Search results for "ha-ad"

Donglom tun pangiha-adak (id. of dongol) A witty way to say: See where I am placing this. an idiom for telling someone to see or to notice where something is being placed. (lit. hear this that I am placing) Donglom tun pangiha-adak. See where I am placing this. (lit. Listen to this my placement of it.)

ha-ad (sp. var. haad) 1to place something. 1.1trans. to move an object away from agent and place or position it somewhere. Iha-ad mu nan od-odnam ne immali kah tu. Put down the thing you are holding, then come here. i‑/iN‑ . 3A Move and position object. Sim: patuk. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 1.2trans. to move and place an object on/at a site, the site is cross-referenced. Ha-adan takuh kodot nan gattuk ta kanom nan gando. Let’s put some poison on the yam so that the rat will eat it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3trans. to move and place an object, the spatial placement is important. Ha-adom nan kaiw ne pinatak mu. Set the wood vertically then nail it. ‑on/‑in‑. 2pass. something is placed. Ya kananay “Pun-aniduwan” ot to tukabana ot alana nan niha-ad ad dalom. And he said “It’s a heater”, so he uncovered it and got something placed inside. mi‑/ni‑. 3pass. something or someone stays in a place. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs mi‑/ni‑. infl. makiha-ad

makiha-ad (infl. of ha-ad) trans. to live with someone. Maid di udum makiha-ad ke dakami. There was no one else who lived with us. Hi Talakka ya hiyah diye makiha-ad ke dakami. As for Talakka, she was the one who lived with us. maki‑. (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.)

‑an₁ dervN. this suffix derives a noun from a transitive verb. Ekami makidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go and meet them in Lagawe because their arrival place is definitely there. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. Nagibbu ke, ikuyag mu tun nabinokbokan hi lopohhan ya ihukbung mu. After this, pour the rice into the fermentation container (lit. place of fermentation) and cover. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat.

abuy (der. of abu) exispred. a substitutionary form of an existential predicate that asserts a restriction by referring to the only one or only thing that qualifies in relation to the statement being made. Dadiye ya abuy Ippangyol an niha-ad ad Kiangan. They are the only Spaniards who stayed in Kiangan. Kediye ya pitu ya abuy kinnanan littalit. Those seven were the only bats that he trapped. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.1 - Exist.)

ad-adi (der. of adi) advpred. evaluates and describes something as bad or awful. Hi ke aman din hi Dulawan ya waday ad-adin inat di bumdang ke hiya. As for my late father, Dulnuwan, he had a very bad experience with the bumdang-spirit. Ad-adiy nangiha-ad na nadah karga. He didn’t place the baggage in an orderly way. Hay punnomnom ku tuh liblu ya ad-adi. As for my thinking about the book, it was awful. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.1 - Bad.) infl. ad-adiyon

aggub comm. grass variety, used as an antiseptic. Nag-od nan taklena ot ha-adana hi aggub. He cut his hand so he placed aggub-grass on it. (sem. domains: 2.5.7.2 - Medicine, 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

ahi₁ 1asp. future time aspect verb auxiliary when co-occurring with a non-past tense verb; there is also a modal component, i.e. a determination or an intention to act or a certainty that something will happen component. {This form is used primarily in clauses expressing time sequences having purpose or prediction.} <This form occurs before the verb; pronouns become enclitics> Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaippaptok am-in. Perhaps the next time, it will be well-planned. Ahitaku bo ume. We shall go again. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangmung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2asp. encodes a sequential aspect of events encoded in the verbs when co-occurring with past tense verbs; before. <Occurs preceding the second event verb in a sentence.> Ne dinanuman ta ingganay lumuwag ya ahi inha-ad nadan udum an midum. Then, add water and bring to boil before adding the other ingredients. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It is night before it comes out to fly around. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a pagan priest has to perform a ritual to make him well (before he will be well). comp. ta ahi

ahiudanan (udan, ahi) nom. rainy season. Miha-ad hidi inggana handih inlappu nay ahiudanan. He stayed there until the time when the rainy season started. Hanah bulan di July di ahiudanan hitu. The month of July is the rainy season here. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 1.1.3.3 - Rain.)

alkohol 1comm. alcohol, e.g. for rubbing, alcohol for lighting petroleum lamps. Ha-adam hi alkohol nan nag-od. Place alcohol on the wound/cut. 2trans. to rub alcohol on something or someone. Inalkoholan nay adol na. He rubbed alcohol on his body. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: English: alcohol.

almidor 1comm. starch used in laundry, cooked and mixed with water; made from cassava or rice. (sem. domains: 5.6.4 - Wash clothes.) 2intrans. to use starch on clothes. Ha-adam hi almidor nan balbalam. Place laundry starch on the clothes you will launder. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Syn: gawgaw. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: almirol.

amunna adv. to be unique in number of characteristics. Maid di udum an makiha-ad ke dakami amunna nadan duwan golang an imbabalek ya nan inayak. There were no others living with us, only my two small children and my husband.

apul 1comm. lime powder; this is added to betel nut and leaf for chewing; it is made from the conical shaped snail shell that is burned to ashes then ground to a powdered consistency. [Traditionally, lime powder was placed on a newborn’s navel to dry it after the umbilical cord was removed. May also be used on wounds.] Ha-adam hi apul nan nag-od. Place lime powder on the cut. Idattanak nah apul mu ta apulak tun mimmak. Give me some of your lime powder so I will add it to my betel nut chew. wh: mom-on. 2trans. to use lime powder and place it on a betel nut chew. Idattanak nah apul mu ta apulak tun mimmak. Give me some of your lime powder so I will add it to my betel nut chew. Iapul mu nan indat apum. Use the lime given by your grandfather. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑ ‑an.

asukal (sp. var. atukal; sp. var. asukar) 1comm. sugar Ha-adam hi asukal nan kape. Put sugar in the coffee. Sim: dil’u. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to use or place sugar on something. Asukalam nan gattak. Put sugar in the milk. Iasukal yu nan una. Use the sugarcane for sweetening. Nun-asukal nan nan una. He used the sugarcane juice for sugar. ‑an/‑in‑ an, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: azucar.

atag 1comm. a mat for putting the harvested rice under the granary; made from cane. Bitbitom nan atag ta pangiha-adan hi makan. Spread the mat so that we will place the food on it. 2trans. to spread a mat. Iatag mu ta ubunan taku. Spread the mat so that we can sit on it. i‑/iN‑.

