Search results for "eyak"

eyak pers. I; the form is a compound of the marker e and the first person, singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 2 and Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb and may encode either a subject grammatical relation if the verb is intransitive or an object grammatical relation if the verb is transitive. Eyak mun-ang-ang. I am going to watch. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

eyakaw (sp. var. of eyyakaw)

eyyakaw (sp. var. eyakaw) adjunct. expression of disgust or dismay; My! My! There may be also a minor component of surprise; thought to be the more feminine way of expression than humkaw. Eyyakaw! Uggem inilay at-attom. Oh my! You don’t know what you’re doing. Eyyakaw! maid pottok na! Oh my, what a mess! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

‑inum‑ TACR. this infix is an allomorph of the past tense infix -imm-. It is used when there is a loss of the vowel ‘u’ in the first syllable of a root. Binumtik kanu te tumattakut. He ran away because he is afraid. Deke bot immatung, immeyak inumbun tat immatung, immat-atung ta, hay bo odog di indangdang. When it became hot again, I went and sat so that I became very warm again; I would turn so that I can feel the heat on my back. This infix is an allomorph of the past tense infix imm. It is used when there is a loss of the vowel ‘u’ in the first syllable of a root. ‑inum‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑on TACR. 1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on

abbat 1comm. a nearby place. 1.1comm. a nearby place of the same elevation as the reference point; neighborhood. Umeyak hidid abbat. I will go there (nearby place). Immeh abbat na. He went to the nearby place. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.2 - Near.) 2trans. to go to a particular or specified nearby place. Iabbat kuh balen da Kunde. I will go to Kundeh’s house. Tipet umanab-abbatan ka? Why are you going back and forth nearby. In-abat da nan bilau. The runos were taken nearby. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to go from one house to another; making the rounds of houses nearby. Mun-abbatanak hi balen di tutulang ku. I frequently go from one sister’s house to the others. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to go to or be at a nearby place. Ume bo kanu nah tap-on di wa-el nah ho- alak ya wadaday ngu bungubun mangabbat da. He went to the place above the creek in the er...irrigation ditch and there were mumbling voices nearby. maN‑.

abul trans. to drive away, e.g. small animals, birds. Abulon yu nadan manuk ta adida kanon nan page. Drive away those chickens so that they will not eat the rice. Imme dan mun-abul hi buding. They went to drive away the rice birds. Dahdiy e mun-abul hi payo ad uwani? Who will go to drive away (the rice birds) in the ricefield today. Eyak mun-abul hi buding hi payo. I am going to drive away the rice birds in the fields. Abulom nan manuk ta adi na kanon nan boga. Drive the chicken away so it won’t eat the rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, dulun, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

abung 1comm. a hut; small house; humble home; has a low post and no round disk encircling the posts just below the floor. Waday abung nad abbat. He has a small hut at that nearby place. Umeyak nah abung nan in-ina. I will go to the small hut of the old woman. Sim: bale, kihikugan, allung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2trans. to build a hut; to stay in a hut. Mun-abung dad Linda. They are building a hut in Linda. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) der. ab-abbung

ado₁ trans. to remove grasses from rice paddy and pile against the dike to make paddy mounds during the fallow season; used for planting vegetables. Umeyak hi payo te eyak mangado. I’ll go to the field to make paddy mounds. maN‑. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.) der. inado infl. mangado

adug to guard something or someone. 1.1trans. to watch over; to guard. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented actions. Sim: bantay. 1.2trans. to guard a baby implies one babysits; take care of a baby. Mun-adug kah golang hi bigbigat. You will baby sit tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.5.2 - Care for.) 1.3caus. to have someone babysit. Ipaadug ku nan golang ke he-ah bigat ta umeyak ad Lagawe. I will have you babysit the baby tomorrow so that I can go to Lagawe. ipa‑/impa‑. comp. ahiadug

ag’a adjunct. 1a polite expression; please; excuse me. {This is a polite expression that can be used to soften a request or demand; also, it can be used to excuse oneself from an event or communication situation.} Idat yu agah tuwe ke Maria? Will you please give this to Maria? Agak, apapon daka? Agam, ten pinhod mu. Shall I go ahead and slap you? Go ahead, if it pleases you. Aga ta mangmangngeyak pe. Excuse me, I’m going ahead. Agat ek aton hanan ngunuk ta magibbu. Excuse me, I will go to finish my work so that it will be done. Aga, nangamung boh pidwana. There now, till next time. Aga, di inalam ad Manila. Please (let me see) what you got in Manila. Aga ke ta ha-oy di muntudok. Move away so I’ll (be the one) to write. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.) 2expression that means to go ahead and do something or continue action. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. Agam, deket pinhod mun makie ya mundadaan kah pihhum ta deke ya imme ta. Go ahead. If you want to join in going, save your money so that we can go. (sem. domains: 3.5 - Communication.) der. agannat

aga’mang 1comm. sleeping house or sleeping quarters for young people. [In times past, there were separate houses for young women and young men; young women usually stayed with a widow; traditionally there were evenings when young men went to ‘serenade’ the young women. ] (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2intrans. to sleep in someone’s house, other than the home of the nuclear family. Eyak mun-agamang hi balen da Bugan. I will go to sleep in Bugan’s house. muN‑/nuN‑.

aggudung 1comm. snail, long, edible, conical-shape; lives in rice fields and rivers. [The shells of the snails are burnt and pounded as lime for betelnut chewing.] Eyak umalah aggudung nah payo. I will go to get some snails in the rice field. Sim: hiyok, kullipaw. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to gather snails. Eyak mangaggudung. I am going to gather snails. maN‑/naN‑.

ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language.

alawa trans. 1to meet an omen bird on the way; the bird crosses over the path. Inalawan nan pitpit ot ibangngad na. He met an omen-bird so he returned. Uggeyak imme ad Bilong te inalawaak hi ido. I did not go to Bilong because the omen-bird crossed my path. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.7 - Omen, divination.) 2to cross someone’s path; to meet someone on the road who stops you from going your intended way. Inalawaak ke Felisa ot maki-eyak ke hiya. Felisa crossed my path and so I went with her. Alawaom hi Idad ta kumdo kah moma. Block (with arms) the path of Idad so you can ask for betelnut. ‑on/‑in‑.

alimudung (sp. var. alimudat) sta. to be dizzy from standing up quickly. Mun-ul-uleyak an tumaddog te maalimudungak. I stand up slowly because I might get dizzy. Naalimudungak mo kinali ule-uleyak an timmmaddog ta adik giknaon hidiyen giniknak. I had gotten dizzy before so I stood up slowly so that I wouldn’t experience it again. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.4 - Body condition.)

ambule advpred. No wonder!; So that’s why!; an exclamation of understanding the reason for something. Immeyak ad da-ul. Maid hi Josephine ot ibagak. E numboka, ambuley maid hidi. I went downtown. Josephine wasn’t there so I asked about her. She went to dig camote, that’s why she wasn’t there. Evaluative. Sim: kinali, hana mon. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.)

ap-apat comm. fern, generic term; there are both edible and inedible varieties. [The fern fronds may be tied on the stomach of a new mother to help her expel any clotted blood which is causing after-birth painful contractions of her uterus.] Eyak immalah ap-apat ot pangaga dah aliwan Rose. I went and got the fern and they treated Rose’s after-birth pain with it. Humani nan ap-apat. Those big ferns block our view. Filicinae Sim: appaku, paggalat. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

athidi (comp. of umat, hidi) advpred. to compare an event or action; like that; likewise Athidi di inat nan ha-oy. He did like that to me. Athidi an uggeyak damdama nangan. Likewise, I did not also eat. Comparative. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2 - Compare.) comp. athidi bo der. miathidi der. niat-athiddi

baddang 1trans. to help someone; to aid; to assist. Bumaddang kayun mamah-on nah intungu. Help in carrying the firewood. Eyak bumaddang, atok di damanan atok I will help; I will do what I can. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: tulung, dang-a, abono. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.2 - Help.) 2comm. assistance or help that is given to someone; often it is in the form of money, but it can be general assistance in anything that is needed. Hay oha bo ya nomnomom an ongal di baddang Apu Dios ke he-a ot maischolar ka. Another thing is remember that God helped you greatly to become a scholar. 3trans. to help someone who is specified. Em baddangan nah payo da. Go and help them in their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4trans. to give something, often money, to help someone; what is given is cross-referenced as the grammatical object. Hituwey ibaddang kun he-a. This is what I will give to help you. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. infl. mamaddang

bagtu comm. refers to a site with a higher elevation. [Nabagtu now usually refers to the town center.] Umeyak ad nabagtu. I’m going up to a higher spot. na‑. Sim: tap-o. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.3.1 - Above.) der. nabagtu

