Search results for "emi"

bakla 1comm. a gay; a homosexual man; one who is effeminate. Bakla nan imbabalena. His son is a homosexual. 2sta. will become effeminate or a homosexual. Mabakla nan imbabalem hin binabaiy iibbana. Your son will become effeminate if his companions are always girls. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

emi pers. we, exclusive; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 1st person plural, exclusive personal pronoun, a member of Set 1; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Kanan nadan muttatyunay “Pinhod mu ke ya emi gabuton?” (Mateo 13:28b) His servants asked “Do you want us to go and spade?” (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

huyop 1sta. to sleep. Eka mahuyop te gawan mon di hilong. Go to sleep because it is already midnight. Handih nadilagan nan danum ya tinibon Malyay dakol an allaman mahmahhuyop nah babatu. When the torches lit the water, Malya saw many crabs sleeping on the stones. Athidi bon nah hilong ta adi ka pakahuyop. The same is true at night so that you cannot sleep. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: ka-ok, yongyong. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.) 2trans. to sleep with someone; euphemism for committing adultery. i‑/in‑. (sem. domains: - Sexual immorality.) der. kahuyopan infl. ihuyop

kamison 1comm. a chemise; a slip, full or half body. E gimmatang hi kamison na. She went to buy herself a chemise. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a chemise. Hay da binabai di mungkamison. It is the women who wear a chemise. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: camison.

mumpidwah ohan toon (ph. v. of toon) advpred. for something to be done or to occur semi-annually. Mathematical.

mumpundogo (der. of dogo) intrans. for many people to be sick at once; sickness is distributed among a group of people; like an epidemic. Waday mumpundogo ke dida. There were many sick among them. mumpuN‑.

munlangkak (der. of langkak) intrans. a euphemism used to refer to committing adultery; extended meaning of langkak ‘to lie’. Nunlangkak da Bugan ke Dulawan. Bugan and Dulawan committed adultery. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Sexual immorality.)

muttag sta. 1to be exposed; for something or someone to be clearly seen. Adika mamuttag hina te wada man di mangyang ke he-a. Don’t show yourself there because someone might stone you. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Known, unknown.) 2(fig) to be poor; used as a euphemism for being very poor.

naiho (infl. of iho) comm. (fig) used to refer to blood in particular communication situations. [When relatives are gathered they never say the word dala ‘blood’ but instead use naiho.] Dakol di naihoh nalpuh adol na. He shed a lot of blood. (lit. a lot of blood came from his body) Dakol di impabuddunah naiho. He shed a lot of blood. (lit. a lot of blood came out) (sem. domains: 2.2.5 - Bleed, blood.)

namnamat trans. to be reminded of something; reminisce. Namnamatok di inat ku dih kaungak. I reminisce about what I did as a child. Deket tinibok nan latlatun Anita on namnamatok nan in-innat mi handih kaittay mi. Whenever I see the picture of Anita, it always reminds me of things we had been doing when we were small. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: nomnomon, hikal. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

ad 1determiner 1.1det. this determiner marks spatial-place common nouns. Ipaem ad da-ul. Send her down (to lower place). (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 1.2det. marks place proper nouns. <morphophonemics: When a preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘a’ drops and the ‘d’ consonant is attached to the verb.> Umed (ume ad) Manila. He will go to Manila. 2det. marks time words: today, yesterday, and day before yesterday. Nuntudokak ke hiya ad ohhandi. I wrote to him the day before yesterday.

adin-abu (comp. of abu, adi) advpred. to the greatest degree, describing only negative circumstances; very; extremely. <Morphology: abu as a compound with the negative, adi, takes the maximizing absolutive of abu and adds a negative extremity notion and functions as a predication.> Adin-abuy hakit tun nag-od. My cut is unbearably painful. Adin-abuy paminhod nan hiya. She loves him very much. Modality - Intensive. (sem. domains: - To a larger degree.)

ap’uy 1comm. the burning of a substance resulting in a chemical reaction which releases heat and light; fire. Nad-op nan apuy. The fire went out. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu ta. I thought that it is only a fire, even though that is a can, and we can be warmed. Sim: banawat. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5 - Fire.) 2trans. to start a fire by specifying the firewood to be used. Em apuyan din itungu ne uggan mu tibon hin maphod di apuy na. Go and build a fire with that firewood and see to it that the fire burns well. Adi matiboy tokona ya kumalat. (apuy) You cannot see its mouth but it bites. (fire)(riddle) ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to build a fire. Mun-apuy ka. You build a fire. muN‑/nuN‑. id. bimmalay apuy da id. inda-i ta bumalay apuy da id. kay naapuyan di tokok

bakwet trans. to leave one’s place; to abandon residence; to evacuate during war or epidemic. Numbakwet day iKiangan handih nangalian di Hapon. Long time ago the Kiangan people left their town because the Japanese came. Numbakweton da dadiyen tatagu te waday ipataddog di gubilnu na niha-adan da. The people were told to leave their place because the government was going to put up something where they were residing. muN‑/nuN‑, nuN‑ ‑on. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: dul’ig. (sem. domains: - Leave, - Abandon.) Language Of Borrowing: English: evacuate.

