Search results for "kali"
kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali
kalimana (der. of kalima) 1n. fifth day of the week. Handih himbatangan dih kalimana ya immeyak di Manila. Last Friday afternoon I went to Manila. Syn: Biyarnit, biernes. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.1 - Days of the week.) 2nom. the fifth day of an event. Ad uwaniniy kalimana nan nate. Today is the fifth day of the dead. ka‑ + na.
makali (der. of kali) pass. to give a name to something; for an item to be called by a particular name or title. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. Mangin-inum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. The people go on with merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug.
yap-ohok di kalim (id. of yap-o) idiom. an idiom meaning to take something lightly; implies that one should not take what is said seriously (lit. words are lightweight). [The English idiom ‘take with a grain of salt’ may be a good translation of this idiom.] Yap-ohok di kalim te makahhugut ka. I take your words lightly because you are a joker. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Saying, proverb.)
kuliwangwang (sp. var. kaliwangwang) 1comm. hind quarter; leg and hip of animal. [This part is usually for the brothers and sisters of the person performing the munhonga ritual.] In-anamut na nan kuliwangwang di nuwang. He brought home the leg of the carabao. (sem. domains: 1.6.2 - Parts of an animal.) 2trans. to butcher an animal and separate the hind quarter from the rest of the body. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
hapit 1comm. a speech. Donglon taku di hapit na. Let us hear his speech. Waday kanta, hapit ya tayo an impatibon nadan nalpuh natkonatkon an boble. There were songs, speeches and dances rendered by different groups from different barrios. Sim: kali. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2intrans. to lure or tempt with words; to sweet-talk someone. Humapit an kandidato. The candidate will give a speech. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to evoke a response. der. mahapit infl. ihapit infl. ihapitan
1this infix is the default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.) 2when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. 3this infix encodes a process completive aspect and cross-references the subject. Himmapit hi Apu Paredes ot kinalikali da mu toan kay dibdib ya abun munlau. Sir Paredes gave a speech, followed by Sir Datumanong’s inspirational talk; they said many good things, but who knows if their words are just like the wind that passes by. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; cross references the subject; past tense. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi ceremony. . TACR
1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑₁. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on . TACR
‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.
a-o comm. 1reflected image in water, glass, or mirror. Tibom key a-om nah danum. Look at your reflection in the water. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Pattern, model.) 2shadow. Mungkadukkey a-o te mungkalimu nan algo. The shadows are lengthening because the sun is setting. Nakakkuugak an kay mo a-oy ang-ang ku. I am so thin that my appearance is now like a shadow. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.1 - Shadow.)
agamid trans. 1to bring something to oneself; draw towards one’s self. Agamidom din ulo. Draw that blanket towards you. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: akuy₂. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Pull.) 2to adopt a child Inagamid na nan imbabalen nan inayana ya nan tindalu. He adopted the child of his wife and the soldier. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Adopt.) 3to take personally something that is said. Adim agamidon di kinalik te bokon he-a. Don’t take personally what I have said because it doesn’t pertain to you. Antipet agamidom am-in di kalida? Why do you listen to everything they say? ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.6 - Upset.)
ahuy (sp. var. ahhuy) trans. to convince someone; to persuade. Inahuyana hi Mary an umeda. He persuaded Mary to go. Umahhuy di kalina. His words are convincing. general: This word may also be used in the sense that someone has been overwhelmed in a battle of wits. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑. Speech verb - to provoke a response.. Syn: awis. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Persuade.)
ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <
> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.
allilaw 1intrans. to confuse; to cause others to be bewildered. Umallilaw nan pungkalim. What you are saying is confusing. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) 2trans. to confuse someone; to bewilder someone. Inallilaw da nan unga. They confused the child. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Misunderstand.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
almot 1to feel upset 1.1intrans. to feel or show bad feelings about something that is said or done. Adika umalmot hi pangalyak ketuwe. Don’t resent what I’m going to tell you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑ . (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Angry.) 1.2intrans. to be feeling resentful or peeved. Mun-al-almot te ugge naunud nan pinhod nan maat. He is feeling peeved because the way he wanted something done was not followed. muN‑/nuN‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. 2trans. to be upset or peeved about something, with the source of the feeling in focus. Almotanay ongal an kalik. She is peeved at my loud voice. ‑on/‑in‑.