Ballihung (sp. var. ballihong) 1prop. a ritual of prestige that shows wealth and status, particularly performed by an unmarried person; involves a feast. [This ritual feast was formerly celebrated to share wealth; a bulul god was considered to be the partner of the unmarried person; occasionally it was performed because no other rituals had been effective in removing the sickness of a child.] Sim: uya-uy, got’ad. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion, 4.2.2 - Social event, 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the ritual feast. Mumballihung hi Jose hi bigat. Jose is going to perform the prestige feast for unmarried people tomorrow. Bumallihung te binugtung. They’ll perform the prestige ritual feast for him because he is an only child. Naligat di bumallihung ad uwani te naginay nuwang ya babuy. It’s difficult to have the ballihung feast nowadays because carabaos and pigs are so expensive. Bimmalihung nan imbabalen da Juan ke Marta ot eyak manayottayo. Juan and Marta held a festival for their child and I danced and danced. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

bangun₁ comm. hearth; fireplace; cooking place in native house. [Considered the female part of the house.] Eyak mun-anidu dih bangun. I’m going to warm myself at the hearth. Part: hay-ungngan. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) R. F. Barton

banig 1comm. refers to the disembodied spirit of a dead person; ghost. [Adults use threats about ghosts to make children obey. Ghosts are believed to talk to people and sometimes lead them astray.] Waday banig kediyen bale. There are ghosts in that house. Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2trans. ghost appears; to haunt. Banigon daka hin mateyak. I will haunt you if I die. Bumanig nan nate. The dead will haunt. Binanig dah tulang ku. My brother met a ghost. Adika umeh gawwan di hilong te mabanig ka man. Don’t go in the middle of the night because you might meet ghosts. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

bayyube (sp. var. bayube) 1comm. a cane-grass symbol of prohibition; no trespassing symbol. Eyak makimmah balen da Gabina ya numbayyube da ot adiyak humgop. I was going to chew betelnut at Gabina’s house but they had placed the prohibition sign so I did not enter. Adika gumawah na te neyay bayube/pudung. Don’t step into that part for there’s a keep-off sign. Sim: pudung, pile. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2trans. to prohibit an action. Bayubeyan yu nadan page nah pingngit di kalata. Put a keep-off sign on the rice grains along the path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

bela₁ intrans. to go to an occasion such as a wedding or other celebration. [This word is only used when someone is dressed in Ifugao traditional clothing.] Daanay pumbelaam? Eyak mumbelabelad Kiangan. Where are you going? I am going to Kiangan. muN‑/nuN‑ CVCV‑, puN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.2.2 - Social event.)

bingay 1comm. share of a harvest of rice grain, fruit, coffee beans, etc. [Usually two-thirds of the produce goes to the owner and one-third to the laborer or tenant. Farm inputs are usually provided by the owner of the land.] Idag-um nan bingay nan kon luta. Drop the share of the landowner. Syn: dowa. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, 8.1.6.1 - Part.) 2trans. to give people a share of produce. Bingayon yu nan irik. Divide the lowland rice grain. Biningay da Mara nan page mo. Mara and her side have already divided the rice grain. Maid di mabingay ad uwani. There is nothing to be shared now. Eyak makibingay na inani da. I’m going to have my share of the rice grain that they gathered. Takon di idat yuy bingay ku hanadah ma-ma-idan. You may give my share to those who are poor. Bingayan dakah makan. We will share food with you. ‑on, ‑um‑, ma‑, ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bittayyun (sp. var. bittayun) 1comm. a green grub, edible; larva hangs on rice plants. Kinana nan bittayun handin mun-ani da. She ate the bittayun-grub when they were harvesting rice. Sim: taytayyun. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2trans. to gather grubs. Eyak mamittayyun ta ihda. I am going to gather grubs to have for viand. maN‑/naN‑.

bokla₂ 1trans. to work for wages or other needs. Boklaok nan ginawat kun boga. I will work for the rice I borrowed. Kaatnay binoklam nah em nakiboklaan? How much did you earn where you went to work (lit. joined in earning)? ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: ganal, tangdan, ngunu, suweldu. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2intrans. to join in earning. Eyak makibokla ad baliwon. I am going to earn a living in the lowlands. maki‑/naki‑. der. makibokla id. kay ta makiboklan nuwang

bol’e 1sta. tiredness; fatigue; usually refers to muscle fatigue. Mable ka ke ya mun-iyatu ka. If you are tired, rest. Nableyak an uumbun. I am tired of sitting down. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging (from a tree). ma‑/na‑, naka‑ C. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: atu. (sem. domains: 2.4.4 - Tired.) 2proc. to be in the process of becoming tired. Mungkable ak te neligat tuwen ngunu. I am becoming tired because this work is hard. mungka‑/nungka‑. infl. mun-ible

bola₁ 1comm. ball; anything round used as a ball. Makaddam-ot nan bola an nigyang ke ha-on. The ball that hit me was so heavy. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.) 2intrans. to play with a ball. Mumbola kayun Jose ta eyak munha-ang. Play ball with Jose while I go and cook (rice). Ayagam nan ibbayu ta makibola. Invite your friend to play ball with you. muN‑/nuN‑, maki‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

boppo (bo, po) indefinite time or thing. 1.1adjunct. indefinite time with a repetitive component; also has a disagreement or disapproval component. Kikiyongom boppo hin inang-ang daka. Whenever I see you, you are scowling. Wada boppo ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whenever I buy a toy, you destroy it. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time, 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 1.2adjunct. indefinite reference to an action, along with a disapproval component. Ittay boppo on kumiting ka. For just any little thing, you pinch. 1.3adjunct. the concept of participation in an action or process; also. Kumali ka boppo. You talk, too. (join in conversation) Adik boppo maawatan. I don’t understand. (others do) Ta adida maktol, ne ha-on ke boppo ya immeyak bot ek ipatna ya ek umbun hidiye an kanan di “Ay hiya. So that they won’t be cold; as for me, I went to try, and I sat down there and said “Yes. Satisfying.”

bote 1comm. refers to any bottle container. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place something in a bottle. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria bottled the paint that we had left-over. Umeyak ked Solano on binoten mantekay gattangok te nalaklaka. When I go to Solano I buy bottled cooking oil because it is cheaper. nuN‑ i‑, ‑in‑.

bul’uk 1sta. to be rotten, decomposed, decayed. Nabuluk nan inhaang dan ihda. What they cooked for viand is rotten. Nakabulluk ot ahi hamakon hanadan tindalu. It was fully decomposed before the soldiers found it. Bulbulukkan kinali uggeyak gimmatang. It is a little bit rotten that is why I did not buy it. ma‑/na‑, naka‑. Prpcess or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.8 - Decay.) 2trans. to let or cause something to rot. Hanada ken iBontoc ya bulukon day dotag ta ahida ihda. The Bontoc people let meat rot before they use it for viand. ‑on/‑in‑. 3v. (fig) to be caused to be evil. Dakamiy kon bahul te binuluk mi. We are at fault because (you) caused us to be evil. ‑in‑.

buna trans. to get lost; to lose one’s way. Gaput uggek ininghaan ad Manila ya eyak bunbunnaon hanadah iibbak. Because I am not familiar with Manila, my companions tried to make me lose my way. Adina tuwali halipat-an nadan iibba na kinali nabuna. He did not watch his companions that’s why he lost his way. Tibom ta adi ka mabuna. See to it that you won’t get lost. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: talak. (sem. domains: 3.2.3.1 - Known, unknown.)

