Search results for "hitu"

ahitul-u (comp. of tul-u, ahi) nom. the rice harvest season. [This is the time of homecomings, drinking, making rice cakes and merry-making; June and July.] Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani; Gen: ahi; Syn: ahiani. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture, 6.2.5 - Harvest.)

ahitunod (tunod) nom. season for transplanting rice from seedbeds to the fields. Dakol di ngunu nah ahi tunod. There’s a lot of work during the transplanting season. Nagibbuy ahi tunod tuh boble. The season of transplanting here in our village is finished. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

athitu (umat, hitu) advpred. like this; to compare an event or action. Anakkayang! Maid ek tiniboh athitu hi kadakol di tagu. My! Never have I seen such (lit. like this) a crowd of people. (sem. domains: - Compare.) der. miathitu

athituy (comp. of hitu, umat) advpred. it is like this, a comparative adverbial predicate used to tell someone how to do something or to make a comparison of actions or events. Tipet athituy inat mun ha-on? Why have you done like this to me. Mahapul an athituy aton yu nadah ibbam. It is necessary that you do like this to your companions. Athitu di pinhod na. She wants something like this. (sem. domains: - Compare.)

hitu 1dem. Class 4 demonstrative pronoun; refers to spatial area: here, near speaker. <Morphophonology: the h of the demonstrative attaches to a previous word ending in a V; the i vowel of the demonstrative drops, and the tu remains.> Dahdiy wadah tu? Who is in here? Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan. During the Spanish rule here in the Philippines, some of them came to Kiangan. Hitu ke ya danum an maid di poppog nay maang-ang. Here, all you see is water without an end. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2comm. refers to someone who is from the place,where the speaker is talking; from here. Ihitu da. They are from this place. 3nom. the place where someone resides; home; speaker’s house. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. athitu comp. athituy comp. dehtu comp. deyahtu comp. wadahtu der. ihtu der. nunhituwan ph. v. dedah tu

hituwe dem. this; a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; refers to something that is close to the speaker. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) hituweh hituwen hituwey

hituweh (hituwe) dem. this; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns and co-occurs with the determiner hi. Ya adiyu kanan di intudok kuh tuwen dakayu te pinhod kun umidat kayuh mahapul ku te maid hituweh nomnom ku. And don’t think that I wrote this to you because I want you to give what I need because there is nothing like this in my mind. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hituwen (hituwe) dem. this; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns and co-occurs with the linker an. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hituwey (hituwe) demonstrative predicate. this is; a demonstrative predicate; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; it co-occurs with the allomorph y of the linker di. The form predicates the existence of something or someone that is near the speaker. {The demonstrative predicate combines the function of predication and definite reference.} Hituwey nakapyan ha-on. This is what happened to me. Hituwey bale mi. This is our house. Hituwe di kanan dan liblu. This is what they call a book. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hituy demonstrative predicate. here is the place; predicates and refers to the location of something near the speaker. Hituy pun-appitan nah dios an ugge nainila. (Acts 17:23a) Here is the sacrificial place (altar) to a god that is not known. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

miathitu (der. of athitu) pass. to say that something should remain as is. Miathitu tuwen lamesaan. This table should remain like this. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: - Stay, remain.)

nunhituwan (der. of hitu) nom. home; abode. Liniyan yuy nunhituwan yu. Clean your homes. (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.)

datuwe dem. 1these; the plural form of hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; refers to plural things close to speaker that have previously been referred to, must co-occur with noun head. Datuwen bibiyo ya damanan ipkod day tagu. They can take hold of a person’s life. Mumbohboh-ol an numbagan datuwen odon. She was very angry when she asked for these things. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2these here. <When the things being referred to are understood contextually, the demonstrative may occur without a noun reference.> Makie kamin emakidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go with others to meet them in Lagawe because that is where they will arrive. De, datuwe ot nadan liblun ek hamahamakon! Aha, these books are exactly what I was looking for! der. datuwey n. ph. ke datuwe

ahi₂ dervN. time-of; season-of; compounds with verbs to indicate important event times. Mun-uubbu hanadan tatagu te ahigabut. The people will share-work because it is the season for cleaning ricefields. Ahi taku umeh did bobleh ahiani. We will go to the barrio during the harvest season. Spec: ahiani, ahibungaan, ahigabut, ahigaud, ahihagophop, ahikotolan, ahikulpi, ahilai, ahipaad, ahipuwok, ahitul-u, ahitunod, ahikagokoh, ahiadug. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) ahiudanan comp. ahiadug comp. ahiani comp. ahibakle comp. ahibungaan comp. ahigabut comp. ahigaud comp. ahihagophop comp. ahihopnak comp. ahikagokoh comp. ahikotolan comp. ahikulpi comp. ahilai comp. ahilida comp. ahitul-u

ahiani (comp. of ani, ahi) nom. season for harvesting rice. [This is also a time for homecomings, drinking, making rice cakes, and merry-making; months of June and July] Magibbuy ahiani ne ahiyak umali. After rice harvest time, then I will come. Dakol di baya nah ahi ani. There is much rice wine during harvest season. Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani; Gen: ahi; Syn: ahitul-u. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

iwang comm. refers to the period of ricefield preparation including weeding, making mulch mounds, mending dikes, spading and transplanting. [This period lasts 4-5 months.] Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

lawang comm. planting season, the rice seedlings are transplanted from the seed bed to the field. [Transplanting of seedlings from seed beds to paddies takes place from early December through January.] general: Some speakers call this season kiwang, rather than lawang. Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ti-algo (sp. var. tialgo) comm. refers to the 3-month dry season, March through May; time for people to travel and visit one another; time to burn areas for swidden plots and shift farms; summer. Cal: iwang, lawang, ti-algo, ahitul-u, ahiani. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

‑an₂ TACR. this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; it encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with a site semantic role. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on the books Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. Wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut nunhituwan mid Longnga. There was a person who saw him and helped him to return to where we were staying in Longnga. Sim: ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

‑imm‑ ‑an TACR. this circumfix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect; and cross-references a topicalized place. Hituy immaliyan mi handi. Here is where we came before. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

adinadama (comp. of adi, nadama) negpred. predicates that an action or event cannot be done or cannot happen; it is impossible. Adinadama bon magatang. It cannot be bought. Adinadaman eda umed uwani They can’t possibly leave now./It’s impossible for them to leave now. Adinadaman hituy pangatan mi. It is impossible that this is what we’ll do. (sem. domains: - Impossible.)

aggayam 1comm. animal, domestic; quadruped. Dakol day aggayam hituh luta. There are many kinds of animals here on earth. Sim: amayyu. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to raise domestic animals. Maphod di mun-aggayam ta waday ihda. It’s good to raise domestic animals in order to have meat. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.)

ahiudanan (udan, ahi) nom. rainy season. Miha-ad hidi inggana handih inlappu nay ahiudanan. He stayed there until the time when the rainy season started. Hanah bulan di July di ahiudanan hitu. The month of July is the rainy season here. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, - Rain.)

alak 1comm. irrigation canal. Maid di liting nah alak. There’s no water in the irrigation canal. Mibakilang kanuh Abe nah alak ot kanana kanuy “Aday, aday, aday, aday. According to him, he lay down in the ditch and he said “Ow, ow, ow, ow.” Sim: paluk, boy’a, kanal. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) 2trans. to build an irrigation ditch. <With this affixation the agent-subject is fronted and cross-referenced.> Hi Jose di mangalak hitu. Jose wil build the canal here. maN‑/naN‑. der. mangalak

algo₁ comm. during sunlight time; day. [The meaning of this form is no doubt related to the identical form with the gloss ‘sun’. The time unit ‘day’ relates to the time period from sunrise to sunset.] Ihap-em nan paeh udum an algo te adi mahap-ayan hi hin-algo ya abu. Dry the palay again some other day because it can’t be dried in just one day. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Hi kadwan di algo ya humamuy moy bubud. On the second day, the fermenting rice gives out its peculiar smell. Hituwen algo di kanan dah Ang-ang. This day is called Ang-ang. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) comp. hin-algo der. maal-algo id. gagala on immey algo infl. kaalgoalgo

an₁ lk. 1this form links a main clause and a complement clause. Naka-ang-ang ku an pungkiting daka. I actually saw that you were being pinched. Tinuttuduwanak an kumalih kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Katatakut pay an e buma-el na kalata. It is very dangerous to cross the street. 2this form links a relative clause to noun and verb heads. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Mr. Paredes and Mr. Datumanong would come here to Ifugao. 3this form links quantifiers and adjectives to noun heads. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel of the linker is reduced and the n attaches to the word.> Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. We, all of us women, wore the Ifugao-skirt. comp. deya ot an

Ang-ang prop. the name of the arrival day of the hagabi-bench in the village. [Traditionally there was a ritual and ceremony related to the carving out of a bench in the forest and bringing it to the village. Only the wealthy could afford to fund days of feasting and drinking while the bench was being made and the celebratory feast on the day of its arrival in the village.] Hituwen algo kanan da Ang-ang. This is the day they call Ang-ang. Sim: hagabi. (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony.)