bakwet trans. to leave one’s place; to abandon residence; to evacuate during war or epidemic. Numbakwet day iKiangan handih nangalian di Hapon. Long time ago the Kiangan people left their town because the Japanese came. Numbakweton da dadiyen tatagu te waday ipataddog di gubilnu na niha-adan da. The people were told to leave their place because the government was going to put up something where they were residing. muN‑/nuN‑, nuN‑ ‑on. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: dul’ig. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.3 - Leave, 4.3.3.3 - Abandon.) Language Of Borrowing: English: evacuate.

bangal comm. vine-like plant that is jointed. Dih mataguh ina ya mahapul an abun ha-adan hi bangal di gawwan di panopnakan. When mother was alive, the bangal-vine had to be placed in the seedbed. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

bangngad trans. to return something. Ha-adana pitololio ot ibangngad na ot alana nan banting ot tolgana ot ahi hukapon Feberio. He put some kerosene (in the container) and returned it and got a match and lit it before Feberio covered it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.6 - Return.) infl. bangngadon infl. ibangngad infl. mabangngad infl. mibangngad infl. mumbangngad infl. nabangngad

banting 1comm. matchstick; matches. [This was the name given to the flintstone, piece of iron and piece of cotton used for lighting fire before matches.] Adiyu pid-on di banting hi u-unga te indani ya gumhob da. Don’t let children play with matches for they might burn something. Ha-adana pitololio ot ibangngad na ot alana nan banting ot tolgana ot ahi hukapon Feberio. He put some kerosene (in the container) and placed it back (in the heater) and got a match and lit it before Feberio covered it. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5 - Fire.) 2trans. to set fire to something by using matches. Bantingam tun holok ta dumalang. Light the grass so it will burn. Alam nan banting nah indoggan mut bantingam nan papel ta dumalang. You get the matches behind you (lit. at your back) and light the paper so it will burn. Dakol di tagu mo ohan obban. (banting) There are many people using one blanket (box of matches). (riddle) ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn.)

batag proc. for eyes to become bloodshot. Mumbabatag nan matam te ugge ka nahuyop. Your eyes are bloodshot due to lack of sleep. Bumatag di mata hin maha-adan hi sabun. The whites of the eyes become red if soap gets into them. Tipet bimmatang nan matam? Om te kimmogakogaak. Why are your eyes bloodshot? Yes, (they are) because I have been crying. muN‑, ‑um‑. Sim: lodya. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.)

betsin 1comm. MSG; monosodium glutamate; Vetsin is a brand name of MSG. Adim ha-adan hi betsin nan ihda. Do not put Vetsin (MSG) in the viand. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.3 - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to add Vetsin to a dish. Betsinam nan ihda ta maphod di tamtam na. Place Vetsin in th viand so it will have some taste. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: English: Vetsin.

bigi 1comm. worm, generic term; larva; slug. Makattakutak hi bigi. I am so afraid of caterpillars. Adik pinhod di bigi. I don’t like worms. Spec: kamkamil-at. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.) 2sta. to have worms. Mabigiyan nan bulhe hin adiyu ha-adan hi kodot. The beans will be wormy/full of worms if you don’t apply insecticide. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. Spec: kolang, hulni, babangngo.

bilat comm. a needle; traditionally rice straws and slivers of bamboo were made into needles. Ha-adam hi tinulid nan bilat ta ikugut yu tun nabik-in luput. You thread the needle and sew this torn cloth. Banhok di bilat mu ta kugutak tun ampuyok. May I borrow your needle so that I can sew my skirt. Naligat an humgop di sinulid nah ittay an bilat te ittay di uwang na. It’s hard for a thread to enter a small needle because it has a tiny hole. Adi pamga haad hi bilat te mittuwik. We should not just put needles anywhere because they prick. Tutuwikon, hidhid-ipon. (bilat) You prick while you peep. (needle)(riddle) (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.)

binong-o comm. rice grain seeds selected for planting in a seedling bed. Inha-ad na nan binong-o nah alang. He placed the rice seed in the granary. Dakol di namung dah binong-o. They have gathered much rice seed (for seedling bed). (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

bolda 1trans. to decorate something with ornamental needle work; to embroider something. Boldaam nan bulwatin tulang mu. Embroider the dress of your sister. Bumolda kah iha-ad ku nah kuwartu. Embroider something that I will place in the room. Makakkaphod di binoldaan Fely. Fely’s embroidery is very beautiful. Naboldaan hi maingit nan bulwatina. Her dress was embroidered in red. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an,‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2intrans. to embroider as an activity. Mumbolda da nadan u-ungan binabai. The young girls are embroidering. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: burda.

bongbong trans. to build a dam; to block water. Bongbongom ni-an nan danum nah payo. You block the water coming out of the field. Ibongbong mu nan luta nah loba. Use the soil/dirt on the slope in damming the water. Pumbongbong da na napa-in banong. They are blocking the water flowing from the destroyed ricefield dike. Bumongbong kah pangiha-adan hi liting. Dam a spot for gathering water. Adi mabongbong te nal-ot nan danum. It cannot be dammed because the current is too strong. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, puN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 5F Adjacency/Adjoining. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) infl. mamongbong

buklut comm. a container for locusts made of kawayan ‘bamboo variety’ or ugo ‘bamboo variety’ and has a small opening. Nah buklut di nangiha-adan da nah dimpap dan dudun. They placed the locusts they caught in the locust-basket. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

CV(C)-₁ mod. this modal reduplicant functions to intensify the meaning of a predication. <Morphophonology: The modal form reduplicates the first syllable of a root. For that reason, the syllable pattern of the root dictates whether the reduplicant form is CV- or CVC-.> Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is very dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to finish it (lit. make it very good) . (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

da₁ pers. 1they; third person, plural pronoun; the form is a member of both Set 1 and Set 2 and encodes the subject grammtical relation, whether or not it is cross-referenced. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hiyo dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka some small er...meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They left the basket in our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2third person plural, possessive pronoun, Set 1; equivalent to the English possessive pronoun ‘their’. Ume kamih bale da. We are going to their house. Loktat mo anhan ya nauman am-in di odon da. Soon enough, nothing was left of their heirlooms. Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. comp. dehdida ph. v. dedah di ph. v. dedah tu

dadag destroy. 1.1trans. refers to the destruction of concrete objects; may also refer to people or their reputations; to ruin; to destroy; to damage. Adim dadagon nan intanom ku. Do not destroy what I planted. Wada boppoy ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whatever toy that I buy, you destroy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object . (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 1.2pass. the passive form refers to the state of being damaged or destroyed, without an agent. Madadag am-in di nitanom te itotool nay udan. All the plants will be damaged because it keeps raining. Nadadag nan ingkail ku te makudang di inha-ad kun binokbok. The rice wine I prepared is ruined because I did not put enough yeast into it. ma‑/na‑. 1.3mod. expresses the facility with which an undergoer-object can be put into a condition or state; easily destroyed. Kadinaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. ka‑ ‑inn‑. 1.4nom. the derived noun refers to the concept of destruction. Hay tumbuk di kadadagan di dakol an tagu. It is gossip that is the destruction (reputation) of many men. ka‑ ‑an. 1.5trans. to destroy, with an added component of having the ability to do this. Dumadag hi bale nan puwok an umali. The storm that is coming can destroy houses. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