CV(C)₁ asp. 1the reduplication of the first syllable, either CV or CVC, of a verbal root is the morpheme form that encodes the continuative aspect; this aspect expresses a single, uninterrupted continuing activity; continue. Kabigabigat on nangin-innum da ya nunhahamul da nah muyung. Every day these men continue to feast and drink in the forest. Idihhan ta hin mungngangala da ta adi dita donglon ke dida. We will coincide it with when they are continuously noisy so they will not hear us. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed continuing to pick and eat the fruit. Munhaghaggeyak te nikudliyak. I am limping because I slipped. Ot matatpuuk da nah puhung, mundopdoppap dah di. Then, they splashed into the pool, continuing to grapple there. 2expresses a continuative time aspect when co-occuring with roots that have an inherent punctiliar time aspect, but have been derived to have a durative time aspect with the prefix set muN-/nuN-. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli te hidiyey pinghanan ena nakidilagan hi allama. She jumped and screamed because it was the first time she went to catch crabs with a torch. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around Nuntadtaddog kamin mundongdongngol hi kalkalyon nan mittulu. We were continuously standing as we were listening to the speech of the teacher. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.1.3 - End.)

dalan₁ 1comm. a place for walking; path; trail; way. Maid di dalan hitu. There is no path here. Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then took me to the upper road. Sim: kalata, kah-on. (sem. domains: 6.5.4.1 - Road.) 2to walk. 2.1intrans. to move about on foot; to walk. <Affixation: The circumfix set muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an expresses both a durative aspect and the site-concept of a widely spread area for the walking, i.e. walking around. > Mundallan mo nan golang. The child walks now. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2.2intrans. to walk, with a starting point in view. Dumallan mo nan unga. The child can already walk. um/imm. 3to walk by, bypass or through a place. 3.1trans. to walk, passing by a place or through a medium. Indaladalan muh di yaden adim pinhod an makihummangan ke hiya. You are always passing there yet you do not like to talk with her. Idalan taku nah wa-el. We will pass through the creek. Daanay pangidalanam? Where will you pass (lit. path/walk)? i‑/iN‑. nangi‑/pangi‑ + ‑an. 3.2trans. to walk on a path, road with prominence given to the thing walked on. Maid di dalanon yuh tu. There is no place to walk here. on/in. id. kay bakkukul an dumalan id. kay gawgaway pundalan id. kay kabayun dumalan infl. ipadalan

dibdib 1air. 1.1comm. the invisible mixture of gases that surround the earth; air. Yahyahon takuy dibdib. We breathe air. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. (sem. domains: 1.1.2 - Air.) 1.2comm. air in motion; wind. Waday nin puwok ad uwani te nakal-ot di dibdib. Maybe there is a typhoon today because the wind is very strong. (sem. domains: 1.1.3.1 - Wind.) 2blowing wind. 2.1intrans. for the wind to blow. Dumibdib ke ya mitayyap nan papel. If the wind blows, the paper will be blown away. Mundibdib an pun-itayap nay nungkihap-e. The wind blew the clothes on the clothesline away. um/imm, muN/nuN. Sim: huy’uhuy, hub-’ud, budabud, yupuyup, puwok, budibud. 2.2sta. to be cooled by the blowing wind, i.e. breeze. Adida madibdiban yaden pun-ayagam dida. They aren’t being cooled-by-the-breeze and yet you are calling them. Opwatom nuppe nan hinamal, akudom hi ligau ta madibdiban ta maba-bao. Remove the pot from the fire, ladle out the rice into a winnower so the air will help to cool it. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, muN/nuN. 2.3trans. the wind blows and moves something. Idibdib na nan papel hin adim otnan. The wind will blow the paper if you don’t put something on top of it. i‑/iN‑. 3idiom. riddle - wind is the answer. Nala-uwak ya uggeyak inangang. (dibdib) I passed by but you didn’t see me. (wind)(riddle) id. kay dibdib ya abun munlau

dinol 1rely on. 1.1trans. to trust someone or something; to believe in the reliability of another. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1.1 - Trust.) 1.2trans. to rely on; depend on. Gapu bot mauleyak ya pundinlam ta hay pinhod muy at-attom. Just because I am kind, you depend on that and do whatever you like. Pundindinlam hi inam an mangingunuh kanom. You are always depending on your mother to provide your food. Idinol muh kalyon da inam. Trust in what your mother says. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ ‑an. Sim: piyal. 2trustworthy. 2.1sta. to be worthy of confidence; to be trustworthy, one who can be relied on. Adi midinol te hinaulak. He is not trustworthy because he deceived me. mi‑. 2.2sta. to be and feel confident; to trust in someone or something. Madinol kami an hi Apu Dios an mamaddang dakami. We are confident that God will help us. Naapput da te makadinnol da te hay inila da ya makattakut di Ipugao. They were defeated because they were unsuspecting because they thought (were confident that) the Ifugao were cowards. ma‑, maka‑. 3comm. trust. Maid dinol kun he-a. I have no trust in you. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.1.1 - Trust.) der. madinol infl. idinol infl. makadinnol infl. mangidinol infl. midinol

diye dem. that one; refers to someone or something that is away from both speaker and hearer; shortened form of hidiye, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns. Ya kanan diyey “Eyak umayag hi talak.” And that one answered “I’ll call for a jeep.” hidiye

e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.6.4 - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume

gattin (sp. var. gatin) 1trans. to step on something. Inggattina on ulog. He stepped on a snake. Handi ek igattin ya kimmol-owak te innang an eyak mag-a. When I tried to step down I became frightened because I almost fell. Inhamahamad kuy pangikawotak ya pangigattinak. I carefully chose strong branches to hold and step on. i‑/iN‑, pangi‑ ‑an. 3G Move body parts directionally. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.) 2comm. imprint of the foot. Ongal di gattin nan nangidalan nah banong. The footprints of the one who passed on the dike are big. 3trans. to step on something; the object being stepped on is cross-referenced. Gattinan yu nan udun di kaiw ta adi mahwit. Step on the end of the wood so it will not overturn. Inhamahamad kuy pangikawotak ya pangigattinak. I carefully choose strong branches to hold and step on. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, pangi‑ ‑an. id. namahig an kadangyan ke bo ya igatgattin dita.

gibok 1comm. perception of sensations related to the physical being, the body; a feeling. Nganney gibok mud uwani? What is your feeling now? Ad-adiy gibok kud uwani. I am not feeling well now. Sim: mama-uwan. (sem. domains: 3.1.2.2 - Notice.) 2trans. to feel a sensation; to be conscious of sensations; to become aware. An igibok muy kotol?/An gibokom di kotol? Do you feel cold? Inggibok mu nan kolyog? Did you feel the earthquake? Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then brought me to the upper road. i‑/iN‑. 3sta. to be aware; to sense something. Magibok nan wadan nah pingngit di wa-el mu adina maibaga nu daan hidiy kad-ana te mun-hihhilong ni-an. He could sense that he was by a river but he couldn’t tell exactly where he was as it was still dark. (sem. domains: 3.1.2.1 - Alert.)

gulatna conj. signals a condition or situation that results in or would result in an event or situation that would be different had the preceding condition or situation not existed. if only; had it not been for. Gulatna ta ugge immali ya wadan umeyak ta ek tibon. If he had not come, I would have gone to see him. Gulatna ot ta waday pihhu ya wadan ugge nate. If there had been money then he would not have died. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki Maybe if none of the Christians would become ill, there would be no more shamans. Athidi bon gulatnat mama-id am-in di mumbaki ta hiya ya abuy matdaan Like that also, if there are no shamans except for him (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) der. munggulat

guwalya 1comm. to guard; to work to keep something secure. Maid di guwalya nah bangko. There is no guard in the bank. (sem. domains: 6.6 - Occupation.) 2trans. to guard or watch over something or someone. Mungguwalya kah tu ta umeyak nah taptap-ona. Guard here while I go to the upper part. Guwalyaam nan balud ta adi bumtik. Guard the prisoner so that he will not run away. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: guardia.

hagge 1intrans. to walk with a limp due to an injury to or a defect of a leg or foot. Munhaghaggeyak te nikudliyak. I am limping because I slipped. Dakol day nahpung ya munhagge. Many have a broken arm or leg and are limping. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2advpred. the manner of walking is in view; to limp while walking. Ihaggek an mundallan te mahakit di dapan ku. I am limping as I walk because my soles are painful. i‑/iN‑. Manner.

halikummod intrans. to squat; to hunker. Nableyak an munhalikummod ot tumaddogak. I got tried of squatting so I stood up. ‑um‑/‑imm‑/muN‑/nuN‑. 2B Movement, change of position. (sem. domains: 7.1.2 - Sit.)