bongtit 1comm. feces-like odor; bad smell of an insect called dango. Ag-agam di bongtit di dango! What a bad smell the dango has! (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.) 2intrans. to emit a bad odor. Mumbongtit nan nihap-en page. The rice grains being dried stink. muN‑/nuN‑.

buhul 1comm. enemy. [Usually an enemy belongs to a kin group that either has killed someone from one’s kin group or who has had a member killed by someone belonging to one’s own kin group.] Maid di buhul da. They have no enemies. (sem. domains: - Revenge.) 2intrans. to have enemies; to have blood enemies. Dakol day numbuhul handi mu nun-aapu da. There are many who were blood enemies before but they had their children marry each other. Nunbinnuhul da Pedro ke Miguel hi maid gapuna. Pedro and Miguel are enemies without a real cause. Adika ot makiapu ke da naen pamilya te nakabuhhulan da. Don’t intermarry with that family because they have many enemies. Adik pinhod an mabuhulan te ad-adi ya maid di amlong. I do not like to have enemies because it is not good and there is no happiness. ma‑ ‑an, naka‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑,. Sim: aw’it.

C1 this form symbolizes the gemination of the first consonant of the root word; when it co-occurs with the prefix paka-, it intensifies the ability of the agent-subject to perform something very well or completely. Dimmin-ong ta pakaddonglona ya impidwanan bon pimmalak an palak di babai. He was quiet so that he could carefully listen and the groan of a woman was repeated. Sim: pakaC1-.

C2 this form symbolizes the gemination of the medial consonant of the root word; when it co-occurs with the circumfixes paka- -on and paka- -an, it intensifies the ability of the agent-subject to perform something very well or completely. Pakabayyuon dah maphod nan page. They will pound the rice very well. Sim: pakaC2- -on, pakaC2- -an, pakaC1- -on.

C3 this form symbolizes the gemination of the final consonant of the root word; when it co-occurs with the circumfix paka- -on it encodes the intensification of the action. Sim: pakaC3- -on, paka-.

dango 1comm. stinkbug, several species which emit a foul odor; destructive to plants. Pinain di dango nan bulhe. The beans were destroyed by stinkbugs. Hemiptera (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2sta. to be infested, refers to the condition of plants attacked by stinkbugs. Nadango nan bulhe. The beans have been infested by stinkbugs. (lit. The beans are stinkbugged.) ma‑/na‑.

dongol (sp. var. dongngol) 1to listen. 1.1trans. to listen, giving concentrated attention to specific things being heard; to allow oneself to be persuaded to give heed to and follow a suggestion or advice. <morphophonemics: When infixed, the vowel ‘o’ in the first syllable of the root is deleted.> Donglon yuy kalyon apuyu. Listen to what your grandfather will say. Dingngol mu? Did you hear it? He-a ken ohan ap-apuk ya donglom tun kalik. My grandson, listen to me. Dingngol ku an makattugal ka. I heard that you are an habitual gambler. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 1.2trans. the affix focuses on the manner of listening. Tipet idngol muh kalin di tatagu? Why do you listen (pay attention) to what people say? i‑/iN‑. 2to hear. 2.1trans. to perceive sound with the ear; to make an effort to hear something with durative aspect. Mundongol kah kanta nah ladyu. You hear music from the radio. Mundongol kayu ke tuwalit maawatan yuy kalkalyona? Why don’t you listen so that you’ll understand what he is saying? Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 2.2pass. refers to what can or cannot be heard. Deya ot an madngol di tatawa da. There, their laughter can be heard. Adi pakadngol di ingak te nahulatan. My ear cannot hear because it’s obstructed. ma‑, paka‑. 3cause to be heard. 3.1caus. to cause something to be heard. Impadngol nay kantana. He caused his song to be heard. Dahdiy nangipadngol? Who let it be heard? ipa/impa‑, mangipa‑/nangipa‑.. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) id. Donglom tun pangiha-adak id. Madngol di bangluna infl. midngolan infl. mundingngol infl. padngol

eyyakaw (sp. var. eyakaw) adjunct. expression of disgust or dismay; My! My! There may be also a minor component of surprise; thought to be the more feminine way of expression than humkaw. Eyyakaw! Uggem inilay at-attom. Oh my! You don’t know what you’re doing. Eyyakaw! maid pottok na! Oh my, what a mess! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

gango 1comm. sound. Maphod di gangon naen gangha. The sound of the gong is very good. Sim: bungug. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. to emit a sound. Munggango nan atop handi kimmolyog. The roof was emitting a sound when there was an earthquake. Gumango nan ladyu hin waday kulyinti. The radio will emit a sound if there is electricity. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3sta. to be audible, sound can be heard. Magango nan pambab nah gangha. The way he beats the gong with his palms is audible. ma‑/na‑.