dadal sta. to be mature or ripe, refers to vegetables and fruit. Nadadal mo didan bulligan. Those winged beans are already matured. Nadadal danaen mangga an maphod an iha-ad ta mal-um. Those mangoes are matured which are good to be stocked to be ripened. Madadal da ke ot didan gagallat ya hiya. It is good if those pineapples will be matured. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Spec: luum. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

dadiye demonstrative. the plural form of the Set 3; those over there (away from speaker and listener); anaphoric (back reference) in text. Dadiye nan in-alik an page. Those over there are the palay I brought. Dadiye ya abuy Ippangyol an niha-ad ad Kiangan. So those were the only Spaniards who came to Kiangan. Inilam met an sigud an adik pinhod dadiye. You know also that I don’t like those. Binungbungan dan am-in dadiyen babatu. They blasted all those rocks using dynamite. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) der. dadiyey n. ph. ke dadiye

dagami 1comm. dried stalks of rice. Ha-adam hi dagami nan puyok ta adi madanglol. Place rice stalks on the mud so (the path) will not be slippery. Takon di munnanong nan dagami ot nalakan matanok. Just let the rice stalks remain, anyway, they easily become soft (and decay). Hay ke uung ya mabalin an tummol hi dagami. Mushrooms can grow in rice straw. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2trans. to place rice straws with location in view. Dagamiyan yu nan balen di babuy. Place rice straws in the pigpen. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

dalebdeb intrans. to burst into flames; to blaze; a blazing sound, the flames are high and dangerous. Mundadalebdeb nan apuy te nakammag-anan nan itungu. The fire is blazing because the firewood is very dry. Dumalebdeb nan apuy hin ha-adam hi pitlolyo. The fire will blaze if you add petroleum. muN‑nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: dal’ang. (sem. domains: 5.5 - Fire.)

dalipe 1comm. stepping stones; paving stones. [The stones are usually large and flat and may be used to pave a yard or on the dikes in fields for a path.] Ha-adam hi dalipe nan banong. Put stepping stones on the ricefield dike. Sim: pidipid. (sem. domains: 6.5.3 - Building materials.) 2pass. refers to a site where stepping stones have been placed. Adi mapitok hin nadalipeyan di dola. It’s not muddy if the house yard has stepping stones. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3trans. to place stepping stones. Idalipe yu nan nalpud Ibulao. Use the stones from Ibulao for stepping stones. Dalipeyan yu nan kalata. Place stepping stones on the path. Oongngal an batu nan nidalipe. The stones used for paving were large stones. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

danglol 1sta. to be slippery. Madanglol nan dalan an umed Linda. The path which goes to Linda is slippery. Madanglol nan manteka nah dulung. The cooking oil on the floor is slippery. Nun-ule-ule da te uma-agol hi Bugan an mundalan nah madanglol an banong. They walked slowly because Bugan was cautious walking on the slippery dikes. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.2 - Texture.) 2proc. to become slippery. Dumanglol nan kalata hin umudan. If it rains, the road will became slippery. Ha-adam hi lana nan buuk mu ta dumanglol. Put oil on your hair so that it will be soft (lit. slippery). ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. madanglol

daya₁ trans. to level ground; to make ground level. Dayahan yu nan pangiha-adan hi bale. Level the ground where we will build the house. Dinayahan da dola da ta pun-ay-ayyaman di imbabalem. They leveled their yard so that their children can play on it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Sim: kiblu, dede. (sem. domains: 7.5 - Arrange.)

dingding 1comm. wall of any building, e.g. houses or granaries. Napa-i nan dingding. The wall was destroyed. (sem. domains: 6.5.2.1 - Wall.) 2trans. to build a wall; to put up walls. Ugoy indingding da. They walled-it with fine bamboo. Dingdingan yuh tabla. Wall with the boards. Pundingdingan da. They are walling-it. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 4A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) 3intrans. to place a wall. Mundingding da ad uwani nah balen da Pedro. They are putting up a wall now in the house of Pedro. Dumingding kah kiha-adan nadan u-unga. Wall off a spot for the children to live in. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

dommang 1comm. the opposite side; to be across from. Ume kah dih dommang na. Go to the opposite side. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.6 - Across.) 2intrans. to be opposite each other. Nundinnommangan dadiyen boble. Those two villages are opposite each other. muN‑ ‑inn‑ ‑an.

dot-al 1comm. flooring. [Floorboards are placed across the doorway not parallel to it so luck and prosperity will not go out of the house.] Nan udyo di iha-ad yun dot-al. Place the mahogany-wood for the flooring. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to floor a house. Dot-alan dah kawayan nan bale da. They are going to floor the house with bamboo-slats. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

dotal 1nom. an area of land that is very flat and level, usually located among mountains; a valley. 2trans. to make something level; to make flat. Dotalom. Level it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 3intrans. a level surface. Hidih nundotal di pangiha-adam ta adi muntiggitigging. Place it on that leveled place so that it won’t be unsteady. Nuntitigging di lutah tun adi umat hi udum an boblen nundodotal. The land here is steeply tilted unlike the land in other places where it is level. Nundotal di payo mi. Our field is level. nuN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.2.2 - Rough.) der. nundotal

duntug 1comm. a slight elevation of land; a hill. Nah duntug di nangiha-adan da nah bale da. On the hill is where they placed their house. Sim: bilid. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.1 - Mountain.) 2sta. to be hilly. Maduntug nan kudal da. Their pasture land is hilly. ma‑.

gali-ing 1comm. manure of chicken; excrement of chicken. Ha-adam hi gali-ing nan nitanom ta tumaba. Put chicken manure on the plant so that it will become robust. 2intrans. to excrete; for a chicken to discharge manure. Gimmaliing nan manuk dih pimmatapat ot miptok hi uluk. The chicken excreted when it alighted on a branch and it hit my head. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.)