Aplil prop. April, the fourth month of the year. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu Apu Paredes ya Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao hi 27th. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said it is reported that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong would come here to Ifugao on the 27th. (sem. domains: - Months of the year.)

appit₁ comm. a share of meat related to paternal or maternal relationship. [The sharing of meat is related to feasts, particularly wedding and funeral feasts.] Hituwey bolwan di appit di babai. This is the meat-share for the girl’s side (of the woman). Appit inah tuwe. This meat is from the mother’s side. (mother is already dead) Appit inah tuwe. This is from my mother’s side. (Mother is still alive.) Sim: bolwa. (sem. domains: - Meat.)

baddang 1trans. to help someone; to aid; to assist. Bumaddang kayun mamah-on nah intungu. Help in carrying the firewood. Eyak bumaddang, atok di damanan atok I will help; I will do what I can. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: tulung, dang-a, abono. (sem. domains: - Help.) 2comm. assistance or help that is given to someone; often it is in the form of money, but it can be general assistance in anything that is needed. Hay oha bo ya nomnomom an ongal di baddang Apu Dios ke he-a ot maischolar ka. Another thing is remember that God helped you greatly to become a scholar. 3trans. to help someone who is specified. Em baddangan nah payo da. Go and help them in their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4trans. to give something, often money, to help someone; what is given is cross-referenced as the grammatical object. Hituwey ibaddang kun he-a. This is what I will give to help you. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. infl. mamaddang

bagi 1exispred. to own; to belong to; to possess; predicates the existence of something that is owned. Bagik. It is mine. Dahdiy kon bagi ketuwe? Who owns this? Bagim hituwe. This is yours. (sem. domains: - Own, possess.) 2trans. to own or claim something that is not originally yours. Ibagim tun liblu hin bidbidok. You will own this book after I read it. Bagiyon yu nan bale. You will own the house. Maid di mabagi yu. You will own nothing. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bain 1comm. a feeling of humiliation, embarrassment resulting from being disgraced by someone or from an action that is disapproved by others. Maid di bain mu. You are a disgrace./You have no shame. Sim: ban-ule. (sem. domains: - Ashamed.) 2shameful. 2.1nom. to think that an action or situation does not meet the standard of appropriate behavior. Kababain di namuttag tan ume ya maid nihmoy idat nah mungkasal. It’s shameful to attend a wedding without anything to give to the couple (bride and groom). ka‑ CV‑. 2.2ashamed. 2.2.1intrans. to feel ashamed or shy. Bumain an mangibagan he-a. He is ashamed to tell you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation. (sem. domains: - Ashamed.) 2.2.2trans. to embarrass or humiliate someone; the victim is in view and cross-referenced by the affix. Nakaba-inanak te bina-inanak nah mittulu. I was so embarrassed because the teacher insulted me. Bainan daka ke ya op-opya ka. If they shame you, just keep quiet. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2.3intrans. to be shy or ashamed. Mumba-iba-in kinali maid di ginun-ud na. She was too shy that’s why she got nothing. muN‑. 2.2.4trans. to be ashamed of something or someone with whom one is associated. Adim ibain an ihitu ka. Do not be ashamed that you are from here. Ibain nah inana. She is ashamed of her mother. i‑/iN‑. infl. ba-inan infl. bimmain infl. maba-inan infl. mibabain

baladung (sp. var. baladong) 1comm. wood piece to throw, short but heavy. Iyam hitu nan baladung. Hand me that baladung-wood. Sim: tongba, gayang, balnu, bon’al, boka, alo, balabal. (sem. domains: - Plant product.) 2trans. to throw something long, about an arm’s length. Ibaladung mu nan itungu. Throw the firewood in a sideways motion. Baladungom din tabuyug ta wadan mag-ay oha. Throw it up at the pomelo tree so a piece or two of fruit might fall down. Bumaladung kah mangga. Throw a piece of wood at the mangoes. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Throw.)

balikawwa trans. to coil something like wire. Ialim hitu nan nabalikawwa an gigit. Bring me that coiled wire. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of something. (sem. domains: - Roll up.)

bayad 1comm. payment for something. Hituwey bayad nan ginattang ku. This is the payment for what I bought. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2trans. to pay for something. Ibayad na nan binokla na hi gawat na. He will use his salary to pay his debts. Adim bayadan nan inalak an tinapay nah tendaan ta kay hidiyey bayad nan pihhun inutang nan munggattang hidin ha-oy. Do not pay for the bread I took from that store so that it will be the payment of the money the storekeeper borrowed from me. Maid di adi mabayadan an utang. No debt will be left unpaid. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to make a payment Mumbayad hi Juan hi bigat. Juan will pay tomorrow. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

baybay comm. refers to any large body of water, e.g. ocean, sea. [Although the Ifugao do not live anywhere near the ocean the word is used in their oral literature and ritual language.] Dakol di dolog nah baybay. There are many fish in the sea. Maid di baybay hituh boble taku. There is no sea in our province. Sim: wangwang, wa-el, lob’ong. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.)

bilid 1comm. mountain. Hitu ked Ifugao ya dakol di bilid an maang-ang. Here in Ifugao, many mountains can be seen. Etaku munhabal nah bilid. Let us go to make a swidden in the mountains. Ot mungkampu dad Awwa an tap-on di bilid. And they had their camp at the top of the mountain called Awwa. Sim: duntug. (sem. domains: - Mountain.) 2intrans. to roam from mountain to mountain. Mumbilibilid day ulha. Wild pigs roam from mountain to mountain. muN‑ CV(C)CV‑. 3sta. to be mountainous, for an area to have many mountains. Mabilid nan kad-an di kudal. The ranch is mountainous.

bimmoble (der. of boble) nom. inhabitants of a specific village. Nadan bimmoble di nangidadaan hi makan. It was the home-villagers who perpared the food. Diday bimmoble hitu. They are the original settlers of this place. (sem. domains: - Politics.)

bolwa 1comm. a relatives’ share of the meat sacrificed during a ritual. [The share is proportionate to the proximity of kinship relations with the feast celebrant.] Sim: appit. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, - Part.) 2trans. to share the meat sacrificed during a ritual. Bolwaon dah bigbigat nan nate. They will butcher animals to be shared by the relatives tomorrow. Hituwen dotag di binolwan amam. This meat is your father’s share. Bolwaon yu nan dotag ta mun-iingngo nah iibam. Share the meat so that your relatives will have equal shares. Nakibolwa te iibana dida. He got a share of meat because they are his kinsmen. ‑on/‑in‑, naki‑.

botos 1comm. vote. O-ohay botos nan kandidatuk. My candidate had a few votes. (sem. domains: - Choose.) 2intrans. to vote. Mumbotos da ad uwani. They will vote now. Bumotos kah iLinda. Vote for one from Linda. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to vote for someone in particular. Ibotos muy ibbam an ihitu. Vote for one who is from this place. Botosan yu nan kandidatuk. Vote for my candidate. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

bukat trans. to open something. Mumbukat hi Juan hi mainum. Juan is opening some drinks. Bumukat kah inumon ta. Open something for us to drink. Binukatana nan kahon ya dakol di pihhuh di. He opened the box and there was much money in it. Bukatan yu nan panto. Open the door. Hi Cora di nangibukat nah panto te uggek dingngol nan kalim. It was Cora who opened the door because I did not hear your voice. Hinaey impumbukat mi nah lata te adi pakabukat hituwen indonak. That was what we used for opening the can because what I am holding cannot open it. Adi mabukatan te nialaddu. It cannot be opened because it is locked. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mangi‑/nangi‑, impuN‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: bughul, lukat. (sem. domains: 7.3.6 - Open.)

buwaya comm. crocodile, alligator. Maid hitud Kiangan di buwaya mu hanadan ken aammod ya kalkalyon day buwaya; toan hin daanay nanib-an da. There are no crocodiles in Kiangan but the old folks talk about crocodiles; I don’t know where they have seen them. Tumakutak hi buwaya te kuman hi tagu. I’m afraid of crocodiles because it’s said that they eat people. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

CV(C)₂ mod. when prefixing a form that is not functioning as an active verb, e.g. passive, or quantifying adjective, it intensifies by maximizing. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. Ta mamangulun ipulitu ta deket nage-geengngan hi ittay ne inid-um di amput ya danggu And fry first until it is brown and add garlic and onions.

