Search results for "ine"

ad 1determiner 1.1det. this determiner marks spatial-place common nouns. Ipaem ad da-ul. Send her down (to lower place). (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 1.2det. marks place proper nouns. <morphophonemics: When a preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘a’ drops and the ‘d’ consonant is attached to the verb.> Umed (ume ad) Manila. He will go to Manila. 2det. marks time words: today, yesterday, and day before yesterday. Nuntudokak ke hiya ad ohhandi. I wrote to him the day before yesterday.

addum unite. 1.1trans. to unite by bringing two or more things together; to combine; to merge; Nun-addumon mi nan patani ya immeh ohan botok. We combined the lima beans and it exceeded one bundle. muN‑ ‑on/nuN‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach, - Include.) 1.2trans. to add something to another thing Iaddum mu tun bulhe nah pun-ihaang mun dotag. Add these beans to the pork you are cooking. i /iN . (sem. domains: - Increase.) infl. nun-addum

ae comm. kind of vine used to tie bundles of wood in forest or as a rope for carabao; it has some elasticity. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

aga₁ 1comm. medicine. [This word may refer to any herbal plant or medicine used to treat sickness.] Inumom hanan agam. You drink your medicine. (sem. domains: - Medicine.) 2treat medically. 2.1trans. to treat with medicine. Makat agahan ta hanan sugat mu. Come and we’ll treat your wound. Iaga ta tun ginattang inam. We’ll treat it with what your mother bought. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.3 - Injure.) 2.2pass. to be treated with medicine; to be cured of sickness. Inumom nan aga ta maagahan ka. Take the medicine so that you will be cured. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Recover from sickness.) 3intrans. one who treats with medicine; doctor; healer. Hiyay mun-aga nah nag-od. He will be the one to treat the wound. muN‑/nuN‑. der. mun-aga der. pun-agahan infl. agahan

ah’in 1comm. salt. Ialim nan ahin ta ahinak tun ihda. Bring me the salt and I will salt the viand. (sem. domains: - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to add salt to something. Ahinan yu nan ihda. Salt the viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3intrans. to give salt to an animal. He-ay mun-ahin nadah baka. You will be the one to give salt to the cows. muN‑/nuN‑. 4nom. salt container. [The tubung bamboo container was formerly used to store salt.] Ihaad mu nan ahin nah pun-ahinan. Put the salt in the salt container. puN‑ ‑an.

akyam trans. refers to vines and roots of plants that spread over an area. Ambilog di inakyaman nan apapet te maluwab. The bitter herb has spread widely because it’s robust. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing site by adding something. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

aliwwan comm. 1the clotted blood and pieces of placenta which are sometimes retained following childbirth. Makahakkit ten adi bumudduy aliwwan. It is so painful when pieces of the placenta are not all expelled. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 2refers to the painful uterine contractions meant to expel retained placenta pieces and clotted blood.

allawin 1comm. a container for snail collecting (a bamboo tube or a dried gourd, attached to the hips of the person gathering snails.). Napnu mo tun allawin kuh battikul. This container is already full of snails. Sim: bayongyong. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use the snail container. Mun-allawin kat eka mangdut. Use the container and go and gather snails. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use a particular snail container. Iallawin mu nan allawin inam. Use the snail-container of your mother. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site.

alup comm. betelnut palm leaf container. [The container is made by folding and then closing the side of the base of the leaf of the betelnut palm.] In-alup na hanan moma. He placed the betelnuts inside a betelnut leaf container. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

aluwog (sp. var. alwog) comm. a bamboo container for carrying water; the nodes have been pierced; usually. about six feet in length. Alam nan aluwog ta eka humagob nah ob-ob. You get the bamboo water container and go to fetch water from the spring. (sem. domains: 1.3 - Water, 6.7.7 - Container.)

angang comm. earthen clay jar; usually used as a water container or for the fermentation of rice wine. Waday baya nah angang. There is rice wine in the jar. Sim: galgalit, buhi; Sim: buwod, guling, dale; Spec: hinal-itan; Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

apin trans. to line a container with leaves for cooking rice; to cook rice. [This was especially true when rice was cooked in clay pots; usually banana leaves were used; certain leaves added flavor to rice.] Apinam nan boga. Line the pot with leaves (before cooking) the rice. general: The word may also be used for simply putting rice in a pot for cooking. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing site by adding something. Sim: ha-ang, bang-ot. (sem. domains: - Steps in food preparation.)

ay-un trans. to convey/take something to a predetermined place. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and taken to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Imbughul na nan panto ya inay-unan dimmop-a nah dola. As soon as he opened the door, he took it and jumped outside. i‑/iN‑. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

Ayta (sp. var. Alta; sp. var. Aeta) prop. Philippine aborigine; short person with negroid features; native of Bataan or Zambales. Dakol di Ayta nah muyung. There are many Aytas in the forest. Sim: pugut. (sem. domains: - Family, clan.)

ayyuhip comm. vine variety, the sap is used for medicinal purposes, particularly to treat thrush; appearance is bubbly but colorless. Napoy-an nan kala nan golang te hina-adak hi danum di ayyuhip. The baby’s thrush has healed because I applied ayyuhip-sap. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

babuy 1comm. pig; swine; hog. Matmatabba nan babuy mu. Your pig is very fat. Tobatbalona diday bagol ya aammod ta dumalay-up da ta hay idatong di hagabi ya maphod dan am-in an hin-am-a ya ta dumakol di babuy da ya manuk da. He calls on the gods and his ancestors to witness the arrival of his hagabi-bench so that with its arrival, it will bring along good health for his family and the increase (become many) of their pigs and chickens. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2trans. to raise pigs. Mumbabuy da. They will raise pigs. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.) der. mababubabuy

bahi comm. wine, older term that has been replaced by baya; still used in ritual language. Ininum da nan bahi dih gawwan di hilong hi punhudhudan da. They drank the wine at midnight as they sang their lamentation over the dead. {ritual} (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: basi. der. binnahi

bakgit 1comm. teeth, canine, the four pointed teeth next to the incisors; tusks; fangs. Andukke mo nan bakgit nan babuy. The pig’s tusks are already long. Sim: ngut-u, wolwol, bikhal. (sem. domains: - Tooth.) 2sta. to have tusks. Nabakgitan mo nan babuy da. Their pig has already grown tusks. ma‑ ‑an/nz‑ ‑zn.

bakilang 1intrans. to lie down on back; recline on back. Naka-atuwak ta pinhod kun mibakilang. I am so tired so I want to lie down. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: bakne, puku, baktad. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 - Lie down.) 2trans. to make someone lie down. Ibakilang mu nan mundogo nah kama. Make the sick person lie down on the bed. i‑/iN‑.

balagbagan comm. a hanging place for things to dry; a rope or wire strung up or a long, thin piece of wood placed across an area. Maphod di waday balagbagan te nadawo di pangibalagbagan hi pinhod nan mun-ul-ulen mamag-anan. It is good to have a line because it’s ready for hanging whatever you want to dry slowly. Syn: hablayan. (sem. domains: - Rope, string.)

bangal comm. vine-like plant that is jointed. Dih mataguh ina ya mahapul an abun ha-adan hi bangal di gawwan di panopnakan. When mother was alive, the bangal-vine had to be placed in the seedbed. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

bay’a 1comm. rice wine. Dakol di baya hin waday mungkasal. There is plenty of rice wine if there is a wedding. Mala-u key duwan hinlingguwan ya damanan hiitom nan baya ta inumon taku! After about two weeks, pour out the wine from the jar and we’ll drink with you. Sim: balludbud, bubud; Syn: binnahi. (sem. domains: - Beverage.) 2intrans. to perform a prestige feast ritual, providing wine. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. bumaya

bayongyong (sp. var. of bayungyung) comm. bamboo tube used for storage of salt, binokbok ‘native yeast’ or for gathering coffee beans. Napnuy bayongyong Talakka hi kape. The bamboo tube of Talakka is full of coffee beans. [Larger than the allawin-bamboo tube.]Sim: allawin. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

bayungyung (sp. var. bayongyong) comm. bamboo tube used for storage of salt or native yeast, binokbok, or for gathering coffee beans. [This container is larger than the allawin-container.] (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

bidade trans. to scrutinize something by holding and turning, usually done when buying something. Bidabidadeom yaden adim gatangon. You are turning it over and over and yet you will not buy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, binbin, biling. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

bilibili trans. to look closely at something; inspect. Bilibiliyok nadan tulun lalaki ya maid pinhod kun dida. I inspected the three men and I didn’t like any of them. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bidade, binbin, biling. (sem. domains: - Examine.)

biling₂ trans. to examine something carefully; to search carefully among things in a container or things that are stacked together. Bilibilingona nadan bulawati na te waday punhamak na. He is examining closely his clothes because he is looking for something. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, bidade, binbin. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

binahi (sp. var. of binnahi) comm. rice wine. Sim: bubud. (sem. domains: - Beverage.)

binbin trans. to examine closely; look closely at something. Bininbin ku nan igatang da an sweater ot gatangok nan maingit. I carefully examined the sweaters they were selling and bought the red one. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, bidade, biling. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

bine 1comm. fish roe. [caviar] Maphod di bine ad ihda. Fish roe is good for viand. Sim: iple. (sem. domains: - Fish.) 2sta. to have roe. Nabineyan nadan dolog nah pukung. The fish in the small rice pond have roes. na‑ ‑an.

binnahi (sp. var. binahi) (der. of bahi) comm. rice wine, old term for wine. [Formerly, wine was served only in coconut shell cups, ungut.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic and rituals, particularly the Ketema ritual.. Tagan dah taug hi binnahi. They went on serving rice wine (in bamboo cups). {ritual} Syn: bay’a. (sem. domains: - Alcoholic beverage.)

bistigal trans. to make a systematic examination of events or situations. Impaimbistigal nan mayor ya makulug hidiyen indatdatong dan hiya. The mayor had an investigation made to determine the truth of what he had been told. (sem. domains: - Investigate a crime.)

bit’il sta. famine; scarcity of food. [There was a scarcity of food during and following World War II because the occupying force ate nearly all that was available.] Mabitil day dakol ad uwani te hay kanginan di boga. Many suffer the scarcity of food nowadays because of the cost of rice. Mabitil di tagu ten dopal. People suffer from famine when there is drought. ma‑. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

bolbol comm. a cone-bearing evergreen tree with needle-shaped leaves. [There are a few trees in the area; probably brought from Baguio and planted. Mostly found in the western part of Kiangan towards the Benguet boundary.] Dakol di matiboh bolbol ad Baguio. A lot of pine trees can be seen in Baguio. pt: gaplo; Sim: halong. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bong’eg comm. refers to a person who says good or bad words to a plant, animal and it withers or becomes thin; a type of curse. [During feasts, the food of such a person must be carefully prepared and handled so that he will not comment on the food, wine or anything about the feast so that people becoming sick from a curse is avoided.] Sim: idut, dug-a, duhngil, Ayak, Hagoho, gamud, hiblot. (sem. domains: - Curse.)

bonyag₂ intrans. 1to twinkle; to shine in the dark. Mumbonyag day bittuwon hi kabunyan. The stars are twinkling in the sky. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2to light up and shine. Bumonyag nan bilid te inapuyan. The mountain will be lighted up because they burned it. Impadilag na talak ya bimmonyag nan dola. He switched on the vehicles lights and the yard was lighted up. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

botyak (sp. var. butyak) trans. to cut open the stomach and/or intestines of animals. Botyakom nan putu ne lininiham. Cut open the stomach and clean it. Hi Jose di mumbotyak nah gulding. Jose will be the one to cut open the stomach of the goat. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bubud comm. fermented rice after draining the liquid wine. Adim itool hi kakan nah bubud te bumutong damdama. Do not eat much of the fermented rice because it can also make you drunk. Maphod damdama nan bubud an kanon hin malumii. The fermented rice is good to eat if it is sweet. Sim: binahi; Sim: balludbud, bay’a. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

buhi comm. generic term for wine jar; considered heirlooms. Nabuwe nan buhi mi. Our wine jar was broken. Sim: galgalit, angang; Spec: angang, buwod, guling, dale, dinalman. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

buklut comm. a container for locusts made of kawayan ‘bamboo variety’ or ugo ‘bamboo variety’ and has a small opening. Nah buklut di nangiha-adan da nah dimpap dan dudun. They placed the locusts they caught in the locust-basket. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

buti₁ comm. bottle; glass container. Hanada ken aammod ya deke on kanan day umala kan di ahan hi buti ta inumon mi. As for the old folks, sometimes they say “Please get a bottle for us so we can drink.” Sim: botilya. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

butod 1comm. a vine that is used to bundle rice; a climbing vine with nodes around the palm. Handih done ya usalon day butod an pamobod hi page. In the olden days, they used butod-vine to bundle rice. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to get vine and make strips for bundling rice grains. maN‑.