gam’al 1comm. a handful. Ohan gamal ya abu. One handful only. Sim: poka, pongol, dokop; Sim: kawot, poka. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) 2trans. to close the hand; to hold something in hand. Gamalom nan taklem ta adi mag-a nan od-odnam. You close your hand so that what you are holding will not drop. Nganney gagamalom? What are you holding? Adi magamal te ongngaongngal. It could not be held in the hand because it is very big. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.4 - Hold.) 3trans. to take a handful. Igamal mu mo teden maid di pangiha-adam. Take by handfuls for you don’t have a container. Gumamal ka tuh buwan di antak ta em itanom. Take a handful of these string bean seeds for you to plant. i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

gitok 1comm. grooves, notches or chop marks on wood. Ha-adam hi gitok nan pangipatakan. Place a groove on the spot to be nailed. Syn: gitagit. (sem. domains: 7.7.7 - Mark.) 2trans. to place a groove or notch on something. Gitokom nan kaiw. Place a groove on the wood. (in order to cut) ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 3intrans. to make a notch or groove on wood. <When a noun is incorporated into the verb form, the verb becomes an intransitive verb grammatically though the transitive meaning component is still understood.> Adika munggitok. Don’t place grooves. muN‑/nuN‑.

guk-ung adj. empty; describes a container as having nothing in it. Mahapul an yuduwon dat bumudal nan guk-ung di papan ta ahida bo ha-adan hi ohan papan. They needed to push out the empty bullet shell with a stick and insert another one. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.8.1 - Empty.)

gut’i 1comm. designs embossed on wood carvings or bamboo products, either for beauty or practical use. Ha-adam hi guti na nan paotom an tagtaggu. Place an embossed design on the figurine you are going to carve. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.4 - Pattern, model.) 2sta. embossed. Nagtiyan di tukud da. Their posts have embossed designs. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

ha-ikan (der. of haik) comm. doormat. Ha-adam hi haikan nah kad-an di panto te napipitok di kalata. Place a doormat by the door because the path is very muddy. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.)

halong₁ comm. pine heartwood; used to start fire. Ha-adam hi halong nan itungo ta dumalang. Put pine-heartwood on the firewood so that it will burn. Sim: bolbol. (sem. domains: 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.)

hantudan demonstrative. these; the plural form of hantun, a member of set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Hantudan manuk hitu ya ieyu didah nah alang. These chickens here now will be brought to the granary. Tipet idngol muh kalin hantudan tatagu on ahim inat di pinhod mun aton; kon maid di nomnom mu? Why do you bother to listen to these people before doing what you want; don’t you have a mind of your own? Daanay pungkiha-adan hantudan tatagu? Where will all of these people be accommodated? (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hayumuhum sta. to have an aromatic smell. Mahayumuhum di tinoon. Native rice is sweet-smelling. Munhayumuhum nan inhaang dan boga. The cooked rice smells good. Humayumuhum nan inhaang dan ihda hin ha-adan dah amput. The viand they are cooking will become aromatic if they place garlic in it. ma‑, muN‑, ‑um‑. Sim: banglu. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.)

hikat (sp. var. hitak) trans. to insert something underneath another thing; to put something under or between. [The word is usually used in relation to inserting something to raise or make another thing level. ] Ha-adam hi hikat nan dulung. Insert something between the floor boards. Hikatam nan tukud ta tumagtag-e. Insert something under the post to raise it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.6 - Put in.)

hinae₁ (nae, hi) demonstrative. Class 3 demonstrative pronoun; definite reference to something near hearer; endophoric reference. Iwagot muh naen hapang ta mag-a da nadan abal. Shake that branch so that the beetles will fall. Iha-ad muh nae. Place that one. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hukkihukit (der. of hukit) advpred. to be crowded together because of small or narrow space. Hukkihukkit nan kiha-adan mi. The place where we are living is crowded. Hukkihukkit yaden adikayu madlig ahan. It’s very crowded as you can see and yet you won’t move. Evaluative.

hulu₂ 1comm. a noose trap; a string is placed in such a way as to catch an animal by the feet or by the head. Inha-ad na nan hulu nah dinalan di ulha. He placed the noose-trap where the wild pig passed. Sim: appad, lingon, bawol, balai. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2intrans. to set a noose trap. Eda manuluh amunin. They are going to noose-trap squirrels. maN‑/naN‑.

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

inhinyero comm. an engineer, any type, electrical, civil. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung. That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to place the dynamite sticks. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

ispalto 1comm. asphalt. Ispalto di inha-ad da nah kalata. They placed asphalt on the road. (sem. domains: 8.3.6 - Made of, material.) 2trans. to pave with asphalt. Ispatowon da nan dalan an umed Tinoc. They will pave the road going to Tinoc with asphalt. ‑on/‑in‑.

kaban₂ 1comm. wooden box or trunk. Nangapyah kaban an pangiha-adanah bulwatina. He made a wooden box for his clothes. Pundallomom tun balituk nah kaban mu. Put this gold at the very bottom of your trunk. Sim: kahon. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place inside trunk. Ingkaban ina hanan balituk an banggol ku. My mother placed my golden chain inside the trunk. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site.

karga 1comm. baggage, sack, anything considered to be cargo carried on a vehicle. Ad-adiy nangiha-ad na nadah karga. He didn’t place the baggage in an orderly way. Iphod muy pangiha-ad mu nadah karga. Place the baggage nicely (lit. make good the placement of the baggage). (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to load baggage or other cargo on vehicle. Ikargam nan bulhe nah talak. Load the beans in the truck. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Language of Borrowing: Spanish: carga.

kayat 1to climb upward. 1.1intrans. to move upward, climbing a stake, tree, or other climbable object. Kimmayat didan u-unga dih mangga. The children climbed the mango tree. Nag-ahak handi kinali adik mo ipidpidwan kumayat. I fell once, that’s why I’ll never climb trees again. Uggek ni-an inilan kumayat handi te ittayak. I didn’t know how to climb trees then because I was small. ‑um‑/‑immi‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: amit, kallehke. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.4 - Move up.) 1.2intrans. to climb from one upright object to another with durative aspect. Mungkayyatan da. They are climbing from tree to tree. muN‑ ‑an/nuN an . 2to climb something. 2.1trans. to climb a specified upright object; the focus is on the patient-object being climbed. Kayatom nan ba-at ta alam nadan nal-um an bungana. Climb the guava-tree and get the ripe fruit. on/in . 2.2trans. to climb an upright object, carrying something; the focus is the conveyed object being carried. Ikayat mu nan basket ta pangiha-adan yuh polagon yu. Climb up with the basket and load it with the fruits you gather. i/iN .

kiblat 1comm. the part of a ricefield that is ankle deep in water and has little soil; rice plants do not grow well; the soil is sometimes stony. Pinnunah dagami nan kiblat ot ha-adanah pitok. He piled that part of the field with dried ricestalks and then placed mud on it. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 2intrans. to become ankle deep in water and stony when soil is removed. Kumiblat nah gawwa na hin tagam hi kaan nah luta. It will become ankle deep and stony in the middle part if you keep on removing the soil. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes.