haklung 1comm. a utensil for dipping something. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to dip out liquid or semi-liquid substamce. Haklungom nan ihda. Dip the viand. Ihaklunganak pay. Dip another cup for me. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: bano, ak’ud, hoklad, ado. (sem. domains: - Cooking utensil.)

hangga trans. 1to oppose; to face each other in a quarrel or in fight; may be used in regard to enemies in a war. Dahdiy ihanggam ke ha-on? Whom will you select to face me (to fight with me)? Aga, ha-on di hanggaom. Come on, let me be the one you will face (quarrel/fight with). Munhanggay manuk mu nah manuk ku. Your chicken (cock) will fight against my (chicken) cock. Ag-agam, wada on he-ay humangga! My, you are too much; everytime you are the one who faces/fights me! i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.) 2to face towards someone or something. Ihanggam hidi ta adi dakami hanggaon. You face there so that you won’t be facing us. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: hangngab. (sem. domains: - In front of.) der. panangga

Hidit 1comm. ritual for peace; peace pact ritual, between enemies or opposing parties. Etaku makiang-ang hi Hidit da Bulahao ke Allaga. Let’s go see/witness the peace pact ritual between Bulahao and Allaga. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2intrans. to perform the peace ritual. Munhidit da ad Tannibung. They will perform the Hidit-ritual in Tannibung. muN‑/nuN‑.

hidiyen (hidiye) dem. 1in written communication, this demonstrative pronoun is anaphoric in function, i.e. it refers to something introduced previously. Nainnilaak ke uncle an hidiyen tagu ya hi Balwag di ngadana. I learned from my uncle that that man’s name was Balwag. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2in oral communication, this demonstrative pronoun form co-occurs with a noun that is away from both speaker and hearer. <Morphophonemics: contraction, hidiye + an.> Nihuklung hidiyen babai. That woman is possessed.

higa 1comm. laziness; indolence. Namahig di higan tun imbabalek. The laziness of my child is too much. Sim: inaw, nawadaan, ngidlu, butyug, himmiga. (sem. domains: - Lazy.) 2trans. to be pregnant, euphemism. [It could be that higa for pregnancy is associated with laziness because pregnant women often do not work.] Himmiga. She is pregnant. Nihiga di tiempon di gubat. She was pregnant during the war. ‑imm‑, ni‑. Syn: hiding. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 3trans. to be pregnant with a specified child. Nanomnomok di dolog handih inhigak hi Ana. I was always thinking of fish when I was pregnant with Ana. i‑/iN‑. der. munhighigga id. Hay humiga maagangan. infl. himmiga

ihuyop (infl. of huyop) trans. to sleep with someone; euphemistic term for sexual intercourse. Inhuyop na babai an ibaliwon. He slept with the woman from the lowlands. i‑/iN‑. Syn: ulig. (sem. domains: 2.6.2 - Sexual relations, 5.7 - Sleep.)

impakaiC1- this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. <The C1 geminate is not always pronounced or written.> Hanan tagun mangngol hi kalik ya un-unudona ya miingngo nah nanomnoman an tagun nangapyah balenan impakaihammad nay tukud na. (Mateo 7:24) The person who hears what I say and follows it can be compared to the intelligent person who has built his house and strongly stabilized its posts. Sim: pakaiC1-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

kimmodhol (infl. of kodhol) 1proc. has become hard. Kimmodhol nan nihap-en dotag. The meat placed under the sun to dry became hard. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Process. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.) 2intrans. (fig) a euphemism for being dead because the corpse is stiff (rigor mortis). Kimmodhol handi dimmatong kami. He was already dead when we arrived. (sem. domains: 2.6.6 - Die.)

kindom nay mata na (id. of mata) a euphemistic idiom for dying; he died (lit. he closed his eyes). Kindom nay mata na. He died. (lit. He closed his eyes.) (sem. domains: 2.6.6 - Die.)

kokak (sp. var. of kukak) intrans. calling sound emitted by frogs; to croak. Mungkokak da bo nadan bakbak nah payo. The frogs in the ricefields are croaking. (sem. domains: - Animal sounds.)

luw’ag intrans. to emit bubbles; boiling water. Munluluwag nan in-init mun liting. The water you heated is bubbling. Gagalan lumuwag nan liting hin ongngalom nan apuy na. The water will boil faster if you add more fire. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: bayakbak. (sem. domains: 1.3 - Water.)

mahipdut di yahya (id. of yahya) dead; an idiom that euphemistically states that someone is dead (lit. his breath is severed). Mahipdut di yahya na. He is dead. (sem. domains: 2.6.6 - Die.)