an₁ lk. 1this form links a main clause and a complement clause. Naka-ang-ang ku an pungkiting daka. I actually saw that you were being pinched. Tinuttuduwanak an kumalih kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Katatakut pay an e buma-el na kalata. It is very dangerous to cross the street. 2this form links a relative clause to noun and verb heads. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Mr. Paredes and Mr. Datumanong would come here to Ifugao. 3this form links quantifiers and adjectives to noun heads. <
> Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. We, all of us women, wore the Ifugao-skirt. comp. deya ot an Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel of the linker is reduced and the n attaches to the word.
antipe (fr. var. antipet) (comp. of tipe, an₂) int. why; interrogative pronoun; used in asking the reason for something. <
> Antipe ta maid di tagu? Why is it that there is nobody around? Antipet idihhan muy tukuk mu ten mungkaliyak. Why do you coincidentally shout while I’m talking? general: It seems to be a matter of preference as to when the compound or the 'why' word only is used. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Cause, 126.96.36.199.1 - Reason.) Morphology: This word is a compound consisting of the general question marker, an , and the why question marker, tipe .
baal 1comm. messenger; utility man during a rich man’s feast. Hiya nan baal Juan. He is the messenger of Juan. Sim: hon’ag, tud-ak, gitgit. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Report.) 2trans. to send someone on an errand; to command or order. Baalon dakan e gumattang hi itlog. I am going to send you to buy some eggs. Dakami nan ba-ba-alon Apu Dios an mangitudduh kalina. We are God’s messengers to teach his words. Adi mabaal tun unga. This child cannot be sent on an errand. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Send.) infl. mabaal
babol 1sta. low sound; bass voice. Bumabol di kali yu hin mahikon kayu. Your voices will be bass when you mature. Mababol di kali na. His speech is in a low voice. ma‑, ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to lower the sound of one’s voice. Babolon yuy kali yu. Make your voices low. ‑on/‑in‑.
bahhelna (sp. var. ba-helna) comm. refers to the southern part of Kiangan central; the barrios of Amduntug, Antipolo, etc. Nunbaki da apud bahhelna. Our grandfather performed rituals in the places on the other side. Deket kalimana ya dakol di ibahhelnan umalih Poblacion. When it’s Friday many from distant places come.
banbanaggo comm. house lizard; gecko. [When it talks, it’s a sign visitors will arrive.] Dakol di bumudal an banbanaggo nah hilong ten waday dilag. Many house lizards come out at night when there is light. Mungkali ke kanu nan banbanaggo ya waday bisitan umali nah bale. It is said that if a lizard speaks in your house, a visitor will come. Munggango ke kanu nan banbanaggo ya waday bisitan umali na bale. When the house lizard sounds at your house, a visitor will come. Sim: kutkutli, banniya, kallulu; Sim: amulilit. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Reptile.)
bay comm. an inlet of the sea containing a body of water contiguous with the sea. Ingkuyukuyugak ot e kami nunhawhawang ad Cubao, Makati, Pasay ya Manila Bay. They accompanied me and we went to Cubao, Makati, Pasay and Manila Bay. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 1.3.1 - Bodies of water.) Language of Borrowing: English.
bohwang 1trans. to speak frankly; speak openly. Ibohwang ku mo nan podhok an kalyon ke he-a. I will frankly tell you now what I want to say to you. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2pass. to speak audibly and clearly; enunciated speech. Adi mibohwang di kalina te nakapuy. His speech is not audible because he is weak. mi‑/ni‑.
bukat trans. to open something. Mumbukat hi Juan hi mainum. Juan is opening some drinks. Bumukat kah inumon ta. Open something for us to drink. Binukatana nan kahon ya dakol di pihhuh di. He opened the box and there was much money in it. Bukatan yu nan panto. Open the door. Hi Cora di nangibukat nah panto te uggek dingngol nan kalim. It was Cora who opened the door because I did not hear your voice. Hinaey impumbukat mi nah lata te adi pakabukat hituwen indonak. That was what we used for opening the can because what I am holding cannot open it. Adi mabukatan te nialaddu. It cannot be opened because it is locked. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mangi‑/nangi‑, impuN‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: bughul, lukat. (sem. domains: 7.3.6 - Open.)
da₂ quan. plural quantifier; co-occurs with demonstratives, nouns and the existential predicate. <
> Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. Wada da Apu Paredes ya Datumanung nah stage ya Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanung were on the stage together Loktat bo kaya ya wadaday inin-innilak an gagayyum ku. Then, I met some people who became my friends. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to ants when you are walking along the road. Dakamin da Bugan ke da Kabbigat ya hi Hinayyup di nungkukuyyug. We were together with the group of Bugan, Kabbigat and Hinayyup. Daan da nan iibbam? Where are your companions? (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) comp. dayyada Morphology: The quantifier form becomes an enclitic on Set 1 demonstratives and the existential predicate; it becomes a proclitic on Set 2 and Set 3 demonstratives; it stands alone as an independent form when co-occuring with nouns, common and proper.