dale (dial. var. of galeh) comm. a jar for wine, brown in color; has a small mouth so wine cannot be dipped, it must be poured. Hinuduwan da nan dale ta ahi inumon di mun-ani. They fermented (rice wine) in the dale-jar for the harvesters to drink. [This wine jar was probably obtained through trading and few, if any, are available today. The Ifugao have never made their own wine jars.]Sim: buwod, angang, guling; Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

di₂ det. a determiner that marks indefinite reference of nouns and noun phrases. Takon di gawan di hilong ya paka-ang-angona ya pakadopapponay gando ya ulog an hidiyey kanona. Even if it is very dark it (an owl) sees clearly and catches rats and snakes for food. In-anamut di dakol di inangang da. Many came home hungry. Nalgom di pinhod mun gattangon mipalpun nah kaitayan ingganah nah kaongngalan ya wadan wada. Anything that you want to buy, from the smallest item to the largest is available. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

din det. refers to a person in the past, usually someone who is no longer living. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonion. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, reported. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

dinalman comm. a big wine jar with dragon designs on the sides. Kinailan da nan dinalman te imbangon Juana tuh umalin bulan. They brewed rice wine in the dinalman-jar because it’s the betrothal of Juana this coming month. Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

disiplina 1comm. refers to the training or punishment of someone. (sem. domains: - Discipline, train.) 2trans. to train or punish someone. Deket disiplinaom di imbabalem ya luminggop ka. If you discipline your child, you will experience peace. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact.

dol-ak 1comm. a poisonous vine or coffee-bean-like poison for use in fishing; the vine is crushed then dried to be placed in the ricefields to catch fish. E immalah dol-ak hi ama. Father went to get the poisonous vine. Sim: ipe, tuba. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to use the vine to catch fish. Eda manol-ak. They are going to catch fish using the dol-ak-vine. maN‑. 3intrans. to use the vine to catch a particular kind of fish. Dol-akon da nadan yuyu nah payo hi bigat. They will put the poison vine in the ricefield tomorow to get the Japanese fish. 4intrans. extended meaning to refer to something that tastes strong and may cause drunkenness. Dumol-ak nan impainum da. The thing they had me drink is strong. Nadol-ak te intaganah inum hi baya. He is drunk because he kept on drinking rice wine. ‑um‑.

duy-a₂ trans. to pour wine on the back of a carabao or pig during a ritual. [A ritual of blessing an animal before a sacrifice.] Deket adida duy-ahan ya pinate day nuwang weno babuy ya panio. If they don’t pour wine on the carabao or pig when they kill it, it’s a bad omen. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Custom.)

gagallat comm. pineapple. Malumiiy gagallat an nalpud Tarlac. Pineapples from Tarlac are sweet. Patul an dakol di matana ya otak na. (gagallat)(riddle) There is a king with many eyes and bolos. ( pineapple)(riddle) Syn: pinya.

galapon comm. a container for liquids. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

galeh (dial. var. dale) a type of wine jar.

galip trans. to slice something finely. Galipom nan danggu. Slice the spring-onions. Mungalip dah mikamo nah ihda. They are slicing (spices) to be mixed with the viand. Gumalip kah duwan amput. Slice two cloves of garlic. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

galon₁ 1comm. gallon measure. Gumattangak hi ohan galon an pitlolyo. I will buy a gallon of petroleum. (sem. domains: - Big container, volume.) 2comm. container for liquid, usually plastic. Alam nan galon ta ihagob mu. Get the gallon-container and fetch water with it. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 3trans. to put something in the container. Ingalona nan baya. He placed the rice-wine in a gallon-container. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

gatang (sp. var. of gattang) trans. 1) to transact buying-selling business. 2) to buy; the thing being bought is prominent. Hay ke bo pihhu ya adi nalnalgom on ginatang. And as for money, don’t just spend it on anything. Hanada ya abu makahhapul muy gatangom. Spend it only for things that you really need. (sem. domains: - Buy.) 3) to sell; the thing being sold is prominent. Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. Maid moy ena igattang. He had nothing more to sell. (sem. domains: - Sell.) (infl. gumatang infl. igatang infl. magatang infl. migattang infl. nangatang)

gibu 1comm. a fine imposed; penalty payment. [A fine that is imposed because of the violation of a custom; the fine may be in the form of cash, gold, beads, blankets or animals.] Mumbagaday iiban Ana hi gibu ke Tomas te nunlangkak. The relatives of Ana are demanding a fine from Tomas because he was unfaithful. Kaatnay gibu hi ibaga da? How much is the fine they are demanding? (sem. domains: - Fine.) 2trans. to pay a fine for violation of a custom. Gibuwom ot Tomas te patayon daka man! Pay your fine, Tomas, lest they kill you. ‑on/‑in‑.

Ginebra prop. a brand name of gin.

gube 1comm. gourd, used as an all-purpose container. Intaluna di pihuna nah gube. He hid his money inside the gourd. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to place something inside a gourd container. Inggube na nan ginga. He placed the shellfish in the gourd container. i‑/iN‑.

guk-ung adj. empty; describes a container as having nothing in it. Mahapul an yuduwon dat bumudal nan guk-ung di papan ta ahida bo ha-adan hi ohan papan. They needed to push out the empty bullet shell with a stick and insert another one. Qualifier. (sem. domains: - Empty.)

guling comm. a small but costly rice wine jar. [The jar is used only for rice wine; it is particularly used in the dawat and palat di bagol rituals.] In-abbana nan guling an napnuh baya. She carried on her back the small jar full of ricewine. Sim: buwod, angang, dale; Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

habawil comm. 1a vine that is similar to nettles, stings and reddens the skin when touched. Nidahida nan habawil nah taklena ot magulid. His hands were touched by the habawil-plant and they became full of sores. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2edible thick-skinned lima-bean vine variety.

hablayan₂ (sp. var. hablayyan) (der. of hable) comm. a place to hang something; clothesline. Nakhat nan hablayan mi. Our clothesline is cut. Syn: balagbagan. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach, - Hang.)

hable 1trans. to place something on a line, peg or hook; to hang up something. Em ihable tun bulwatim. You go and hang up your clothes. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: ahyadang. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 2pass. (fig) to be detained or delayed; to be hung-up [An extended meaning of the word.] Adika bo mihabhable dalan. Don’t get hung-up on the way. {col} 3comm. a hook or line for hanging things such as clothes. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. ‑an. der. hablayan id. mihable

hagit comm. the lines in the palm of the hand. Makattibo di hagit di palad na. The lines of his palm are clear. (sem. domains: - Arm.)

haliw comm. a fine for a minor offense. [The offender will be required to make restitution by paying money, chickens or in some cases, a small pig.] (sem. domains: - Fine.)

halong₁ comm. pine heartwood; used to start fire. Ha-adam hi halong nan itungo ta dumalang. Put pine-heartwood on the firewood so that it will burn. Sim: bolbol. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

hap-ayan (der. of hap-e) comm. place for drying things; clothesline. Nangapya dah hap-ayan an gigit. They made a clothesline out of wire. (sem. domains: - Hang.)

hay det. a determiner that marks a topicalized constituent noun phrase in an equational sentence; the person or thing referred to is indefinite and non-specific. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. As for the name of that benchlike figure that they get in the forest, it is hagabi also. Takon di hay dangli na ya maid ta daana mo peman di e pangal-an nan inayana. Even as for his death ritual, there was nowhere for his wife to go to get money for it. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hi det. 1a determiner that marks any noun referring to a person, including kin terms and proper names. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘i’ of the determiner is reduced, and the consonant ‘h’ is attached to the preceding word.> Hi Juan di nangidat ketuwe. It was Juan who gave this. Takon maka-atung on kinawot da ta ialo dah ibba da. Even if it’s very hot, they grab it and throw it at their companions. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2marks a definite place that is not a proper noun. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. 3marks an indefinite direct or indirect object noun; the marked noun is not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tawagam hi Tayaban ta bumano kah pihhuna. Call Tayaban and borrow money from him. “Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina,” an kanak bo. “Fairies are kind because they give candy, isn’t that right, mother?” I said again. 4marks an embedded nominalized clause that expresses a reason for a condition or state in the main clause. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling? hantuh hidiye

hiit trans. to pour out the wine liquid resulting from fermenting rice. Hiitok nan baya hi andani. I’ll pour out the ricewine (into bottles or smaller jars) in a little while. Ihiit mun nah ongal an banga. Pour out the liquid into the big pot. Munhiit da Pedro hi hilong. Pedro will pour out the wine tonight. Humiit ka ta tamtamak nan bayam. Pour out a bit so I’ll taste your wine. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

himpulut hiyam (comp. of hiyam, himpulu) quan. refers to the cardinal number nineteen. (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.)

hinal-itan comm. a type of wine jar. Gen: angang. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

hinhihiyam (der. of hiyam) adj. nine each of something is referred to. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1 - Quantity.)

hipuk₂ 1comm. wine that has been diluted with water and sugar. Adik pinhod an inumon di hipuk. I don’t like to drink diluted wine. 2trans. to dilute wine with water and sugar in order to increase the amount. Hipukam ta hidiyey ahi taku panguddidiyon. Dilute by adding water and sugar to the rice wine and we can use it for the last drink. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.3 - Mix.)

hiy’o 1comm. bright light. Matiboy hiyon di dilag yu. The glow of your light can be seen. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2intrans. to radiate light; to shine or glow. Humihiyoy dilag yu. Your lamplight shines. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ CV‑.

hiyam 1adj. nine; the cardinal number nine. Hiyam di babuy da. They have nine pigs. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: - Cardinal numbers.) 2advpred. nine times. Naminhiyam na namugah bulhe na. He harvested beans nine times. namin‑. Mathematical. comp. himpulut hiyam der. hinhihiyam der. nahiyam

hodhod trans. to compress something into a container to accommodate more; to stuff full a container. Hodhodom hi pihing nan saku. Compress the sack with vegetables. Ihodhod mu tuwali nan luput ta maalan am-in nah kaban. Press down the clothes so that the box can contain all. Nakahhodhod nan sakuh bulhe ta adiyak pakaitag-e. The sack of beans was so full (lit. compressed) that I couldn’t lift it up. Adim pun-ihodhod nan luluput ku nah kalton te makusukusu da. Don’t press my clothes together in the carton because they will be wrinkled. Ag-agam, hodhodom di putum! Gosh, are you going to pack food tightly into your stomach! (Gosh, you are eating too much!) ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, puN‑ i‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) id. hodhodon di putu

hol’ok 1comm. grass, generic term. Ginabut ku nan holok nah dalan. I cut the grass on the way. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2sta. to be very grassy; describes an area that is very grassy. Maholokan bo tedeyan immudan. It will be grassy again because it rained. ma‑ ‑an. 3comm. medicinal grass; usually made up of hapid with oil and ginger with Japanese grass. Eyak mungkodoh holok hi clinic. I went to ask for medicine at the clinic. 4trans. to treat with medicine; to cure with medicine. Doctor, holkam anhan hi ina. Doctor, please cure/treat my mother. Adi humlok di alcohol. Alcohol does not cure anything. Damanan mahlokan/maholkan di tibi. Tuberculosis can be cured. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an, um‑/‑imm‑. 5comm. marijuana. Kumdowak hi holok yu. May I have some of your grass.

hong-al 1comm. the aroma of wine. Maid hong-al nan baya. The wine has no aroma. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.) 2intrans. for wine to have a good smell or aroma. Munhongal nan ininumnan baya. The wine he drank has aroma. muN‑nuN‑. 1C General class.

how’ong trans. to put hand or finger into a container through a small hole; to reach into a container to get something. Hongwonay kubi ta alanay ohan manuk. He put his hand inside the coop and took out a chicken. Hongwom aga di tokon nan golang ta kaanom nan gunit. Put your finger in the baby’s mouth and remove the bone. Hongwom di bolsam ta ipabudal mu nan pihum. Put your hand in your pocket and bring out your money. Hinwong nay bolsana ya waday hapid. He reached into his pocket for a betel leaf. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Take something out of something.)

hupung sta. to be sprained. Nahpung di hukina dih dimmop-a. He sprained his foot when he jumped down. ma‑. Sim: hiwol. (sem. domains: 2.5.3 - Injure.)

ihbu 1comm. fluid excretion from kidneys; urine. Mun-agub di ihbun di kabayu. The urine of the horse smells bad. 2intrans. to excrete fluid from kidneys; to urinate. Mun-iihbu yaden mundallanan. He is urinating while walking. Umihbu ka mod uwani ta adim ihbuwan nan pantalon mu. Urinate now so that you will not urinate in your pants. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Class 2E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2.7 - Urinate, urine.) 3trans. to urinate. <The affixes cross-reference an object that is, the urine, or its placement.> Iihbum nah kad-an the nitanom. Urinate where there are plants. Paihbuwom nan golang te pinhod nan umihbu. Let the baby urinate because he wants to urinate. Umihbu ka mod uwani ta adim ihbuwan nan pantalon mu. Urinate now so that you will not urinate in your pants. i‑/iN‑, pa‑ ‑on, i‑ ‑an. id. kay wa-el di ihbu na

ine (infl. of e) 1intrans. to marry. Nun-ine kami handih ti-algo. We married last summer. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to marry someone. Handih gubat ya in-inek di inayak. During the war, I married my spouse. i‑/iN‑. der. inayan infl. mun-ine

ine-en nom. a customary way of doing something; a method. Wada day immen e nunsiim hin nganney ine-en nadan Ippangyol ya nan kuwantel da. There were those who went to spy on the way of the Spanish and their quarters. (sem. domains: - Custom.)