makaC1- mod. 1this prefix encodes an intensifying modal of a state. <The first consonant of the root is geminated.> Makangnganta din unga. That child loves to sing. Maka-aliy kogak. I was just at the point of crying. (lit. really coming my crying) Hituwen amayyu ya makahammuy This animal is very odorous. Maka-atung ad Manila. It is very hot in Manila. 2this prefix intensifies the state of the subject referent; co-occurs with stative verbs. Makayyam-oy tinapay ni kinapya na. The bread that she makes is very soft. Sim: nakaC1-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 3this prefix intensifies the passive state of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Maphod di makaddikhal nan itungu te gagala ya mahap-ayan It is good if the firewood is well-split because it will dry quickly.

makaC2- (makang-) mod. this prefix is an intensifying modal forming a stative that describes a characteristic of a person. <The second consonant of the root is geminated.> Kahinlamlampahuwona takon di makahigga. He pretends to be polishing (the floor) although he is actually a very lazy person. Makanginnum ka gayam. You are a habitual drinker. (drunkard) Hiya ya makalukkut. He is a chain smoker. Makadinnol ka. You are over-confident. Makakalli diyen tagu. That fellow is very talkative.

makaC2- -an mod. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; non-past tense; cross-references the subject. <The second consonant of the root is geminated.> Kalyok hituwe te ad uwani ya makaawwatan takuy ine-en di pamhod te hidiyey impatibotibon Jesus hi pangi-ena. (1 Juan 2:8b) I say this because now we fully understand the way of love because that is what Jesus continuously revealed by his customary way. Sim: nakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

mangayyuding comm. black crow; eats corn by breaking off an ear and flying away with it; emits a wak-wak-wak sound. Kinan di mangayyuding nan inhabal kun gahhilang. The crows ate the corn I planted in the swidden-plot. Sim: ban’ug, halagma, butbut, gawwang; gen: gawwang. (sem. domains: - Bird.)

manomnom (infl. of nomnom) intrans. to bring something to mind; to be reminded of something; remember. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu. I remember that when we were children, there were big rocks by that spring. An manomnom mu din golang dih immali kan e nangidung-on dakami? Do you remember the baby when you came to visit us? ma‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

nakaC1- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive, past tense; cross-references an object promoted to subject; the first C of the root is geminated when the form of the root is CVCCV(C). Nakallampahuan nan dulung. The floor is very well polished.

nakaC2- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; past tense; cross-references the subject; the second C of the root is geminated. Nakatanomman hi balat di boble da. Their place was well-planted with banana trees. Nakahiggidan dah maphod. They swept it very well. Sim: makaC2- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

nal-iwwan an yumahya (id. of yahya) an idiom meaning that someone has died (lit. forgot to breathe); may be used as a euphemism.

paklet trans. to splatter liquid or semi-liquid.

pulakgi (fr. var. walakgi) trans. 1to shake off something on hand or other extremity. Impulakgi na nan balaingan an kimmadap hi taklena. He shook off the cockroach that crept on his hand. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: - Shake.) 2to struggle to get free from someone holding one. Mumpulakgi nan babuy handi binobodan da. The pig was struggling to free itself when they tied it up. Pumulakgi nan nabutong hin odnan yu. The drunk will struggle if you hold him. Impulakgi na nadan nandon ke hiya. He shook off those who were holding him. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, i‑/iN‑. Sim: pulki.

siding 1comm. a blemish on the skin; a mole. Waday siding an nimantuk nah olong na. He has a mole on top of his nose. (sem. domains: - Blemish.) 2sta. to have a mole in a specific spot. Nasidingan di dapan na kinali naduka. She has a mole on her sole that is why she loves to roam. na‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

talugtug comm. a semi-soft rock; two varieties: one is reddish in color, the other is whitish; may be used to mix with earth in building stone walls. Adiyu itping di talugtug de dadagonay tuping. Don’t use talugtug-rock as riprap because it will destroy the terrace wall. Sim: muling, dulmug; gen: bat’u. (sem. domains: - Rock.)

abigon (der. of abig) trans. to foretell or prophesy a particular event. [This word, as well as the past tense form, inabig, are frequently used in the Old Testament to refer to the prophecies given by God to the prophets.] Kon gulat nat inila day wadah nomnom ku ya wada ot an impainilak ke diday eda abigon hi tatagu ta ipatikod da didan mangat hi gaga-iho. (Jeremiah 23:22) If only they had known what was in my mind, I would have made known to them what they should prophesy so that they would have caused them to stop doing evil. ‑on.

adi mumbayag (ph. v. of bayag) v. by negating the verb meaning ‘long time’, the concept of short time is expressed. Hay ittolyah dingngol ku handi ya handi dandani mitungo nan tulang ku ya kumananta nan kilkilang nah nih-up hi balemi ot adi mumbayag ya nakatte nan tulang kun golang. The story I heard before is that when it was nearly time for my brother to be born, there was this night bird that always sang near our house, and so the baby died in a short time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.)