ham’ak trans. 1to look for something; to search. Hamakom nan natalak an nuwang. Look for the lost water buffalo. Humamak kah babai ta malahin ka. Look for a girl so that you will marry. Eyak manamak hi ngunu. I am going to look for a job. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: anap. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.1 - Look.) 2refers to having found something that was looked for. Himmamakak hi dakol an pihhu. I found much money. ‑imm‑.

happiyo 1comm. a shield. Inhanin Aliguyun nan hapiyona ot adimo mittok ke hiya nan pahul. Aliguyun covered himself with the shield and so the spear did not go through his body. Hanada ken maid di happiyo na, nangapya da. As for them, they had no shields; so they made them. Sim: panangga. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.7 - Weapon, shoot.) 2to use a shield. 2.1intrans. to use a shield for protection. Munhappiyo ka ta adika masugatan. Use a shield so that you will not be wounded. 2.2trans. to use something or someone as a shield. Antipe eyak ihapiyo. Why do you use me as a shield. i‑/iN‑.

hapul 1need. 1.1sta. to be needed; refers to the need for something useful, required, or desired. Mahapul di pihu te mun-iskulak. Money is needed because I am going to school. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum... Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money... ma‑, makaC‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.7.3 - Need.) 2look for. 2.1trans. to look for something that is needed, with the focus on the activity of looking. Eyak munhapul hi ngunu. I am going to look for a job. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.6.2 - Find.) 2.2trans. to look for something that is needed with the focus on the object being looked for. Em hapulon hi inam. Go look for your mother. Nganney hapulom? What are you looking for? (What is it that you need?) Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: masapul.

haydu 1comm. a basket, flat and square, for fishing or snail gathering; with holes used for catching small fish or other edible shellfish in the ricefield. Banhok aga di haydum. May I please borrow your flat basket. Sim: lakdu. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use the flat and square basket. Eyak munhayduh uddang. I am going to catch shrimp with my flat basket. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use basket to gather small fish or shellfish in a ricefield. Nganney em hayduwon? What are you going to catch with your flat basket? ‑on/‑in‑.

hidi (fr. var. dih) dem. demonstrative pronoun, Set 4; there; over there; away from both speaker and hearer. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the initial consonant ‘h’ attaches to that word, the vowel ‘i’ is dropped and di remains alone.> Umeyak hidi. I’ll go there. Daana, hidih nakiddawwi? Where, there far away? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) comp. atbohdi comp. athidi comp. athidiy comp. dehdi comp. deyahdi comp. wadahdi der. ihdi der. kihdiyan ph. v. dedah di

hikling (sp. var. hukling) trans. to push someone away with the elbow and shoulder. Dahdi ka an humukling? Who are you that you push others away? Antipet eyak huklingon? Why do you push me away? ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

hin kananat (comp. of kananat, hin) conj. if by chance Hin kananat manganga ta adi pakakalit maid di innunan mumbaki. If by chance, he became dumb and could not speak then there is no one to perform baki (say the rituals and prayers). Hin kananat umeyak hi langit ya dehdi ka. (Psalm 139:8a) If by chance, I go to heaven, you are there. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.6.2 - Maybe.)

hin-uddum (der. of udum) adv. 1sometimes; time intervals related to time sequence. Hin-uddum on umudan hi nal-ot. Sometimes it rains hard. Hin-uddum umeyak ad Solano. Sometimes, I go to Solano. Hin-uddum on uggena inilay kalkalyona. Sometimes she doesn’t know what she is talking about. Ta hin-uddum on gawan di hilong on ahi immanamut. So he would sometimes come home in the middle of the night. hiN‑. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2refers to intermittent times for actions and events. Hin-uddum an adika mangan. At times you don’t eat. Hin-uddum on nahawwal dah tulumpulu nan mangiattang. Sometimes there are thirty or more men to carry it.

hintaguwan nom. 1refers to a related group of people; lit. one-group-of-people. Adi ka umogon an bumaddang te bokon kayu hintaguwan. Don’t be selfish in helping because you’re not related. Adi mahapul an eyak tangdanan te konak hintaguwan. I don’t need to be paid because I belong to your group. hiN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2refers to anyone who is not a part of the local group of people. Dakol di hintaguwan an nakiboblen dakamid uwani. There are many foreigners living among us today.

hiw’at trans. to distract someone; to be distracted by something e.g. by much work which results in forgetfulness. Hiwatom din golang ta umeyak. Distract the baby so that I can leave. Maid da moy u-unga ta adika mahiwat. There are no children, so you will not be distracted. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.1.2 - Mental state.)

hiya₃ interj. an expression that evaluates and affirms a thing or event as good or right. Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina? an kanak bo. “Mother, fairies are kind aren’t they because they give us candy,” I said. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no, toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat, what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Ne ha-on ke boppo ya immeyak bot ek ipatna ya ek umbun hidiye an kanan di “Ay hiya.” As for me, I went to try, and I sat down there and said “Yes. Satisfying.” (sem. domains: 9.4.6 - Yes.)

hokne trans. to elbow. Hinokneyak handi um-umbunak. He elbowed me when I was sitting down. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

hol’ok 1comm. grass, generic term. Ginabut ku nan holok nah dalan. I cut the grass on the way. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2sta. to be very grassy; describes an area that is very grassy. Maholokan bo tedeyan immudan. It will be grassy again because it rained. ma‑ ‑an. 3comm. medicinal grass; usually made up of hapid with oil and ginger with Japanese grass. Eyak mungkodoh holok hi clinic. I went to ask for medicine at the clinic. 4trans. to treat with medicine; to cure with medicine. Doctor, holkam anhan hi ina. Doctor, please cure/treat my mother. Adi humlok di alcohol. Alcohol does not cure anything. Damanan mahlokan/maholkan di tibi. Tuberculosis can be cured. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an, um‑/‑imm‑. 5comm. marijuana. Kumdowak hi holok yu. May I have some of your grass.

hukit₂ 1comm. a pole to pick fruit; made of bamboo; the end is cut in such a way as to form a small basket like container to hold the fruit or merely has a split end. Sim: duladul, hudpak, dunghak, hudng’ak. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to gather fruit with stick or pole. Umala kah hukit ta hukitom nan tabuyug. Get a stick and pick that pomelo. Eyak humukit hi manga. I will go and pick mangoes. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

immakid (der. of akid) v. a sign or omen event that is the reason for not doing something planned or expected. Uggeyak imme nah pangayak te immakid di apgun nan manuk. I didn’t go where I had planned because the omen of the chicken’s gall bladder was bad. ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.6 - Prophecy.)

ingha intrans. 1to become accustomed to something; to be used to something; adjusted. Adim oggan ipatnan munlukut te umingha. Don’t ever try smoking because you will become used to it. Immingha mon hiya nan hamuy di ahuk. He is accustomed to the smell of smoke. Imi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.) 2to be acquainted with someone. Immingha kamin Estrella. We are acquainted with Estrella. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ingle intrans. to be lonely; to be bored; to be tired of something. Immingle ot umanamut ad nakugab. He was bored so he went home yesterday. Immingleyak mon he-a. I’m bored with you. Immingleyak an munho-ho-od. I’m tired of waiting for you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. Sim: ilmu, iliw. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.9 - Discontent.)

innang advpred. a limiting concept; almost; nearly. Maphod ta immali ka te innang an umeyak. It’s good that you came because I almost left. Innang ta mungkaanak hi iskul. I almost dropped out of school. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: dandani. (sem. domains: 8.1.5.8.1 - Approximate.)

iskul (sp. var. itkul) 1comm. school. Umeyak moh iskul te nakengkeng. I am going now to school because the bell has been rung. Imme nadan u-ungah iskul. The children went to school. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2intrans. to attend school; to study in school. Mun-iskul taku hi bigat. We will attend school tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 3.2.2 - Learn.) Language Of Borrowing: English: school.

kaasi 1comm. pity; mercy. Maid di kaasi yu nadah nawotwot. You have no mercy for those who are poor. (sem. domains: 4.4.4.1 - Mercy.) 2trans. to pity someone. Kanan Pangkayyo- “Lammooy, pangpangaasim man adika nah dalan te umeyak hi bale a, an nahilong.” Pangka said er...”Lammooy, will you please (lit. pity me) get out of the path because I am going home, see, and it’s dark.” paN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: 3.5.3.1 - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.3.3.7 - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kalimana (der. of kalima) 1n. fifth day of the week. Handih himbatangan dih kalimana ya immeyak di Manila. Last Friday afternoon I went to Manila. Syn: Biyarnit, biernes. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.3.1 - Days of the week.) 2nom. the fifth day of an event. Ad uwaniniy kalimana nan nate. Today is the fifth day of the dead. ka‑ + na.