koltina 1comm. curtain. Ha-adam hi koltina nan tawang. Place a curtain on the window. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to place a curtain. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: cortina.

konbento comm. a residence for members of a religious order, most commonly Catholic; convent. Miha-ad nadan madre nah konbento. The nuns stay in the convent. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: convento.

kuling₁ (sp. var. koling) comm. main beams of native house or granary; girders on which a floor is laid. Ip-iphod yun ihaad nan kuling na ta ahi ihaad tudan tabla. Carefully place the girders before we put the flooring. Hay mahmahdol an udyo di iha-ad an koling. The thicker narra boards will be placed as the girders. Dulawon di kuling di baleda. The main beams of their house are made of dulawon-wood. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

kungkung 1comm. ceremonial headdress, feathers from the neck of roosters are tied together in a row and tied in men’s hair. Inha-ad na nan kungkung hi uluna ot e manayo. He put on his ceremonial headdress, then went to dance. (sem. domains: 5.4 - Adornment.) 2intrans. to wear or use a kungkung ceremonial headdress. Mungkungkung kan manayo ta maphod di tibona. Wear a kungkung-headdress when you dance so that it will look good. muN‑/nuN‑.

kurtina comm. fabric placed at window; curtain. Iha-ad tuwen kurtinad tawang. Place this curtain at the window. (sem. domains: 5.1.2 - Household decoration.)

kuwaltu (sp. var. kuwartu) 1comm. room; bedroom. Mahuyop ka nah nigawwan kuwaltu. Sleep in the middle room. Tulu di kuwartu nan balen impitaddog da. The house they built has three bedrooms. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to partition or make into a room. Kuwaltuwom nan ongal an kuwaltu ta kiha-adan nadan u-unga. Partition the big room so that the children will stay there. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.5.2.7 - Room.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: cuarto. der. mungkuwaltu

laya 1comm. ginger. Ha-adam hi laya nan ihda. Place ginger in the viand. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.3 - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to season with ginger Layaam na miha-ang an dolog ta maphod di tamtam na. Put ginger in the fish so it will taste good. Linayaan da nan dotag. They placed ginger in the pork. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Change state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2 - Steps in food preparation.) id. kay da lalaya tun gamat di dapan ku

ligud₂ intrans. to look everywhere for something or someone. Ligudom nan nangiha-adan yu nah banga. Look everywhere for where you placed the pot. Ena liguligudon hi amana. He went looking everywhere for his father. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions of object. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

liyang 1comm. cave. Adika maohhan humgop hi liyang. Do not enter a cave alone. Waday inang-ang kun liyang ad Kalao, Tuguegarao. I’ve seen a cave in Kalao, Tuguegarao. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo, it is said, stay or live in caves, near springs. 2sta. to have a cave formed. Naliyangan nan nagden nah payo. A cave was formed in the landslide in the field. na‑ ‑an.

lob’ong 1comm. a body of water; a lake; a pond. Eda mungkeke nah lobong ad Ambuwaya. They are going to swim in the lake at Ambuwaya. Sim: baybay, wangwang, wa-el. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.) 2trans. to fill depression in earth with water, e.g. a ricefield, a pond; to flood. Em lobngon din payo taku. Go fill our ricefields with water. Limbong da nan payo ot ha-adan dah tilapia. They flooded the ricefield and placed tilapia-fish. Nal-ot di dinlu kinali nalbong di kanal. There was a strong rain that is why the canal was flooded. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑.

logom 1advpred. refers to a random thing or person involved in an action, may refer either to the agent or the thing acted on. Logom nadi on inalak. I took things randomly. Nalgom/Nalogologom di kalyom. You talk just anything/nonsense. Nalgom di tagu an humgop hi balen di kandidato. Just anyone can enter the house of the candidate. Hay ke bo pihhu ya adi nalnalgom on ginatang. And as for money, don’t just spend it on anything. ma‑/na‑. Manner. Sim: kumpulmi. (sem. domains: 3.3.1.4 - Intend.) 2trans. to do something randomly and hastily with the focus on the action itself, not the modification. Logmona ha-ad hi pihhuna. He just puts his money anywhere/carelessly. Ilgom nay pangibalowana hanadah hintutulang. He will not just randomly revenge it among the relatives. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. infl. nalgom

lokob 1comm. cloth patch. Ha-adam hi lokob nah pukol nan kamahhitam. Place a patch on the shoulder of your shirt. Sim: tapal, takup. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to patch clothes. Lokobam nan nabik-in pantalon mu. Sew a patch on your torn pants. Ilkob mu nan nungkaanan da nah pantalon mu. Patch it with the cloth they cut off from your pants. Lingkobana nan bulwatina. She patched her dress. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑.

lubukan (der. of lubuk) nom. a grave; a tomb. Nah lubukan amanay nangiha-adan dan hiya. They interred him in the tomb of his father. ‑an.

luta 1land. 1.1comm. the surface layer of the earth which supports plant life; soil; ground. Haa-adam hi luta nan napain banga. Place soil inside the broken pot. Adida ni-an iha-ad hi luta yaden pumaytuk nan himmagabi nah hagabi ta gumpa. Before they place the bench on the ground, the man who is performing the ceremony jumps up on it and makes a speech. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.) 1.2comm. any portion of the surface of the earth which belongs to a person; land property. Ambilog di lutam. Your land is wide. (sem. domains: 1.2.1 - Land.) 2earth. Sim: lubung. 2.1comm. the planet as the place where people live; earth. Tun lutan niha-adan takun tatagu ya ahin tu mama-id hantuh aliyan Apu Jesus Kristo. This earth where we are living will be nothing when the Lord Jesus Christ comes. (sem. domains: 1 - Universe, creation, 1.2 - World.) 2.2prop. the world where certain classes of spirits live, along with people, in contrast to the worlds where other gods and spirits live; Earthworld. Sim: lagud. (sem. domains: 1.2 - World.) der. ilutta

ma- -an 1sta. non-past stative circumfix form. An adika maagangan? Don’t you ever feel hungry? Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di, inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun.” answered his father. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed picking and eating the fruit. Sim: na- -an. 2pass. non-past passive form; focuses the site with Class 3 verb roots. Maha-adan nan basket hi makan. The basket will have some food placed in it. Mabalbalan di ha-ikan. The doormat can be washed.