daan mot adjunct. used to make a suggestion for an action or activity or to suggest a way of doing something. Daan mot iathitu taku? Why don’t we do it this way? Interpersonal. (sem. domains: - Persuade.) comp. daan mo ahan ta

dalan₁ 1comm. a place for walking; path; trail; way. Maid di dalan hitu. There is no path here. Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then took me to the upper road. Sim: kalata, kah-on. (sem. domains: - Road.) 2to walk. 2.1intrans. to move about on foot; to walk. <Affixation: The circumfix set muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an expresses both a durative aspect and the site-concept of a widely spread area for the walking, i.e. walking around. > Mundallan mo nan golang. The child walks now. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Walk.) 2.2intrans. to walk, with a starting point in view. Dumallan mo nan unga. The child can already walk. um/imm. 3to walk by, bypass or through a place. 3.1trans. to walk, passing by a place or through a medium. Indaladalan muh di yaden adim pinhod an makihummangan ke hiya. You are always passing there yet you do not like to talk with her. Idalan taku nah wa-el. We will pass through the creek. Daanay pangidalanam? Where will you pass (lit. path/walk)? i‑/iN‑. nangi‑/pangi‑ + ‑an. 3.2trans. to walk on a path, road with prominence given to the thing walked on. Maid di dalanon yuh tu. There is no place to walk here. on/in. id. kay bakkukul an dumalan id. kay gawgaway pundalan id. kay kabayun dumalan infl. ipadalan

dapig trans. to change shape by pressing; to flatten. Dapigom nan kapyaom an tinapay. Flatten the bread you are to bake. Mangapya kah gampa mu dapigom ta nalaka an miagtu. Make a gampa-basket, but make it flat so that it’s easy to carry on the head. Nadapig di nangat mu yaden kanak di mukkolom. You made it flat, yet I told you to round it. Hay nadapig an batuy ialim hitu. Bring a flat stone here. Mungkadapig nan uluna. Its head is becoming flat. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

datong₁ 1intrans. to reach a destination; to arrive. Dimmatong dad Lagawe ad nakugab. They arrived at Lagawe yesterday. Madatong di tiempon ahi daka tibon. The time will arrive when I’ll see you. Dakol day tatagun e munhood hi iiba dan dumatong. Many people go to meet their relatives who are arriving. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑. 2A Movement, from one place to another.. (sem. domains: - Arrive.) 2trans. to arrive, bringing something with oneself. <The prefix cross-references the object that is brought.> Idatong yu nan itunguh bale. Bring the firewood up to our house. Indatong da nan babuy dih indai. They arrived with the pig a while ago. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with onself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.) 3trans. the site of arrival is an object that is cross-referenced, a person, place or time. <Morphophonology: datngan; dinatngan; the ‘o’ in the second syllable of the root is lost when a suffix is added.> Datngan hiyah di. You will arrive there where he’ll be. Dinatngan Jose hitud Kiangan ad nakugab. Jose arrived here in Kiangan yesterday. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day arrived. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. infl. madatngan

dodong sta. to be corroded, the state of a metal being destroyed by rust. Nadodongan hituwen banga. This pot is corroded. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Rust.)

dung-o₁ intrans. to visit (lit. to be seen at the door). Wada key dimmung-oh nunhituwan, tibon ta ipaptok dida. If anyone comes to visit, see to it that you take care of them. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: - Visit.)

e-e comm. 1customs; traditions; ways of doing things. Athituy e-en di ibaliwon. These are the ways of lowlanders. Hituwey e-en di aammod taku handi. This is the way of our forefathers long ago. Sim: pangat, pangi-e. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2characteristics of a person or thing. Athidi tuwali di e-ena. That is really his nature.

ena₁ int. a tag question form used to evoke confirmation of a statement. Umali ka, ena? You will come, won’t you? Pinhod mun mihaad hitu, ena? You like staying here, don’t you?

gad’it 1intrans. to be hyperactive; to move about constantly. Munggadit an kay napaktiwan di tibana. He is moving constantly as if his buttocks has hot pepper on it. Gumadigadit ka ke ya loktat ya nag-a ka. If you keep moving about, later on you might fall. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: gidi. (sem. domains: 4.3 - Behavior.) 2sta. describes someone who is hyperactive, always moving about. Adika hunggop hitu te nagadit ka. Don’t come in here because you are constantly moving about. Nagadit nan tulang ku kinali nag-a. My brother fell down because he is always moving about. na-.

gal’ut 1comm. refers to things thrown away because they are worthless; trash; debris; litter. Em geengon nan galut. Go burn the trash. Iwelem nan galut mo ta adi miwakwakilat. Throw the trash now so it will not be scattered. Sim: basura. (sem. domains: 5.6.1 - Clean, dirty.) 2intrans. to put trash in an area. Adi kayu munggalut hitu. Don’t throw trash here. (lit. don’t trash) muN‑/nuN‑.

gattang (sp. var. gatang) trans. 1to buy something. Wada boppoy ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whenever I buy a toy, you destroy it. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Buy.) 2to sell something. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑.

giman sta. to take a personal interest or show concern about something. Adika makigimgimman hitu. You have no business here. maki‑ CVC‑ ‑an. Sim: bibyang. (sem. domains: - Interested.)

gisay trans. to fry food in small amount of oil. Athituy aton: Mamangulu ya igisay amput ya danggu hi manteka. This is how to cook it: First, saute the garlic and onions in cooking oil. i‑/iN‑. 3D Move an object with a resulting change of state. (sem. domains: - Cooking methods.)

gutud (sp. var. gitud) 1trans. to set a time and/or date. Gutudom di algon pundammuwan ta. Set the date when we will meet. Bokon ad uwani di gintud di Maknongan an katayam. This is not the day that God set for your death. Hi bigat di nagtud hi aliyan da. Tomorrow is the day set for them to come. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2comm. date set Uggetaku inila di gutud di biyag taku. We don’t know the set time/end of our life. Hinaey gutud di aliyam hitu. That is the last time you will come here.

ha-oy (sp. var. ha-on) pers. I, first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the form is preposed before the verb and functions as a topicalized agent-subject; the form is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Ha-oy mangipaali nah talak hitu. I will have the truck come here. Ha-oy ke ya handih wada ak ad Linda hi balen nan iban aman nih-adak I am the one who was in Linda staying at the house of my father’s relative at that time. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

habali advpred. to indicate a preference; to evaluate a thing or action as being a higher degree of good; better. Habali hituwe inat mu. It would be better if you did it this way. Habalinay umop-opya ka te bimmoh-ol. It would be better if you are quiet because he is very angry. Evaluative. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.)

hagabi 1comm. (prim) a bench belonging to rich people; a carved and decorated bench, with carabao head figures at each end. Waday inang-ang yuh hagabi? Have you seen a hagabi-bench? Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished. Sim: Ang-ang. 2comm. the name of a ceremony which signifies wealth and prestige. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Cultural note: There is a great amount of feasting, drinking and dancing during this prestige ritual. The playing of gongs and dancing may take place for five or six nights. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 3intrans. to perform the prestige ceremony. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi-ceremony. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - High status, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) der. himmagabi

hamuy 1trans. to smell something. Hamuyom di habung tuwe. Smell this flower. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: hunghung. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.) 2pass. something is described as being smelly. Hituwen amayyu ya makahhammuy This animal is odorous. makaC‑. der. munhamuy

hantudan demonstrative. these; the plural form of hantun, a member of set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Hantudan manuk hitu ya ieyu didah nah alang. These chickens here now will be brought to the granary. Tipet idngol muh kalin hantudan tatagu on ahim inat di pinhod mun aton; kon maid di nomnom mu? Why do you bother to listen to these people before doing what you want; don’t you have a mind of your own? Daanay pungkiha-adan hantudan tatagu? Where will all of these people be accommodated? (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

haul 1trans. to deceive someone to get them to do something; to tempt someone. Em haulon hi Pedro ta umali hitu. Go lure Pedro to come here. Adim haulon di ibbam an tagu. Don’t tempt your fellowmen. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. Sim: dalogat. (sem. domains: - Deceive.) 2intrans. to deceive with a deceiver cross-referenced but no particular victim in view. Adi kayu deceive. Don’t deceive. Inilanan adiyak humaul. I know that I have not deceived (anybody). ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

hayobhob intrans. to crowd around someone or something. Adiyu hayobhoban nan nahalangob. Don’t crowd around that one who fainted. Antipe ekayu humayobhob hitu? Why do you crowd around here? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: alibungbung. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

hi bigat adv. tomorrow. Hi bigat di aliyam ot wadaak hitu. Come tomorrow, anyway I will be here. Time. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.)

hidol 1comm. the edge of an area such as a village or field. Hitu di hidol nan gabutan yu, This is the point where you will stop cutting grasses. (sem. domains: - Limit, - Boundary.) 2trans. to go to the edge or border of an area. Ihidol nah on inodnonah punbanogan. He went to the border of the village and then down to the ricefields. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to stop at the designated boundary. Inhidol nan munggabut. He stopped cutting grasses at the designated point. i‑/iN‑.

hip’ag₂ trans. 1to bump something. Adim ot ihipag nan buhi te maphik. Take care not to bump that ricewine jar on anything because it will be broken. Adi humgop tun tabla nah panto te adukke ya mihipag. This board cannot fit into the door because it is too long and bumps the walls. Ume-ele ka ta adika mahipag. Move a bit further away so you will not be bumped. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ma‑/na‑. 3I Direct an action twoard an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to strike or hit someone; any method but kicking. Hipagom nan kumalikali. Strike that person who is always talking. Maka ot hitu te humipag man din tagu. Come here because that person will hit you. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

huy’uhuy 1comm. draft of wind; a breeze. An magiknan di huyuhuy? Do you feel the draft? Sim: dibdib, hub-’ud, budabud, yupuyup, puwok, budibud. (sem. domains: - Wind.) 2intrans. the blowing of the wind through an open area. Adik pinhod an umbun hitu te munhuyuhuy. I don’t like to sit here because there is a draft. muN‑/nuN‑.

