gaga-iho adj. bad; evil; refers to behavior that causes trouble or harm; refers to something that is not good, i.e. has properties that are the opposite of good properties. Adika mangako te gaga-iho. Don’t steal because it’s evil. Intaluk nan pihhum mu maid di gaga-ihoh nomnom ku. I hid your money but I have no bad intentions. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Bad.)
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abigon (der. of abig₁) trans. to foretell or prophesy a particular event. [This word, as well as the past tense form, inabig, are frequently used in the Old Testament to refer to the prophecies given by God to the prophets.] Kon gulat nat inila day wadah nomnom ku ya wada ot an impainilak ke diday eda abigon hi tatagu ta ipatikod da didan mangat hi gaga-iho. (Jeremiah 23:22) If only they had known what was in my mind, I would have made known to them what they should prophesy so that they would have caused them to stop doing evil. ‑on.
agalin 1pass. to transfer; a process of change. Adim ikamo nan maingit an bulwati nah mabayak te maagalinan. Do not mix the red dress with the white because the color will transfer. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.6 - Change color.) 2trans. for one person to influence another, particularly used in a negative sense. Hay gaga-ihon tagun takon di ohana ya mabalin an agalinana nadan udum. A bad person, even if he is the only one, can influence others. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206.2 - Use a person.)
ato-aton (sp. var. atoaton) trans. to habitually do a specific thing/things. Ato-aton da nadan gaga-iho. They habitually do bad things.
gub’at 1comm. war; refers to a violent, armed conflict. [Within the history of Ifugao, this word when used alone usually refers to World War II.] Waday dawdawwatonah pensiyon te tindalu handih gubat. He is receiving a pension because he was a soldier during the war. Dakol di nate handih gubat. Many died during the war. Waday duwan gubat an impala-u taku mo. We have already experienced two wars. (lit. we have been caused to pass through) Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.) 2wage war. 2.1intrans. to wage war. Munggugubat da ad Vietnam. They are at war in Vietnam. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. the information focus is the people upon whom a war is being waged. Gubaton ditaku nadah gaga-ihoy nomnom da. The evil-minded will wage war on us. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.3trans. the information focus is on those who will be involved, i.e. participate in waging war. Inamung nan am-in nadan tatagunan damanan makigubat. He gathered all the people who could join in waging war. maki‑. der. mangubat infl. makigubat
ha-ut trans. 1to fool or deceive someone. Ha-utan tah Pedro ta umalih tu. Let us fool Pedro so that he will come here. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Sim: langkak, lay-a. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Deceive.) 2to deny that we have done or said something. Mu kal-ina ket nil-u takun nangat hi gaga-iho ya adi taku ihaut mu abuluton taku...1John 2:1b But should it be that we have done something bad, we should not deny it but instead we should accept it... i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to affect recipient.
impangulu (der. of pangulu) trans. to go before others; go first and lead others. Impangulu dakayun Apu Dios an tumayan ad Egypt. (Deuteronomy 4:20) God led you when you left Egypt. (refers to God leading the Israelites). Hay mabungot an tagu ya haulonay hinag-onat ipangulu nan mangat hi gaga-iho. (Proverbs 16:29) As for a violent person, he will deceive his neighbor and he will lead him to do bad things. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)
impierno comm. hell; Hades. Gaga-iho key at-attom ya ume kad impierno. You’ll go to hell if you keep doing evil. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: infierno.
kina- 1mod. this prefix expresses the concept of a quality or characteristic being inherent or evident. Hi Apu Dios ya impatibo na kinaDios na. As for God, he has shown his Godness. Bumobboh-ol damdama ke dadiyen tulun gayyum Job te uggeda kinabaelan an hinumang hi Job hi ustu ta kay mo hi Apu Dios di nihalla an bokon hi Job. (Job 32:3) He was also very angry with Job’s three friends because they did not have the ability to adequately answer Job so that it was like God was mistaken, not Job. Deket mundama kayun tulang mu wenu hay udum an tatagu ya adi nalgom di kalyon hi kinagaga-iho da. When you quarrel with your brother/sister or other people, don’t tell about their evil. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.) 2dervN. the prefix derives a noun. Impakiala da nadan limmu da ya am-in di kinadangyan da. They got their property and all of their riches. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Derivational affixes.)