ahuk 1comm. smoke. Ibughul mu nan panto ta ume nan ahuk. Open the door so that the smoke will go out. Munluluwaak te nan ahuk. I am shedding tears because of the smoke. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5.5 - What fires produce.) 2intrans. for a fire to be smoking. Mun-ahuk nan apuy. The fire is smoking. Umahuk nan ilukut. The cigarette emits smoke. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to direct smoke toward something. Ahukan yu nan iyyukan. Direct the smoke towards the honeybees. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

at’op 1comm. roof; roofing material. Hinnanotak di atop nan balemi. I changed the roof of our house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to construct a roof; to use as roofing. Iatop yu nan gulun. Roof with the cogon grass/Use cogon grass for the roof. Atopan yu nan baleda ad uwani. You are going to roof their house today. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3pass. to be roofed. Naatopan moy baleda. Their house is already roofed/has a roof. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to make a roof. Mun-atop da nadan mungngunu. The workers are constructing the roof. Umatop kayuh pun-hiduman taku. Make a roof for our shelter. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

bahawit trans. to jack-up something; to lift a heavy object by using a brace or jack. [Formerly, round trees were used; now hydraulic metal jacks are used.] Bahawiton miy balemi ta mundotal di dulung. We will jack up our house so that the floor will be level. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Lift.)

balal trans. 1to mortgage a property, houses or ricefields. [The person who mortgages his property is called the mortgagor.] Ibalal ku nan balemi. I am mortgaging our house. Nibalal din payon da Bugan. Bugan’s ricefields are mortgaged. Bangadok nan imbalal ina. I’ll pay back what mother has mortgaged. i‑/iN‑. 3H Conversive action process. (sem. domains: - Owe, 6.8.4 - Financial transaction.) 2refers to the act of underwriting a mortgage. [The person who underwrites a mortgage is called the mortgagee.] Wada ke ot di pihhuyu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. balalan infl. mangibalal

bat’ag sta. 1bananas that are not ripened properly; the bananas develop hard, darkened parts. Mabatag nan nipal-um te kotol. The bananas will not ripen properly because it’s cold. ma‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 2to be dried-up, hard fruit due to improper ripening or insects which suck the moisture; discoloration on skin may be evidence of the condition. Nabatag nan tabuyug an emi kanon. The pomelo we were going to eat is dried-up. general: Normally bananas are the only ones which are mabatag; for other fruit they are described as makuti. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano .

bingig intrans. 1buzz, sound produced by bees, flies, mosquitoes or other insects; whizzing sound of a flying missile. Mumbingig nan hinumgop hi ingana. The thing that entered his ear is buzzing. Bumingig tun ay-ayyam nan golang. This toy of the child buzzes. Mumbingngigan day babbayung. The bees are buzzing. Pabingigom nan indat inam an ay-ayyam mu. Let the toy that your mother gave you buzz. Mabingig nadan pappahluk. The bees emit buzzing sounds. muN‑, ‑um‑, pa‑‑on, ma‑. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2to make a buzzing sound. Mumbingig an nala-u nan tolak. The vehicle passed by with a whizzing sound. muN‑/nuN‑.

bog-ak 1comm. laughter that is loud and sudden; guffaw. Sim: tatawa, gegek, gigi, titit, halekhek, anggak, albuwang; Sim: halekhek, anggak, albuwang, bughak. (sem. domains: - Laugh.) 2intrans. to laugh very loudly. Makabbog-ak hi Cora nah emi nun-ay-ayyaman. Cora laughed very loudly when we were playing. maka‑ C. 3trans. to laugh loudly at something. Binog-akan mi nan kinali nad ohhandi. We laughed loudly at what he told us the other day. Adina ibog-ak nan tatawa na an iippol na. He isn’t laughing loudly because he is controlling it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑.

bokon 1neg. (prim) is not; are not; the negation form for the predicate constituent of an equational clause. Bokon he-a nan emi kalkalyon. It is not you whom we are talking about. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. Kananay “Man bokon mu hi Lammooy man impangang-ang ku.” He said, “It could not be, but I saw him as Lammooy?” Sim: ugge. (sem. domains: - No, not.) 2(sec) a negative feeling or reaction. 2.1trans. (sec) to be annoyed; to feel resentment; to react negatively to something that is said or done. Adim boknon tun kalyok ke he-a. Do not be annoyed about what I tell you. ‑on. (sem. domains: - Angry.) 2.2proc. (sec) to feel slighted; to feel hurt. <Inflected form: bumkon> ‑um‑. (sem. domains: - Upset.) 2.3sta. (sec) refers to someone who is exceptionally sensitive to being slighted; inclined to pout or sulk. ma‑. bumkon comp. hin bokon der. mabkon

ekayu pers. you-all; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person plural personal pronoun, a member of Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. “Adik pinhod an ekayu maladaw,” kanan ina da. “I don’t want that you will be late,” said their mother. Deket ekayu makigubat hi buhul yu ya adi kayu tumakut...(Deuteronomy 20:1) When you go to war against your enemies, don’t be afraid... (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

gun’it 1comm. bones. Emi inalay gunit apu te bogwahon mi. We went to get the bones of my grandfather because we will perform the bogwa-ceremony. Sim: bakag. (sem. domains: - Corpse.) 2sta. to have bones. Nagnitan nan kinan min dolog. The fish we ate had a lot of bones. na‑ ‑an.

