disipulos 1comm. disciples. Himpulut duwa nan disipulos Jesus. Jesus had twelve disciples. 2intrans. to disciple someone. Nundisipulos Jesus da Juan ke Pedro. Jesus discipled Juan and Pedro. muN‑/nuN‑.
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hi det. 1a determiner that marks any noun referring to a person, including kin terms and proper names. <
> Hi Juan di nangidat ketuwe. It was Juan who gave this. Takon maka-atung on kinawot da ta ialo dah ibba da. Even if it’s very hot, they grab it and throw it at their companions. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2marks a definite place that is not a proper noun. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. 3marks an indefinite direct or indirect object noun; the marked noun is not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tawagam hi Tayaban ta bumano kah pihhuna. Call Tayaban and borrow money from him. “Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina,” an kanak bo. “Fairies are kind because they give candy, isn’t that right, mother?” I said again. 4marks an embedded nominalized clause that expresses a reason for a condition or state in the main clause. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling? hantuh hidiye Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘i’ of the determiner is reduced, and the consonant ‘h’ is attached to the preceding word.
ke₃ det. a determiner that marks an indirect object that is not cross-referenced by the verb. the form ‘ke’ has an allomorph form. <
> Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back and he should let me know. Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) der. n The form ‘ke’ has an allomorph form, the ‘n’ attached to a preceding word that ends in a vowel.
mangipaN- TACR. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent and encodes a distributive modality of multiple objects; non-past tense. Kon bokon he-a, APU DIOS, di nangamung an mangipangapput hi pinhod mun pangapputon? (Psa. 3:8) Isn’t it you, LORD, who is responsible for causing the victory of those whom you want to win? Sim: nangipaN-.
mumbullubullug (infl. of bullug) multiple pairs of male and female animals walking in a line. Tibom ta umipaghop kah himpipitun numbullubullug nadah aggayam an napilin miappit ke ha-on ya ohan numbullug ya abu nadah adi miappit. (Genesis 7:2) See to it that you cause to enter seven each of male and female pairs of animals chosen to be sacrificed to me and one male and female pair that will not be sacrifriced.
mumpaN- TACR. this prefix combination functions to encode an action that will affect more than one object; co-occurs with Class 5 transitive verbs; non-past tense. Adida mun-ap-apu tuh luta ya adida mumpangapyah o-ongal an boble. They will not rule this land, and they will not build big cities. muN‑/nuN‑ + paN‑. Sim: numpaN-. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.)
mumpangi- TACR. this prefix combination functions to encode an action that will affect more than one object; co-occurs with Class 3 transitive verbs; non-past tense. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take that letter to all the cities and villages. Sim: numpangi-. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)
mungki- TACR. this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action; non-past tense. Datuwe kan duduplanu ya mungkakalpu da mungkidadawwin boble. These airplanes come from faraway places. Mungkitalu nadan allama ya umipit da hin eda howngon di baleda. The crabs hid and pinched the children’s hands when they reached inside their holes to get them. Sim: nungki-. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
nangipaN- trans. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent and encodes a distributive action on multiple objects; past tense. Kon bokon ha-oy di nangipanaptok handidah aammod yu nah adi maboblayan an makamagga? (Hosea 13:5) Was it not I who cared for your ancestors in the wilderness (lit. the very dry place of no villages)? Ot bokon mo he-a an tagun iEgypt a nangipanguluh tindalun umeh opat di libun an nakigubat gubilnumi... (Acts 21:38) Are you not the Egyptian who led nearly 4,000 soldiers to war against our government... Sim: mangipaN-.
numpangi- trans. this prefix encodes a distributive modality; when attached to a Class 3 transitive verb, the action expressed in the verb is distributed to multiple objects undergoing the action; past tense. Ot umitud-ak dah mumpangie ke dadiyen tudok hi kabobboble. And they sent them to take those letters to all the villages. Sim: mumpangi-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.)
nuN- -on this circumfix encodes the notion that there are plural agent-subjects, each one performing the action expressed in the verb, and it cross-references the object referents; past tense. Danaen liman patul ya nun-aaddumon day tindalu da nah Nundotal an Siddim an nih-up nah Naten Baybay. (Genesis 14:3) Those five kings, they joined together their soldiers at the Siddim Valley which is by the Dead Sea. Sim: muN- -on. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
1this prefix encodes the distribution of a feature or property over a number of objects. O-ongal ya nungkitatag-e day babaleh tu. Houses here are big and tall. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes the component that the activity or action is distributed among agent-subjects who participate in the activity or action. Gagala ya ahi mipae nadan nungkikalabut. (Isaiah 51:14a) Soon those imprisoned/captured will be released. Sim: mungki-. . distr
linnawa comm. the life principle in man and animals; believed to live on after death; spirit, soul. Nate ot ume nan linnawa nad langit. He died and his spirit went to heaven. Cultural note: The traditional religious system involved a belief that animals had spirits. Animals were sacrificed during a religious ritual, and the spirits of the dead animals would then go to other worlds to provide for the spirits of gods, ancestors or dead relatives. Sim: alimadduwan, espiritu. (sem. domains: 3.1 - Soul, spirit.) id. dumop-ay linnawak₁
numpaN- trans. this prefix encodes a distributive modality; when attached to a transitive verb, the action expressed in the verb is distributed to multiple objects undergoing the action; past tense. Ne pun-ala da damdamay limmun nadan buhul dan numpangalah limmu da handi. (Ezekiel 39:10b) Then they will also get the property of their enemies who got their property long ago. Sim: mumpaN-. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.)
nun-i- TACR. this prefix combination encodes distributive action over multiple objects that are cross-referenced; it also encodes past tense. <
> Nun-idadaan day ootak da ya papahul da. They prepared their bolos and their spears. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria placed the extra paint in bottles (lit.bottled) the paint we saved. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.) The nun- form encodes the distributive component, and the i- cross-references the object.
ab-abbu (der. of abu) advpred. to be separated from others; to be alone. Ab-abbu dah di. They were alone there. Ingkuyug Jesus didad Betsaida ot ab-abbu dah di. (Luke 9:10b) Jesus led them (his disciples) to Bethsaida and they were alone there. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Separate, scatter.)
hiN- CV- quan. when this prefix and reduplicant combination co-occurs with numbers, it functions to divide and distribute whatever is being modified by the affixed number, e.g. one each, two each Ohan algo ya inayagan Jesus nadan himpulut duwan disipulos na ot hindudwa on intud-ak nah kabobboblen e muntuttudu...(Marcos 6:7) One day, Jesus called his twelve disciples and then, he sent two each to the villages to teach... Am-in dadiyen kuwartu ya nun-iingngon himpupulun piyey lukud di kadukkena ya kabilog na. (Ezekiel 40:7b) All of those rooms were the same in measurement, each one was ten feet in length and width. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes, 8.1 - Quantity.)