kanan to say. 1.1trans. a quotation form meaning say, said, tell, or told. Kanan day deke mo kanu ta pidwana ya adida makie. They said that the next time they would not join the group. Om, an kanan min Mayor. We told the Mayor yes. Speech Verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 1.2trans. a quotation form meaning thought, wish. Kanak hi nomnom kuy “Makamman-un dida te kay nakalakka. I said to myself, “It’s good for them because it seems easy.” Handi immingleyak mo ya kanak di nalakan lumah-un. Then, I got tired and thought it would be easy to go down. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.1 - Think about, 3.2 - Think.)

kandelat (sp. var. kandela) 1comm. a candle. Eyak gumattang hi kandelat te maid di dilag. I am going to buy candles because there is no light. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.1.1 - Light source.) 2intrans. to use candles for light. Maid ke dilag di kuryente ya mungkandelat ta pundilag. If there is no electricity people use candles for their light. muN‑/nuN‑. 3comm. a riddle. Waday ohan makaphod an babai an kanona di adolna. (kandela) There is beautiful lady who eats her body. (candle)(riddle) Language of Borrowing: English: candle.

kaput trans. 1to repair things made of rattan; may be generalized to repair other things. [Repairs are usually made with strips of rattan.] Ingkaput da nan napain gampa. They repaired the head-basket with rattan vine. Paputam nan pahiking. Repair the back pack with rattan. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2to tie something using rattan strips. Dahdiy adi bumoh-ol an ingkaput ku nan panton di balen di manuk on eyak ume on naubad di kaput na. Who wouldn’t get angry, I tied the door of the chicken house and when I went, it was untied. Kinaputan Mariah uwe nan karton yaden binukatan yu pay. Maria tied the carton with rattan and you still opened it. Pun-ikaput yun am-in hanadan carga te mangali nan talak. Tie all the baggage, the truck is coming. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else.

kaskasdaaw adj. for something to be inexplicable; amazing, perplexing. Hituwe ya kaskasdaaw mo ahan an naat mu uggeyak timmakut. This that happened was bewildering, but I was not afraid. Takon nan inayana ya matama te kaskasdaaw. Even her spouse did not know (about it) because it was perplexing. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 3.2.4.3 - Mysterious.)

kay-ahan (comp. of anhan) advpred. an expression indicating that someone feels relief about the end of something that has taken a long time. Kay-ahan ya magibbu dan iskul. Finally, they will finish their studies. Nabayagak an nunho-ho-od ot innang an eyak ume, mu kay-ahan ya immali. I waited a long time and almost left but he finally came. Anusam, kay-ahan ya pumhod ka kaya. You must endure, finally (soon) you will surely get well. Modality. (sem. domains: 3.4.1 - Feel good.)

kay’a adjunct. adds emphasis to a statement; in fact, certainly, definitely. Kanan Rosa di umed Manila mu adi kaya. Rosa said she is going to Manila but in fact, she is not. Adika kaya mahaul. Don’t ever be tempted (even if they insist)! Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I definitely became adjusted. Hinae toan bumdang hidiyen bokon kaya hi Lammooy. That is what I don’t know, roaming spirits there, but definitely not Lammooy. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.6.3.2 - Markers of emphasis.)

ke₁ (deke) conj. 1if; marks a conditional clause, hypothetical or real. Maid ke hi Juan ya uggeyak immali. If Juan had not been around I would not have come here. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan prayer for him. Wada ke ot di pihhu yu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) 2follows a predicate and marks a time phrase or clause. <The allomorph y of the linker di is an enclitic.> Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Mala-u key duwan hinlingguwan ya damanan hiitom nan baya ta inumon taku! After about two weeks, pour out the wine from the jar and we’ll drink with you. 3when; marks a time clause. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. Nagibbu ke nan kapkapyan di hagabi, kalyon day algoh pangihakyatan da. When the hagabi-bench is completed, they say the day that it will be brought home. (sem. domains: 9.2.5.2 - Clause conjunctions.)

kol-o intrans. fear, sudden and unexplainable; may be a premonition accompanied by a fear that can’t be explained. Tipe nin ta kumanol-owak. Why do I have this unexplained feeling of fear? Handi ek igatin ya kimmol-owak te innang an eyak mag-a. When I tried to step down I became frightened because I almost fell. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: takut, kobkob. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4 - Afraid.)

komo adjunct. just because; since; expression of agreement; yes or okay. A: Tipet indat nan he-an ampuyo ya binangngad na? B: Komo anhan ugge nibangngad? A: Why did she give you the skirt and then, insist that it be returned to her? (rhetorical question) B: Yes, it’s true that it shouldn’t have been returned. A: Etaku tibon nan nate te hinag-on. B: Komo ume taku peman. A: Let’s go to see the dead man because he’s our neighbor. B: Yes, let’s definitely go. Komo maid di ammod ku ya eyak iathinan dakayu. Just because I have no parents, you do that to me. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: como.

kuarta comm. money; cash. Maid di kuarta taku te uggeyak nunsuweldu. We have no money because I did not receive my pay. Syn: pihhu. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: cuarta.

kudang (sp. var. kulang) 1sta. to be insufficient; inadequate; not enough; lacking. ma‑. Measure quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.7.2 - Lack.) 2to be insufficient. 2.1trans. to cause something to be insufficient or inadequate in amount or number. Kudangona nan indat mun igattang nah boga. He thinks the amount you gave him to buy rice is insufficient. Ustu nan ihaad ku mo kinudangan Maria. What I placed is enough but Maria removed some of it (made it insufficient). ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.1.7.2 - Lack.) 2.2intrans. for something to be insufficient with the implication that the insufficiency is due to agentive mishandling. Kumudang tun indat mu. What you gave is not enough. Deke on kumudang di kilon nan gatas an in-alim. Sometimes the milk that you bring is lacking in weight. Mungkudang nan in-aliyun kaiw. Something is missing in the lumber you brought.(count not right) ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3sta. to be insufficient, in amount or number. Makudang di pihuk an immed Manila kinali uggeyak gimmatang hi pinhod ku. I did not have enough money when I went to Manila and that’s why I didn’t buy what I wanted. 3adj. to be immature in reference to legumes. Kudang nan bulhe na yaden pinuga na. His beans are immature yet he harvested them. infl. makudang

kudukdul 1advpred. for something to be better or preferable to another thing to which it is compared. Kudukdul hin mungngunuwak te adiyak mundogo. It’s better if I work because I don’t get sick. Mu indani ya pimmalak bo ot nomnomonan kudukdulnay umanamut. But after awhile, she groaned again and so he decided it would be good to return home. Evaluative. (sem. domains: 9.3.1.3 - To a larger degree.) 2trans. to prefer a specific action over another. Kudukdulok di umanamut mu nan eyak mun-iyan hitu. I would prefer to go home than to overnight here. Pakudukdulok di mundaldallan mu hay um-umbun. I prefer to walk about rather than to be sitting down. ‑on/‑in‑, pa‑ ‑on. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.3.1.2 - Choose.) 3proc. for something to improve; become better. Kimmudukdul di giknak handi tinibo daka. My feeling became better when I saw you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.2 - Become, change state.)

kutu 1comm. lice that infests humans, particularly found in hair. Ad-adi waday kutu. It’s not good to have lice. Dimmakol di kutuk te uggeyak nun-amo. My lice have increased because I haven’t been bathing. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2trans. to remove someone’s lice. Kutuwan daka ad uwani ta ha-oy po hi bigat. I will remove your lice now and you will also remove mine tomorrow. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something.

lak-ay (sp. var. lak-e) trans. to lift up someone or something. Immalih Talakka ot lak-ayonak ot ieyak hi bale. Talakka came, lifted me and carried me into the house. Imme ot ena lak-ayon di oha. She went over and picked one up. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.4 - Lift.)