handidah dem. those; the plural form of handih, a member of Set 2 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun, and refers to specific people or things in past times. Datuwey intugun APU DIOS handidah aammod yu. (Jeremiah 17:22b) These things are what God commanded those people, your ancestors. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hinnatkon 1adj. another kind or type of thing; different looking. Hinnatkon nan inbulwatina ad uwani. She has a different dress now. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. Qualifier. (sem. domains: - Different.) 2intrans. to become different; to be different. Huminnatkon di tibom hin mumpapu-lit ka. You will look different if you have a haircut. Munhinnatkon di ginattang da. They bought different things. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑. 3trans. to do something to make a thing different. Hinnatkonon yu nan kapyaon yun ha-on. Make mine different. 2G Processes.

huguhug (sp. var. huguhugan) 1comm. a rack above the fireplace used for drying wood and rice. [Some racks have three tiers.] Maid di huguhug di balemi. Our home doesn’t have a rack above the fireplace. Hanan pagen deh huguhugan di em ibayu. Take the rice bundle on the upper part of the rack to pound. pt: wan’an, hay-ung, pal’a. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to put firewood or rice bundles on the rack above the fireplace for drying. Ihuguhug mu nan itungu. Put the firewood on the rack. Ihuguhug nan kaiw ta mamag-anan. Put the wood on the firewood rack so that it will dry. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. 3intrans. for the rack to be full, generally full of firewood. <Morphology: nahuguhugan> na‑ ‑an. infl. nahuguhugan

imbango (infl. of bango) comm. 1bride price; animals for engagement, three pigs are required. In-e day imbangon nan tulang ku ot ume kamit emi bolwaon. They brought the bride price to my cousin so we went to take our share. Tulun babuy di pinalti da nah imbangon Bugan. Three pigs were butchered for Bugan’s bride price. In-e day imbango na. They brought his engagement animals. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2an engagement ceremony; betrothals have historically been arranged for their children by parents anytime from infancy through puberty.

impuN- TACR. past tense form of prefix puN-, punctiliar aspect, agreement with indirect object instrument. Ot hay inat ku ya impun-almas ku nadan tataguh ispada, pahul ya pana...(Nehemiah 4:13a) And so what I did was I armed the people with swords, spears and arrows... (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

kalah-iwang (sp. var. kallah-iwang) v. to be bypassed by danger, i.e. kept safe; there is a simultaneity component which gives the meaning that two people or things were in the same place, at the same time. [This prayer is related to a traditional belief that snake and centipede bites are done by the spirits of deceased relatives.] Mikalah-iwang kamih buhul, umik di gayyaman ya ulog. We will be safe (bypasssed) from our enemies and bites of centipedes and snakes. (a traditional prayer) mi‑/ni‑. Sim: ballahiwe. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.)

kay advpred. 1refers to a comparison; to have the same or similar qualities or characteristics. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to an ant when you are walking along the road. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Kay bo uya-uy damdama. It’s just like the Uya-uy-marriage feast. Comparative. (sem. domains: - Compare.) 2functions as a comparative predicate; makes a hypothetical comparison of someone or something to a characteristic action or behavior of another person or thing. Mumbutik ka an kay daka pumpudug hi nganneh diye. You are running as though you are being chased by something. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. (sem. domains: - Relations involving correspondences.)

kilkilang (sp. var. kelkelang; sp. var. kilkiling) comm. a bird species. [It is believed that they sing omens at night.] Hay ittolyah dingngol ku handi ya handi dandani mitungo nan tulang ku ya kumananta nan kilkilang nah nih-up hi balemi ot adi mumbayag ya nakatte nan tulang kun golang. The story I heard before is that when it was nearly time for my brother to be born, there was this night-bird that always sang near our house, and so the baby died in a short time. (sem. domains: - Bird.)

kilog 1trans. to provide food for sustenance resulting in stamina and strength. Maid di emi ikilog an mungngunu. We do not have any provisions to go to work. Hay gattuk di ingkilog hanadan aammod dih tiempon di gubat te maid di udum hi makan. Sweet potatoes were the sustenance provision of our grandparents during wartime because there was no other food. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2sta. to be well-fed and so to be healthy; to gain strength. Makilog nan unga te nal-ot an mangan. The child is healthy because he is a good eater. Hiya peman di nangipaptok nah unga ta ingganay kumilog. He was the one who took care of that child until he gained strength. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: bika, kuhog, olot.