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

iday adjunct. oh dear!; expression of surprised dismay or fear. [Intonation and facial expression disambiguates the meaning of this expression] Iday, antipe mampet em impakga? Oh, dear, why did you let him cry? Iday, tipet dekah tu? Oh dear, why are you here? Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

igawat (infl. of gawat) trans. to show something as a loan collateral. <The affix cross-references the collateral.> Hituwen payo di igawat kun he-a. I am showing my field to you as collateral. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.5 - Borrow.)

iglesia comm. a church, but usually used to refer to the Iglesia ni Kristo church denomination. Wada day iglesia hitud Kiangan. There are churches here in Kiangan. Sim: simbaan. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

Iglesia ni Kristo comm. refers to the denomination Church of Christ. Wada day Iglesia ni Kristo hitud Kiangan. There are members of the Iglesia ni Kristo here in Kiangan. (sem. domains: 4.9.7 - Religious organization.)

ila-u (infl. of la-u) trans. to pass by with something or someone. Ila-u yu nan babuy hitu ta tibok. You pass by here with the pig so I can take a look at it. Ila-u dah tu nan nate. They will pass by here with the dead person. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: - Move past, over, through.)

immatun (sp. var. imatun) 1trans. to recognize something or someone; to identify. Immatunam hin hituwe nan gaud mu. See if you can recognize this spade as yours. Maimmatun nan manuk ku te maid iwit na. My chicken is recognizable because it has no tail. Hanada ken aammod ya adida pakaimmatun hi inap-apu da. Our old folks hardly recognize their grandchildren. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑, paka‑. 5C Goal oriented site. Sim: bigbig, matmat. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.) 2comm. sign. Nganney immatun hi indat amam an pangimmatunan dan imbabale daka. What identifying sign did your father give for their recognition of you as his child. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.)

indani (sp. var. indai; sp. var. andani) (infl. of dani) 1adv. refers to some indefinite time, later on. Ahiyak umalih indani. I will be coming later. Ahi kayu umeh indani. You will go later. Ahika umalih indani te indani ya maidak hitu. You come later because I might not be here then. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2advpred. to wait a while, short time; a time interval. Indani ta munhannotak. Wait so that I will change. Indani ta malutut mangan taku. Wait so that it will be cooked then we will eat. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.) 3advpred. all at once. Munhuhummangan da mu indani pe ya bimmungot. They were conversing when all at once he got angry.

ipadalan (infl. of dalan) trans. to cause to pass through or by. [This has a specific meaning in the New Testament translation; meaning to pray in the name of Jesus Christ or through him.] Hituwen pumpasalamt kun Apu Dios ya ipadalan kun Jesu Kristo. (Rom.1:9b) For this I thank God through Jesus Christ. {ritual} ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: - Move past, over, through.)

ka- -an₁ nominalizer. this circumfix derives a noun from a verb. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast ‘hagabi’ entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.)

kad-an (sp. var. kawad-an) comm. near the place where someone or something is located. Hituy kad-an da Berto. This is the place of the Berto family. Ad Makati ke ya hituy kad-an di kakadangyan. In Makati is where the rich people are. Bimmangun da ot umedah kad-an ina da. They got up and went to their mother. (sem. domains: - Vicinity.)

kalgadu trans. to take responsibility for certain tasks or duties; take charge. Hiyay impumbalinan ingkalgaduh nunhituwana. He is the one who has been made responsible for his household. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: - Working relationship, - Meet a standard.) Language of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali

kan 1intrans. to eat, indefinite as to what is eaten. <This root is never used alone.> Mangan taku. Let’s eat. Hin-uddum an adika mangan. At times you don’t eat. Da Pedro ke Ben di nangan hanah inha-ang mu. It was Pedro and Ben who ate what you cooked. maN‑/naN‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2to eat. 2.1trans. the food being eaten is specific and cross-referenced. Kanon yun am-in nan ginatang na. Eat everything he bought. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.2trans. to eat a specific food continuously; the food being eaten is cross-referenced. Kanokanona nan inhaad kun tinapay nah basket. He was always eating the bread I placed in the basket. Kanokanon nadan buding nan page. The birds keep eating the palay. ‑on/‑in‑ + CV(C)CV‑. 2.3intrans. to join in eating. Immali da ke nan imbabalek hi baleyu on nakikan da. Whenever my children go to your house they eat there. maki‑/naki‑. 2.4trans. indicates utensil used for eating. Hituwe nan nangikanan min duyu te teyay marka na. This is the plate we used for eating because here is the mark. mangi‑ ‑an/nangi‑ ‑an. 3nom. edible food, usually used for snack, fruit, bread, etc. Imme nah muyung ot e umalah makmakkan. He went to the forest to get some edible food. nganan der. makan der. panganan der. pinnangan id. kay hamutin mangan id. kay ka babuy an mangan id. kay munhabun mangan id. kay nanganan di ahuy nanganan yu id. kay nanganan di gulding id. kay nanganan di kabayu infl. ikan infl. mangan infl. pakan

kangeb trans. to bite into food; to bite off pieces of food. Kinangeban di gando hanan intaluk an gattuk. The rats bit a part of the camote I hid. Tipet athituy ang-ang na an kay nakangekangeban. Why does it look like it has been bitten on all sides? Takon di pustisuy bab-am ya pun-ikangeb ot. Even if your teeth are false, just bite with them. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an + CV(C)CV‑, puN‑ i‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: - Bite, chew.)

kaskasdaaw adj. for something to be inexplicable; amazing, perplexing. Hituwe ya kaskasdaaw mo ahan an naat mu uggeyak timmakut. This that happened was bewildering, but I was not afraid. Takon nan inayana ya matama te kaskasdaaw. Even her spouse did not know (about it) because it was perplexing. Qualifier. (sem. domains: - Mysterious.)

katbalan (der. of tobal) nom. refers to one who is respected, approved or honored. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman te kibalinana ya kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longonah nuwang ya babuy. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect (by his co-villagers) because its very performance shows that he is very rich indeed since he can afford to butcher many carabao and pigs. (sem. domains: 4.5.5 - Honor.)

kattog adjunct. 1expression of a feeling of uncertainty; also, there can be a sense of futility based on the inability to fulfill expectations or the futility of an action; uncertainty. Hituwe kattog di midat mi. This is only what we can give. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You may think that what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Unsure.) 2expresses a feeling of disappointment; unfortunately. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented with just following her brothers.

kay advpred. 1refers to a comparison; to have the same or similar qualities or characteristics. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to an ant when you are walking along the road. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Kay bo uya-uy damdama. It’s just like the Uya-uy-marriage feast. Comparative. (sem. domains: - Compare.) 2functions as a comparative predicate; makes a hypothetical comparison of someone or something to a characteristic action or behavior of another person or thing. Mumbutik ka an kay daka pumpudug hi nganneh diye. You are running as though you are being chased by something. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. (sem. domains: - Relations involving correspondences.)

ke ditaku (n. ph. of ditaku) pers. us-all; first person, plural inclusive; member of Set 4 direct and indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Idat nan ditaku kanu nan ohan babuy. According to him, he is giving us a pig. Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

ke₂ adjunct. occurs within an NP encoding a contrastive concept, setting apart the reference of that person or thing from other possible references. Hanada ken maid di happiyo na, nangapya da. As for them, they had no shields so they made them. Ad Makati ke ya hituy kad-an di kakadangyan. In Makati is where the rich people are. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It is at night that it comes out and flies around. Hi ke Butale ya binugtung an imbabale. As for Butale, he was an only child. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Different, - Markers of emphasis.) hantu ken comp. man-uke

ke₃ det. a determiner that marks an indirect object that is not cross-referenced by the verb. the form ‘ke’ has an allomorph form. <The form ‘ke’ has an allomorph form, the ‘n’ attached to a preceding word that ends in a vowel. > Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back and he should let me know. Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) der. n

Kiangan prop. refers to a municipality in Ifugao Province, Philippines. Immali da Juan hitud Kiangan. Juan and his companions came here to Kiangan. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

kibalinana (der. of balin) nom. the meaning of a figure of speech or obscure saying; interpretation. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan te kibalinana kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longonah nuwang ya babuy. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect from his co-villagers because its meaning is he is very rich because he butchers many carabao and pigs. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.)

kiggad comm. a boundary marker. [Trees are planted as kiggad, usually in a straight line; also, stones that require three or more people to lift are buried to serve as boundary markers.] Hituwey kiggad tun lutak. This is the boundary of my land. Mangiggad da nadan hin-am-a. The father and his sons are placing boundary marks. Sim: batnong, koltog, pat-ok. (sem. domains: - Boundary.)

kihang intrans. to be loose fitting. Kumihang di pantalon ku te kimmuugak. My pants became loose because I became thin. Mungkihkihang tun pantalon mun ha-on. Your pants are a bit loose for me. Gumattang ka boppoh apatut nan imbabalem on kumikihang. Whenever you buy shoes for your child they are very loose. Makakihhang hituwen bulwatin indat tulang ku. This dress that my sister gave is very loose. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ muN‑, maka‑. 2G Processes. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.)

kihdiyan (der. of hidi) comm. permanent location; locale; site. Hituy kihdiyan nan alang. The granary will be located here. Hituy kihdiyan nadan tindalu. The soldiers live/reside here. ki‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Vicinity.)