maadal (infl. of adal) pass. this refers to something that can be learned or someone who can learn. Dakol di maadal mun miha-ad hi library. You can learn much by being in a library. Hanadan maphod an maadal ya malpu nadah nanomnoman, bokon hanadah makudang di nomnom na te dida ke ya maid di inila dah maphod anituttudu. (Proverbs 15:7) Those good things that can be learned come from those who are wise, not from those whose minds are lacking wisdom because they don’t know anything that is good to teach.

mag-a₁ sta. to be dry; often refers to ground which lacks moisture. Namag-a nan nangiha-adan dah lubukan. The place where they built the tomb is dry. Namag-a nan lutan ena gardenon. The land he is going to make into a garden is dry. Maphod ta ugge immudan ta mamag-ay dalan taku. It’s good it didn’t rain so our way is dry. ma‑/na‑. Sim: tuduk. (sem. domains: 1.3.3.1 - Dry.) infl. mamag-anan

Malikanu prop. American; may refer to any white-skinned foreigner. Malikanu nan miha-ad hitu. An American lives here. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people, 4.6.2.1 - Foreigner.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: Americano.

malka (sp. var. marka) 1comm. any identifying mark, e.g. brand on animal. Inilana di malkan nan baka da. He knows the brand of their cow. Hituwey marka an inha-ad da nah baka. This is the brand they placed on the cow. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2trans. to brand or place an identifying mark on something. Malkaan yu nadan baka. Brand the cows. Mummalka dah nuwang nah pastu. They are branding carabao in the pasture. Minalkaana nan saku. He placed an identifying mark on the sack. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.7.7 - Mark.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: marca.

mangi- top. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished (lit. made-good). Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung. That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to place the dynamite sticks. Sim: nangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mangip-iphod (infl. of iphod) trans. to fix, repair, or improve in order to make something good. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to finish it (make it good). mangi‑ CV‑.

marbol 1comm. marble stone. Marbol di inha-ad dan dulung. They placed marble flooring. (sem. domains: 6.5.3 - Building materials.) 2trans. to place marble tiles. Marbolan da nan dulung di pun-amhan da. They are going to place marble tiles on the floor of their bathroom. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: English.

matagu (der. of tagu) sta. to be living; alive. Naligat di matagu te munligat ta. It’s hard to be alive because we experience hardship. Ya hay mamangulun maat ya mamahuwan nadan nungkakaten mangulug ke Kristo, ta ditaku ken matagu kediyen tiempo ya maki-e takun dida e manamu ke Apu taku nah kulabut ta makiha-ad takut nangamung ke hiya. (1 Tesalonika 4:16b-17) The first thing to happen is the resurrection of the believers in Christ who have died so that we who are alive at that time will join them to go to meet our Lord in the clouds so that we all will stay forever with him. ma‑. (sem. domains: 2.6 - Life.)

mi- pass. this prefix encodes the passive of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Sim: ni-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

mo 1present time. 1.1adv. at the present time; now. Mangan taku mo. We will eat now./Let’s eat now. Miha-ad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is now up to the owner to finish it. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 1.2adv. to continue from the present moment; from now on. He-a mo di gumatang. From now on, you’ll have to do the shopping. 2adv. before the present moment; already. Maid nan em hadhad-on te imme mo. The one you are waiting for is not here because he already left. Dimmatong kami ad Lagawe ya nipalpu mo tuwaliy parada. When we reached Lagawe, the parade had already started. comp. daana mo

muyung 1comm. forest, may be public or privately owned. Dakol di mitungu nah muyung. There is a lot of firewood in the forest. Nan amunin ya mihdih muyung. The wildcat lives in the forest. Miha-ha-ad dah nah muyung ta nangamung di magibbuy hagabi. They camp in the forest until the hagabi-bench is finished. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.6 - Forest, grassland, desert.) 2sta. a forested area. Namuyungan nan boble da te tinaynan da handi gubat. Their place was forested because they left it during the war. na‑ ‑an.

nah det. a determiner that marks a definite indirect object or a definite place or time noun. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat. Miha-ha-ad dah nah muyung ta nangamung di magibbuy hagabi. They camp in the forest until the hagabi-bench is finished. Athidi bon nah hilong ta adi ka pakahuyop. The same is true at night so that you cannot sleep. Mun-ay-ayam kamih did dola ya timmaddog on bibiyo nah hinangngab mi, inhumang ku. “We were playing in the yard and a fairy stood in front of us,” I answered. (sem. domains: 9.2.4 - Prepositions, postpositions.) nadah

nan det. that, the; a determiner that marks a definite noun referent; the noun may have either a subject or object grammatical relation to the verb and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They left the basket in our house. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. As for the name of that benchlike figure that they get in the forest, it is hagabi also. nadan

nangi- -an TACR. this circumfix topicalizes and cross-references a time or place; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Tibom di nangiha-adan na nah basket. Find where she placed the basket. Hay nangidongolana ya hi nangappit nah payoh kawad-an di ob-ob. What he heard was in the direction of the ricefield near the spring. Sim: pangi- -an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

nganneh diye (comp. of nganne) 1ind. refers to whatever is not clearly defined or stated. Mu ditakun mangulug di nangipainilaan nan Espiritun Apu Dios kediye te inila nan am-in nganneh diyen wadah nomnom Apu Dios. (1Corinth 2:10) But as for us believers, the Spirit of God makes that known to us because he knows all of whatever is in the mind of God. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.2 - Indefinite pronouns.) 2int. what is that; the question is asked about something that is distant from both speaker and hearer or related to a third party. Nganneh diyen balen kapyaon yun kiha-adak? (Acts 7:49b) What is that house that you will build for me to live in? (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words.)

on 1lk. this linker connects a complement to a main clause predicate or an adverbial predicate. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu ta. I thought that it is only a fire by which we can acquire heat. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed picking and eating the fruit. (sem. domains: 9.6.3.1 - Markers of transition.) 2det. introductory determiner; marks an indefinite, non-specific person or thing; the person or thing referent is contingent on information in context. Wada on tagun immalin manamak ke he-a. There was a man who came looking for you. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to put dynamite sticks (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) comp. deke on

otan 1trans. to move the location of something. It-an da nan bale da nah tap-on di wa-el. They will move their house above the creek. Umit-an kah boga nah kulbung. Transfer some rice to the rice-container. i‑/iN‑, ‑umi‑/‑immi‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: aldan. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 2ref. to change places; to transfer oneself to another location. Nun-ottan da hi ubunan. They changed seats. Mun-ottan da kanuh kiha-adan. They will transfer to another place to stay. Adika mun-ota-otan hi ubunan. Do not transfer from one seat to another. muN‑/nuN‑.