dammu (sp. var. damu) 1to meet. 1.1trans. to encounter someone in particular; to meet. Em dammuwon hi inam. Go and meet your mother. Dinammuwak nah muyung. He met me in the forest. Hidiy nanammuwanan nadah bumdang kediyen hilong. There is where he had encountered the bumdang-spirit the night before. ‑on/‑in‑ , nan‑ ‑an. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 1.2trans. to meet someone with something; what is being taken is in view. Idammu yu nan payung te mun-udan. Meet him with the umbrella because it’s raining. Mangali ta ahan ya pun-idammum di mahakit an kali. I am just arriving and you are meeting/greeting me with harsh words. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3rec. to meet each other. Nundammu da nah kalata. They met on the street. Dahdiy mundammu ke he-a? Who will meet you? muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. meeting place. Daanay pundammuwan yu? Where will you meet? puN‑ ‑an. 2trans. may refer to meeting trouble or difficulty; may also refer to two inanimate objects being brought together to be adjacent. Tibom ta adim dammuwon ad-adin maat. Be careful (lit. see to it) that you don’t meet with something bad. ‑on/‑in‑.
dap-u advpred. candidly; to state fully without reservation. Daan mot ipadap-um an kalyon. Why don’t you say it without any reservation. Ipadap-um ot ya abuwan an kalyon nan pinhod mu ta maawatan daka. Say directly what you want so that they will understand you. Tipe ngay ta adim ipadap-u nan kalyom. Why don’t you just say it directly? Nahalman an manapdap-uy kalim. It’s too much, you talk without any reservation. ipa‑/impa‑, maN‑ CVC‑. Manner. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.1 - Tell the truth.)
dayaw to honor. 1.1trans. to honor; pay tribute to; to praise; to worship. Dayawon yuh apuyu. Honor your grandparent. Madayaw peman te maid di dakodakol an makalkalih mipanggep ke hiya. He is honored because not many things (bad) are said about him. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: 4.5.5 - Honor.) 1.2trans. to honor, involving the manner or reason for honoring. Atom keh na ya kon idayaw mu? If you do that, will it be for your honor? Idayaw yu nan maphod di at-attona. Honor the one who does good. i‑/iN‑. 1.3v. the activity of honor, praise or worship is in view. Immali dan mundayaw ke he-a. They came to honor you. Mundayaw da nadan mangulug ke Apu Dios. The believers are worshipping God. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
dayyu 1intrans. to move in a downward direction; walking or riding down an incline; descend; go down, walk down a mountain or hillside. Dumayyu ka keh tu ta waday ibagak. Come down here (lit. descend) and I will ask you something. Dumayyu kad Pindongan ta em tibon hi Dulyaggan. Come down to Pindongan so that you will go to see Dulyaggan. Mundayyu kat ume kah bale da ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Go down (lit. descend), to their house and call for Kabbigat so that I will have someone to help me singe the pig. Indai ot dongdonglona, mundayyu dah wa-el nan ho kali ya- ne kinimit na. Later on, as he was hearing, they were going down to the creek and then he closed his eyes. muN‑/nuN, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Move down.) 2sta. to be sloping, a path or road, descending toward a destination. Madayyu nan dalan an umeh baleda. The path going to their house is sloping. Ya mumpadayyuy ohat mumpaed Kiangan. And one pathway goes down towards Kiangan. ma‑. 3to descend with the path or site in view. 3.1trans. the direct object refers to a specific path or something along the path. Dayyuwon yu nan madopla ta ahi kayu dumatong. You’ll go down/descend the cliff before arriving. ‑on/‑in; dayyuwon. 3.2trans. the direct object refers to a specific site for starting the descent Hidiy dayyuwan yu. There (is the place) where you will go down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.3trans. the direct object refers to an object along the path of descent. Idayyu yu nah kad-an di mangga. You’ll go down/descend where the mango tree is. i‑/iN‑.