kodo 1to ask. 1.1trans. to ask for something; to beg. Kodowon yu nan adida usalon. Ask for the things they will not use. Hituwey kindok ke Paning. This is what I begged from Paning. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: bag’a, pakada. (sem. domains: 3.3.2 - Request, - Ask.) 1.2trans. refers to repeated begging, on more than one occasion. Adi kayu e kumodokodoh kanon yu te nal-ot pay di adol yu. Don’t be repeatedly begging for food because your body is still strong. Adi ka kumodokodo. Don’t get into the habit of begging. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ CV(C)CV. 1.3trans. this form highlights the person from whom something is being asked. Nungkodoham tuh intanom mun mangga? From whom did you ask for this mango which you planted. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 2sta. to be a beggar; refers to someone who is always asking/begging for something. Nakdo hi Juan te wada key tinibo nan on kumdo. Juan is a beggar because he asks for everything he sees. ma‑/na‑.

kudukdul 1advpred. for something to be better or preferable to another thing to which it is compared. Kudukdul hin mungngunuwak te adiyak mundogo. It’s better if I work because I don’t get sick. Mu indani ya pimmalak bo ot nomnomonan kudukdulnay umanamut. But after awhile, she groaned again and so he decided it would be good to return home. Evaluative. (sem. domains: - To a larger degree.) 2trans. to prefer a specific action over another. Kudukdulok di umanamut mu nan eyak mun-iyan hitu. I would prefer to go home than to overnight here. Pakudukdulok di mundaldallan mu hay um-umbun. I prefer to walk about rather than to be sitting down. ‑on/‑in‑, pa‑ ‑on. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: - Choose.) 3proc. for something to improve; become better. Kimmudukdul di giknak handi tinibo daka. My feeling became better when I saw you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.)

kuttim (sp. var. kutim) 1comm. young rice grains picked and skinned by fingers to be eaten. Umala ka nah kuttim. Get some of the young-rice. Sim: badi. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to remove the husk of young rice grains with fingernails. Kuttimon nadan u-unga hituwen page. The chidren will pick and skin this young-rice with their fingernails. ‑on/‑in‑.

laing sta. to be intelligent; to be skilled or wise. Nalaing hi iskul hituwen golang. This child is intelligent in school. Lumaing ka hin bumanidbid ka. You will become intelligent if you keep on reading. na‑, ‑um‑. Sim: nomnom. (sem. domains: - Intelligent.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lam’uk comm. mosquito species. Dakol di lamuk hitu. There are many mosquitos here. Sim: toma, wawwahhe. (sem. domains: - Insect.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

lamon 1comm. the seeds of legumes. Maid ni-an di lamon di bulhe. The beans have no seeds yet. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2comm. edible roots. Wada moy lamon nan gatawwa. The cassava has roots. 3proc. to bear seeds or roots; to bear produce inside pods or husks, e.g. beans, rice. An lumamoy gattuk hi mitanom hitu? Do sweet potatoes that are planted here bear a root-crop? Nalamhanan nan page mo. The rice has grain-seeds now. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 6.2.1 - Growing crops.)

lawit 1comm. ritual for a thin child, one who eats but is becoming thin. [During the ritual, four chickens are sacrificed outside the house and seven or eight inside the house.] (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2trans. to perform the lawit ritual for a child. Linawitan da nan golang ya timmaba. They performed the lawit-ritaul for the child and he became fat. Mahapul nin an malawitan hituwen golang ta ahi tumaba. Maybe you have to perform the lawit-ritual for this child so that he will become fat. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites.

layon comm. a lion. Maid layon hituh kad-an taku. There are no lions in our place. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

liggu trans. to turn head to the side; to turn away; to face sideways. Iliggum hitut ang-angngon da di tamel mu. Turn your face this way so that they will see your face. Oggan mu ligguwon nan inhap-ek an page. Once in a while turn your head to see the rice I set out to dry. Munliggu kah tu. Turn your head this way. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. Sim: ligu; Sim: wingi, atuwingwing, balungango. (sem. domains: - Turn, 7.1.9 - Move a part of the body.)

lista 1comm. list; a record of a number of items. (sem. domains: 6.8.7 - Accounting.) 2trans. to make a list; write down as a record. Hituwey listaan nadan immalin nungngunu. This is the list of those who came to work. Ipatibom nan listaam. Show your list. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: lista. der. ilista

mahlu (infl. of hulu) sta. to be industrious; to be diligent in work or responsibilities. Hituwen babai ya maddikit ya mahlu. This woman is beautiful and industrious. ma‑. (sem. domains: - Meet a standard.)

maid di hilbina (ph. v. of hilbi) useless. useless; an idiom that refers to someone or something as having no value (lit. nothing its value). Hay intanom yu ya maid di hilbina te maid di ibungan. What you planted is useless because there is no fruit. Imbilang nan maid di hilbinay tugun ku. He considered my advice useless. Maid hilbina di immaliyak hitu. My coming here was useless. (sem. domains: - Useless.)

makaC1- mod. 1this prefix encodes an intensifying modal of a state. <The first consonant of the root is geminated.> Makangnganta din unga. That child loves to sing. Maka-aliy kogak. I was just at the point of crying. (lit. really coming my crying) Hituwen amayyu ya makahammuy This animal is very odorous. Maka-atung ad Manila. It is very hot in Manila. 2this prefix intensifies the state of the subject referent; co-occurs with stative verbs. Makayyam-oy tinapay ni kinapya na. The bread that she makes is very soft. Sim: nakaC1-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 3this prefix intensifies the passive state of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Maphod di makaddikhal nan itungu te gagala ya mahap-ayan It is good if the firewood is well-split because it will dry quickly.

makaC2- -an mod. this circumfix encodes an intensified passive; non-past tense; cross-references the subject. <The second consonant of the root is geminated.> Kalyok hituwe te ad uwani ya makaawwatan takuy ine-en di pamhod te hidiyey impatibotibon Jesus hi pangi-ena. (1 Juan 2:8b) I say this because now we fully understand the way of love because that is what Jesus continuously revealed by his customary way. Sim: nakaC2- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

makali (der. of kali) pass. to give a name to something; for an item to be called by a particular name or title. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. Mangin-inum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. The people go on with merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug.

Malikanu prop. American; may refer to any white-skinned foreigner. Malikanu nan miha-ad hitu. An American lives here. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people, - Foreigner.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: Americano.

malka (sp. var. marka) 1comm. any identifying mark, e.g. brand on animal. Inilana di malkan nan baka da. He knows the brand of their cow. Hituwey marka an inha-ad da nah baka. This is the brand they placed on the cow. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2trans. to brand or place an identifying mark on something. Malkaan yu nadan baka. Brand the cows. Mummalka dah nuwang nah pastu. They are branding carabao in the pasture. Minalkaana nan saku. He placed an identifying mark on the sack. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.7.7 - Mark.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: marca.

manteka 1comm. cooking oil; lard; animal grease. Adi mungkammoy manteka ya liting. Cooking oil and water do not mix. Athituy aton: Mamangulu ya igisay amput ya danggu hi manteka. This is how to cook it: First, saute the garlic and onions in a good amount of cooking oil. Kanan nan in-inay ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka. The old woman said, I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard. (sem. domains: - Cooking oil.) 2trans. to use cooking oil in cooking. Mantekaam nan ihda taku. Use cooking oil in our viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: manteca. infl. mummanteka

mi- pass. this prefix encodes the passive of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Sim: ni-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

miadi (der. of adi) advpred. to be prohibited. Miadi di dumalan hitu. Passing through here is prohibited. mi‑/ni‑. Evaluative. (sem. domains: - Disagree.)

mipalpu (infl. of lappu) pass. refers to the beginning of something that continues in time or sequence. Nalgom di pinhod mun gattangon mipalpun nah kaitayan ingganah nah kaongngalan ya wadanwada. There is anything that you want to buy from (beginning with) the smallest item to the biggest is there. Mipalpud uwani ya iathitu yu ta panginomnoman yun ha-on. (1Corinth 11:25c) Beginning now, you will do like this so that it will be your remembrance of me. mipa‑.

mu₁ conj. 1connects two statements that are in contrast; but. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores here like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Coordinate conjunction. (sem. domains: - Clause conjunctions.) 2expresses the idea that one is about to do something, but does not do it for some reason; but instead. {When the e form is combined with the conjunction mu, the implication is that someone was about to do something, but for some reason did not or was unable to do it.} Ena odnan nan ahu mu ingkalat nan ahu. He was about to hold the dog but the dog bit him. Eyak kumga mu inippol kuy hakit na. I was about to cry but I bore the pain. comp. muden

mu₃ conj. used in a comparison which expresses inequality between the first and second member of the comparison. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. Andukdukkey buuk ku mu hay buuk mu. My hair is longer than your hair. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: - Compare.)