inhinyero comm. an engineer, any type, electrical, civil. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung. That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to place the dynamite sticks. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

Insik (sp. var. Inhik) prop. refers to Chinese people. Wadaday Insik tuh boble taku. There are Chinese in our town. (sem. domains: - Race.)

ipe₂ comm. type of vine used for poisoning fish in order to catch them. Tinoptop na nan ipe ot ihap-e na. He pounded the vine for poisoning fish and dried it. Sim: dol-ak, tuba. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

kalub 1comm. refers to the lid of containers such as pots or baskets; a cover. Natalak nan kalub di banga. The cover of the pot was lost. Sim: huk’ap, hukbung. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to cover a container, a pot or basket. Kalubam nan banga. Cover the pot. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kamo (sp. var. kammo) to mix. 1.1bitrans. to combine or mix one thing with another. Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot ihaang mu. You just mix the sugar with the flour and then you cook it. i‑/iN‑ . 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.3 - Mix.) 1.2trans. to mix or combine something, with the focus on the site-object . Kamowam hi dayakkot nan boga. Mix the sticky rice with the other rice. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3sta. to be mixed; refers to a mixture of things. Nungkammo di kinan na kinali mahakit di putuna. What he ate was a mixture, that is why his stomach is painful. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4pass. refers to the two things being mixed together. Eka mikamo didah tatagu. Go and be mixed with the people. Nikamo nan danum nah asukal. The water has been mixed with the sugar. Mahapul an makaikammo nan binokbok. The yeast must be well-mixed with the rice. mi‑/ni‑.

karas 1comm. a stick used to level off top of full grain container. Napnu ke nan hopa on usarom nan karas. When the chupa is full, use the stick to level the top. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to level off full container with hand or stick. Karasom hin mapnu nan lata. Level off the top of the can when it’s full. Karasan yu nan gampa ne kinilo yu. Level off the top of the head-basket and then weigh it. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ke₃ det. a determiner that marks an indirect object that is not cross-referenced by the verb. the form ‘ke’ has an allomorph form. <The form ‘ke’ has an allomorph form, the ‘n’ attached to a preceding word that ends in a vowel. > Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back and he should let me know. Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) der. n

ken det. a determiner that contrasts the marked referent with other referents. {This form functions rhetorically to contrast a participant or prop with other referents. Unlike the ke determiner form, it is a post-position form, rather than a pre-position form.} Hanada ken maid di happiyo da, nangapya da. As for them, they had no shields; so they made them. (sem. domains: - Markers of emphasis.)

kikkiho 1comm. white spots on skin; skin fungus, tinea flava. Waday kikiho hi bagang na. He has skin-fungus on his neck. (sem. domains: - Skin disease.) 2sta. to have skin fugus. Nakikkiho te tumakut an mun-amo. He has skin-fungus because he is afraid to bathe. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State.

kudli 1intrans. to slip on something. Inggatin ku nan ukin di balat ot mikudliyak. I stepped on a banana peel and I slipped. Mu nikudlih Malya ot innang an mianud. Malya slipped and was carried by the current. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: - Fall.) 2trans. to slide an object down an incline. Ingkudli na nadan duwan kaiw ad nakugab. He slid those two logs down yesterday. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

lagat comm. the second juice of rice wine-making, sometimes thought of as the dregs. [After the first juice has been poured out, the fermented rice may still produce wine and it is called lagat.] Pinhod yun uminum hi lagat? Would you like to drink the second juice of the wine? (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

lahla₁ trans. to remove vine from trees by pulling at the vine. Lahlaom nan sayote nah alad. Remove the sayote-vine form the fence. Linahla na nan hapid. He removed the betel-leaf-vine. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Remove, take apart.)

linya 1comm. line. Hinnatkon di linya yuh kuryente. You have a different electric line. (sem. domains: - Line.) 2trans. to draw a line. Linyaam nan papel mu. Draw a line on your paper. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3intrans. to fall in line; to queue. Munlinya kayu ta ahi kayu midatan mi makan. Fall in line before you will be given food. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

lipot trans. to wind something flexible and long around something else, e.g. string around the fingers. Ilipot mu nan gigit nah hapang di ba-at. Wind the wire around the branch of the guava. Lipotam nan udun di patanong hi gigit. Wind a wire around the end of the walking stick. Nilipot nan ulog nah hapang. The snake wound itself around the branch. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: bodab’od, libod. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

litaak intrans. to shine brightly by reflecting; glittering. Munlitaak nan atop di bale yu. The roof of your house is shining brightly. Munlitaak nan banggol mu. Your necklace is glittering. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.)

maagahan pass. to be treated with medicine by a doctor or at a hospital. Maagahan nah hospital. She will be treated at the hospital. ma‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.7 - Treat disease.)

makina comm. machine; engine. Napa-i nan makina nan tolak. The truck’s engine is destroyed. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: maquina.

mami 1comm. Chinese or Japanese noodles flavored with pork, beef or chicken, onions and vegetables. Nunha-ang da hi mami. They cooked Chinese noodles. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to eat noodles. Eda nummami hi kad-an da Sion. They went to eat mami-noodles at Sion's place. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Chinese.

mamolta (infl. of molta) pass. to be penalized by fining. Mamolta ka hi tulun babuy. You will be fined three pigs. maN‑/naN‑.

maneho₂ intrans. to run an enterprise; to manage a business. Hi Pedro di mummaneho nah punggattangan da. Pedro will be the one to run their business. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: maniger. (sem. domains: 6.6 - Occupation, - Make profit.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: manejo.

metro (sp. var. of mitro) comm. 1) a measure, meter. Lukudom hin kaatnan metroy dinukkena. Measure how long it is in meters. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) 2) a measuring device which could refer to either a meter stick or electric meter. Kinaan day metro da te ugge da numbayad hi kulyinti da. They disconnected their electric meter because they did not pay their bills. Nan metro di punlukud mu nah kaiw. Use the meter stick in measuring the wood.

minas 1comm. a mine, e.g. gold or copper. Waday minas di balituk ad Benguet. There is a gold mine in Benguet. 2trans. to dig for valuable metals; to mine. [It is believed that during the Japanese occupation of areas in Ifugao, the soldiers hid gold that had been taken from Manila banks.] Minason da nan luta da te waday hinamak dah balituk hidi. They will mine their land becasue they found gold in it. Mumminas dah balituk ad Malabing. They are digging for gold in Malabing. Mininas da nan nuntaluwan di Hapon. They dug for gold in the place where the Japanese hid. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

miswa comm. Chinese noodles made from mung beans; Chinese kind of food made of flour; looks like firm threads of flour. Miswa di ingkamo da nah dotag. They mixed Chinese mung noodles with the pork. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: Chinese.

molta 1comm. fine; penalty. Duwan babuy di molta na. His fine is two pigs. 2intrans. to produce a fine; to be penalized. Mummolta kah duwan babuy. You are to produce two pigs for your fine. Mamolta ka hi tulun babuy. You will be fined three pigs. muN‑/maN‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: - Fine.) 3trans. to fine or penalize someone. Moltaon daka nadah ammod na hin adim ituluy. Her parents will fine you if you do not push through with your plans. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.7.7 - Punish.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: multa. der. moltaon infl. mamolta

moltaon (der. of molta) trans. to fine or penalize someone. ‑on.

mun-ine (infl. of ine) comm. to marry, refers to the ones getting married, the bride and groom. Dida di mun-ine. They are the ones getting married. muN‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

n (der. of ke) det. an enclitic that functions to close the final syllable of a verb and marks an object that would normally be marked with the ke determiner. <This is an allomorph of the determiner ke.> Hay pundallanan ina di mangipaatun hiya. It is mother’s walking that makes her tired.

nadah (nah) det. the plural form of the determiner nah; marks grammatical objects that are not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Kay natangan mangang-ang nadah duddutin muntayyapan. It was the first time that she watched dragonflies flying around. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts in strategic places. hanadah

nadan (nan) det. the plural form of the determiner nan; the form marks either a grammatical subject or object that is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb; the noun referent is definite or specific. Ipabaul mu nadan buding. You cause those birds to be driven way. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Don’t involve those women. hanadan

nah det. a determiner that marks a definite indirect object or a definite place or time noun. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat. Miha-ha-ad dah nah muyung ta nangamung di magibbuy hagabi. They camp in the forest until the hagabi-bench is finished. Athidi bon nah hilong ta adi ka pakahuyop. The same is true at night so that you cannot sleep. Mun-ay-ayam kamih did dola ya timmaddog on bibiyo nah hinangngab mi, inhumang ku. “We were playing in the yard and a fairy stood in front of us,” I answered. (sem. domains: 9.2.4 - Prepositions, postpositions.) nadah

nahiyam (der. of hiyam) quan. refers to the cardinal number ninety.

nan det. that, the; a determiner that marks a definite noun referent; the noun may have either a subject or object grammatical relation to the verb and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They left the basket in our house. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. As for the name of that benchlike figure that they get in the forest, it is hagabi also. nadan

negosyo (sp. var. negosyante) 1comm. an enterprise; a business. Maphod di negosyo na. His business is good. (sem. domains: 6.9 - Business organization.) 2intrans. to invest in a business. Munnegosyo hi Juan an gumattang hi kape. Juan will invest in buying coffee. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to invest money. Inegosyo na nan indat amanan pihhu. He will invest the money given by his father. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

on 1lk. this linker connects a complement to a main clause predicate or an adverbial predicate. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu ta. I thought that it is only a fire by which we can acquire heat. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed picking and eating the fruit. (sem. domains: - Markers of transition.) 2det. introductory determiner; marks an indefinite, non-specific person or thing; the person or thing referent is contingent on information in context. Wada on tagun immalin manamak ke he-a. There was a man who came looking for you. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to put dynamite sticks (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) comp. deke on

opereytor comm. operator of a machine. Hiya nan operaytor di bulduser. He is the bulldozer operator. Language Of Borrowing: English.

pakbu trans. to empty the contents of a container by turning it upside down and letting the contents fall out in a pile. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: kuyag. (sem. domains: - Take something out of something.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

paki proc. for rice wine to become over-aged, rice wine that tastes sour or bitter; wine that has not been opened retains its original taste. [Old folks will drink it with red pepper and salt.] Pimmaki nan baya. The rice wine became aged and sour. Pumaki nan baya hin udman hi liting nan bubud. The rice wine will taste bitter if you add water to the fermented rice. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes.

pamutingan (der. of muting) comm. bamboo container for broken rice kernels. Inhaad na nan gahhilang nah pamutingan. He placed the corn in the bamboo container for broken rice kernels. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

petchay (sp. var. of pitchay) comm. Chinese cabbage, green leafy vegetable planted in grass mounds, at the side of ricefields and gardens. Maluwab nan intanom nan petchay. The cabbage he planted is robust. Sim: kangkong; Sim: wombok, buttata, kangkong, gatgatang. Brassica pekinesis (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

Pilipinas prop. refers to the country, Philippines. Handih nun-ap-apuwan di Ippangyol hitud Pilipinas ya waday immalid Kiangan During the Spanish rule in the Philippines, some of them came to Kiangan.

pinhod ku nan nunhukyung nah pikdol (id. of hukyung) an idiom used to request rice wine (lit. I want the veiled one in the corner).

pinhod kuy nakilut (id. of kilut) an idiom requesting rice wine (lit. I want murky liquid, i.e. sediment is stirred up).

pinu 1trans. to sift flour, sand, soil; to refine. Pinuwom nan alina ta maphod di ha-ang na. Sift the flour so that the cooking will be good. Puminu kah duwan basun alina. Sift two cups of flour. Mumpinu hi Nely hi alina yaden mana-ang. Nely is sifting flour and at the same time cooking. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.) 2pass. to become fine-grained; to be refined. Puminu nan alina in yakayakom. The flour will become finer if you sift it. Napinu nan ahin an igattang da. The salt they sell is fine-grained. Nakappinu nan ahin an ek ginatang. The salt I bought is very fine. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

pinya comm. pineapple. Oongngal nadan pinya an malpud baliwon. The pineapple from the lowlands is big. Syn: gagallat. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

podpod₂ trans. to press something into a container; to pack into. Podpodon yu nan saku hi bulhe. Pack the sack with beans. Pun-ipodpod nay bulwati na nah karton. She is packing her clothes into a box. Pinodpod na nan abut hi holok. She packed the hole with grass. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑ i‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

pogot sta. to have the strong, tangy taste of properly aged wine. Hay nakapgot an bayay pinpinhod di aammod an inumon. The old folks like the strong fermented wine. Mungkapgot di baya da. The rice wine is developing a strong tangy taste. naka‑, mungka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.)