dihhan advpred. 1to coincide; simultaneous; do at the same time; occupying the same space and time. Idihhan ta hin mungngangala da ta adi dita donglon ke dida. We will coincide it with them when they are noisy so they will not hear us. Antipet idihhan muy tukuk mu ten mungkaliyak. Why do you shout while I’m talking? i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. Sim: paddi. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) 2to do something at the same time. Ahita mundihhan an mangan ta muntinnamtam tah ihda. Let’s eat together so that we can taste each other’s viand. muN‑/nuN‑. Time.
din-ong 1intrans. to be quiet; to be calm; stillness, to abstain from movement or noise. Dumin-ong kayun u-unga. You children, keep quiet. Dimmin-ong da moy u-unga. The children are already quiet. Mundin-ong kayu ta donglon taku nan pungkalin da. Be quiet so that we can hear what they are saying. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2H General class. (sem. domains: 4.3 - Behavior.) 2trans. to bring about quietness, calmness. Idin-ong mu nan at-attom. Stop what you are doing. i‑/iN‑.
diretyu 1advpred. frank; to be direct and outspoken in speech. Diretyu di pungkalina. He talks frankly. Manner. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.1 - Tell the truth.) 2intrans. to tell something in a direct and frank way. Idiretyum di pinhod mun kalyon. Tell frankly what is in your mind. Diretyuwon daka ta inilaom di wadah nomnom ku. I will tell you frankly what is in my mind. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3intrans. to go directly to a place. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish. infl. idiretyu
dongol (sp. var. dongngol) 1to listen. 1.1trans. to listen, giving concentrated attention to specific things being heard; to allow oneself to be persuaded to give heed to and follow a suggestion or advice. <
> Donglon yuy kalyon apuyu. Listen to what your grandfather will say. Dingngol mu? Did you hear it? He-a ken ohan ap-apuk ya donglom tun kalik. My grandson, listen to me. Dingngol ku an makattugal ka. I heard that you are an habitual gambler. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 1.2trans. the affix focuses on the manner of listening. Tipet idngol muh kalin di tatagu? Why do you listen (pay attention) to what people say? i‑/iN‑. 2to hear. 2.1trans. to perceive sound with the ear; to make an effort to hear something with durative aspect. Mundongol kah kanta nah ladyu. You hear music from the radio. Mundongol kayu ke tuwalit maawatan yuy kalkalyona? Why don’t you listen so that you’ll understand what he is saying? Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 2.2pass. refers to what can or cannot be heard. Deya ot an madngol di tatawa da. There, their laughter can be heard. Adi pakadngol di ingak te nahulatan. My ear cannot hear because it’s obstructed. ma‑, paka‑. 3cause to be heard. 3.1caus. to cause something to be heard. Impadngol nay kantana. He caused his song to be heard. Dahdiy nangipadngol? Who let it be heard? ipa/impa‑, mangipa‑/nangipa‑.. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) id. Donglom tun pangiha-adak id. Madngol di bangluna infl. midngolan infl. mundingngol infl. padngol morphophonemics: When infixed, the vowel ‘o’ in the first syllable of the root is deleted.
dukug trans. to turn one’s back on someone. Mungkalkalliyak ken he-a ya adiyak dukugon. When I am talking to you, do not turn your back on me. Painghaom di mungkalkalli ta ken he-a ya idkug mu. Every time I talk to you, you turn your back. Dingkug nah Pedro handi mungkali. He turned his back on Pedro when he was speaking. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Gesture.)
dungpup trans. 1to punch someone. Adika kumalikali te dungpupon da man di tokom. Don’t keep on talking because they will punch you in the mouth. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to bump into; to crash into; for a vehicle to run over someone or something. Dungpupon dakan talak hin nah kalata di pun-ay-ayyayan mu. A truck will run-over you if you play in the street. Nidungpup nan lugan nah ongal an batu. The vehicle bumped against the big stone. ‑on/‑in‑ mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. Sim: dungpal.
gong’a trans. to listen attentively; to hear something; to differentiate a certain sound. Igonga-am din kalkalyon da ta ahim idatdatong ke amam. Listen attentively to what they are talking about so that you can report it to your father. Igogonga-an nan mundongol nah pungkalin nan mittulu na. He is listening very well to what his teacher is saying. i‑ ‑an, iN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.)
hadak 1trans. to say something to clarify or to simplify; to speak truthfully. Ihadak muy ustu. Tell the truth. Haddakom nan intalum. Bring out what you have hidden. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: uh-u₁. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.) 2pass. what is being said is clear, understandable. Mihadak moy kalim gayam. I see, your talk is clear now. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.)