madinol (der. of dinol) sta. to be confident; related to trusting in something or someone. Madinol ka hin maid di binuhul mu. You are confident if you have no enemies. ma‑. (sem. domains: - Confident.)

makadinnol (infl. of dinol) sta. to be intensely trusting; carefree. Kanan day dakol di mangalana mu makadinnolak pe te maid di buhul ku. They say there are many prowlers but I am carefree because I have no enemies. maka‑ ‑inn‑.

maki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; the object referent is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Paddungnay naatu kan nakibuttikan hi tatagu mu ahi namam-a moy inatum ten makibuttikan kah kakabayu. (Jeremiah 12:5b) It’s like you were tired joining in racing people but you would be more tired if you joined in racing horses. Sim: maki-, naki- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

maN- -an v. this circumfix topicalizes and cross-references a time, place or affected object; non-past tense. Ya ahi miweley adol mut mamaptangan nah mapat-al ya matuntuningan nah hilong. (Jeremiah 36:30b) And your body will be thrown away so that it will be exposed to the heat of sunshine and the cold of the night. Sim: naN- -an.

mihwang (infl. of hiwang) pass. to be saved from trouble, danger or disaster, particularly used in a religious sense. Mihwang ka hi liwat mu hin mangulug kan Jesus. You will be saved from your sins if you believe in Jesus. Baddangan dakayun ha-oy an AP-APU an Dios yu ta mihwang kayud buhul yu. (Numbers 10:9) I, the LORD your God will help you so that you will be saved from your enemies. Mundasal taku ta mihwang takuh gaga-iho. We pray that we will be saved from evil. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: - Save from trouble, - Salvation.)

numpa- -an caus. this circumfix encodes a subject-causative agent with the cross-referencing of a site-object; past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Nganney ginun-ud yuh eyu numpabaddangan hanadah iEgypt ya iAssyria? (Jeremiah 2:18a) What did you gain by helping the Egyptians and the Assyrians? Hi Herod damdama ya nadan tindaluna ya tinaltalanggaan da ya numpadngolan da. (Luke 23:11) Herod and his soldiers also mocked and ridiculed him (Jesus). Sim: pumpa- -an; Sim: mumpa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

numpaN- trans. this prefix encodes a distributive modality; when attached to a transitive verb, the action expressed in the verb is distributed to multiple objects undergoing the action; past tense. Ne pun-ala da damdamay limmun nadan buhul dan numpangalah limmu da handi. (Ezekiel 39:10b) Then they will also get the property of their enemies who got their property long ago. Sim: mumpaN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

numpuN- TACR. cross references subject, distributive, i.e. the plural subjects are all involved in the action, activity expressed by the verb; past tense. Wadaday i-itay tatagun numpumbaleh di. There were small people living in the houses there. Ahi mamtik di tataguh mumuyung hi pangngolan dah ngalan di titindalun numpuntakkeh kakabayu ya nadan numpumpana. (Jeremiah 4:29a) People ran to the forests when they heard the noise of the soldiers riding horses and those who were spearing. Sim: mumpuN-.

nungka- -an trans > proc. this circumfix refers to a process that affects a site-object; completive aspect. Nungkaladladan di aadol na ya linumbag di huhukina. He had bruises/abrasions all over his body and his feet were swollen. Pinlo day nungkaaladan an boble...(Nehemiah 9:25a) They captured fenced cities... Sim: mungka- -an. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.)

paka- -an this circumfix encodes the competence and expertise of the agent-subject to do whatever is expressed in verb; the site-object is cross-referenced. Ha-on (God) ya takon di daana ya wadaak, kinali, paka-innilak am-in di at-aton di tatagu. (Jeremiah 23:23) As for me, I (God) am everywhere, that is why I know very well everything that people are doing. Itikod yun mangat hi gaga-ihot ha-oy (God) di paka-u-unnudan yu. (Jeremiah 4:4a) Stop doing evil so that I will be the one you carefully follow. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

piniggil (der. of piggil) comm. double-faced stone wall. [The example sentence is from an Old Testament story in which a stone wall was built to remind Laban and Jacob that they had made an agreement to refrain from harming each other. Neither would go beyond their side of the stone wall.] Kanan Laban ke Jacob di “Hituwen piniggil di panginomnoman tan duwa.” (Genesis 31:48a) Laban said to Jacob “This stone wall is what will remind us of our agreement.” (sem. domains: - Fence, wall.)

puN-₁ 1dervN. when this prefix is affixed to a verb, the result is a nominalized clause that expresses the manner or reason for an action or activity. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na. And the reason he does not stop is that his thinking is, his life would be uncertain. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.) 2distr. this prefix encodes the distribution of an action among plural objects. Ya himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. And the raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. They passed some small huts with small people living in them.