potang 1comm. refers to the light of the sun. Mahapiit di potang. The sunshine is causing a stinging sensation. Maid di potang te mungkukulabut. There’s no sunshine because it’s cloudy. Sim: big’at, pat-al, algo, dilag. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2intrans. the sun gives light; the sun shines. Pumtang hi bigat di dakol di bittuwon ad uwani. The sun will shine tomorrow because there are many stars now. Ugge pinumtang dih biggatna. The sun didn’t shine this morning. Em ihap-e nan kape te deyan pinumtang. Go dry the coffee for the sun is now shining. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2F Meteorological. 3sta. to be in the sunlight; this implies the sun will have an affect on a person. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. “You will just be standing in the sun.” answered his father. Nakaptang nan golang te ugge imme nah hidum. The child stayed under the sun too long because he did not go under the shade. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, naka‑.

pudu comm. betelnut vine fruit. [A long, green fruit of a vine, ingredient of the betelnut chew.] Pinpinhod nan ha-adan hi pudu nan mom-ona. She loves to place betel-fruit in her betel chew. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

puha 1comm. cat; domesticated animal of the feline family. Hinamak nan imbabalek on puha. My child found a cat. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.) 2intrans. to own a cat. Alam hituwen puha ta ipuham. Get this cat for your own. i‑/iN‑. id. kay ka puha id. kay matan di puha

pulipul trans. 1to rub something between fingers and palms. Pulipulom nan otat maukihan. Rub the grain in your palms to husk it. Ha-oy ke ya pulipulok hi taklek nan tseris on ahik pindit hi tokok. As for me, I rub the cherries before I squeeze them into my mouth. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.5 - Rub.) 2to entwine by rubbing on fingers or palms, e.g. to join thread. Pulipulom nan tinulid te atikke. Entwine the thread because it is short. ‑on/‑in‑.

punggu comm. a small container used for ingredients for betelnut chew; women may also use it for money.

putu 1comm. stomach; abdomen; intestines; womb. Mahakit di putu na. Her stomach is painful. Ongal mo di putu na te nawadaan. Her stomach is already big because she is pregnant. Ag-agam, hodhodom di putum! Gosh, are you going to pack food tightly into your stomach! (Gosh, you are eating too much!) (sem. domains: - Stomach.) 2intrans. to have a stomachache. Mumputu te intaganah kakan hi manggan ugge nal-um. He is having stomach pains because he kept on eating unripe mangoes. muN‑/nuN‑. id. mungkakapya nan putu

sardinas comm. sardines. Sardinas di inihda mi. Our viand is sardines. Kinamhanah bulhe nan sardinas. He mixed the beans with the sardines. (sem. domains: - Fish.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

sayote (sp. var. sayuti) comm. a vine vegetable with green edible fruit and shoots. Logmon di sayote hi kayat. A sayote-vine climbs on anything. Sechium edule (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

silit comm. the digestive tube that extends from the stomach to the anus; intestines. (sem. domains: 2.1.8 - Internal organs.)

sinelas comm. footware that is held on by a thong or strap. Daanay sinelas ku? Where are my slippers? (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.)

suka 1comm. a sour liquid condiment; vinegar. Adim halman hi ha-ad nah suka. Do not put too much vinegar. (sem. domains: - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to use vinegar. Sukaam nan mangan inhaad na nah duyu. Place vinegar on the mangoes she placed on the plate. Isukam nan nalpud baliwon. Use the vinegar made in the lowlands. Munsuka da bo nadan u-ungah ugge nal-um an tupaya. The children are dipping unripe papayas in vinegar again. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 5.2.1 - Food preparation.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

tabayag 1comm. a container for lime. [Lime is combined with betelnut for chewing.] Takon di maid di nihudu nah tabayag ku ya itabtabin kut deket waday kindok on inhukuk hidi. Even if my lime container is empty, I usually bring it with me so that when I ask for some, I’ll have a container for it. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to put lime in container. An waday intabayag mu? Do you have lime in your container? (lit. placed in) i‑/iN‑.

tableta comm. a tablet of medicine; a pill. Inimum na nan tableta te linumbag di bob-ana. He swallowed (lit. drank) the tablet because his gums are swollen. (sem. domains: - Medicine.)

taldinat comm. sardines. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: sardinas.

talub (sp. var. salub) 1comm. a measure of about six cubic inches or equal to six big sardine cans. Sim: hopa, ganta. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.) 2trans. to measure with a container that can equal the amount. Talubon yu nan boga. You measure the rice. Muntalub dah kape. They are measuring the coffee. Tumalub kah boga ta alan tulang mu. Measure some rice for your brother to take along. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

tamburin comm. a tambourine musical instrument. (sem. domains: - Musical instrument.)

tan-uk 1comm. a ladle or bowl for dipping liquid. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to ladle out; to dip out. Tan-ukom nan danum. Ladle the water. Tuman-uk ka nah danum. Ladle some water. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: - Take something out of something.)

tangki comm. 1a large water container; a reservoir. Maid di liting nah tangki. There is no water in the tank. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2a military vehicle; tank. Waday immalih tangki handi mumpapatte dad Haliap. A military tank came when there was fighting in Haliap. (sem. domains: - Vehicle.)

taug 1comm. a drinking container, made of bamboo or coconut shell. Sim: basu. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to fill drinking container. [The custom in the past was to ladle the rice wine with one coconut shell cup and then, to pass it from person to person.] Itaug yu nan baya. Fill the cup with wine and pass it around. Eka muntaug. Go pass the wine cup. i‑,‑iN‑, muN/nuN‑.

tinelat 1comm. slippers; flip-flops; rubber sandal. Kaanom nah tinelat mu te napipitok. Remove your slippers because they are very muddy. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2v. to wear rubber slippers. Muntinelat ka te dakol di palunggu nah dalan. You wear slippers because there are many broken bottles along the way. Itinelat mu nan ginattang dad Lagawe. Use the slippers they bought in Lagawe. Tinelatam nan golang ta ahi kayu mun-ay-ayyam. Have the child wear slippers before you go out to play. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: chinelas.

ton’o 1intrans. to drip, e.g. the dripping of fermented rice on the third day. Tumno ke ne limpo ya it-an mu nah buhi. If the fermented rice starts to drip, transfer it into a jar. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: tuliyok, todtod, tudu. (sem. domains: - Drip.) 2comm. a drop of liquid Tayaom di tononah palanggana o banga. Catch the drops in a basin or pot.

tuba₂ comm. th fruit of a vine used to poison fish. Tuba nan inhaad da nah payo kinali muntaptapo day yuyu. They placed tuba-poison in the ricefield, that is why the Japanese fish are floating. Sim: dol-ak, ipe. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

tubung comm. a section of bamboo used as a container for salt or broken pieces of rice: sometimes used as a container for cooking camote stems and leaves, meat, or pounded crabs with banana blossoms by placing near a fire. Haadam nan tubung hi boga. Fill the bamboo container with rice. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

tulludan (der. of tulud) nom. a box or crate, sled-like for hauling soil in the ricefield made of gabgab wood; it is pushed when full. Mahapul day tulludan nah payo te adalom nan bongwana. They need a wooden crate for hauling soil in the field because the other half of it is deep. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

tumog₂ intrans. to be sleepy, can be seen by the nodding head. Tumanumtumogak te natukalak. I feel sleepy because I stayed awake late. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

ubtut intrans. to be foul-smelling; urine-like smell. Munubtut hidin nah dola. It is urine-smelling there in the yard. muN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.)

uhuk comm. a mine shaft. Mungngunuwak hi uhuk. I’m working in the mines. (sem. domains: - Underground.)

ukat trans. 1to take something out; to bring out; related to the concept of the removal of an object. Inukat nay moma. He brought out his betelnut. Ukatom nan liblu ta bidbidok. Take the book out and I’ll read it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove, detach object. (sem. domains: - Take something out of something.) 2an extended meaning of to bring out; the purpose of causing something to be brought out to pay a fine. Paukaton dakah tulun babuy te em linanglangkakan nan imbabale na. You are obligated to come up with three pigs (for a fine) because you deceived his daughter. pa‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 3an extended meaning of to bring out, for the purpose of contributing to a death ceremony Kaatnay inukat mu handih nateh amam. How many things did you contribute when your father died. ‑on/‑in‑.

umalgo (der. of algo) 1intrans. the sun will shine. Umalgo hi bigat. The sun will shine tomorrow. ‑um‑. 2F Meteorological. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2proc. to become noontime.

uptut intrans. the smell of urine. Mun-uptut nah pingngit di kalata. The side of the road smells of urine. muN‑. 1C General class. Sim: ungbub, ungdid. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.)

uwe₂ 1comm. a rattan vine which is non-fruit bearing. [Rattan vines, including those of giwi, and the non-fruit bearing ones used for home industry purposes are disappearing from our forests.] Mungkap-u moy uwe hituh boble taku. The rattan-vine is now vanishing from our forests. Laggaom nan uwe ta makapyah pahiking. Weave the rattan strips into a backpack. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2trans. to cut rattan vine into strips for tying and weaving. Uweyom ot din littuku te adi damdama bumunga. Make this littuku-vine into strips because it’s not going to have fruit anyway. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

wakal comm. vine, generic term. [The morning glory is referred to as wakal; other vines are generally referred to by specific names.] Nan wakal di pamobod mu. Use the vine to tie it. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

wombok comm. a Chinese cabbage variety. Wombok di intanom na ad uwani. What he planted now is wombok-vegetable. Sim: petchay, buttata, kangkong, gatgatang. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.)

yakayak (sp. var. yakyak) 1comm. a woven flat, square basket with small holes like a sieve used for catching tadpoles or small fish and sifting edible red ants. Inhaad ku nan yakayak nah alang. I placed the bamboo basket in the granary. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool, 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to sift flour; to strain with a sieve; to catch fish or tadpoles with a bamboo sieve. Munyakayak kah tuyyong ta ipal-it ku. Catch tadpoles and I’ll cook them. Yakayakom nan allaga ta ihanglang taku nadan inana. Sift the red ants so that we will fry its eggs. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4D Release, remove, detach. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.)

abbuy chant. 1.1intrans. to join in chanting. [This chanting is creative and original and is done for social enjoyment. It is most commonly done with the Hudhud and Liwliwa epics.] muN‑/nuN‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: - Sing.) 1.2trans. to chant responsively or in reply; the song which elicits the reply is prominent. Abbuyan yuy kantana. You join in replying to his song. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

abol 1comm. the native loom-woven skirt. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2weave. 2.1intrans. to weave on a hand loom. Mun-abol hi apu. Grandmother is weaving/weaves. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Weaving cloth.) 2.2trans. to weave a particular product on a loom. Nganney iabol mu ad uwani? What will you weave with now? (referring to the thread which is to be used) Wano nan in-abol ku ad nakugab. A loincloth is what I wove yesterday. An maphod di pun-abol nah ampuyo? Does she weave skirts well? i‑/iN‑, puN‑. Class 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2.3trans. to weave with a site-object cross-referenced by affix. Abolan dakah ampuyo. I will weave a skirt for you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

agahan (infl. of aga) trans. to treat sickness with medicine. Hay agahan di doktor ya hay mundogo, bokon hay maid di dogona. (Luke 5:31) A doctor treats the sick person, not one who has no sickness. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. (sem. domains: 2.5.7 - Treat disease.)

agwat cross over. 1.1intrans. to cross over a body of water. Umagwat dah duwan wangwang ta ahida dumatong. They will cross two rivers before they will arrive. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: - Move past, over, through.) 1.2trans. to cross over a body of water, ravine or other expanse while carrying something. <The choice of affix (-on/-in-) cross-references the object NP and highlights a feature of the water, ravine, etc. (see first example under Sense 1.2)> Ambilog nan wangwang an eda agwaton. The river that they will cross is wide. Iagwat mu nan golang. Bring the child across the river. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑.

ahenten comm. those who trade and do business. Gintang nadan ahenten hi silber. Those traders bought silver. (sem. domains: 6.9.4 - Commerce.)

aliling comm. banana stalk which is dried and used for tying, fine ones are used for sewing. Hay aliling di pamtok mu. Use the banana stalk string for bundling. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, - Rope, string.)

