iiba comm. refers to extended family relatives. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man because of his gambling. Dakol day tatagun e munhood hi iiba dan dumatong. Many people go to meet their relatives who are arriving. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Related by birth.)
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1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑₁. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on . TACR
alana 1comm. the person who seeks revenge by prowling at night. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Revenge.) 2trans. to prowl to take revenge; hunt people for revenge; avenge; revenge seeker. [A relative of the victim of a murder goes out at night to look for someone to kill, especially a relative of the one who killed his family member.] Eda mangalana nadan iiban nan pinate da. The relatives of the slain victim are going to prowl the night to seek revenge (lit. seek the one they will kill). maN‑.
ayag 1trans. to call for someone or something. Ayagan yu nadan u-unga. Call for the children. Em ayagan ta mangan taku. Go call for him so that we can eat. Umayag kah ibbam. Call for someone to accompany you. Dahdiy immayag ke ha-on? Who called for me? Ot ohan algo, inayagan Malya hanadan iibana So one day, Malya called for her brothers ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 5C Goal oriented actions. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199.1 - Call, 188.8.131.52.2 - Contact.) 2n. ritual for sickness; during this ritual the shamans shout or call the name of the dead person whose spirit is thought to be causing the sickness; gongs are also sounded as a part of the ‘calling’. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)
bagtutu trans. to carry someone straddling the neck; carry someone astride shoulders and the neck. [Before coffins were used for burying the dead, the body was carried in this manner to the grave.] Imbagtutun ama nan unga ot ume dad abbat an makimma nadah iibana. The father carried the child astride his shoulders and went to the neighborhood to chew betelnut with his companions. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move object with self. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.)
bangibang 1intrans. the ceremony of revenge; part of the ceremony is what is described as a war dance. Numbangibang day aammod Pedro. Pedro’s relatives performed the war dance. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: git’ak, him-ung. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Revenge.) 2comm. a rhythm block musical instrument; percussion instrument; the primary use is in the bangibang revenge ritual. Intungu na nan bangibang. He used the bangibang-block for firewood. Sim: gikkong. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Musical instrument.) 3trans. to perform the revenge war dance ritual for someone who has been killed. Bangibangan da nan pinate dad nakugab. They will perform the wardance for the person killed yesterday. Mumbangibang da nadan iiban nan pinalang da. The relatives of the one slain-by-machete are performing the revenge ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.) 4trans. a ritual performed to drive away rats. [Men form a possession and proceed to the next village, making noise by banging things. Eventually they perform a ritual to curse rats’ spirits.] Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao (Sense #4)
bolwa 1comm. a relatives’ share of the meat sacrificed during a ritual. [The share is proportionate to the proximity of kinship relations with the feast celebrant.] Sim: appit₁. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, 18.104.22.168 - Part.) 2trans. to share the meat sacrificed during a ritual. Bolwaon dah bigbigat nan nate. They will butcher animals to be shared by the relatives tomorrow. Hituwen dotag di binolwan amam. This meat is your father’s share. Bolwaon yu nan dotag ta mun-iingngo nah iibam. Share the meat so that your relatives will have equal shares. Nakibolwa te iibana dida. He got a share of meat because they are his kinsmen. ‑on/‑in‑, naki‑.
CV- num. this reduplicant form functions to pluralize a noun referent. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana. When a man says that he will perform the hagabi-ceremony, he notifies his relatives beforehand. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Noun affixes.)
datong₁ 1intrans. to reach a destination; to arrive. Dimmatong dad Lagawe ad nakugab. They arrived at Lagawe yesterday. Madatong di tiempon ahi daka tibon. The time will arrive when I’ll see you. Dakol day tatagun e munhood hi iiba dan dumatong. Many people go to meet their relatives who are arriving. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑. 2A Movement, from one place to another.. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199.1 - Arrive.) 2trans. to arrive, bringing something with oneself. <
> Idatong yu nan itunguh bale. Bring the firewood up to our house. Indatong da nan babuy dih indai. They arrived with the pig a while ago. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with onself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.) 3trans. the site of arrival is an object that is cross-referenced, a person, place or time. < The prefix cross-references the object that is brought. > Datngan hiyah di. You will arrive there where he’ll be. Dinatngan Jose hitud Kiangan ad nakugab. Jose arrived here in Kiangan yesterday. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day arrived. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. infl. madatngan Morphophonology: datngan; dinatngan; the ‘o’ in the second syllable of the root is lost when a suffix is added.
gibu 1comm. a fine imposed; penalty payment. [A fine that is imposed because of the violation of a custom; the fine may be in the form of cash, gold, beads, blankets or animals.] Mumbagaday iiban Ana hi gibu ke Tomas te nunlangkak. The relatives of Ana are demanding a fine from Tomas because he was unfaithful. Kaatnay gibu hi ibaga da? How much is the fine they are demanding? (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Fine.) 2trans. to pay a fine for violation of a custom. Gibuwom ot Tomas te patayon daka man! Pay your fine, Tomas, lest they kill you. ‑on/‑in‑.
hanadan (nadan) dem. those; the plural form of hanan, a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Dahdi da hanadan nungkanta? Who were those who sang? Inayagak hanadan iibak ta munhuhummangan kami. I called for those relatives of mine so that we can have a talk. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
hingngi 1trans. to detour; make a side stop somewhere instead of going directly to destination; go out of the way. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2intrans. to detour; to take a different way than the normal one. Adi kami humingngi ta adi kami mataktak. We will not detour so that we will not be delayed. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to take something, going toward a destination Inhingngi na nah makape. He went towards the place with many coffee plants.