lod’ong trans. to point a finger at someone or something. [To point the finger at someone can be insulting especially when accompanied by harsh words.] Lodngom di baleyu. Point to your house. Antipet eyak lodngon ke he-a? Why do you point your finger at me? Lindong da ya immingit They pointed at him and he blushed. on/in . 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: tuddu. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.1 - Gesture.) der. lodlodongngan

loglog 1comm. light-brown soil, soaplike; used by women as hair shampoo. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.) 2intrans. to wash hair with soil. Eyak umalah loglog ta munloglogak. I will go and get soil so I’ll wash my hair with it. muN‑/nuN‑.

lophak 1comm. wake for the dead; vigil over a corpse. [The same term is used for the wake of exhumed bones during bogwa ritual.] Imme nah lophak ad Ambabag. He went to the wake in Ambabag. Sim: Bogwa, apuy, katlu. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.3 - Funeral.) 2intrans. to attend a wake. Eyak makilophak ad da-ul. I’m going to a wake down below. maki‑/naki‑.

lugu 1comm. shoots of the squash plant. Ikamom nan lugu nah patani. Mix the squash-shoots with the lima beans. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather squash shoots. Munlugu dah ihda taku hi hilong. They are gathering squash-shoots for our viand tonight. An damanan eyak lumugu nah intanom mu? Could I go and gather the squash-shoots of your plant? Linugu da nan intanom Pablo yaden ugge ni-an bimmunga. They gathered the squash-shoots that Pablo planted yet it had not yet borne fruit. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

ma-uwan 1trans. to become aware suddenly; to get one’s bearings; realize suddenly. Ek imama-uwan ya deyak nah bilid. All at once I became aware that I was in the mountains. Indani ya ena imama-uwan ya maid mo nadan e nangikuyug ke hiya, an wada nin an alas kuwatro mon diye. Then, at about 4:00 a.m. he suddenly noticed that he was left alone by his abductors. i‑ CV‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.) 2v. to pay close attention; watch carefully; to be alert. Ma-uwam hin mala-u da nadan tindalu. Pay close attention if the soldiers pass-by. (sem. domains: 4.7.7.3 - Imprison.)

madla sta. to be skeptical; the speaker has a speculative attitude about the truth or reasonableness of an event or action. Madla hin pinangapangan daka ta ahi daka kattog eh iattina. It’s a bit reasonable for him to hurt you if he lifted a hand in raising you. Madmadla ta uggeyak immali. If it had been known I would not have come. ma‑. Sim: olom.

mahang-an sta. to be spared from a disaster. Mahang-an po udot di edaka patayon. They will not go to the extent of killing you. Mahang-an ken bokon he-a eyak immalih tu. Were it not for you I would not be here.

makibokla (der. of bokla) 1comm. a class of people who work; working class. Dakol day makibokla ad uwani mu maid di mangngunu. There are many workers now but there is no work. maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people.) 2intrans. to join in earning wages. Eyak makibokla ad baliwon. I am going to earn a living in the lowlands. maki‑.

malkadu (sp. var. markadu; sp. var. malket) 1comm. market place, open-air stands selling a variety of food, clothing and other things. Eka munggattang hi malkadu. Go and sell in the market. E nuntenda hi malkadu. He went to sell in the market. Sim: tendaan. (sem. domains: 6.9.3 - Marketing.) 2intrans. to go to buy things in a market place. E mummalkadu hi pihda na nadah mungngunu. He is going to buy food for the workers. Eyak mummalkadu hi ihda. I am going to buy viand. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to buy things offered in a market. Minalket kuy duwan dolog. I bought two mudfish in the market. Imalketam hi ihda da. Buy viand for them. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: mercado.

mangado (infl. of ado) trans. to make rice paddy mounds for planting vegetables during fallow season. Umeyak hi payo te eyak mangado. I’ll go to the field to make paddy mounds.

maria prop. a common name for a woman. Maki-eyak ke Maria ad Kiangan. I’m going with Maria to Kiangan.

mu₁ conj. 1connects two statements that are in contrast; but. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores here like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Coordinate conjunction. (sem. domains: 9.2.5.2 - Clause conjunctions.) 2expresses the idea that one is about to do something, but does not do it for some reason; but instead. {When the e form is combined with the conjunction mu, the implication is that someone was about to do something, but for some reason did not or was unable to do it.} Ena odnan nan ahu mu ingkalat nan ahu. He was about to hold the dog but the dog bit him. Eyak kumga mu inippol kuy hakit na. I was about to cry but I bore the pain. comp. muden

mumbob-a (der. of bob-a) 1comm. toothache. Uggeyak immali handi hilong te mumbob-ahak. I didn't come last night because I had a toothache. muN‑/nuN‑. 2intrans. to have teeth growing; teething. Mumbob-a tun imbabalek. My child is teething. muN‑/nuN‑.

mumpi- adj > advpred. this prefix is affixed to cardinal numbers to derive an adverbial predicate that means to do the action or activity expressed in the main verb the number of times encoded in the cardinal number; non-past tense. Kanan Jesus di “Kalyok hituwen he-a Pedro an mumpitlun ihaut mun kanam di uggeyak inilan he-at ahi tumalan-uy manuk.” (Luke 22:34) Jesus said “I tell you this, Peter, you will deny me three times saying that you don’t know me before the cock crows.”

mun-iyan (infl. of iyan) intrans. to stay overnight somewhere other than one’s own house. Kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan muden kanan hi Pangka “Adi umeyak hi bale.” He said that he should overnight in Mamangan but then Pangka said “No, I will go home.”

nakaC1- mod. this prefix is an intensifying modal affix; past tense. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a very loud noise when it is about to land. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging. Deket mo ta nakaggibu ya matibo nan duwan kapkapyan di ulun di nuwang nah numbinnongwa. When it (the bench) is really finished, it looks like a misshapen animal with two carabao heads, one on each end. Sim: makaC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

ni-bo adjunct. an expression of disagreement or confrontation; what do I care; what of it; who are you to say that; expression of anger or used when daring another; questioning the correctness or appropriateness of an assertion. Tipe ni-bo ta eyak tumakut ke he-a? Who are you so that I should be afraid of you? Dahdi ka ni-bo? Who are you anyway?/Who do you think you are? Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4.1 - Disagree.)

ohhandi (der. of handi) nom. 1refers to one day before yesterday when marked with the determiner ad. Ad ohhandiy nangayana. He left the other day. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 2day after tomorrow when marked by determiner hi. Umeyak ad uwani, hi bigat weno hi ohhandi. I will go today, tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) n. ph. ad ohhandi n. ph. hi ohhandi

ongot trans. to threaten action. Ing-ot nay otak ke ha-on. He threatened me with his bolo. Ining-ot nan eyak duntukon. He threatened to hit me. Ining-otan nah otak kinali bimmoh-ol. He feinted at him with a bolo that is why he is mad. i‑/iN‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.3.5.5 - Deceive.) infl. ing-ot

paddi 1sta. for two actions or events to occur at the same time; coincidentally. Eyak umali mu nipaddi an immudan. I was about to come but it happened to rain. Mipapaddih aliyan yu ya dumatong hi Bugan. Your coming will coincide with Bugan’s arrival. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: dihhan. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 2trans. to do something at the same time as another event. Paddiyom hi baleda ot dehdi nah himbatangan. Go see him in their house; anyway he is there in the afternoon. Ipaddi yun umali tu hin maidak hitu. Come here when I am not here. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions.

