ingha intrans. 1to become accustomed to something; to be used to something; adjusted. Adim oggan ipatnan munlukut te umingha. Don’t ever try smoking because you will become used to it. Immingha mon hiya nan hamuy di ahuk. He is accustomed to the smell of smoke. Imi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.) 2to be acquainted with someone. Immingha kamin Estrella. We are acquainted with Estrella. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
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naminghan (sp. var. namin-oha) (der. of oha) adv. to have done something once. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. Namingoha di nangayak hidi. I went there only once. Time. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Number of times.)
pinghan (der. of oha) advpred. once. Numpinghan ya abuy nanib-anan hiya. Did she see him only once? Pinghanon dan alan tun karga da. They will get their baggage only once. Ipinghan mu pay an e humagob. You fetch water once more. Pimminghan an timmalan-u. It is the first cockcrow. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ‑imm‑. Mathematical. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Number of times.) der. pinninghan der. pinghanadi
pinghana (der. of oha) 1comm. refers to the first day of the week; Monday. Handih pinghana di immaliyak hi bale yu. It was last Monday that I came to your house. piN‑ + na. Syn: Lunes. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) 2adv. refers to the beginning of a period of time or the first instance of an event; first time. Man-u dih pinghana te maphod ka; ad uwani ya makangohhe ka. It was only at the beginning that you were good; now you are proud. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Hidiyey pinghanan pangayan Bugan an e manibon inaonan hi Magappid. It was the first time Bugan went to visit her Aunt Magappid. Time. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Ordinal numbers.)
Lunes (sp. var. lunit) 1comm. Monday. Lunis ke on eda mungngunu. On Mondays they go to work. Syn: pinghana. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.1 - Days of the week.) 2sta. refers to the coming Monday; when it will be Monday. Malunis kayu ya ume takud Lagawe. Come on Monday we will leave for Lagawe. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: lunes.
oggan (sp. var. uggan) adv. 1some unspecified times; periodically; now and then; sometimes. Ogganak umeh balen da apu. I sometimes go to my grandparents’ house. Ogganak idatan ke auntie hi pihu. My auntie gives me money now and then. Ogganak muntudok ke hiya. I used to write him now and then. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one from that time to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. Sim: pinninghan. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2unspecified future times, no end time in view; from now on. Adika mo oggan munha-ang te binoggam nan inha-ang mud nakugab. Don’t cook rice anymore because what you cooked yesterday was not cooked well. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)
1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑₁. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on . TACR
ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <
> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.
awil 1comm. a gift animal; given to visitors who visit a place for the first time; usually a chicken or a duck. Indattanak hi manuk an awil ku. They gave me a chicken as my gift. Mahapul an waday awil di golang ten pinghanay pangighopan dan hiya nah bale. It is necessary that a gift be given to a baby when she is brought into a house for the first time. Laawon mon Magappid ot idat na ta hidiye moy awil Bugan. Aunt Magappid agreed and gave it to Bugan as a present. Sim: regalo. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) 2trans. to give an animal gift. Awilan dakah manuk hin umanamut kayu. They will give you a chicken as your animal gift when you leave for home. ‑an.
bik-i 1trans. to tear, rip or pull apart cloth or paper. Bik-iyon yu nan tudok. Tear open the letter. Bumik-i ka nah papel. Tear off a part of the paper. Pumbik-i na nan bulwati. She is tearing the dress. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: pinga, hethet. (sem. domains: 7.8.4 - Tear, rip.) 2trans. tear into little pieces; shred. Banik-ihon yu nan tudok ne inwele yu nah kanal. Tear the letter into small pieces and throw them in th canal. Adim banik-iyon nan papel. Don’t tear the paper into pieces. ‑an‑ ‑on/‑in‑. 3pass. for something to be torn. Adim guyudon te mabik-i. Do not pull it because it will be torn. Nabik-i nan pantalon na. His pants are torn. Nabik-i nan bulwatin Bugan nah ena naki-ay-ayyaman. Bugan’s dress got torn when she went to play. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. ma‑/na‑. infl. banik-ihon
buna trans. to get lost; to lose one’s way. Gaput uggek ininghaan ad Manila ya eyak bunbunnaon hanadah iibbak. Because I am not familiar with Manila, my companions tried to make me lose my way. Adina tuwali halipat-an nadan iibba na kinali nabuna. He did not watch his companions that’s why he lost his way. Tibom ta adi ka mabuna. See to it that you won’t get lost. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: talak₁. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Known, unknown.)