mumboble (der. of boble) intrans. to settle in a village; to live in a place; habitate. Mumboble kami nah muyung. We are going to settle in the forest. Diday bimmoble hitu. They are the original settlers of this place. Mahapul an munnanong kayun mumbobleh di. It is necessary that you remain living there. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

mumpi- adj > advpred. this prefix is affixed to cardinal numbers to derive an adverbial predicate that means to do the action or activity expressed in the main verb the number of times encoded in the cardinal number; non-past tense. Kanan Jesus di “Kalyok hituwen he-a Pedro an mumpitlun ihaut mun kanam di uggeyak inilan he-at ahi tumalan-uy manuk.” (Luke 22:34) Jesus said “I tell you this, Peter, you will deny me three times saying that you don’t know me before the cock crows.”

nanong₁ 1intrans. to continue unchanged over a period of time; to remain the same. Adika munnanong an muttatyu na. You will not continue to be his servant. Mahapul an munnanong kayun mumbobleh di. It is necessary that you remain living there. Munnanong ka ni-an hitu. Remain here for a while. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: ta nangamung, ta inggana, kanayun, latta. (sem. domains: - Stay, remain.) 2advpred. modifies an event, expressing that it is unchanging over a period of time. Ingganad uwani ya nanongnan mumbaki ama takon di nun-iskul handi. Until now, my father continues to be (is still) a pagan priest even though he has gone to school. Ya nanongnan dehdin ang-ang-angok nan bibiyon deh hinangngab ku. And I could still see the fairy standing in front of me. ‑nan. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6 - Aspectual time.) 3advpred. to continue forever unchanged; always. Munnananong hi Apu Dios an wada. God will exist forever and ever. Adi munnananong an waday tiempok. I will not always have time. muN‑ CV‑. infl. nunnanong

ngadanon (infl. of ngadan) trans. to enumerate or name things. Ngadanon yu nadan boble hitud Ifugao. Enumerate the towns in Ifugao. Ngumadan kah liman makan an pinpinhod mu. Enumerate five kinds of foods that you love. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

nomnom 1comm. refers to the mind, both the intellect and emotions reside in the mind; the mind thinks and feels. Mahakit di nomnom na. His feelings are hurt. Maid di nomnom mu. You have no sense at all. Ta hay mamangulun umalih nomnom na ya nunna-ud an mate. So the first thing that comes to his mind is he is sure to die. Sim: laing. (sem. domains: 3.2.1 - Mind.) 2sta. to be intelligent; mature in thought. Nanomnoman te inilanay kalkalyona. He is mentally matured because he knows what he is talking about. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Mature in behavior.) 3think. 3.1intrans. to think; to recall; durative aspect in the thinking. Munnomnomnom hi kalyona. He is thinking on what to say. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) 3.2trans. to think about something specific. Nomnomom ta ahika kumali. Think before you talk. Nomnomom di kinalim ke hiya. Recall what you told him. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonio. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, told him. Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think about what they will do. on/in. 4E Perception and Cognition. 3.3nom. refers to the knowledge which results from thinking. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom/knowledge and we may become proud and boastful. ka‑ ‑an. 3.4trans. to do something in remembrance of something or someone. Inomnom mu nah inat dan he-a handi Do it in remembrance of what they did to you before. i‑/iN‑. 3.5nom. refers to a noun-like thought process. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na. And the reason he does not stop is he thinks his life would be uncertain. puN‑. der. kanomnoman id. had-om ta maba-oy nomnom da id. mahakit di nomnom. id. maid nomnom na. id. malumman di nomnom id. nabuluk di nomnom id. nalatiyan di nomnom id. napat-alan di nomom id. natalak di nomnom id. ugge nanomnoman infl. manomnom infl. nomnomon

nuN- -an₁ 1TACR. this circumfix cross-references a time or place noun phrase. Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan. During the Spanish rule in the Philippines, some of them to Kiangan. Nakaluggit nan eyu nungkekeyan. The place you went swimming is very dirty. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. this circumfix encodes the concept of distributing an action or activity over time, space, or participants; non-past tense; cross-references agent-subject. Nuntotobbalan dah diyen aton da ot gutudon day algo. They agreed to do that and set a date. 3nom. nominalizes a non-noun form. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga.

nungay adjunct. refers to a tentative assumption or hypothesis; suppose; may also be used to make a suggestion. Nungay ta athitu. Suppose it’s like this. Attitudinal. Sim: deke pe nin ta. (sem. domains: - Think so.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

oha bo (fr. var. oha pay) (comp. of oha, bo) advpred. used to add an additional argument or reason in discourse; furthermore; another thing is. Nihallay nangipatakan nah kaiw. Oha pay ya nunyaku nan kaiw. You nailed the wood in the wrong place. Furthermore, the wood is crooked. Makaphod hituwen ihda. Oha bo ya nalakan iha-ang. This viand is very good. Another thing, it is easy to cook. Mathematical. (sem. domains: - And, also.)

okak comm. a big crack in ground caused by an earthquake; a geological fault in the ground. Wada kanuy okak hitud Kiangan an mumpadayyu. They say there’s a geological fault under Kiangan which goes downwards. Sim: bul-i, potag. (sem. domains: - Underground, 1.2.1 - Land.)

olden 1comm. rule; command; law. Mipangat an unudon takuy olden di boble. We must obey the laws of the country. (sem. domains: 4.7.1 - Laws.) 2trans. to order someone to do something; to make into a rule or ordinance; to delegate responsibility to someone. Inolden dan maid di mangiweleh lugit hitu. They ordered that no one will throw his dirt here. Oldenam nan kamanelo ta gaatan da nan dalan. Order the road maintenance men to cut the grass along the road. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: - Command.) Language Of Borrowing: English: order.

ot ahi conj. connects a sequence of events with the second contingent on the first. Hituwey kinalin Juan ke dida ot ahi da umed Manila. This is what John told them before they went to Manila. Coordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

paddi 1sta. for two actions or events to occur at the same time; coincidentally. Eyak umali mu nipaddi an immudan. I was about to come but it happened to rain. Mipapaddih aliyan yu ya dumatong hi Bugan. Your coming will coincide with Bugan’s arrival. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: dihhan. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) 2trans. to do something at the same time as another event. Paddiyom hi baleda ot dehdi nah himbatangan. Go see him in their house; anyway he is there in the afternoon. Ipaddi yun umali tu hin maidak hitu. Come here when I am not here. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions.

paghok 1comm. a peg or stake used as a boundary marker, made of wood or stone dug into the ground. (sem. domains: - Boundary.) 2trans. to place a peg or stake. Em ipaghok hituwe dih koltog taku. Go put this stake on our boundary. Paghokam nan koltog taku hi palayon. Place a marker on our boundary with palayon-wood. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.) 3comm. a stake used to dig hole for planting seeds. Usalon da di paghok hin mun-ohok da. They use the stake when planting seeds.

pahok₁ 1comm. a wedge used to split logs and rocks, usually made of steel. Usarom di pahok ta bumaddang an mami-ang nah kaiw. Use a wedge to help split the wood. 2trans. to cut stones with a wedge. Pahokom hituwen batu ta itping da. Cut these stones so that they will use them for riprap. Mumpahok dah batu nah pingngit di kalata. They are cutting stones at the side of the road. Pinahok na nan kaiw te mainot. He used a wedge on the wood because it was elastic. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8 - Divide into pieces.)

pakaiC1- trans. this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; non-past tense. Indani ya imme on profetas ot kananan Ahab di “Mibangngad kayu ke ya pakaidaddaan muy titindalum ya pakaipplanum di ustu te hantuh umalin toon hi athitun tiempo ya gubaton daka bo nah patul di Syria. (1 Patul 20:22) Later, the prophet went and said to Ahab, “You all return and you must carefully prepare your soldiers and carefully plan because about this time in the coming year, the king of Syria will war against you.” Sim: impakaiC1-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

paki- TACR. this prefix encodes a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or group of objects; non-past tense. Pakipaem hituwe ke ina. Could you send this to mother (include it along with other things)? Pakialiyom hi ina. Let mother come along (include her with others). Iha-ang mun tuwen dotag ya pakiha-ang mu nadan gunigunit. Cook this meat and cook it along with those bones. Pakiala day kinadangyan diyen boble. They will also get the wealth of that village. Sim: impaki-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

pangat (der. of at) 1nom. refers to a custom, a particular way of doing something. Athituy pangat di ibaliwon. This is the way lowlanders do things. Athituy pangat di aammod dih done. This is a custom of our ancestors. Sim: e-e, pangi-e. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2comm. facility or skill; know-how; the means to do things. Maid di pangat da. They do not have the means to do things. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

pangipa- top. this prefix encodes a topicalized causative. Ong-ongal di pangipaamlang di pamhod mun ha-on mu hay mainum. (Song of Songs 4:10b) Your love for me causes greater happiness then wine. Takon nin di kanan yuy nahalman di pangipadayaw mih kalebbengan min muntuttudu ya adiyak bumain te hituwen kalebbengan mi ya pamaddang min dakayu, bokon hay kadadagan yu. (2 Corinth 10:8) Even should you think that our authority to teach gives too much honor to us, I am not ashamed because this authority is meant to help you, not destroy you. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

papan 1comm. bullet. An waday papan nae? Does that have a bullet in it? Mahapul an yuduwon dat bumudal nan guk-ung di papan ta ahida bo ha-adan hi ohan papan. They needed to push out the empty shell with a stick and insert another one. Syn: bala. (sem. domains: - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to use bullets. Ipapan mu nan indat kun he-a. Use the bullets I gave you. Batu di pamapan hi lattik. Stones are used for bullets in slingshots. i‑/iN‑, paN‑. 3trans. to load a gun with bullets. Papanam nan palattug mu te dakol day hamuti hitu. Load your gun because there are many birds here. Kanak on ugge napapanan kinali kinalbit. I thought that it was not loaded that is why I squeezed the trigger. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

para₁ prep. for; marks a purpose or intended goal. Hituwe ke ya para ke Juan. This is for Juan. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

para₂ 1adjunct. this word is said when riding a vehicle upon reaching a destination. Para! Hitu kami mo. Stop! We’ll get down here. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 2v. to stop a vehicle to ride or alight. Mumpara nan nunlugan yaden ugge dingngol nan munmaneho. The passenger told the driver to stop but he did not hear. Mumpara kami handi nala-u kayu mu ugge yu intikod. We were asking you to stop when you passed by but you didn’t stop. Paraon yu nan tolak an mangali. Stop the vehicle that is coming. Paraom hin mipottok takuh bale. Stop the vehicle when we are directly in front of our house. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