oyl comm. oil. Ha-adam hi oyl nan makina. Put oil in the machine. Syn: langis. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.4 - Mineral.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

padpad comm. a gate on a doorway. Ha-adam hi padpad nan panto ta adi humgop di ahu. Place a Dutch door in the doorway so that dogs will not enter. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

pagana sta. to be a clear liquid, e.g. water or rice wine; has involved the process of sediment settling to the bottom. Kanan day mapagana kanuy danum nah ob-ob an malpuh dopla. They say that the water in the spring coming from a rocky mountainside is cool and clear. Pumagana nan baya hin iha-ad mu ni-an hi hingkatang. The rice wine will become cool and clear if you let it settle for a while. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.2.3 - Solid, liquid, gas, 2.3.1.6 - Transparent.)

pamaahan comm. a wooden basin. Nah pamaahan di pangiha-adam nah gattuk. Place the sweet potatoes in the wooden basin. Sim: balunglung. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

pangi- dervN. this prefix is a clausal nominalizing affix. Dida boy mangiat nadah mahapul hi pangipaptok ke datuwe. They are the ones who will do what is necessary in caring for those things. Iphod muy pangiha-ad mu nadah karga. Place the baggage nicely (lit. placement of baggage) Sim: impaN-, impangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

papan 1comm. bullet. An waday papan nae? Does that have a bullet in it? Mahapul an yuduwon dat bumudal nan guk-ung di papan ta ahida bo ha-adan hi ohan papan. They needed to push out the empty shell with a stick and insert another one. Syn: bala. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.7 - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to use bullets. Ipapan mu nan indat kun he-a. Use the bullets I gave you. Batu di pamapan hi lattik. Stones are used for bullets in slingshots. i‑/iN‑, paN‑. 3trans. to load a gun with bullets. Papanam nan palattug mu te dakol day hamuti hitu. Load your gun because there are many birds here. Kanak on ugge napapanan kinali kinalbit. I thought that it was not loaded that is why I squeezed the trigger. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

papel comm. paper. Hay papel di puntolog mu. Start the fire by burning paper. Punha-adan yuh papel hanadan ubunan. Put papers on your seats. (sem. domains: 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.) Language of Borrowing: English.

pattit 1comm. hook and eye; any kind of fastening that has a hook and eye. Ha-adam hi pattit nan tawang ta adi mibughul hin mumpuwok. Place a hook and eye fastening on the window so that it will not be opened if there is a storm. Iha-ad mu nan pattit nan tawang. Place the lock on the window. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool.) 2trans. to lock a door or window with a fastener. Ipattit mu nan panto. Lock the door. Pattitam nan panto te lumah-un takun am-in. Bar the door because we are all going out. Pattitam nan panto. Place a hook and eye fastener on the door. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.6.1 - Shut, close.) der. mumpattit

paytuk 1intrans. to move, by jumping up and down. Adida ni-an iha-ad hi luta yaden pumaytuk nan himmagabi nah hagabi ta gumpa. Before they place the bench on the ground, the man who is performing the ceremony jumps up on it and makes a speech. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli te hidiyey pinghanan ena nakidilagan hi allama. She jumped up and down and screamed because it was the first time she went to catch crabs with a torch. Kanan Juliey, “Dakol di in-innat mi. Nungkanta kami ya pimmaytuk kami. She said, “We did many things. We sang and we jumped.” ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ CVC. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: labtuk, yapa; Sim: dop-a, labtuk, yapa. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1.3 - Jump.) 2trans. to jump over something with the object being jumped over in view. Paytukom din alad hin kayam. Jump over the fence if you can. ‑on/‑in‑.

pitlolyo (sp. var. pitololio; sp. var. pittololyo) 1comm. petroleum, an oily flammable substance that is refined for use as kerosene and gasoline. Pitlolyo di nuntolog na. He used kerosene in lighting the fire. Ha-adam hi pitlolyo nan dilag. Place kerosene in the lamp. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.4 - Mineral.) 2trans. to use kerosene by placing it on something. Pitlolyowam nan apuy ta dumalang. Place kerosene on the fire so that it will ignite. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: English.

pudu comm. betelnut vine fruit. [A long, green fruit of a vine, ingredient of the betelnut chew.] Pinpinhod nan ha-adan hi pudu nan mom-ona. She loves to place betel-fruit in her betel chew. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

puN- -an₁ TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a distributive concept; it distributes an action or activity to plural objects and cross-references the objects. Bimmoh-ol hi ama ot pumboh-olan dakami. My father was so angry that he scolded us. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this circumfix cross- references a topicalized time or place. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to put dynamite sticks. Daanay pungkekeyan yu? Where will you swim?

pun-aniduwan (der. of anidu) nom. refers to an object that gives out heat. Ya kananay “Pun-aniduwan.” ot to tukabana ot alana nan niha-ad ad dalom. And he said “It’s a heater.” so he uncovered it and got something inside.

pungki- -an TACR. this circumfix encodes distributive and participatory concepts; cross-references a topicalized place. Daanay pungkiha-adan hantudan tatagu? Where will all of these people be accommodated (lit. placed).

puyok 1comm. mud; soil. Ha-adam hi dagami nan puyok. Place dried rice straw on the mud. Sim: pitok. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.) 2sta. to be muddy. Napupuyok nan bulwatina. His clothes were muddied. ma‑/na‑ CV‑.

suka 1comm. a sour liquid condiment; vinegar. Adim halman hi ha-ad nah suka. Do not put too much vinegar. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.3 - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to use vinegar. Sukaam nan mangan inhaad na nah duyu. Place vinegar on the mangoes she placed on the plate. Isukam nan nalpud baliwon. Use the vinegar made in the lowlands. Munsuka da bo nadan u-ungah ugge nal-um an tupaya. The children are dipping unripe papayas in vinegar again. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 5.2.1 - Food preparation.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

ta nangamung₁ adv. the time concept related to an event, activity or action that continues ‘up to the time of’ specified in the sentence. Miha-ha-ad dah nah muyung ta nangamung di magibbuy hagabi. They camp in the forest until the Hagabi is finished. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) ph. v. damanat nangamung

takatak 1comm. a metal tool with a sharp edge used in trimming and shaping wood; a chisel. Bumano ka takatak da. Borrow their chisel. (sem. domains: 6.7.1 - Cutting tool.) 2trans. to use a chisel. Takatakom tun kaiw. Chisel this wood. Takatakom nan kiha-adan di bisegra. Chisel out the spot where the hasp will be placed. Muntakatak hi ama hi makapyah onob. Father is using the chisel on the door frame. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

takon conj. a conjunction of concession; although; even; even when; even if; even though. {The conjunction relates a hypothetical concession with an assertion.} Takon di athidi ya opya ka. Although it’s like that, you keep quiet. Takon di hi Pedro ya nahuyop. Even Peter is asleep. Takon nan udidiyan da ya makitentenda. Even their youngest helps in selling. Takon di bimmungot tak pimmaliyak ke ya paka-ikabing nay tugun ku. Even when he is angry, he still heeds me when I talk to him. Makaphod nan buhim te adi malumman di tamtam di baya takon di mabayag an miha-ad. Your jar is good because the taste of the rice wine does not change even if it stays in it for a long time. Takon di bumoh-ol ka ya alak damdama. Even if you are angry, I’ll get it anyway. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.9 - Concession.)