alongaang intrans. gurgling sound of liquid poured out of a narrow necked container. Mun-alongaang nan pun-ikuyag dan liting an malpun nah aluwog. The water being poured out of the bamboo tube is making a gurgling sound. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

amlong happy. 1.1intrans. refers to a feeling of well-being and contentment. Mun-am-amlong nadan aammod na handih nibangngad. His parents were very glad when he returned. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: anla. (sem. domains: - Happy.) 1.2intrans. refers to a happy feeling at a point in time. Umamlong ka ot immalih inam. Be happy because your mother arrived. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3sta. to be happy, characterizes someone as being happy. Maam-amlong dan am-in. They are all happy. ma‑ CV(C). 1.4trans. refers to the reason for feeling happy. Adim amlongan di adi maphod. Do not be happy about bad things. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.5caus. for someone or something to cause happiness. Hin-uddum ya mangipaamlong an ang-ang-angon di plawer. Sometimes seeing flowers causes one to be happy. Hay inap-apu diday mangipa-amlong hi aammod. Grandchildren cause grandparents to be happy. mangipa‑/nangipa‑.

ano₁ comm. bamboo, small with thick walls variety; more pliant than ugo variety, usually cut into strips for bundling rice stalks; used for flooring or water container; sometimes the shoots are eaten. Nakapyah ano nan hukup. The rice basket is made from ano-bamboo. Gen: kawayan.

ap-apat comm. fern, generic term; there are both edible and inedible varieties. [The fern fronds may be tied on the stomach of a new mother to help her expel any clotted blood which is causing after-birth painful contractions of her uterus.] Eyak immalah ap-apat ot pangaga dah aliwan Rose. I went and got the fern and they treated Rose’s after-birth pain with it. Humani nan ap-apat. Those big ferns block our view. Filicinae Sim: appaku, paggalat. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

apy’ut trans. to press out contents; squeeze out the contents of something; to remove contents, e.g. intestines of fowls. Em apyutan nan putun di manuk. Go press out the contents of the chicken’s intestines. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: pohpo. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

apyu trans. to rub rice wine on the entire body, from head to toe, for the purpose of removing sickness; ritual massage, done in the ketema ritual. Inapyun Aginnaya Bugan. Aginnaya rubbed rice wine on the body of Bugan. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.5 - Rub, - Touch.)

ayyunu (sp. var. gayyunu) intrans. to move, by sliding down an incline. Mun-ayyunu kan umalih tu. Slide down to get here. Maayyunu ka man ad da-ul. (unintentional) You might slide far down. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: - Move down, 7.2 - Move.)

baat intrans. to travel far to get something such as rattan vine, wood for spades; usually done for 3 to 5 days. Mumbaat hi Rosa. Rosa will travel far. Baatonay bulwatina. She will travel far to get her dress. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: umga, lubwat, dewet. (sem. domains: 7.2.4 - Travel.)

baddong 1comm. wire, string, rope, or twine that spans two points. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, - Rope, string.) 2trans. to stretch and tie wire or string between poles; to span wire or vine between two points; hang something between two points. Ibaddong mu nan gigit ta punhablayan. Hang the wire between two points for a clothesline. Baddongan yu nan tupingon yu. Hang something as a guide where you are riprapping. Umibaddong kan nah baddong ta pangihap-eyan min tuh nibalbal an bulwati. You stretch and tie a wire for us to dry the washed clothes. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑umi‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Link, connect, 7.5.4 - Tie.)

baktang trans. to tie tobacco leaves in bundle for hanging to dry. Baktangon taku tun tabaku. Let’s tie these tobacco leaves. ‑on/‑in‑. 3B Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 7.5.4 - Tie.)

baldi 1comm. water container made of plastic or metal; a bucket; a pail. Em ihagob tun baldi dih ob-ob. Go and fill this pail with water in the spring. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place something in a pail or bucket. Ibaldi yu nan pantal. Place the sand in a pail. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

balokbok 1comm. sound of popping as of popcorn or machine gun; the component of close intervals of sound is important. Sim: buti. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. for something to make a popping sound. Mumbabalokbok nan gahhilang an nihanglag. The corn which is being roasted is popping. muN‑/nuN‑ + CV(C)‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1D Sounds. 3intrans. gurgling sound of liquids as when water is about to reach a boiling point. Mumbalokbok nan in-init mun liting. The water you are heating is gurgling. muN‑/nuN‑. id. mumbabalokbok di tokom

ban-ule sta. embarassment related to not sharing what one has. Kababan-uley manganak hi tinapay yaden adida nan inap-apuk. It is embarassing that I am eating bread and my grandchildren are not. (The person should be sharing.) general: Lambrecht, in his dictionary, states that this is a Hudhud word-base, and defines it simply as ‘the notion of embarassment’. Although it may not be restricted to the epic, it may not be used in the common language. ka‑ CV‑. Sim: bain. (sem. domains: - Ashamed.)

bapor comm. ship; oceanliner Maid di inang-ang kun bapor. I have never seen a ship. (sem. domains: - Boat.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

basu 1comm. a drinking container; glass; cup. Talwam nan basu hi liting. Fill the glass with water. Sim: taug. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use a glass or cup. Mumbasu ka hin uminum ka. Use a glass when you drink. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to place something to drink in a drinking container. Ibasum nan inum tulang mu. Place the drink of your sister in a glass. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

baw’ang comm. 1the inside of a container or contained area. Adi maphod di dola da; ammunay bawang di bale da an malini. The outside yard is not good; only the inside part of their house is clean. Sim: bohong. (sem. domains: - Inside.) 2the center of a ricefield. Waday balen di dolog nah bawang di payo da. There is a fish cage in the center of their ricefield.

baybay-an (der. of bay-an) advpred. 1to consider something to be one’s responsibility or business; for this meaning, it must be negated. Adim baybay-an muntudok ya itudok mun am-in di problemam. Don’t neglect to write regularly; write anything that bothers you. Manner. (sem. domains: - Think about.) 2to neglect or ignore a situation, responsibility or task. (sem. domains: 3.2.6 - Remember.)

bidbid intrans. 1to read. Mumbidbid kayu. You read. Bumanidbid hi Jose on ahi na kinaliy mahakit di mata na. Jose keeps on reading; then he complains of eye pain. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: - Read.) 2to read with what is being read highlighted as prominent information. Bidbidon yu nan nitudok. Read what is written. Wadan ustu moy bidbibidbid hi novels. I think you have read enough novels. ‑on/‑in‑.

big’at (fr. var. bigbigat; sp. var. biggat) 1comm. the following day; tomorrow. <The co-occurring determiner hi is obligatory.> Ahika umalih bigat. You come here tomorrow. Pumtang hi bigat te dakol di bittuwon ad uwani. The sun will shine tomorrow because there are many stars now. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2proc. becoming light in the morning; dawning. Mungkabigat handih dimmatong kami. It was about to be daylight when we arrived. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts in strategic places. mungka‑. Sim: pat-al, algo, dilag, potang. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.) der. kabigabigat der. kabigatana der. mabigat der. mungkabigat infl. nabigat

bikal comm. bamboo, vine type. Hay bikal di pamobod taku nah atop di abung. The bikal-vine bamboo is what we will use for tying the roof of the hut. Sim: ugo; Gen: kawayan. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

binadayan comm. gin, may also be used as a generic term for liquor other than rice wine. Dakol nan binadayan an nipainum dih kasal. There was plenty of gin served at the wedding. (sem. domains: - Alcoholic beverage.)

biyang (sp. var. bibyang) comm. personal business.

biyen (sp. var. biyon) comm. betelnut vine leaves. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Inkap-ong Daulayan nan biyen ke nadah bubuggan. Daulayan distributed the betel leaves to the young women. Sim: hapid, dalopdop, hinga. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

boble (sp. var. bable) 1comm. village; town; province; country; refers to any territorial group of houses, and accompanying buildings. Adi dumatong di talak hi boble mi. No vehicles can reach our village. Sim: probinsiya. (sem. domains: - City.) 2intrans. to settle in a village; to live in a place; the village or place is prominent in a context. Boblayan yu nan muyung. Make a settlement in the forest. Adi maboblayan te nidawwiy liting. It is not suitable for a settlement because water is far away. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.) 3intrans. residing in a place; refers to those who are living in a village or area. <Morphology: mumboble> 4comm. refers to the residents of a specific village. <Morphology: bimmoble> ‑imm‑. der. bimmoble der. mumboble

bobod 1comm. a rope or string used in tying or binding. Sim: gakod, kawad. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool.) 2trans. tie something; bind things together with rope, string or vine. Bobodam hi nahamad an bobod nan gulding ta adi bumtik. You tie the goat properly so it won’t run away. Bumobod ka nah itungu. Tie together some of the firewood. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.4 - Tie.)

bokbokan₁ (der. of bokbok) trans. to add yeast to rice to make rice wine. Bokbokam nan hinamal ta makapyah baya. Add yeast to the rice so that wine can be made. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

bokon 1neg. (prim) is not; are not; the negation form for the predicate constituent of an equational clause. Bokon he-a nan emi kalkalyon. It is not you whom we are talking about. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. Kananay “Man bokon mu hi Lammooy man impangang-ang ku.” He said, “It could not be, but I saw him as Lammooy?” Sim: ugge. (sem. domains: - No, not.) 2(sec) a negative feeling or reaction. 2.1trans. (sec) to be annoyed; to feel resentment; to react negatively to something that is said or done. Adim boknon tun kalyok ke he-a. Do not be annoyed about what I tell you. ‑on. (sem. domains: - Angry.) 2.2proc. (sec) to feel slighted; to feel hurt. <Inflected form: bumkon> ‑um‑. (sem. domains: - Upset.) 2.3sta. (sec) refers to someone who is exceptionally sensitive to being slighted; inclined to pout or sulk. ma‑. bumkon comp. hin bokon der. mabkon

bol’ak (dial. var. of dolak) 1) sta. a wet surface, usually water or urine on floor; to become wet. Adim tu-unon nan basu te mablak nan dulung. Don’t tip the glass because the floor will be wet. Tibom nan danum ta adi bumlak. Be careful with that water so the floor won’t become wet. (sem. domains: 1.3.3 - Wet.) 2) trans. to wet a surface. Adim bolakon di dulung. Do not wet the floor. Nganney niblak tuh dulung? What wet the floor?

bolokbok intrans. sound of popping as of popcorn or machine gun; the component of close intervals of sound is important ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ CV‑. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

boltan 1trans. to transfer from one person to another; to take turns, change of responsibility. Boltanom an mun-adug tuh golang. You take over caring for this child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: tawid, odon. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 2trans. to inherit something. Binoltan na nan payon amana. He inherited his father’s ricefields. Maid di maboltan an payowon. No land can be inherited to be planted with rice. Nan payon ambilog di boltanon Jose. It is the wide field which Jose will inherit. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. 3comm. change of ownership, from parent to child. Cultural note: Inherited objects include ricefields, houses, wine jars, gongs, jewelry. (sem. domains: - Own, possess.) infl. mumbinbinoltan infl. mumboltan

bope (comp. of bo, pe) adjunct. defines a repeated action, along with an expression of annoyance. Immali bope tun mun-ango. This crazy person came again. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)

bote 1comm. refers to any bottle container. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place something in a bottle. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria bottled the paint that we had left-over. Umeyak ked Solano on binoten mantekay gattangok te nalaklaka. When I go to Solano I buy bottled cooking oil because it is cheaper. nuN‑ i‑, ‑in‑.

botilya comm. a glass container usually for liquids. Sim: buti. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

boy’od trans. to sag from weight; to bend down from weight, as of a clothesline or a branch due to the weight of a load hanging on it. Ibyod di dibdib di kawayan. The wind bends down the bamboo. Boyodon yu nan hapang ta igakod ku tun hap-ayan. Bend down the branch so that I can tie the clothesline. Nabyod nan hapang te dakol di bunga na. The branch sagged because it has so much fruit. Nabyod nan kaiw. The tree was bent down. i‑/‑iN, ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: bay-u, huyuk. (sem. domains: - Move down.)

buduk 1intrans. to explode or detonate a gun or small bomb; the sound component is prominent. Binumduk nan palattug ya niptok nan papan nah batu. The gun exploded and the bullet hit the rock. Mumbubuduk di bomba nah muyung. The bombs are exploding in the forest. Mabduk nan labintador an ginatang na. The firecracker he bought makes a loud explosion. ‑um‑/‑inum‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. 2trans. to shoot at someone or something. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. budukan

bugat 1comm. the content of the large intestine and stomach of grass-eating animals. Adi makan di bugat. The contents of the large intestine of animals can’t be eaten. (sem. domains: 1.6 - Animal.) 2sta. the undigested contents of a ruminant’s stomach. Paka-iwwahwam hinae te nabugatan. You rinse that very well because it has undigested grass. na‑ ‑an.

bukbuk₁ trans. to pour out solid substances from a container. Ibukbuk mu nan nihudu nah kulbung. Pour out the contents of the rice container. Bukbukan yu nadan holok ta mate da. Pour some on the grasses so they will wither. Nun-ibukbuk nay asukal ya gattak nah duyuna. He poured too much sugar and milk on his plate. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, nuN‑ i‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: - Take something out of something.)