Pasay prop. name of place in the Manila area. Ad Pasay ke ya hituy kad-an nan punda-ulan di duplanu. In Pasay is where the airport is. (sem. domains: 9.7.2 - Name of a place.)

Pilipinas prop. refers to the country, Philippines. Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan During the Spanish rule in the Philippines, some of them came to Kiangan.

pingping 1comm. stones broken from boulders, used in building stone retaining walls. (sem. domains: - Rock.) 2trans. to cut stones. Pingpingon yu hituwen batu ta itping taku nah payo. Cut this stone into riprap size to be used in the field. Nan piningping di itping yuh tu. The stones you cut from boulders into riprap are here. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

piniggil (der. of piggil) comm. double-faced stone wall. [The example sentence is from an Old Testament story in which a stone wall was built to remind Laban and Jacob that they had made an agreement to refrain from harming each other. Neither would go beyond their side of the stone wall.] Kanan Laban ke Jacob di “Hituwen piniggil di panginomnoman tan duwa.” (Genesis 31:48a) Laban said to Jacob “This stone wall is what will remind us of our agreement.” (sem. domains: - Fence, wall.)

poppog 1comm. space or time reaches a specified limit; the end. Hituwey poppog di kubu yu. This is the end of your lot. Ta nangamung hi poppog di yahyak ya adiyak kal-iwan. To my last breath, I will not forget you. Hitu ke ya danum an maid di poppog nay maang-ang. Here, all you see is water without an end. (standing on the shore of the ocean) Hay punnomnom na ya hidiyey poppog di biyag na. What he thinks is that would be the end of his life. Opp: palpu. (sem. domains: - End.) 2trans. to end a condition or action. Napoppog di kinadangyan da handih nateyan amada. Their wealth ended when their father died. Inlappu mih di ot ipoppog mih tu. We started there and ended here. Kon-anay ahi kapoppogan di punliwatan di tagu? When will the sinning of man end? Poppogon takuy nihbutan takun dida. Let’s end our slavery to them. i/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ka‑ ‑an. infl. napoppog

puha 1comm. cat; domesticated animal of the feline family. Hinamak nan imbabalek on puha. My child found a cat. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to own a cat. Alam hituwen puha ta ipuham. Get this cat for your own. i‑/iN‑. id. kay ka puha id. kay matan di puha

puN-₁ 1dervN. when this prefix is affixed to a verb, the result is a nominalized clause that expresses the manner or reason for an action or activity. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na. And the reason he does not stop is that his thinking is, his life would be uncertain. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.) 2distr. this prefix encodes the distribution of an action among plural objects. Ya himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. And the raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. They passed some small huts with small people living in them.

tabukul 1comm. a large fishing net with bamboo frame. 2trans. to fish with net. Maid day muntabukul hitu te maid di wangwang hitu. No one fishes with large nets here because there are no rivers here. Tabukulon da nadan dolog nah adalom an payo. They will use a net in getting the fish in the deep field. Eda manabukul ad Ibulao. They are going to fish with nets in Ibulao River. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑. (sem. domains: - Fishing equipment.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

tag-e 1adj. having an extension upward, vertically; high, tall. Atag-e nan alad da. Their fence is high. Nakattag-e nan ek pinaytuk, kinali nahpung tun hukik. The thing I jumped from was very high, that’s why I sprained my ankle. Hidiyen bilid di katagtag-yan hitu. That mountain is the tallest here. a‑/an‑, naka‑ C, ka‑ CV(C) ‑an. Dimension quantifier. ant: akhop; Sim: banawe, tayag. (sem. domains: - High, - Tall.) 2nom. height. Hay kinatag-en di balemi ya umat nah kinatag-en di katagtag-eyan an tagu. The height of our house is like the height of the tallest person. Athituy kinatag-en nan alad an ek pinaytuk. The height of the fence I jumped over was like this. ka‑, kina‑. 3trans. to raise something to a higher position. Itag-em nan page. Lift up the rice-stalks. Itagtag-em nan paul ta paytukok. Raise the stick higher so that I will jump over it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Lift.) 4sta. to have a high status. Ipadayaw kuy kinatag-em ta inggana. I will honor/praise your inherent high status forever. (referring to God’s status) Natag-e saad tuwen tagu. This person’s rank is high. kina‑, na‑. (sem. domains: - High status.) 5proc. refers to the process of becoming tall. Immongal ka mo gayam ya timmag-e ka pay. You are grown now and have also become tall. der. kinatag-e id. muntag-etag-e infl. atag-e

tagu₁ 1comm. man; human; person. Hay punnomnom hanadan tatagu handih done ya nadan tatagud uwani ya ongal di ugge da nun-ingngohan. The way people long ago thought does not compare at all with the way people of today do. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is wide and there are plenty of people. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana When a man decides to perform the hagabi-ritual, he must first inform all his relatives (sem. domains: 2 - Person.) 2comm. young adult; teenager. <Morphology: kat-agu> (sem. domains: - Youth.) 3sta. to be alive; to revive. Nganney hangliw di nitaguwan hin mihahhaad kah nunhituwam an adika bumudal an makidammuh tatagu? What’s the joy of living if you stay in your house all the time and never go out to meet people? Inilak ot adiyak e mitmittagun munligligat te waday homok di namyun ha-oy. I know that I will not be living in hardship because the one who created me is merciful. Hay kanan di doctor ya aga kanuy nanagun he-a. According to the doctor, medicine will revive you. ni‑ ‑an, miC‑ CVC, naN‑. 4comm. physical stature. <Inflected form: katagu> (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 5comm. to survive, to revive. <Inflected form: tumagu> 6comm. a carved wooden statue of a person used in the traditional religion. <Inflected form: tinattaggu> (sem. domains: - Idol.) der. katagu der. katagutagu der. kat-agu der. makitaguttagu infl. tatagu say. Hay tagu umat hi bulan, naongal on naittay.

talna sta. to be peaceful. Natalna hitud Kiangan. It is peaceful here in Kiangan. Tumalna tun boble taku hin maid day mangakon mungngunuh gubilnu. Our place will be peaceful if there are no corrupt government workers. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: - Calm.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

teya adjunct. here it is; the referent is visible. Teya tun pihhun binanok. Here is the money I borrowed. Indattan dakamih kendi. Teya ay, kanak an pun-ukat ku nan kendin imbolsak. “She gave us candy. Here it is,” I said as I took the candy from my pocket. Teya tun ibba takun nakainnilanah abuh pangulug ke Apu Dios. Here is one of our friends who knows very well about faith in God. Teya, hituwe ya abu nan indat mu. Here, this is the only thing you gave me. Interjection. (sem. domains: 8.5.1 - Here, there.)

tibo (sp. var. tigo) 1to see. 1.1trans. to see or look at something. Tinibona. He saw it. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice. Iwingim ad Lagawe ta tibom an waday dilag da. Turn your head towards Lagawe and see whether they have lights. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: buya, ang-ang; spec: tokkol. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 1.2trans. to search, looking for something. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ke tuweh udum an makan mu maid. Those in charge tried to look for more food but nothing was left. Manibo dah ohan magangan ongngal an kaiw They search for a large, hard-wood tree maN‑/naN‑. 1.3trans. to look toward a particular place. Itibom hitu. Look this way. Intibon ama nah pottok nan pumpangituludan dan hiya. My father looked in the direction where they were pushing him. i‑/iN‑ . 2trans. to watch over more than one object. Pakitibom tun basket ku. Watch my basket (along with yours). paki‑. 3caus. to cause something to be seen; to show something. Ipatibom. Show it. (lit. cause it to be seen) ipa‑/impa‑. 4pass. something can be seen very clearly; obvious. Hay bahul mu ya makattibo. Your fault can be clearly seen. makaC‑. (sem. domains: - Known, unknown.) der. kitib-anan id. mahakit di panibo infl. makattibo infl. manibo infl. matibo

tikke (sp. var. tike) 1adj. short, describes a short thing or time; may not refer to a person. Antikkey patanong mu. Your cane is short. Antikkey nitaguwan tuh luta. Life on earth is short. Antiantikken he-a nan bulwatim. Your dress is too short for you. Hituwey katikkeyan. This is the shortest. Antiantikke bo tuwali nan bulwatim ya impaan-antikkem bo. Your dress is very short and you even made it shorter. a‑/aN‑, CVCV‑, ka‑ ‑an. Dimension quantifier. (sem. domains: - Short, not long.) 2trans. to shorten; to become short. Tikkeyom di kalim. Make your speech brief. Tumikke nan linubid hin tagam hi puttut. The rope will become short if you keep on severing it. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. infl. antikke

tipet (comp. of tipe) int. why is it? <This is a compound that consists of the question word tipe and the conjunction ta.> Tipet athitun am-in? Why is it that all of it is like this? (sem. domains: - Question words.)