pasahero comm. passenger. O-ohay day pasahero kinali eyak nahuyop. There were few passengers that is why I went to sleep. (sem. domains: 7.2.4 - Travel.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

patna 1trans. to try or attempt to do an action or activity. Ipatna nan mundallan. He tries to walk. Patnaam an gumawat ke hiya. Try to borrow money from him. Immeyak bot ek ipatna ya ek umbun hidiye an kanan di “Ay hiya.” I went to try, and I sat down there and said “Yes. Satisfying.” i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.1 - Try, attempt.) 2intrans. to sample; to try something. Pumatnaak an mangan nah igattang mun binakle. I’ll sample the rice cake you are selling. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to test a person’s resolve; to tempt a person to do something that would be against his character or values. <The past tense form implies the achievement of the testing or tempting objective. >

payo 1comm. ricefield. Dakol di payo da. They have many ricefields. Maki-eyak nah payon apu kanan Butale. “I will go with you to grandfather’s ricefield,” said Butale. Mu nan dalanona ya hi pingngit diyen payo ot munnomnom an iliglig na. But he was walking at the edge of that ricefield and so he decided to detour. Sim: bananu, pukung. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.) 2trans. to cultivate a ricefield; to farm. Pumayo kayu. Cultivate another’s ricefield. Daan di pinayo da? Which one did they farm? muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

pila 1comm. queue; a line of people or vehicles. Adukke nan pila nah hamul kinali immanamutak. The queue at the feast was long, that is why I came home. (sem. domains: 8.4.5.1 - Order, sequence.) 2intrans. to form a queue. Mumpila da di u-unga te umal-algo mo. The children are forming a queue because it is already noon. Adik pinhod an pumila ten eyak makihamul. I hate to fall in line when I go to a feast. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to get in line for someone else. [This action is related to getting food at a feast for someone who is unable to stand in a queue.] Ipilaam hi tulang mu te it-ittay. Get in line for your brother because he is little. 4comm. a place where vehicles or people line up. <Morphology: pilaan> der. pilaan

pinghana (der. of oha) 1comm. refers to the first day of the week; Monday. Handih pinghana di immaliyak hi bale yu. It was last Monday that I came to your house. piN‑ + na. Syn: Lunes. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) 2adv. refers to the beginning of a period of time or the first instance of an event; first time. Man-u dih pinghana te maphod ka; ad uwani ya makangohhe ka. It was only at the beginning that you were good; now you are proud. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Hidiyey pinghanan pangayan Bugan an e manibon inaonan hi Magappid. It was the first time Bugan went to visit her Aunt Magappid. Time. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.2 - Ordinal numbers.)

pinta trans. to arrange cards. Pintaam tun tugal ku te eyak an umihbu. Arrange my cards because I am going to urinate. Maphod di numpinta na kinali nangapput. The way he arranged the cards is good, that is why he won. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 4.2.6.1.1 - Card game.)

pohod 1to be valued as good. 1.1sta. to have the property of being good; to meet a standard of something to be desired or something that is favorable for someone; good, beautiful, nice. Maphod tun bulwatin indat da. This dress that they gave you is beautiful. He-ay kapkaphodan hi bale nah tud Kiangan. You have the nicest house in Kiangan. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. It was good because there were many rides so that we could go. Mabalin bon kalyok an maphod di memory na. I think he probably has a good memory too. ma‑, ka‑ CVC ‑an. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 1.2advpred. to meet an accepted standard of appropriate or good behavior. Mumpohod kayun umbun. You sit properly. muN‑/nuN‑. Evaluative. 2to repair, fix or improve. 2.1trans. to cause something to become good, implies that something is in disrepair or less than good. <Morphology: paka-ip-iphod, superlative, to fix perfectly.> Adim piphod ke ha-oy te uggek inila. Don’t let me fix it (lit. make good) because I don’t know how. Iphod mu nan apuy ta adi gumanab. Fix the fire so that it won’t burn its surroundings. pi‑/impi‑, i‑/iN‑. 2.2caus. to improve the life or welfare of someone. Ipaphod Apu Dios di nitaguwan taku hin mundinol takun hiya. God will make our lives good if we trust in him. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.3 - Bless.) 2.3trans. to show benevolence. Iphodam hi tulang mu takon di iboboh-ol daka. Show benevolence/favor to your brother even if he is always angry with you. i‑ ‑an/ iN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 2.4intrans. to become better, i.e. to recover from sickness; get well. Kanom am-in tun agat kal-ina ot ya pumhod ka. Take all this medicine so that you can get well. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy, 2.5.1 - Sick.) 3to love. 3.1trans. to love. Pohdom di ibbam an tagu umat hi naminhod muh adol mu. Love your fellow man as you love yourself. Impakappinhod daka. I love you very much (supremely). Pakappinhod ku mu bumainak an mangalkalin hiya. I love her very much but am ashamed to tell her. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I do not like to eat wildcat meat. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. 3.2nom. the nominalized form is equivalent to the English noun ‘love’. Hay paminhod di immanhan an intanuttudun Jesus hanadah tatagu. Love is what Jesus emphasized in his teaching of people./Love is the focal point of Jesus’ teaching of people. Hay naminhod kun he-a ya maid di kiingngohana. My love for you is beyond comparison. paN‑/naN‑. 4trans. to love each other. Mumpohhodan da kinali nun-ine da. They love each other that is why they got married. muN‑ ‑an. 5advpred. try one’s best. Ip-iphod nat tobotbalon da. He is trying his best for their approval. i‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.1 - Try, attempt, 8.3.7 - Good.) 6trans. to want or desire something; to like something. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your time in the library during your vacation. Imi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I don’t like wildcat meat. ‑in‑. der. kiphodan der. maphod der. pamhod id. iphodan hi kali infl. iphod infl. kapkaphodan infl. pinhod infl. pumhod n. ph. pohod hi kali

potog adv. to a great degree or extent; very; too much. Umanamut ta te potog di inagang ku. Let us go home because I’m very hungry. Eyak mahuyop te potog di hakit di uluk. I will go to sleep because my headache is very painful. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: 9.3.1.1 - To a large degree.)

puhu₂ 1comm. banana blossom. Mahong-on ibayuh allama nan puhu. Banana blossoms pounded with crabs are delicious. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to gather banana blossoms. Eka manungpup ta eyak mamuhu. You go and gather bamboo shoots while I go to gather banana blossoms. maN‑/naN‑.

pungan 1comm. a pillow. Idatam hi pungan nan golang. Give the child a pillow. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2v. to place or use a pillow. Adiyak pakahuyop hin uggeyak numpungan. I can’t sleep if I don’t use a pillow. Impungana nan naluddun an ulo. He used the rolled blanket for a pillow. Adim punganan nan golang ta adi umingha. Do not place a pillow for the child so that he will not be used to it. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

punlatlatuwan (der. of latlatu) comm. a photo studio. Eyak numpalatlatu nah punlatlatuwan ad Lagawe. I went to be photographed in the photo studio in Lagawe.

sini 1comm. a movie; a motion picture. Maphod nan sini an eda inang-ang. The movie they saw was good. Pinhod mu ke bon mun-ang-ang hi sini ya dakol di damanah pangayam. If you want to see a movie, there are many places you can go. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to join in watching a movie. Eyak makisini hi hilong. I will go and watch a movie tonight. maki‑/naki‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: cine. der. siniyan

suweldu 1comm. a wage or salary. Idat mu nan suweldu da hi bigat. Give their salaries tomorrow. Sim: ganal, tangdan, bokla, ngunu. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.5 - Pay.) 2intrans. to receive salary. Maid di pihhu taku te uggeyak nunsuweldu. We have no money because I did not receive my pay. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: sueldo.

ta-wa (sp. var. to-wa) adjunct. expression of remembering; Ah. now I remember! Om ta-wa, uggena imbangngad nan gaud. Now I remember, he did not return the spade. Ay o ta-wa, ad uwani kanu nan etaku pumpiknikan. Oh yes, I remember, this is the day they said that we would go on a picnic. Ay o ta-wa nan inhummangan ta handi nakal-iwam. Oh yes, I remember our agreement; did you forget? Umeyak ta-wa te impaadak ke ina. Ah yes, I must go because my mother sent me a message to go. Maid ta-wa di ibbam hi bale yu. Now I remember that you have no companion in your house. Attitudinal. Sim: gayam. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

talak₁ 1trans. to lose something. Adim talakon nan pihhum. Don’t lose your money. Kanan di e udman nan pihu yaden e talakon ot ya abu. One would wish to increase his money (by gambling) but instead he only loses it. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: buna. (sem. domains: 7.6.3 - Lose, misplace.) 2pass. to be lost. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Unudon yu nan gulding ta adi matalak. Follow the goat so that it will not be lost. ma‑/na‑. infl. matalak

tanud₂ trans. to support financially. Tanudam tun imbabalem. You support this child of yours. Wadaday tanudak kinali tagak hi ngunu. I have some people to support financially that is why I keep on working. Eyak makiboklat waday pananud ku hanadah imbabalek. I will go to earn money so I will have something with which to support my children. Ad uwanin naligat di kitaguwan te hay kanginan di magattang ya adiyak mo ahan pakatanud nah opat an imbabalek. At this time it’s hard to live because of high prices and I can hardly support my four children. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, paN‑, paka‑. 5C Goal oriented actions. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.5.1 - Provide for, support.)