bulan₁ 1comm. moon. Ongal nan bulan. The moon is big/full. (sem. domains: - Moon.) 2intrans. for the moon to shine. Indanit bumulan ta ahi taku ume. Wait for the moon to shine before we go. Bimmubbulan handi hilong. The moon shone brightly last night. Pinaddi min immeh bale da handih bimmulan. We purposely went to their house during a moonlit night. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 3comm. full moon; bright moon. Dakol di makihalud hin bulabbulan. There are many serenading/courting on the nights when the moon is full. Manomnom ku ya bulabbulan dih natayana. I remember he died on a full-moon-night. CV(C)CV‑ C‑. Ambulan bulabbulan natalak di bulan der. bumulan n. ph. kahabonan di bulan n. ph. kaha-alan di bulan n. ph. katalakan di bulan n. ph. katanungan di bulan n. ph. katom-angan di bulan n. ph. ongal di bulan

bumaya (bay’a) intrans. make wine. [Making wine is often the necessary preparation for a prestige feast.] Bumaya kayu ta matbal kayu. Make some wine (for a prestige feast) and you will be praised/ respected. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.)

bungug intrans. rumbling noise made by water, strong winds, airplane, landslide, river; or strong rain heard from a distance; the sound of a motor or engine of running vehicles. Maid maptok ya waday dingngol kuh mumbungug, indait ilung-ak nah tawang ya tinibok an mungkagdey Atade. All of a sudden I heard a rumbling noise and when I looked out of the window, I saw a landslide on Atade mountain. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: gango. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.)

bungul₁ sta. to have fungus on head; tinea eczema. Nakabbungngulan tun imbabalem. Your child has fungus all over his head. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, naka‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.)

buras trans. to gather fruit by cutting, e.g. to cut grapes from vine.

buy’un sta. bent by wind or by the load on it; to sag; to droop; to hang loosely as a line or rope tied at both ends. Nabyun nan kaiw te hay puwok. The tree was bent by the typhoon. Mabyun tun punhablayyan te madam-ot nan ulon nihable. The clothesline will sag because the blanket that has been hung is so heavy. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.5.5 - Spatial relations.)

da-u comm. an ordeal using boiling water to determine guilt in the cases of theft. [In the case of theft, the accuser and the accused met in a designated place. Both were expected to put an arm into the boiling water up to the elbow. A burned arm was evidence for being guilty of theft or of making a false accusation. This ordeal is no longer used.] Maid di inaang-ang kuh da-ud uwani. I have not seen the ordeal today. (sem. domains: - Custom.) Loudes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

dag-u 1intrans. to stop by someone’s residence or business place; drop-by, for a reason, not just to visit. [In Ifugao culture, people may stop by for eating or sleeping or other reasons.] Ahika dumag-uh gattak tun golang. Drop by a store for this baby’s milk. Nundag-uwak hi bale yu handi mu maid ka. I stopped by your house before but you were not there. Deket malpu kad Lagawe ya nundag-u kah tut waday ipaad kun ahim kalyon ke amam. When you come from Lagawe, you come here so I can tell you the message which you are to tell your father. muN‑/nuN‑,‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: - Visit.) 2trans. to stop by to leave something or pick up something. Idag-u yu nan ginattang kuh bale. Drop/Leave the things I bought at home. Dag-uwom nan libluk hi balen da Ana. Stop by the house of Ana and get my book. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. der. pundag-uwan

dalan₁ 1comm. a place for walking; path; trail; way. Maid di dalan hitu. There is no path here. Indani ya- ek bo igibok ya pindonak nin ot ieyak nah nuntap-on dalan. Later on, when I became aware, maybe he held me then took me to the upper road. Sim: kalata, kah-on. (sem. domains: - Road.) 2to walk. 2.1intrans. to move about on foot; to walk. <Affixation: The circumfix set muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an expresses both a durative aspect and the site-concept of a widely spread area for the walking, i.e. walking around. > Mundallan mo nan golang. The child walks now. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Walk.) 2.2intrans. to walk, with a starting point in view. Dumallan mo nan unga. The child can already walk. um/imm. 3to walk by, bypass or through a place. 3.1trans. to walk, passing by a place or through a medium. Indaladalan muh di yaden adim pinhod an makihummangan ke hiya. You are always passing there yet you do not like to talk with her. Idalan taku nah wa-el. We will pass through the creek. Daanay pangidalanam? Where will you pass (lit. path/walk)? i‑/iN‑. nangi‑/pangi‑ + ‑an. 3.2trans. to walk on a path, road with prominence given to the thing walked on. Maid di dalanon yuh tu. There is no place to walk here. on/in. id. kay bakkukul an dumalan id. kay gawgaway pundalan id. kay kabayun dumalan infl. ipadalan

dalan₂ comm. measuring unit for ten bundles of rice. Gumawatak hi hindalan an page. I will borow ten bundles of rice. general: can be combined with other numbers e.g. duwan dalan; tulun dalan; etc. hiN‑. Sim: bainti, duwampulu; Meas: bongle, dalan, upu. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, - Cardinal numbers.) comp. hindalan

dalopdop comm. leaf from wild vine used in betelnut chew. [The taste of this leaf is not as good as the hinga-leaf.] Adi maphod an ihapid di dalopdop. It’s not good to use the dalopdop-leaves in the betelnut chew. Sim: hapid, hinga, biyen. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

damag 1trans. to move an object and place it on a site in order to perform an action, e.g. to split or cut something. Idamag mu nah kaiw ta ahim dikhalon. Place it on the wood so that you can split it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) 2comm. chopping board. ‑an. 3trans. to place one thing on top of another with the site being prominent. Damagan yu nan papel hi liblu. Place a book on top of the paper. Nah kaiw di pangidamagam ta ahim dikhalon. It’s on the wood you should put it so that you can split it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, pangi‑ ‑an. der. dammagan

dattok₂ comm. a small bat species; has a white line on head. (sem. domains: - Bat.)

dayad-a (sp. var. dayyad-a) intrans. to tremble, reaction of body to tiredness, being startled or sensitivity to caffeine. Adik pinhod an uminum hi kape te mundadayad-aak. I don’t like to drink coffee because I tremble. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Shake.)

dayakkot (sp. var. of dayyakot) 1) comm. rice, sticky variety; glutinous rice, used in rice cakes, candy and wine-making. Maid di dayakkot kinali uggeyak nungkail. There’s no sticky-rice, that’s why I did not make wine. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume... These are needed in the making of wine: ordinary-rice, glutinous-rice to be mixed with the ordinary rice... Syn: diket. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2) trans. to add or mix sticky rice. Dayakkotan yu nan boga ta yumam-o hin mihaang. Place some glutinous-rice in the regular-rice so it will be soft when cooked.

dayyu 1intrans. to move in a downward direction; walking or riding down an incline; descend; go down, walk down a mountain or hillside. Dumayyu ka keh tu ta waday ibagak. Come down here (lit. descend) and I will ask you something. Dumayyu kad Pindongan ta em tibon hi Dulyaggan. Come down to Pindongan so that you will go to see Dulyaggan. Mundayyu kat ume kah bale da ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Go down (lit. descend), to their house and call for Kabbigat so that I will have someone to help me singe the pig. Indai ot dongdonglona, mundayyu dah wa-el nan ho kali ya- ne kinimit na. Later on, as he was hearing, they were going down to the creek and then he closed his eyes. muN‑/nuN, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: - Move down.) 2sta. to be sloping, a path or road, descending toward a destination. Madayyu nan dalan an umeh baleda. The path going to their house is sloping. Ya mumpadayyuy ohat mumpaed Kiangan. And one pathway goes down towards Kiangan. ma‑. 3to descend with the path or site in view. 3.1trans. the direct object refers to a specific path or something along the path. Dayyuwon yu nan madopla ta ahi kayu dumatong. You’ll go down/descend the cliff before arriving. ‑on/‑in; dayyuwon. 3.2trans. the direct object refers to a specific site for starting the descent Hidiy dayyuwan yu. There (is the place) where you will go down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.3trans. the direct object refers to an object along the path of descent. Idayyu yu nah kad-an di mangga. You’ll go down/descend where the mango tree is. i‑/iN‑.

dede 1intrans. to level out rice pond with feet; to trample rice pond mud to fill holes or cracks so that water is retained. [This is done when carabao are not available.] Mundede da nadan tatagu. The people are leveling the field with their feet. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: kiblu, daya. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.) 2trans. to level the soil in a particular area by trampling with feet. Idedem nan binangbang mu. You level out what you have dug. i‑/iN‑.

deke on (comp. of deke, on) conj. marks an event or action that is contingent or dependent on another action or event. <This is a compound of the conjunction deke and the linker-determiner on.> Ya initpoitpol kuy potang nah mapat-al ya kotol nah hilong ya deket on matukatukalak. I have endured the heat of the sunshine, the cold at night and whenever I have been staying awake. Bokon ha-on nan tagun deke on bumtik ta e mitalu. I am not the kind of person to run away in order to be hidden. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations, - Condition.) comp. deke on peman

deke on peman (comp. of deke on, peman) conj. affirms that an event or action is contingent or dependent on another action or event; the phrase has an added emphatic meaning component with the addition of peman. <This is a compound of a conjunction, linker-determiner, and an adjunct.> Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. Sim: deke bo udot. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations.)

dogo 1sickness. 1.1intrans. to be sick; to experience disease or ill health. Mundogo hi inana kinali ugge immali. Her mother is sick that’s why she did not come. Dehtu mo ahan an mundogowak. There, now I am really sick. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan prayer for him. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: ganna, bon-ag. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 2.5.2 - Disease.) 1.2intrans. to become sick at a point in time. Dumgo ka hin adika mangan. You will get sick if you do not eat. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2to become sick. 2.1trans. the cause of sickness is prominent. Adim taynan ni-an tun golang te idgo na ke ya nganne. Don’t leave the baby that long for he might get sick and what will I do? Inidgona nan ena nundanullukan. He got sick because he went walking in the rain. i‑. 2.2trans. to feel unwell. Waday dogdoghona. He does not feel well. ‑on/‑in‑. 3comm. a condition of poor health. Uggena inilay gapun di dogo. He doesn’t know the reason for illness. Hana ken tagun inipkod di bibiyo ya mundogoh dogon adi maagahan di doktor. And a person whose life is held by a bibiyo gets sick with an illness that cannot be cured by a doctor’s prescription. infl. mundogo

dolak (dial. var. bol’ak) sta. wet surface, usually water or urine on floor. Sim: tina.

dopog 1comm. heavy footsteps; the sound is prominent. Makainnila ten he-ay mundaldallan te nan dopog mu. It is easily known if you are the one walking because of your heavy footsteps. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. to walk heavily and loudly. Nadan ded tap-o, adi kayu mundodopog te deyan mungkag-ay dap-ul. Those of you who are upstairs, don’t walk heavily because dust is falling down here. Adi kayu dumopodopog ta adi bumangun hanadan nahuyop. Don’t walk heavily so that those who are sleeping won’t wake up. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

dukke (sp. var. duke) 1adj. long; to have a specified linear extent or duration. Andukke bo kaya nan ginatang mun linubid. The rope that you bought is long. Andukkedukke nan buuk din lalaki. The man’s hair is very long. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a long branch or pole and to this, they tie the hagabi-bench. aN‑. Dimension quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.2 - Long.) 2trans. to lengthen. Dukkayom nan punlubid mu. Make the rope you are twining long. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Extend.) 3proc. to become long as a process without an agent. Paputul mu nan buuk mu ot dumukke damdama. Have a haircut because your hair will become long again, anyway. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kadukke id. andukkey taklena infl. andukke infl. kadukkayan

duladul trans. to poke something so that the contents will fall into a container, e.g. the house of the allaga-ant. Duladulaom nan balen di allaga ta ihda taku nadan inana. Poke the house of the allaga-ant so that we will have the queen ants for viand. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: hudpak, hukit, dunghak, hudng’ak. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

dumdum trans. to increase number or amount by adding more. Idumdum mu nah wada nah payo. Add it to the ones in the fields. Kalyom ke dida ta dumduman da tun hinamal. Tell them so that they will add more to this rice. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: - Increase.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

dumliing comm. a tree variety with very fine leaves. Dumliing di ginolgol da. What they sawed was a dumliing-tree. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

duyag (sp. var. kuyag) to pour. 1.1trans. to pour something from a container. Iduyag mu nan danum nah palanggana. Pour water into the basin. Adim iduyag nan danum. Don’t pour the water. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 1.3.2 - Movement of water.) 1.2trans. to pour a liquid with the focus on the site upon which or into which the liquid is being poured. Duyagam hi danum tun hukik. Pour water on my feet. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

eyyakaw (sp. var. eyakaw) adjunct. expression of disgust or dismay; My! My! There may be also a minor component of surprise; thought to be the more feminine way of expression than humkaw. Eyyakaw! Uggem inilay at-attom. Oh my! You don’t know what you’re doing. Eyyakaw! maid pottok na! Oh my, what a mess! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

gabut to cut grass. 1.1trans. to cut grass to ground level, usually done in a field in preparation for planting. Em gabuton nadan hoholok nah dola taku. You go and cut the grasses in our backyard. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 1.2trans. the site of the grass-cutting is prominent. Gabutan yu nan loba ta adi punbalayan di gando. Cut the grasses on the slope of the field so that the rats will not nest there. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3intrans. the activity of cutting grass is prominent. Munggabut da nadan u-unga nah garden. The children are cutting grasses in the garden. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. the instrument used in cutting grass is prominent. Pinhod kuy lida an punggabut. I would like the grass-bolo for cutting the grass. puN‑. comp. ahigabut

gakod (sp. var. takod) 1comm. anything used for tying, e.g. vine, rope, cord. [Vine is commonly used for bundling; cord and rope are commonly used for tying an animal.] Nakaan nan gakod di gulding ot bumtik. The tethering rope of the goat was removed and it ran away. Dukkeyom nan gakod na. Lengthen its rope. Sim: bobod, kawad. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool.) 2tie something. 2.1trans. to tie an animal to a fence, post, or stake. Igakod mu nan nuwang nah posten di alad. Tie the water buffalo to the post of the fence. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men get a long branch and they securely tie the hagabi bench there. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2.2trans. to place a tie on or at a specified place; the site-object is cross-referenced. Gakodan yu nan hukin di babuy ta adi bumtik. Tie the feet of the pig so that it will not run away. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.3trans. to tie a specified number or amount of something. Gumakod kah duwan manuk. Tie two of the chickens. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2.4trans. to tie with a specified type of tie. Hay wakal di punggakod mu nah tingting. Use the vine to tie the sweet potato leaves. Al-an da wakal an ahida punggakod nah hagabi ten magibbu. They get vine to use in tying the bench to a pole when it’s completed. puN‑/impuN‑.