takut 1to be afraid. 1.1intrans. to feel anxiety or dread due to impending danger; afraid. Tumakut hi banig. He is afraid of ghosts. Maid moy udum an Ippangyol an nangipatnan immalin niha-ad ad Kiangan te tumakut da. No other Spaniard ever tried again to come to stay in Kiangan because they were afraid. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. Opp: tulid; Sim: kol-o, kobkob. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4 - Afraid.) 1.2sta. to be very afraid. Makattakut hi Juan nah ahu. Juan is very afraid of the dog. makaC1‑. 2to fear something. 2.1trans. to fear something with the thing feared cross-referenced by the affix. Takutan di mangalanay ahu. It’s the dog that night prowlers are afraid of. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2trans. to cause someone to feel frightened; the affix cross-references the person who is being frightened. Taktakuton da dakayu ya alan day diyen limmu yu. They will frighten you and get your property. CVC‑ ‑on. 3sta. to be frightening; to have characteristics that cause fear. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (lit. frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. kaCV‑. 4comm. refers to the emotion that someone experiences. Adina itikod nan mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He doesn’t stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die anytime. der. katatakut der. matakutan infl. makattakut

tigan sta. describes something that is movable. Adi matigan nan inha-ad dan poste. The post they placed could not be moved. Matigan kayu ta tumaddogak. Move a little so I will stand up. ma‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

tinta comm. 1paint. Nap-u di tinta nah simbaan. The paint for the church is all used up. Sim: pintor. 2ink. Maid di tinta nan panudok na. There is no ink in his pen. Ha-adam hi tinta nan panudok mu. Put ink in your pen. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

tobong 1comm. pieces of wood, bamboo, or metal used to pierce and pick up cooked root vegetables; used in roasting meat. [The tool is usually stuck in walling for next use. It is also used in the kulkulibag-childbirth-ritual.] Alam nan tobong ta ihongba ta tun dotag. Get the barbecue stick so that we will roast this meat. Sim: tuduk. 2trans. to pierce with a pointed stick and roast; to barbecue. Itbong ku nan altet ihdam. I’ll roast the liver for your viand. Mahong-o nan mitbong an dolog. Fish roasted over a fire is delicious. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.) 3trans. to pierce. Natbong di taklek nah bilat. My hand was pierced by the needle. Timbong ot ha-adanah uwe nan dotag an ianamut yu. He pierced and placed rattan strips on the meat you are to bring home. Timbong day ingana te pinhod nan munhingat. They pierced her ears because she wants to wear earrings. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑.

tu-ul 1comm. a protrusion, e.g. a swelling, a lump in the body. (sem. domains: 2.5.6.3 - Swell.) 2sta. to have a swelling or protrusion. Waday natu-ul hi uluna te nitipog. His head has a swelling because it was bumped. 3trans. to form a mound. [Mounds are usually made in ricefields for planting vegetables during the fallow season.] Tu-ulon yu nan gabyonon yu ta adi mianud nan mitanom. Make mounds of the soil you are hoeing so that the things planted will not be carried away by water. Wada nan tinibok an natu-ul an luta ot ek gaudon ya waday nilubuk an nakatten tagu. I saw a mound of earth so I went to spade it and there was a dead person buried. Napnu bo tuwali nan lata ya tagan da pay di ha-ad ot makattu-ul mo. The can was filled but they continued to place more and so it was heaping full (lit. mounded). ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, maka‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.)

ubun 1to sit. 1.1intrans. to sit down. Umbun ka ni-an ta ek ayagan hi ama. Sit down while I go and call for father. Inumbun da nah luhung ot mummoma da. They sat down on the mortar and chewed betelnut ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: halupinnak. (sem. domains: 7.1.2 - Sit.) 1.2intrans. to continue sitting. Aga, mangmangbun kayu pet umeyak. Come on, you all keep sitting while I go. maN‑ CV(C). 2to sit. 2.1trans. the place for sitting is cross-referenced by the affix. Tibom ta adim ubunan nan puha. Be careful not to sit on the cat. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. 2.2advpred. to sit as a manner of doing something else. <Morphophonology: The first vowel is lost, and the initial glottal stop and the second consonant metathesize.> Inib-un dan mungkanta. They sat as they sang. i/iN. 3intrans. to be idle; to sit around constantly, doing nothing. Umubuubun kah kabigabigat. You are idle everyday. ‑um‑ CV(C)CV. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.4.2 - Lazy.) 4a seat. 4.1nom. a thing to sit on; seat, bench, chair. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The name of that thing like a bench which they get from the forest is also hagabi. ‑an. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.) 4.2sta. for seats to be occupied. Nab-unan am-in di ubunan kinali tumataddog kami. All the seats are taken, that is why we are standing. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. der. ubunan id. umubuubun

ud’ul comm. an earthworm species, big, greenish-brown. Pinhod di udul an miha-ad nah mumbabahan luta. The udul-earthworms like to stay in soggy soils. Sim: bilog. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

ug-ugge (der. of ugge) neg. 1intensified negation of an action or activity indicating that something has never happened. Agat dayawon takuy udum an dios an ug-ugge yu dinayaw handi. (Deuteronomy 13:2) Let’s worship other gods that you have never followed before. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2intensified negation indicating that an action or activity was not done for a long period of time. Kediyen niha-adanah di ya ug-ugge nangan ya ug-ugge imminum. (Exodus 34:28) At that time he stayed there and did not eat and did not drink (for 40 days and nights). (sem. domains: 9.4.6.1 - No, not.)

ungdid intrans. a goat-like smell; wild cat smell. Mun-ungdid nan daulon di bale te hidiy kiha-adan di gulding. The space under the house smells goat-like because that is where goats stay. muN‑. Sim: uptut, ungbub. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.)

yudu trans. to push an object out of a container of some kind. Mahapul an yuduwon dat bumudal nan guk-ung di papan ta ahida bo ha-adan hi ohan papan. They needed to push out the empty bullet-shell with a stick and insert another one. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.)