puul trans. to burn something. Puulam nan galut nah dola. Burn the litter in the yard. Ipuul mu nadan tubun di mangga. Burn the mango leaves. Deyan mumpuul da boh bilid! There they go again, burning the mountains. Napuulan di balemi. Our house was burned to ashes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, na‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: gohob, geeng. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.)

suku intrans. to surrender, as in war. Mapilit kayun munsuku nadah buhul yu. You will be forced to surrender to your enemies. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: solendel. (sem. domains: 4.5.4 - Submit to authority.)

tag-e 1adj. having an extension upward, vertically; high, tall. Atag-e nan alad da. Their fence is high. Nakattag-e nan ek pinaytuk, kinali nahpung tun hukik. The thing I jumped from was very high, that’s why I sprained my ankle. Hidiyen bilid di katagtag-yan hitu. That mountain is the tallest here. a‑/an‑, naka‑ C, ka‑ CV(C) ‑an. Dimension quantifier. ant: akhop; Sim: banawe, tayag. (sem. domains: - High, - Tall.) 2nom. height. Hay kinatag-en di balemi ya umat nah kinatag-en di katagtag-eyan an tagu. The height of our house is like the height of the tallest person. Athituy kinatag-en nan alad an ek pinaytuk. The height of the fence I jumped over was like this. ka‑, kina‑. 3trans. to raise something to a higher position. Itag-em nan page. Lift up the rice-stalks. Itagtag-em nan paul ta paytukok. Raise the stick higher so that I will jump over it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Lift.) 4sta. to have a high status. Ipadayaw kuy kinatag-em ta inggana. I will honor/praise your inherent high status forever. (referring to God’s status) Natag-e saad tuwen tagu. This person’s rank is high. kina‑, na‑. (sem. domains: - High status.) 5proc. refers to the process of becoming tall. Immongal ka mo gayam ya timmag-e ka pay. You are grown now and have also become tall. der. kinatag-e id. muntag-etag-e infl. atag-e

tagu₂ 1sta. (prim) to be alive, to live. 1.1sta. (prim) to be alive, living in contrast to dead; may refer to human, animals and plants. Kanan day nakatte ka, mu tibom an makattagu ka kaya. They say that you are dead but you see that you are very much alive. Handih mataguh apu ya dakol di umalin e mangidung-on hiya. When grandfather was alive, there were many who came to visit him. Kapyanan munligat taku te matagu taku. It’s natural to have hardships because we are alive. Naligat di puhan mate, te inibtikna nan ohan kilon dotag ot punhoplat tun kon puha ot kanan mi pe on nakatte mu kabigatanat emi tibon ya matagu. It’s hard for that cat to die because it ran off with one kilo of meat and its owner beat it and we thought it was dead but the next day we saw it and it was alive. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.6 - Life.) 2comm. source of living. Nganney kitaguwam hin maid di em punhapulan? What is the source of your livelihood if you don’t earn money? ki‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Make profit, - Earn.) der. kitaguwan der. matagu der. tumagu say. Deket numballin di kabunyan ya maid kitaguwan.

toda 1trans. to remain or be left-over, e.g. food uneaten. Oh-ohha tun manuk an tindaan di pangok. This is the only chicken left by the epidemic. Kadanidani on immala ka kinali maid di matdaan. You keep getting some, that’s why nothing is left over. Hinaey natdaan an ugge da inala. That is leftover from what they did not get. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑‑an. . (sem. domains: - Remain, remainder.) 2pass. for someone to survive a disaster. Opat ya abuy natdaan ke dadiyen Ippangyol Only four of the Spaniards survived ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3trans. to keep something back to reserve for later use. Itdaam hi tulang muh ihdana. Leave some viand for your sister. Tod-an yu pubo tun ittay an ihda te ugge nangan hi amayu. Leave this little viand because your father has not eaten. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. infl. matdaan infl. natdaan

uhdung 1trans. to look down on something from a high elevation. Wada nah kaiw ot uh-dungganan dakami. He was in the tree and looked down at us. Uhdungan yu din nag-an baka. Look down at that cow that fell. Deket wada tah tud Awwa ya mauhdungan di Amduntug hi South ya maudungan di Hulungan ya Nagacadan hi North. Anyone who is in Awwa is overlooking Amduntog to the South and overlooking Hulungan and Nagacadan to the North. Muntikid ka ta datngam nan tap-on di bilid ta ahika mun-uhdung ya ahi matibo nan balemi. Ascend until you reach the top of the mountain and look down and you will be able to see our house. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 2intrans. to look down. Muntikid ka ta datngam nan tap-on di bilid ta ahika mun-uhdung ya ahi matibo nan bale mi. Ascend until you reach the top of the mountain and look down and you will be able to see our house. muN‑/nuN‑.