tobal 1sta. to be worthy of honor and respect. Matbal da mo peman! They are now certainly worthy of honor. ma‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.9 - Approve of something.) 2trans. to approve; to agree to. Tobalom nan imbagak ta makieyak po. Approve what I asked so that I can go with them, too. An tobalom di imbagana? Do you agree with what he said? ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: abulut. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.) 3trans. to accept. He-ay tobalon dan mun-ap-apu. You are the one they are accepting to govern them. ‑on/‑in‑. 4sta. to invoke supernatural beings or spirits of ancestors. Restrictions: riituals. Tobalon dakayun aammod mi... We invoke you, our ancestors... ‑on/‑in‑. 5caus. to be proud; boastful. <Morphology: pitpitbal> der. katbalan der. tobotbal infl. matbal infl. muntobbalan infl. pitpitbal

topa trans. to take a risk with one’s money or life; to gamble; to bet or wager. Itopak di nitaguwak. I wager my life (in pursuit of something). Adika ot makiineh makattugal te ilaggat daka man an itopa. Don’t marry a gambler because he might include you in his wager. Bayadam nan intopak. You pay my bet. Eyak tumopa nah mun-ay-ayyam nah lophak. I will go and place a bet where they are gambling at the wake. i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: pusta, taya. (sem. domains: 4.4.5 - Chance.)

tukuk 1to shout. 1.1intrans. to speak with a loud cry or call; to shout usually because of fear or drunkenness, but may also be done to make oneself heard. Muntutukuk da nan tatagu te mungkapuulan di babale da. The people are shouting because their houses are burning. Muntukuk hi Daulayan te timmakut nah ongal an puha. Daulayan is shouting because he was frightened by the big cat. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: tudodan. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.1.1 - Shout.) 1.2intrans. to call loudly once; to give a single shout. Tumukutukuk nan nabutong. The drunk keeps shouting. Tumkuk man hin ipatibom ke hiya nan bigi. She will surely shout if you show her the worm. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2D Vocal sounds, expressing feeling. 2to shout at. 2.1trans. to shout at someone; the person being shouted at is highlighted by the affix. Tukukam nadan u-unga ta adida mun-ay-ayyam nah payo. Shout at the kids so that they will not play in the field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to shout in order to make oneself heard; to relay a message to people within a cluster of houses or even the next village by shouting, e.g. rest day, the first thunder, etc.; the message itself is prominent rather than the loudness of the shout. [Ifugao houses were built in clusters around their fields.] Initkuk dan tungo ad uwani kinali umeyak hi habal. They shouted a message that it is a rest day today so I am going to the swidden plot. Nagibbuy programa ot waday nangitkuk hi daanay epangenan di tatagu. After the program, someone shouted out the places where the different groups will eat their lunch. i‑/ini‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3trans. to cry loudly in a manner that resembles shouting. Itkuk nay koga na. He is crying loudly. i‑/iN‑. 4comm. a loud cry or call ; a shout. Madngol nah bobley tukuk na handi natalak nah muyung. His shout could be heard in the village when he got lost in the forest. Sim: ingal.

tungpup 1comm. bamboo shoots. [To remove the bitter taste of bamboo shoots, they are boiled twice. After the first boiling, the bamboo shoots are still bitter and the water is thrown away before boiling a second time.] Naken magattang hi market an tungpup ya adi mapait te naulaulahan mo. The bamboo shoots sold at the market don’t taste bitter because they are already boiled and washed two times. Pinpinhod kun ihda di tungpup. I’m very fond of bamboo shoots for my viand. gen: hobwal. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1 - Food from plants, 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2intrans. to gather bamboo shoots for food. Eyak manungpup ya dinamuk hi Jose. I was going to get bamboo shoots and I met Jose. maN‑/naN‑.

tuppa (sp. var. tupa) 1comm. the fluid excreted by the salivary glands; saliva; spit. (sem. domains: 2.2.3 - Spit, saliva.) 2to spit. 2.1trans. to spit something on someone or something. Adi kayu mun-ay-ayyam hina te tuppaan dakayu nadah mummomad tap-o. Do not play there because the the betelnut chewers above will spit on you. Ituppam nah lata. Spit in the can. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 2.2intrans. to spit, implies a continuing act. Dakol day tatagu yaden muntuppa ka. There are many people around and yet you are spitting. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3intrans. the act of spitting. Intibok ya maid di tagu ot tumuppaak ya nala-u ka. I looked to see and there was no one so I spat and you passed by. Handih himbatangan dih kalimana ya ustun eyak timmupan dih kanal It was last Friday afternoon when I went out to spit in the canal. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

tuwe demonstrative. refers to an approaching time; about to; the time of an event or action is nearing. Tuwen madatngan nan pangayak. My departure is approaching. Tuweyak I am coming near. Tuwen makatte nan in-inna. The old woman is about to die. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time, 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ubun 1to sit. 1.1intrans. to sit down. Umbun ka ni-an ta ek ayagan hi ama. Sit down while I go and call for father. Inumbun da nah luhung ot mummoma da. They sat down on the mortar and chewed betelnut ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: halupinnak. (sem. domains: 7.1.2 - Sit.) 1.2intrans. to continue sitting. Aga, mangmangbun kayu pet umeyak. Come on, you all keep sitting while I go. maN‑ CV(C). 2to sit. 2.1trans. the place for sitting is cross-referenced by the affix. Tibom ta adim ubunan nan puha. Be careful not to sit on the cat. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. 2.2advpred. to sit as a manner of doing something else. <Morphophonology: The first vowel is lost, and the initial glottal stop and the second consonant metathesize.> Inib-un dan mungkanta. They sat as they sang. i/iN. 3intrans. to be idle; to sit around constantly, doing nothing. Umubuubun kah kabigabigat. You are idle everyday. ‑um‑ CV(C)CV. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.4.2 - Lazy.) 4a seat. 4.1nom. a thing to sit on; seat, bench, chair. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The name of that thing like a bench which they get from the forest is also hagabi. ‑an. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) 4.2sta. for seats to be occupied. Nab-unan am-in di ubunan kinali tumataddog kami. All the seats are taken, that is why we are standing. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. der. ubunan id. umubuubun

uduk 1intrans. to stoop down; to crawl under something; to bend down under; done to move under something which could bump the head. Umuduk ka nah daulon di kama. Crawl under the bed. Eyak immanuddukan nah mabilau. I stooped under (the reeds) in the reedy-place. Adiyak pakauduk te makaippot di pantalon ku. I can’t stoop over because my pants are too tight. Mun-uddukan day u-unga nah uwang nah loba. The children are crawling in and out of the hole in the slope. ‑umi‑/‑immi‑, muN‑/nuN‑ ‑an, paka‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: ayuduk. (sem. domains: 7.1.8 - Bend down.) 2trans. to stoop under something specific with the focus on the specific object. Em udukon din naullin an bola. Crawl under and get the ball that rolled there. ‑on/‑in‑.

ukip trans. to move through narrow passageway. Ukipom nan pihhu nah daulon. Crawl to get the money under the house. (space between ground and floor is narrow) Nun-iukip nah dakol an tatagu ot umeyak nah hinangab nan ap-apu. I moved through the crowd and went in front of the leader. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑ i‑/nuN‑ i‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.5 - Move past, over, through.)

umum trans. to suffocate by placing something over the head or nose. Tipet eyak inumum? Why did you suffocate me? Maumum ka hin munlikbut kan mahuyop. You will suffocate if you sleep covered with a blanket from head to toe. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 2.6.6 - Die.)

wadle sta. to be flaccid; to have a limp muscle. Niwadleyak nah kama te naka-atuwak. I am lying limply on the bed because I am so tired. mi‑/ni‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.4.2 - Weak.)

walak trans. 1to release hold on something. Iwalakanak mot umeyak. Release me and I will go. Adim iwalakan nan inodnam. Don’t release what you are holding. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 7.2.6.4 - Set free.) 2to abandon; to neglect, e.g a rice field, Antipet em inwalak di payom? Why did you abandon your ricefield? i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 4.3.3.3 - Abandon.)

watok trans. to chop with an ax. Winatok day bagang nan nuwang. They cut the neck of the water buffalo. (lit. axed; method of slaughter) Winatok kuy hukik ot teyan munhaggeyak. I struck my foot (with an axe) and now I’m limping. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)