CV(C)₁ asp. 1the reduplication of the first syllable, either CV or CVC, of a verbal root is the morpheme form that encodes the continuative aspect; this aspect expresses a single, uninterrupted continuing activity; continue. Kabigabigat on nangin-innum da ya nunhahamul da nah muyung. Every day these men continue to feast and drink in the forest. Idihhan ta hin mungngangala da ta adi dita donglon ke dida. We will coincide it with when they are continuously noisy so they will not hear us. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed continuing to pick and eat the fruit. Munhaghaggeyak te nikudliyak. I am limping because I slipped. Ot matatpuuk da nah puhung, mundopdoppap dah di. Then, they splashed into the pool, continuing to grapple there. 2expresses a continuative time aspect when co-occuring with roots that have an inherent punctiliar time aspect, but have been derived to have a durative time aspect with the prefix set muN-/nuN-. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli te hidiyey pinghanan ena nakidilagan hi allama. She jumped and screamed because it was the first time she went to catch crabs with a torch. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around Nuntadtaddog kamin mundongdongngol hi kalkalyon nan mittulu. We were continuously standing as we were listening to the speech of the teacher. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11.3 - End.)
dukug trans. to turn one’s back on someone. Mungkalkalliyak ken he-a ya adiyak dukugon. When I am talking to you, do not turn your back on me. Painghaom di mungkalkalli ta ken he-a ya idkug mu. Every time I talk to you, you turn your back. Dingkug nah Pedro handi mungkali. He turned his back on Pedro when he was speaking. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Gesture.)
hidi (fr. var. dih) dem. demonstrative pronoun, Set 4; there; over there; away from both speaker and hearer. <
> Umeyak hidi. I’ll go there. Daana, hidih nakiddawwi? Where, there far away? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Demonstrative pronouns.) comp. atbohdi comp. athidi comp. athidiy comp. dehdi comp. deyahdi comp. wadahdi der. ihdi der. kihdiyan ph. v. dedah di Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the initial consonant ‘h’ attaches to that word, the vowel ‘i’ is dropped and di remains alone.
kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali
kay’a adjunct. adds emphasis to a statement; in fact, certainly, definitely. Kanan Rosa di umed Manila mu adi kaya. Rosa said she is going to Manila but in fact, she is not. Adika kaya mahaul. Don’t ever be tempted (even if they insist)! Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I definitely became adjusted. Hinae toan bumdang hidiyen bokon kaya hi Lammooy. That is what I don’t know, roaming spirits there, but definitely not Lammooy. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Markers of emphasis.)
lohko trans. 1to step over something. Naapput te ilohkonah linya. He was defeated because he stepped over the line. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Walk.) 2(fig) to bypass someone in choosing; to ignore or overlook someone. Imminghay pangat mu an ilohkom an abu. You are accustomed to passing over someone. i‑/iN‑. id. ilohko
ma-ma-idan (der. of maid) exispred. intensified negated existential predicate; there is none, not any. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum ya umanamut ka. Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money, you return home. Naminghan ya maka-al-algo bon ma-ma-idan tataguh kalata. Once, it was noontime and there was not a single person on the road. CVC‑ ‑an.
nungka- proc. this prefix encodes the distribution of a process or state over a number of objects; completive aspect. <
> Nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. Ya nada ke bon kakaiw an sycamore an nungkalngo ya hannotan takuh sedar an kapkaphodan an kaiw. And also as for those sycamore trees that were felled, we will replace them with sedar which is the best tree. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) This prefix generally co-occurs with process-state verbal roots or with passive forms of active verbs.
oha 1quan. one, cardinal number. Oha ya abuy Dios. There’s only one God. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Cardinal numbers.) 2trans. one time; once. Naminghan dakan dinamu. I only met you once. namiN‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Number of times.) 3trans. to repeat an action on one thing at a time; one-by-one. Ohhaohhaom didan ayagan. Call them one by one. ‑on/‑in‑ CV(C)CV. 4adv. one each. Hin-oh-ay idat kun dakayu. I’ll give you one each. hin‑. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Distribution.) 5trans. to do something alone. Mu adik bo pinhod an eka mahmahmok an maoh-ohha. But also, I don’t want you to be pitiful, always alone. ma‑ CV(C)‑. comp. himpulut oha comp. oha bo der. hin-oh-a der. maoh-ohha der. maoh-ohha der. naminghan der. naohha der. numpinghan der. ohhaan der. oh-ohha der. pinghan der. pinghana infl. o-oha
pakko 1comm. a metal or wooden spoon; originally made of a coconut shell. Idatam hi pakko te adi pakakkan. Give her a spoon because she cannot eat without one. Sim: idu. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use a spoon in eating. Imminghan mumpakko hin mangan. He is accustomed to using a spoon in eating. muN‑/nuN‑.