tonna conj. instead of, implies that the alternative is better. Tipet e hiya udot tonnay ha-on. Why is he the one instead of me.(Why him; not me.) Makahhang-an nadiy he-an wadwada-an di e midattan hi relip, tonnay hanadan maligligatan. Of all people, why should you who have enough be given relief instead of those who are hard-up in life. Tonnay mun-abroad ka ot deyan waday kayam mu nan eka mihmihhaad hituh boble takun naligat di nitaguwan. Why don’t you go abroad instead of staying here in our town where life is hard? Tipet hiyay homkom? Tonnay ha-on! Why is she the one you pity. Why not me! (lit. instead of me) Sim: deman, imbes. (sem. domains: - Instead.)

tudok 1trans. to write something, the focus is on what is being written. Itudok muy ngadan mu nah tap-on di papel. Write your name on top of the paper. Tudokam nan papel mu ne indat mu nah mittulu. Write something on your paper and give it to the teacher. Itudok kun maphod takun am-in hitu. I will write him that we are all fine. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Write.) 2comm. a letter, a missive, or a note. An waday tudok ku? Do I have a letter? (sem. domains: - Written material.) 3intrans. to write; the focus is on the activity of writing. Adim baybay-an muntudok ya itudok mun am-in di problemam. Don’t neglect to write regularly; write about everything that is a problem. Muntudok kan tulang mu. Write to your sister. Muntudokak nah imbabalek an wadad Lagawe. I am writing to my child in Lagawe. muN/nuN.

tuknul 1comm. a woven binder of rattan or liana vine, placed around something, e.g. end of a walking stick, handle of a bolo, knife or ax. Bokon ku otak hituwe te waday tuknul na nan ke ha-oy. This is not my bolo because mine has a rattan binder. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2trans. to weave liana vine strips into a binder. Tuknulan yu nan patanong apu. Weave liana strips at the end of the walking stick of grandfather. Ituknul mu nan uwe. Use the rattan strips in weaving a binder. Uggek inilan manuknul. I do not know how to weave strips on an object. Natuknulan di palat tun otak ku. The handle of my bolo is wound with liana strips. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, maN‑, na‑ ‑an.

tulaluk 1comm. an irrigation conduit usually made from bamboo or betelnut tree trunk. Umala kah kaiw ta em panudngul nadah tulaluk te mungkakag-a da. Get some wood and use it to support those conduits because they are falling. Sim: huyung; Sim: alluwang. (sem. domains: - Irrigate.) 2trans. to place a water conduit. Tulalukam hitu ta umen dih bah-el na nan liting. Place a water conduit here so that the water will go to the other side. Itulaluk mu nan kawayan. Use the bamboo in making a water conduit. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

tuppug trans. to concentrate efforts on something; to focus on something. Ituppug muy naminhod mun nah inayam ta dumin-ong di nunhituwam. Concentrate your love on your spouse so that your home will be peaceful. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Think about.)

ubas comm. grapes. Maid di nuntanom hi ubas hitu. Nobody planted grapes here. general: Most speakers use the English word ‘grapes’. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

udidi (infl. of udi) 1comm. the last in a sequence in time or spatial dimensions. Ad uwanin algo di udidin di punbayadan hi buwis. Today is the last day for paying taxes. Hituwey udidi nan pangalyak. This is the last time I will tell (you). (sem. domains: - Order, sequence.) 2intrans. to become last in a sequence. He-at ingganay manguddidi te nadoddoy ka. You are always the last one because you are a slowpoke. Hay manguddidih kalyok ya maphod tun naat. In conclusion, I say that what happened is good. maN‑. 3comm. youngest. Hiya di udidiyan dan hintutulang. He is the youngest in their family. ‑an. der. udidiyan

udot adjunct. 1expressing perplexity. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling. Kon adita udot mundogoh athitu? Why, won’t one get sick that way? Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.) 2expression of what is contrary to expectation; something is unusual. Tipe udot ta em alan di bulwatik. Why in the world do you take my clothes? Tibom ke udot din ungan nala-ing an munsala. You see, that child is unusually good in dancing. 3envious expression of displeasure; displeased. [The udot in this sentence expresses some sarcasm and jealousy. The true English equivalent would be a sarcastic intonational contour.] Inay udot man-un he-a te dakol di pihhum. It’s fine for you because you have plenty of money! 4expression of surprise. Kayang udot waday payung mu! Hey! Good for you, you’ve got an umbrella! der. mah-udot

ulut 1comm. rice stalks without grain; straw. Em alan nan ulut ta punhunul ta. Get the grain-stalks to use in starting the fire. (sem. domains: - Plant product.) 2trans. to pluck grains of rice from stalk. Ulutom nan page. Pluck the grains from the rice-stalks. Nadan u-ungay nangulut te umat hitu. It was the children who detached the rice grains from the straw because it is like this. Mun-ulut dah mabayu hi bigat. They are detaching the rice grains from the straw for tomorrow’s pounding. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object.

utang 1comm. a debt. Dakol di utang ku. I have a big debt. Sim: gawat, pakat. (sem. domains: - Owe.) 2intrans. to incur debt by borrowing money. Umutang kami hi pihhum. We will borrow some of your money. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to borrow money. Utangok hituwen indat mun ha-oy. I will borrow this money you gave me. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.8.5 - Borrow.) der. maka-utang

utangon (infl. of utang) trans. to borrow a specific amount of money or some specified money. Utangok hituwen indat mun ha-oy. I will borrow this money you gave me. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.8.5 - Borrow.)

uwe₂ 1comm. a rattan vine which is non-fruit bearing. [Rattan vines, including those of giwi, and the non-fruit bearing ones used for home industry purposes are disappearing from our forests.] Mungkap-u moy uwe hituh boble taku. The rattan-vine is now vanishing from our forests. Laggaom nan uwe ta makapyah pahiking. Weave the rattan strips into a backpack. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2trans. to cut rattan vine into strips for tying and weaving. Uweyom ot din littuku te adi damdama bumunga. Make this littuku-vine into strips because it’s not going to have fruit anyway. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

wangawang trans. to spread news; to disclose a secret; to declare to the public. Inwangawang da an waday ahawam hitu. They spread the news that you have a wife here. Niwangawang an nate ka yaden dehtu ka an makattagu. The news spread that you were dead and yet, here you are, very much alive. i‑/iN‑, ni‑/mi‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: - Report.)

wannat sta. to appear briefly. Oh-ohhaak nah bale mu maid maptok ya waday nawannat an tagu ya indai bo ya nama-id ot tumakutak mo. I was alone in the house when someone appeared briefly and then disappeared and I was afraid. Oggan mawannat hitu te numbaled Lagawe. He comes here once in a while because he already built a house in Lagawe. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.5.3 - Be at a place.)

wekwek₂ 1adjunct. a vocalization used to call for ducks. “Wek wek wek,” kanan nan unga ya mangali da nadan gawgawa. The child said “Wek wek wek”, and the ducks were coming. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 2intrans. to call for ducks. Munwekwek ka ta maamung nadan gawgawa hitu. You call for the ducks so that they will be gathered here. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - General. 3trans. to call for ducks giving prominence to them by affix cross-referencing. Wekwekam nadan gawgawa tedeyan mungkahilong. Call for the ducks because it is almost night time. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

weno (fr. var. ono; sp. var. wenu) conj. expresses the relation of alternatives; or. Umali ka weno adika? Are you coming or not? Waday liting weno maid? Is there water or none? Nganney pinhod mu, hituwe wenu hidiye? What do you want, this or that? Coordinating conjunctions. Sim: o. (sem. domains: - Or, either.)

wihwih trans. to remove the sheaths of reeds or the bamboo and bark of trees. Wihwiham nan paul. Remove the covering of the cane. Pidwana ke ya iwihwim nah muyung na adi gumalut hitu. Next time, remove the bark in the forest so that it will not be scattered here. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.)

yadit comm. 1katydid. [The entry into the house of this specie of katydid is considered to be an omen, and it is believed that a member of the family will become sick or have an accident.] Adi maphod di humgop di yadit hi nunhituwan te kah-in dawaton. It’s not good if the katydid enters the home because something must be given (sacrifice). Sim: am-amhik, ba-atong, golp’ak, paggepagge, am-amuna. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2a green grasshopper species that usually comes out at night. Dakol nadan yadit an inamung mi handi hilong. We gathered a number of green grasshoppers last night.