1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. . TACR
iba 1relative 1.1comm. sibling or cousin, relative of the same generation. Adugam tun ibam Take care of your brother/sister. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana When a man decides to perform the ‘hagabi’, he must first inform all his relatives. Sim: manang, ag’i, tulang, kamang. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.3 - Brother, sister.) 1.2n. a companion. 2intrans. to be related. Mun-iba da. They are related. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to be related to someone specific. Da Dulawan di ibaon nad Lagawe. The Dulawans are their relations in Lagawe. ‑on/‑in‑. id. pun-ib-ibat nangamung
imbitar (sp. var. imbital) trans. to invite someone for an occasion. Hi uncle nan hi Taguiling inimbitar nah bale da te mumbaki da. His uncle, Tuguiling, was invited to their house because they were to perform the baki-ritual. Eka mun-imbitar hi tatagu ta makihamul da. Go and invite people so that they will join the feast. Imbitarom am-in di iibam. Invite all of your relatives. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Invite.)
kadangyan 1comm. traditionally this word referred only to the class of Ifugao who had performed prestige rituals, aristocrat, but it may now refer to any person who has wealth. Kadangyan di tagun waday pangulug nan Apu Dios. A person who has faith in God is rich. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot te matugal. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man because he was a gambler. Bokon taku met kadangyan ya maid di tawidon yu. We are not rich and you have nothing to inherit. Opp: wotwot. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people, 126.96.36.199 - Rich.) 2comm. this word is used to refer to the highest class of people in Ifugao traditionally, those who have performed all of the rituals of prestige feasts. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The one who performs the humgabi-ritual must be rich. Cultural note: In traditional society, there were three classes of people: kadangyan - aristocrats, tagu - common people, children of the kadangyan who did not perform the wealth rituals, nawotwot - the poor. 3proc. to become rich or wealthy. Kumadangyan day mahlun tagu. Industrious people become rich. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes. 4trans. to enrich someone with something or to be enriched. Ikadangyan mu nan inakom. You will enrich yourself with what you stole. Pakiala day kinadangyan diyen boble. They will also get the wealth that enriched that village. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an,‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. id. ikadangyan di imbabale say. Hay uya-uy di puntopong hi kinadangyan di ohan tagu.
kattog adjunct. 1expression of a feeling of uncertainty; also, there can be a sense of futility based on the inability to fulfill expectations or the futility of an action; uncertainty. Hituwe kattog di midat mi. This is only what we can give. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You may think that what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Unsure.) 2expresses a feeling of disappointment; unfortunately. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented with just following her brothers.
linalaki (infl. of lalaki) comm. the plural form of male. Nagibbu keh tuwe ya ahida naamung nadan linalaki iiban nan humagabi After this, the male relatives of those performing the Hagabi gather together Nakabbayuy numbayun nadan linalaki. Those boys pounded (rice) very well. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)
liyak trans. to work the ricefields, digging, clearing, planting etc. Hiyay nunliyak nah payo. He was the one who worked the ricefield. Dakol di inliyak na. He has planted many ricefields. Iliyakana nadan iibanan mun-iskul. He is working in the ricefields for his realtives who are in school. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)
mumbalin proc. refers to the process of change; the component of reversal or opposite is focal; become. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man because of his gambling. muN‑/nuN‑ . (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Become, change state.)
na-₁ sta. this prefix co-occurs with stative-process verbal roots and encodes a completive aspect. Nalakan mabutong. It is easy to get drunk. Natukal di tatagu te hay ngalan di munla-un tatagu. The people were sleepless because of the noise of passers-by. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man (because of his gambling). Sim: ma-₁; Sim: ma-₁. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)
namam-a (infl. of mam-a) advpred. to show an action or feeling to an extreme degree; by comparison, even more so. Namam-a te kanan hanadan iibanay adida mo pakiayon hi pidwana. What was even worse, her brothers told her that she could not come with them again. na‑. Comparative. Sim: namahig. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Markers of emphasis, 22.214.171.124 - To a large degree.)
paka- mod. non-past form; functions to encode the negative ability of an agent to do what the verb expresses; cannot do something. <
> Athidi bon nah hilong ta adi ka pakahuyop. It’s like that at night, too, so that you cannot sleep. Mu hanada ken iibana ya adi da pakatibo kediyen golang. But as for his companions, they could not see that child. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.) This prefix co-occurs with the negative form adi .