maid 1negative predicate. 1.1negpred. a negative predication; the negative opposite of the existential predicate. Maid di inat kuh gaga-iho. I did not do anything bad. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - No, not.) 1.2negpred. negative predication expressing the non-existence of an agent. Maid di mun-ay-ayyam hi banting. Nobody will play with matches. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around. 1.3negpred. negative predication expressing the non-existence of a thing or possession. Maid di pihuk. I have no money. Mungngunu kayu te maid di poppog di tiempo. Work, because time is without end. Maid moy ena igattang. He had nothing more to sell. Maid, tumakut kamin e mangala mu maka-i-imin nangidat ot alan mi mo. “Nothing. We were afraid to take the candy but she was smiling as she gave it so we took it.” 2sta. to become non-existent; mama-id, the reduplication expresses the process of disappearance, i.e. becoming non-existent. Athidi bon gulatnat mama-id am-in di mumbaki ta hiya ya abuy matdaan. Like that also, if there are no longer pagan priests except for him. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Exist.) der. ma-idon der. ma-ma-idan der. mama-id id. Ma-ma-idan di nitaguwak. ph. v. maid di poppog na
malalao (infl. of lalao) sta. to be immoral. Adita makihayyup nadah tatagun mangat hi malalao. Let’s not join in friendship with those people who do immoral things. Hay pangi-eda ya gaga-iho te aton day malalao. As for their way, it’s bad because they do immoral things. ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Bad, immoral.)
mangat (infl. of at) trans. to do something; the agent-subject is topicalized. <
> Kon waday laing yun mangat nah ipangunuk? Do you have the skill to do my work? Hanan tagu ya tobalonan mabayadan an mangat hi gaga-iho. That person, he will accept payment to do bad. maN‑/naN‑. This particular form of at is used when the discourse requires the agent-subject to be in the pre-verb position.
mihwang (infl. of hiwang) pass. to be saved from trouble, danger or disaster, particularly used in a religious sense. Mihwang ka hi liwat mu hin mangulug kan Jesus. You will be saved from your sins if you believe in Jesus. Baddangan dakayun ha-oy an AP-APU an Dios yu ta mihwang kayud buhul yu. (Numbers 10:9) I, the LORD your God will help you so that you will be saved from your enemies. Mundasal taku ta mihwang takuh gaga-iho. We pray that we will be saved from evil. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Save from trouble, 220.127.116.11 - Salvation.)
paka- -an this circumfix encodes the competence and expertise of the agent-subject to do whatever is expressed in verb; the site-object is cross-referenced. Ha-on (God) ya takon di daana ya wadaak, kinali, paka-innilak am-in di at-aton di tatagu. (Jeremiah 23:23) As for me, I (God) am everywhere, that is why I know very well everything that people are doing. Itikod yun mangat hi gaga-ihot ha-oy (God) di paka-u-unnudan yu. (Jeremiah 4:4a) Stop doing evil so that I will be the one you carefully follow. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
pakaC3- -on this circumfix is an intensifier and cross-references the object of Class 4 roots. Om, inat nay gaga-ihon pakabalawwon Apu Dios. (2 Chronicles 21:6b) Yes, he did evil that God intensely hates. “Pakadadaggon takuh tuwen boble!” (Psalm 137:7) “We will totally destroy this city.” Sim: C3, paka-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.)
talam 1sta. to be cunning or deceitful; to be tricky. Natalam ka. You are deceitful. Nuntalam ot bumtik hi kalabutan. He was cunning and escaped from prison. na‑, muN‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Deceive.) 2trans. to trick or deceive someone. Adiyu talamon te gaga-iho hidiye. Don’t deceive him because that is bad. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact.
tudu₂ 1intrans. to teach or train. Muntuttuduh Juana an munha-ang. Juana is teaching how to cook. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 3.6 - Teach.) 2trans. to show; to point out; to teach something specific. Ituddum di dalanon. Show us the way. Naligat an adalon nadan mapmaphod an mitudtudu mu deket nan gaga-iho gagala on inadal di tatagu. Good teaching is hard to learn but as for the bad, people easily learn it. Ituddu nad uwani aton an muntanom. He will teach us now how to plant. Dakami ke ya intuddu day iskul hi sentral ot ume kamihdi. As for us, we were told to go to the Central School, so we went there. Adi maphod nan itudtudum hantudah iibam. What you are teaching your brothers is not good. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to teach a particular person. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Tudduwan ditakun mungkugut. She will teach us how to sew. Adim tuttuduwan tun imbabalek an e munduka. Don’t influence (lit. teach) my child to go roaming around. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal Oriented Sites. id. manuttudu infl. mangituttudu
yaden deman ot conj. this phrase is a combination of conjunctions and adjuncts that connect two clauses; it combines the idea of contraexpectation or contradiction related to the first statement, along with the emphatic modal idea that the truth of the second statement should be obvious; and yet, see there; instead, see there. Kay makaphod di aton da ya kalyon da yaden deman ot an gaga-ihoy wadah nomnom da. (Psalm 26:4) It is as though what they do and say is very good, and yet, see there, what is in their mind is bad. Kay makakullug an makaphod da yaden deman ot an hauhaulon da nadan nabalun binabait pun-ala day limmu da. (Mark 12:40) It is as though they are truly very good, instead see there, they are deceiving widows so that they can get their property. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.3 - Contradict.)