need to do in order to stop the bad relationship between you is for you to leave this place. Kah-in di waday himpulun mukkol ta ahi mapnu nan saku. Ten more pieces are needed in order to fill up the sack. comp. deke pe nin ta comp. deket comp. hin anoka ta comp. ta ahi

tam-ol 1trans. to soak something in water. Itam-ol mun am-in nan bubulwati. You soak all the clothes. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 1.3.4 - Be in water, 5.6.4 - Wash clothes.) 2ref. to soak oneself in water. Eka muntam-ol ta kumudukdul di gibok mu. Go and soak yourself (take a bath) so that you will feel better. 3trans. to mix liquid in food to soften it; to soak food in water. Tam-olam nan golang hi kanona. Mix some soft food for the child. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

tanghoy 1comm. watercress. Tummol di tanghoy nah malini ya matuning an liting. Watercress grows in clear and cool water. Nasturtium officinale (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to gather watercress. Eka mananghoy nah payo ta ammungok tudan ginga. Go and gather watercress in the field while I gather these shellfish. maN‑.

taug 1comm. a drinking container, made of bamboo or coconut shell. Sim: basu. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to fill drinking container. [The custom in the past was to ladle the rice wine with one coconut shell cup and then, to pass it from person to person.] Itaug yu nan baya. Fill the cup with wine and pass it around. Eka muntaug. Go pass the wine cup. i‑,‑iN‑, muN/nuN‑.

tayan trans. to leave behind; to abandon; to depart. Tinayanan di inayana. She was abandoned by her spouse. Adiyak tayanan. Do not leave me. Tinayananak nah dalan. I was left behind on the way. Intayan kun hiya nan imbabalek. I left my child with her. Maid di makan hi itayan mo ya eka ume. You aren’t leaving any food for them and you are going. Tipet hay babaiy tumayan hi inayana? Why is the woman the one to leave her husband? Timmayan ka ya maid di em intayan ke dida. You abandoned them and you didn’t leave anything for them. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 5C Goal-oriented site. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.1 - Move away.)

tendaan (sp. var. tindaan) (der. of tenda) comm. a store; a place for selling and buying. Eka gumattang nah tendaan. Go buy from the store. Eka gumattang hi kindi nah tendaan. Go and buy candy in the store. ‑an. Sim: malkadu. (sem. domains: 6.9.4 - Commerce.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: tienda.

timil intrans. 1to appear above the surface of the ground; for a plant to sprout. Manimil nadan intanom kun bulhe. The beans I planted are just sprouting. maN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: tul-u. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 2the time when the sun may first be seen above the horizon; sunrise. Timmimil nan algo. The sun rose. Ekayu hin tumimil. You go when the sun rises. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2F Meteorological. Sim: timing. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.) infl. tumimil n. ph. timilan di algo

tingting 1comm. sweet potato leaves, edible greens. Hay tingting di ipakan mu nah babuy. Feed the pig with sweet potato leaves. Sim: lamtung. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather sweet potato leaves for the pigs. Eka maningting hi kanon di babuy. Go and gather sweet potato leaves for the pig’s food. maN‑/naN‑.

tipe int. why; an interrogative pronoun used to ask for a reason, cause or purpose. Tipet eka immali? Why did you come? Ot kanan Josey “Tipet eka munggagalan manayyu?” And Jose said “Why are you hurrying to go down?” Sim: nganat. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words, 9.6.2.5.1 - Reason.) comp. antipe comp. tipet

tonna conj. instead of, implies that the alternative is better. Tipet e hiya udot tonnay ha-on. Why is he the one instead of me.(Why him; not me.) Makahhang-an nadiy he-an wadwada-an di e midattan hi relip, tonnay hanadan maligligatan. Of all people, why should you who have enough be given relief instead of those who are hard-up in life. Tonnay mun-abroad ka ot deyan waday kayam mu nan eka mihmihhaad hituh boble takun naligat di nitaguwan. Why don’t you go abroad instead of staying here in our town where life is hard? Tipet hiyay homkom? Tonnay ha-on! Why is she the one you pity. Why not me! (lit. instead of me) Sim: deman, imbes. (sem. domains: 9.6.1.5.2 - Instead.)

tukal 1sta. to be awake; to stay up late at night. Matukal day tatagu te nangala kayu. People will be awake at night because you are noisy. Natukalak te ekami nakisini. I was stayed up late (lit. was awake) because we went to the movies. Tumukal ka. You caused me to stay awake last night. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 5.7.3 - Wake up.) 2intrans. to stay awake or cause others to stay awake. [People attending a wake often stay up all night.] Muntukal da bo hi hilong te waday nated Ambabag They will stay up late again tonight because their is someone dead in Ambabag. Manukal ka. You are keeping people awake. muN‑/nuN‑, maN‑.

ubu trans. to carry little by little and gather things in one spot. Ubuwon yu nan batu nah pingngit di kalata. You carry and pile the stones at the side of the road. Umubu kayuh duwan sakun lona. Carry and pile two sacks of sand. Eka mun-ubuh batu. You go to carry and gather stones. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. Sim: bunag. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.)

uggut 1comm. the shoots or tops of plants; a generic term but usually refers to vine plants. Alam nan uggut di tingting ta ihda taku. Get the sweet potato tops so that we will have them for viand. Sim: uhiyok. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2trans. to gather edible plant shoots. Eka manguggut hi ihda taku nah habal. Go and gather plant shoots from the sweet potato-plot. maN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

uk’od (sp. var. okod) advpred. to assume responsibility for a decision or task; to be given responsibility; depends on someone to take charge of things. Ukodak an mibangngad. It’s up to me to come back. He-ay ukod ke hiya. You are responsible for him. Ukod ka, umeka weno adika. It’s up to you whether you go or not. ‑an. Manner. Sim: nangamung. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) infl. iukod

wawwan 1adj. the right hand or foot. Nasugat di wawwan an taklek. My right hand got hurt. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 8.5.2.3 - Right, left.) 2trans. to use the right hand. Wawwanom an muntudok. Use your right hand in writing. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. 3comm. the right side of someone or something. Eka umbun di winawwana. Go sit at his right side. infl. winawwan

wekwek₂ 1adjunct. a vocalization used to call for ducks. “Wek wek wek,” kanan nan unga ya mangali da nadan gawgawa. The child said “Wek wek wek”, and the ducks were coming. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 2intrans. to call for ducks. Munwekwek ka ta maamung nadan gawgawa hitu. You call for the ducks so that they will be gathered here. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - General. 3trans. to call for ducks giving prominence to them by affix cross-referencing. Wekwekam nadan gawgawa tedeyan mungkahilong. Call for the ducks because it is almost night time. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.