galgalit comm. a native wine jar with flower figures. Ikail mu nah galgalit. Ferment it in the jar. Sim: buhi, angang. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

gaplo comm. the sapwood of the pine tree that does not burn well. Adim itungu nan gaplo te patayona ot ya abu nan apuy. Do not use the sapwood because it will just kill the fire. wh: bolbol. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

gapu te conj. combines the concepts of the reason for doing something and the cause of something. Gapu te inila yu mo datuwe ya halipat-an yu ta adi kayu mahaul nah ituttudun datuwen makallangkak. The reason why you should be careful not to be deceived by those lies they are teaching is because you now know about them. Compounding conjunctions. Sim: humlun. (sem. domains: - Cause, - Reason.)

gawidan (infl. of gawid) to return home giving prominence to site. -an.

gleps comm. a smooth-skin, juicy fruit that grows on vines, white or red; grapes. Waday nitanom an gleps ad baliwon. There are grapes planted in the lowlands. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.) Language Of Borrowing: English: grapes.

gobernadol 1comm. refers to a governor; the head of the provincial government in the Philippines. Mungngunu nan gobernador ad Lagawe. The governor holds office (works) in Lagawe. (sem. domains: - Government official.) 2intrans. to become the governor; to work as a governor. Pinhod Pedlon munggobernadol. Pedro wants to become the governor. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

god’e 1sta. a landslide; to be eroded; the condition of land that has broken away and slid down a mountain or incline. Nagdey Atade handih nalauy duwampuluy toon. There was a landslide in Atade twenty years ago. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate object. Sim: goh’ang. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.) 2trans. to cause a landslide by digging at the lower portion of a slope. Adim godeyon nan kanal te malbong di dola. Do not cause a landslide in the canal (by digging) because the yard will be flooded. ‑on/‑in‑. 3proc. the process of land sliding downward. Gumdey nal-ot an udan. Strong rains cause landslides. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

gohgo trans. to cut into fine pieces, e.g. vegetables, leaves. Gohgohom nan gattuk. Cut the camote into pieces. Munggohgoh tingting hi ina. Mother is cutting the camote leaves into pieces. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

got’ad (sp. var. gott’ad) 1comm. the climaxing day of the uya-uy marriage feast or prestige feast. [The Gotad day follows the final night holyat of two weeks of nightly dancing. On this day, there is much drinking, dancing and singing of liwliwa-love songs for the whole day.] Kakon-anay gotad ad Baguinge? When is the gotad feast of the wedding in Baguinge? Sim: Ballihung, uya-uy. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2intrans. Ginumtad dad Bayninan. They performed the gotad feast in Bayninan. ‑um‑/‑inum‑. 3comm. a line of people going to attend a ceremony. [For a procession, gongs are used for the music and the tune of gongs is for a procession or during the bogwa ritual.] Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

hagob 1intrans. to go to the spring to get water; fetch water. Eka humagob hi liting. Go and fetch water. Himmagob, nana-ang ya nunhigup hi bintok. He got water, cooked, and carried bundles of rice into the shade. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 2trans. to fetch water with a container-object or the place to fetch water cross-referenced. Em hagoban nan angang. Fill the jar with water. Ihagob mu nan aluwog. Fetch water with the bamboo-tube. Daanay punhagoban. Where do we fetch water?

hangpat comm. rattan shoot, inedible. Munhampot ya munpait di hangpat. The rattan shoot is bitter and sort of sticky. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

hapid 1comm. betel-pepper vine; leaves or the vine are used in chewing betelnut. [This vine is sturdy and climbs trees. People climb the trees to gather the leaves.] wh: mom-on; Sim: dalopdop, hinga, biyen. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2trans. to place or use betel-pepper leaves with other chew ingredients. Panapid mu nan kinayat tulang mu. Use the betel nut leaves that your brother climbed to get. Makihapidak aga. Please let me have a betel-pepper leaf. paN‑, maki‑.

hayat intrans. to become full; reaching the top of container. (sem. domains: 8.1.8 - Full.)

heyya adjunct. the signal for the choristers to join the soloist at the end of the line in an epic chant. Restrictions: Hudhud epics. Deya ot ya abu Aliguyun nak Amtalao, heyya. There Aliguyun, son of Amtalao, heyya. {literary}

hi ohhandi (n. ph. of ohhandi) day after tomorrow. n. a noun phrase consisting of a determiner and noun referring to the day after tomorrow. Ilistam tun alak ta ahik idat hi ohhandi. List the things I get so that I will pay the day after tomorrow. Hi ohhandiy ahim aliyan. You come here the day after tomorrow. Hi ohhandi di ayan takud Lagawe. We are going to Lagawe on the day after tomorrow. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.)

hibu 1comm. the overflow from boiling. Tan-ukam nan hibuna. Scoop out the overflowing liquid. Sim: lakbi. 2intrans. refers to the overflowing of water from a container or area. Adim tagan hi apuy ta adi humibu. Don’t put too much fire so that it will not overflow. Takomboy humibu ta ihibunay lugit. Let it flow so that the dirt will overflow. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Many, much.)

hidum 1trans. to shelter or seek protection from rain or sunshine; the shelter is often a tree or something hastily constructed. Ihidum mu nan golang. Bring the baby to the shade. Hidumam din ka-itanom mun gahhilang. Shelter the newly-planted corn. Etaku dih nahiduman. Let us go to the shaded area. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 2intrans. to shelter oneself. Munhidum kayu ni-an tedeyan munhipuk. Shelter yourselves for a while because it is drizzling. 3comm. shade. Maphod di akasyan hidum hin tialgo. The acacia tree is a good shade during summer. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.)

higa 1comm. laziness; indolence. Namahig di higan tun imbabalek. The laziness of my child is too much. Sim: inaw, nawadaan, ngidlu, butyug, himmiga. (sem. domains: - Lazy.) 2trans. to be pregnant, euphemism. [It could be that higa for pregnancy is associated with laziness because pregnant women often do not work.] Himmiga. She is pregnant. Nihiga di tiempon di gubat. She was pregnant during the war. ‑imm‑, ni‑. Syn: hiding. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 3trans. to be pregnant with a specified child. Nanomnomok di dolog handih inhigak hi Ana. I was always thinking of fish when I was pregnant with Ana. i‑/iN‑. der. munhighigga id. Hay humiga maagangan. infl. himmiga

hil-o 1comm. radiance; refers to the brightness of the sun, moon and stars; the radiance shown an hour or so before sunrise or at twilight which is not as dazzling as the sun at midday. Humiliy hil-o. The radiance of the sun dazzles the eyes. Sim: hinag. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.) 2intrans. to radiate light; for the sun to shine. Umbun taku ni-an ta humil-o. Let us sit for a while until the sun shines. Nahil-awan di tamel na. Her face radiated from the sun./Her face reflected the brightness of the sun. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3intrans. about to be daylight; the sun appears and radiates light. Manil-o handi dimmatong da. It was about daylight when they arrived. maN‑. der. himmil-o

hilip 1trans. to sight an object or target along a straight line; to look through a camera lens or telescope; to sight along a plane; to aim. Hilipom ni-an ne ahim binduk. Sight at it first before firing. Hilipom ke ta tibom hi ustu. Sight it so you’ll see very well. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) 2intrans. to sight in order to aim. Munhilip kinali op-opya ka. He is sighting a target that is why you must keep quiet. muN‑/nuN‑.

hituweh (hituwe) dem. this; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns and co-occurs with the determiner hi. Ya adiyu kanan di intudok kuh tuwen dakayu te pinhod kun umidat kayuh mahapul ku te maid hituweh nomnom ku. And don’t think that I wrote this to you because I want you to give what I need because there is nothing like this in my mind. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hituwey (hituwe) demonstrative predicate. this is; a demonstrative predicate; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; it co-occurs with the allomorph y of the linker di. The form predicates the existence of something or someone that is near the speaker. {The demonstrative predicate combines the function of predication and definite reference.} Hituwey nakapyan ha-on. This is what happened to me. Hituwey bale mi. This is our house. Hituwe di kanan dan liblu. This is what they call a book. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hiwol sta. to have a wrist or ankle be sprained by being caught between two things or in the case of an ankle, due to uneven walking surface. Nahiwol handi mumbuttikan. He sprained his ankle when he was running. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: hupung. (sem. domains: 2.5.3 - Injure.)

hokla trans. to pull something apart; to pull off a part of something, often used in reference to preparing a chicken for cooking. Hoklaom nan manuk ta ihaang mu. Pull apart the chicken and cook it. Humokla kah ittay nah abala ta itbong mu. Pull off a bit of the chicken breast and broil it. Hoklaom di payak nan manuk. Detach the wings of the chicken. general: Lambrecht in his Ifugaw-English dictionary relates this action to the tearing-apart of the entrails of a chicken or pig to examine the bile-sac during a divination ritual. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: - Remove, take apart.)

hong-o 1sta. to be delicious; refers to cooked food or wine. Deket ingkamo nan Vetsin nah ihda on mahong-o peman. If the Vetsin (MSG) is mixed up with the viand, it is indeed very delicious. Mahong-oy baya da. Their wine is delicious. Makahhong-oy inhaang mu. What you cook is very delicious. Mahong-oy uung. Mushrooms are delicious. ma‑, makaC‑. 6D Descriptives. Syn: imas. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.) 2trans. to enjoy a delicious taste. Hong-owonay iha-ang Maria. He enjoys the delicious food that Maria cooks. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

hop’a comm. disease of skin pigment; tinea versicolor; especially the hands and feet are spotted with white, along with itchiness in palms and soles which becomes painful later on. Adi mit-an di hopa. Hopa is not contagious. (sem. domains: 2.5.2 - Disease.)

hu-up₁ 1trans. to connect; to join one thing with another. Ihu-up mu ya tun lattik. Please connect these rubber bands. Ihu-up mu tun attake te nakhat. Join together these beads as the string broke. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2trans. to connect one thing with another, the focus is on the thing to which something is being connected; to connect by continuing. Hu-upam nan bidam dih hilong. Continue (lit. join together) your story of last night. Aga, ta hu-upak nan kinalik. Come, I’ll continue what I said. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3pass. near; something has been brought near another thing; adjacent to. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. Dimmatong da nah ob-ob an nih-up nah boble ya tinibo na on golang When they reached the spring which was near the community of Patukan, he saw a small girl mi‑/ni‑. der. nunhu-upan infl. ih-up infl. mih-up infl. nih-up

Hudhud 1prop. an epic song; narrations that reflect the life of the early Ifugao and their cultural values; during the past, the epics were chanted while harvesting rice and during the wake of elderly persons. Inilak di hudhud Aliguyun ad Hananga. I know the epic of Aliguyun of Hananga. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2sing a Hudhud epic. 2.1intrans. to sing the epic; the singing activity is prominent. Munhudhud nadan mun-ani. The harvesters are singing the Hudhud epic. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: Alim. 2.2trans. to sing the epic with prominence on manner. Ihudhud mu di ohan mahaldot. Sing one epic that is interesting (sung with clear enunciation). i‑/iN‑.

hudngul₁ (fr. var. of tudngul) 1) comm. poles used to prop up things. Kaanom di hudngul na te nihamad mo. Remove the prop because it is already strong enough. 2) trans. to prop up something; to support with props; e.g clothesline, leaning house, branch of tree heavy with fruit, etc. Hudngulom ot nan baleyu te umali man nan puwok ot matu-i. You better prop up your house because the storm might come and it will tumble down. Hudngulam din alang te mangaliy puwok. Prop up the granary because a typhoon is coming. Adim ihudngul di taklem hi pangal mu. Don’t prop up your chin with your hand. (sem. domains: - Link, connect.)

hudu trans. to put inside; to place something inside a container. Ihudum tun ahin hi botelya. Put this salt inside a bottle. Huduwam tun tabayag ku hi apul. Put some lime in my lime-tube. Em huduwan tun akbut kuh moma. Go and fill my knapsack with betelnuts. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move object and position at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.)

hugmuk trans. to spread something over an area, e.g. spreading binokbok 'yeast' in making rice wine. [In the case of spreading the binokbok yeast over the rice for rice wine, the yeast is first crushed in the hand.] Hugmukan apum tun mikail kinali em ayagan. Your grandfather will spread the yeast on the rice to be fermented; that's why you go and call him.. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: - Spread, smear.)

huk’ap 1comm. a lid; the cover of a container, e.g. bottles, pots, baskets, jars. Kaanom di hukap nan butilya. Remove the cap of the bottle. Hay bangan nakai-ustuy hukap nay maphod an punha-angan hi pihing. A well-covered pot is best for cooking pihing-vegetable. Sim: kalub, hukbung. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to cover something Hukapam nan hinamal. Cover the rice. Hukapom nan botelya. Cover/cap that bottle. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.)

hukit₂ 1comm. a pole to pick fruit; made of bamboo; the end is cut in such a way as to form a small basket like container to hold the fruit or merely has a split end. Sim: duladul, hudpak, dunghak, hudng’ak. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to gather fruit with stick or pole. Umala kah hukit ta hukitom nan tabuyug. Get a stick and pick that pomelo. Eyak humukit hi manga. I will go and pick mangoes. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

hukup comm. a basket, small and square used primarily as a container for cooked rice made of bamboo or rattan. Lokahom nan hukup ta mangan taku. Get down the rice basket and we will eat. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

humang to answer or converse. 1.1to answer a comment or question. 1.1.1intrans. to answer; to reply. <The infix gives prominence to the action of answering.> Nomnomom on ahika himmumang. Think before you answer. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: - Answer, - Ask.) 1.1.2trans. to answer. <The prefix cross-references the object, the words used to answer.> An hinaey ihumang mun ha-oy? Is that your answer to me? “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. “You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. “Om, mama” inhumang nadan iimbabalena. “Yes, mama,” the children answered. i‑/iN‑. 1.1.3trans. to answer someone. <The object is cross-referenced with either the person or his words having referential prominence.> Ek ot humangon mu uggek te tinibok an bimmoh-ol. I was about to answer him but I didn’t because I saw that he was angry. Humangom nan kinalina. Answer what he said. ‑on/‑in‑. 1.2trans. to converse; talk together; to make an agreement. Munhummangan kayu. You converse with each other. “Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami,” kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Nakihummangan hi uncle ot magibbuy nunhummanganan da ot tumayan kamih di. My uncle spoke to him about his woodcarvings and when they finished their conversation, we left there. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nahho- wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. Later on, he was approaching the er...creek, he saw...there were voices conversing. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an, maki‑ ‑an/naki‑ ‑an. infl. hummangan infl. munhuhummangan

humkaw adjunct. a masculine expression of disgust. Humkaw! Maid pottok na. Ugh! What a mess. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

huplit (sp. var. hoplat) 1trans. to hit buttocks with hand, or flexible instrument such as a belt or bamboo stick; usually in castigation and discipline of children; to whip, to spank. Hinuplit ama na. His father whipped him. Deket nakabahul nan unga, huplitom. If a child is at fault, whip him. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile actions. Sim: paga, bakdung; Sim: bekbek. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2comm. a whip Inalana nan huplit di kabayu. He got the horse whip.

huy-ut comm. the warp end which cannot be woven, usually joined and woven. Nganne atom nah huy-ut? What will you do with the warp end? (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.)

huyye intrans. to lie down carelessly as when one is tired; sprawl out. Inhuyye na nah maholok. He laid down on the grass. general: Lambrecht in his Ifugaw-English dictionary defines this word as taking a squatting position. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 - Lie down.)

ibbuy comm. a ritual feast performed by one who has recently bought something of value, e.g. ricefield, gong, wine jar; the relatives of the buyer help to provide the pigs and other items to be used in the feast, as well as gifts for the seller and his relatives. (sem. domains: - Custom.)

ibutunit (der. of butunit) trans. to button clothing. Ibutunit mu nan bulwatim. Button up your dress. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.)

idat 1to give. 1.1trans. to give something. Idat mun am-in di pinhod na. Give him all that he wants. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: idawat. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 1.2trans. to give something to someone; the person to whom the thing is being given is referentially prominent. <The recipient is cross-referenced by the affix.> Idatam hi kanona. Give him something to eat. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hi dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka a small piece of meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 1.3trans. to give an amount of something; the important component is an unspecified amount of a specified thing to be given. Umidat kah pihhu ta botosan daka. Give out some money and we will vote for you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.4trans. the one giving money is contrasted with others, and referentially prominent. Hiyay nangidat hi pihhuk. He was the one who gave me money. mangi‑/nangi‑. 2sta. to be generous; refers to someone who freely gives to others. Makiddat hi Juan. Juan is very generous. infl. mangidat infl. midatan

ido comm. 1omen bird, sometimes called pitpit; red, small, black and brown breast. [The kulkultit bird is often seen in the same vicinity. It has been said that the ido-bird feeds on the kulkultit-bird.] E ot ume ad Banawe ya dinamunay ido ot ibangngad na mo. He was to go to Banawe but he met the bird of omen so he came back. Sim: pitpit. (sem. domains: - Prophecy, - Bird.) 2an omen; usually determined during a divination ritual sacrifice by examining the gall-sac of a chicken. An maphod di idon nan imbaki da? Is the omen good in what they sacrificed?

Ifugao (sp. var. Ipugao) prop. refers to an ethnic group of people living in the province by the same name located on the island of Luzon, Philippines; also refers to the language of the people. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people.)

ihit comm. a tree variety with small inedible berries but produces a lot of water. Pungkan nadan hamuti nan bungan di ihit. The birds are eating the fruit of the ihit-tree. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

ilut trans. to massage the strained or sprained part of body. Ilutom ya- tun nikubhil an hukik. Please massage the sprained part of my foot. Inilanan mun-ilut. He knows how to massage. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Touch.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

in-in’op trans. 1something seen, heard or imagined while sleeping; to dream. Mun-in-inop ka hi maphod. You will dream about good things. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: ag-agawat, mamayabbayang. (sem. domains: 5.7.2 - Dream.) 2focuses on what is dreamed. In-inopon yu nan inang-ang yu. You will dream about the thing you saw. Dakol di inininop ku dih hilong. I dreamed so many things last night. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition.

Inhik (sp. var. of Insik) Chinese.

inipul comm. beads that are strung and worn around the head, intertwined with the hair. [These beads are generally worn for special occasions, and are inherited property.] Nakangnginay inipul. Headbeads are very expensive! Sim: banungul, attake. (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.)

inspeksyon intrans. to examine or evaluate work or a project; inspect. Immali da di e mun-inspeksyon nah nginunum. Some have arrived to inspect the work you did. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Examine.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: inspeccion.

intinlu comm. a native loom-woven skirt; 3-piece skirt joined by black and red thread, one weave cut into three and sewn to make one. [This skirt is generally worn by the poor. ] Gimmatang hi intinlu te uggena inilan mun-abol. She bought a intinlu-skirt because she doesn’t know how to weave. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, inabol, ampuyo, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) (Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History)

Ipugaw prop. refers to an ethnic group of people living in the province by the same name located on the island of Luzon, Philippines; also refers to the language of the people. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo-spirits or pinading-spirits (sem. domains: - Family, clan.)

kaban₁ 1comm. a measure of rice; a container with 50 kilos of rice. Deket kalyon day ohan kaban an boga on limay pulun kilo kinali hingkaban di upuwon dah ohan bulan. If they say one container of rice is fifty kilos that is why one container is what they consume in one month. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure, 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. refers to a container that has been filled with 50 kilos of rice. Kinaban di gattangonah boga te dakol da. He buys rice by the kavan-container because there are many of them. ‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

kabatiti comm. vine vegetable with soft pulp; a white gourd or squash vegetable. Maid di tamtam di kabatiti. The kabatiti-gourd is tasteless. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kadap intrans. to move, by crawling refers to insects, lizards, vine-type plant and babies. Nal-ot nan banniyan kumadap. The lizard is strong in crawling. Itaggem ke nan bulwatik ta tibom nan gutul an mungkaddapan nah odog ku. Please pull up my shirt and see the ant crawling on my back. Pungkadap din sayoten am-in din nih-up an nitanom. The sayote-plant is crawling over all the nearby plants. Humgop nan golang nah kuwarto ta kadaponan am-in di kama. The baby enters the rooms and crawls in all the beds. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑ ‑an, ‑on/‑in‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: bullu, bakka. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) der. mungkaddapan

kalton (sp. var. karton) 1comm. cardboard container; carton. Napnu nan kalton hi liblu. The cardboard box is full of books. Hingkalton mu makaddam-ot. It’s only one box-full but very heavy. Gumatang kayu kalton ta pangihaadan mi paw-it yud Baguio. Buy a box so that we can place what you will send to Baguio. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place in a cardboard box. Ikalton mu nadan balat an alam. Place the bananas you are taking in a cardboard box. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.) Language Of Borrowing: English: carton.

kap-at (der. of opat) 1nom. the fourth in sequential count; fourth ordinal number. Hiyay kap-at mi. He is our fourth member. (sem. domains: - Ordinal numbers.) 2trans. to divide into four parts. 3pass. to be fourth in a line or order. der. kap-atna der. mikap-at

kaput trans. 1to repair things made of rattan; may be generalized to repair other things. [Repairs are usually made with strips of rattan.] Ingkaput da nan napain gampa. They repaired the head-basket with rattan vine. Paputam nan pahiking. Repair the back pack with rattan. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2to tie something using rattan strips. Dahdiy adi bumoh-ol an ingkaput ku nan panton di balen di manuk on eyak ume on naubad di kaput na. Who wouldn’t get angry, I tied the door of the chicken house and when I went, it was untied. Kinaputan Mariah uwe nan karton yaden binukatan yu pay. Maria tied the carton with rattan and you still opened it. Pun-ikaput yun am-in hanadan carga te mangali nan talak. Tie all the baggage, the truck is coming. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else.

kapya 1make. 1.1trans. to make something; a general term that may refer to any creative act, e.g. building a bench, a house or tanning the skin of an animal to make a backpack. Kapyaom hi ubunan tun kaiw. Make this wood into a seat. Adida ke ihda nan bolat na ya kapyaon dah akbut. When they do not eat the skin, they make it into a backpack. ‑on/‑in‑. Class 4A Change structure of object. (sem. domains: - Make, - Create.) 1.2trans. to make something, patient object is indefinite and the agent subject is prominent. Mangapya tah tinapay. Let’s make bread. Hanada ken maid di happiyo na, nangapya da. As for them, they had no shields; so they made (them). maN‑/naN‑. 2pass. something will be or has been made. Damanan makapyay hagabi an adi mahu-up. The hagabi-figure can be made with no joint. ma‑/na‑. der. kapyana infl. mangapya

kaskasdaaw adj. for something to be inexplicable; amazing, perplexing. Hituwe ya kaskasdaaw mo ahan an naat mu uggeyak timmakut. This that happened was bewildering, but I was not afraid. Takon nan inayana ya matama te kaskasdaaw. Even her spouse did not know (about it) because it was perplexing. Qualifier. (sem. domains: - Mysterious.)

katkat trans. to search through a pile or container, usually by taking out all the contents somewhat haphazardly. Katkatom nadan luput mu ta hamakom nan pihhu. Search through your pile of clothes and look for your money. Kinakat na nadan batu nah nagden tuping. He searched through the stones in the stonewall that collapsed. Nganney bo tuwaliy punkatkat mun nah? What are you searching for again? ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.6.1 - Search.)

kawad 1comm. small chain, e.g. dog leash. Idat mu nan kawad ta igakod da nan ahu. Give the chain so that they will tie the dog. Imme ot ena hapulon nan nangikawad nah kawad an intalu na. He went to find out who used the chain that he hid. Sim: gakod, bobod. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool.) 2trans. to use or attach a chain. Ikawad mu nan ahu te kumalat. Chain the dog because it bites. Mahapul an ikawad yu nan ahu te waday mala-u on ginunggungana. You must chain the dog because it barks at everyone who passes by. Kawadon yu nan ahu ta adi kumalat. Leash the dog so that it will not bite. Deket e mun-aladuh Francis on ahina mahapul nan pungkawad na. It is when Francis goes to plow that he needs to use the chain. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 7.5.2