hagabi 1comm. (prim) a bench belonging to rich people; a carved and decorated bench, with carabao head figures at each end. Waday inang-ang yuh hagabi? Have you seen a hagabi-bench? Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished. Sim: Ang-ang. 2comm. the name of a ceremony which signifies wealth and prestige. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Cultural note: There is a great amount of feasting, drinking and dancing during this prestige ritual. The playing of gongs and dancing may take place for five or six nights. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Custom.) 3intrans. to perform the prestige ceremony. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi-ceremony. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - High status, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) der. himmagabi
handidan dem. those; the plural form of handin, a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things in past times. Handidan aammod taku ya adida mungkamihhita. Those forefathers of ours did not wear T-shirts. Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
hangngab 1comm. a spatial area, in front of someone or something. Ume ka hinangngab na. Go in front of him. Sim: hangga. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - In front of.) 2trans. to face towards a person. Inhangngab mun ha-oy. Face me. Ihangngab mu nah mungkali. Face him who is talking. Hangngabon yu nan mungkali. Face the one who is talking. Hinangngab Jesus nadan Judyu. Jesus faced the Jews. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3I Direct action toward object. 3rec. for two people to face each other. Munhangngab ta. Let us face each other. Nunhangngab mo nan duwa. The two had faced each other. muN‑/nuN‑. der. hinangngab
hani 1trans. to put something over or in front of another thing to obstruct; to shield or cover over; to hide from view. Adi haniyan di tamel ten mungkali ta. One should not hide his face from view when talking. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Sim: duklig, hawan; Sim: hawan. (sem. domains: 7.3.7 - Cover.) 2nom. anything used to obstruct view. 3trans. to defend; to take sides with someone; to cover for someone; the focus is on the person being defended. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Defend against accusation.) 4pass. to be protected by being covered. Ginal-anan tinolgan nadan pumbungbung da ot bumtik an e mihani. After quickly lighting the dynamite sticks, he ran for cover. mi‑/ni‑. der. panani
hantudan demonstrative. these; the plural form of hantun, a member of set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Hantudan manuk hitu ya ieyu didah nah alang. These chickens here now will be brought to the granary. Tipet idngol muh kalin hantudan tatagu on ahim inat di pinhod mun aton; kon maid di nomnom mu? Why do you bother to listen to these people before doing what you want; don’t you have a mind of your own? Daanay pungkiha-adan hantudan tatagu? Where will all of these people be accommodated? (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
he-a pers. you, singular; second person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 4 subject pronouns; the subject is preposed before the verb and cross-referenced by the verbal affix; the form is also an address and is preposed. He-a ken ohan ap-apuk ya donglom tun kalik. You, my grandchild, listen to my advice. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) n. ph. ke he-a
hidug comm. the carabao sacrificed on the last day of hagabi celebration feast. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. Sim: duwog, tamaraw, nuwang. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)
himbatangan comm. afternoon; between 3:00 - 5:00 p.m. is the time referred to. Namahig di atung hanah himbatangan. It is very hot in the afternoon. Himbatangan ke on mungngala day dulduli. During afternoons cicadas become noisy. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11.3 - Time of the day.)
hin kananat (comp. of kananat, hin) conj. if by chance Hin kananat manganga ta adi pakakalit maid di innunan mumbaki. If by chance, he became dumb and could not speak then there is no one to perform baki (say the rituals and prayers). Hin kananat umeyak hi langit ya dehdi ka. (Psalm 139:8a) If by chance, I go to heaven, you are there. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.2 - Maybe.)
hinnatkon 1adj. another kind or type of thing; different looking. Hinnatkon nan inbulwatina ad uwani. She has a different dress now. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124.3 - Different.) 2intrans. to become different; to be different. Huminnatkon di tibom hin mumpapu-lit ka. You will look different if you have a haircut. Munhinnatkon di ginattang da. They bought different things. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑. 3trans. to do something to make a thing different. Hinnatkonon yu nan kapyaon yun ha-on. Make mine different. 2G Processes.
hip’ag₂ trans. 1to bump something. Adim ot ihipag nan buhi te maphik. Take care not to bump that ricewine jar on anything because it will be broken. Adi humgop tun tabla nah panto te adukke ya mihipag. This board cannot fit into the door because it is too long and bumps the walls. Ume-ele ka ta adika mahipag. Move a bit further away so you will not be bumped. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ma‑/na‑. 3I Direct an action twoard an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to strike or hit someone; any method but kicking. Hipagom nan kumalikali. Strike that person who is always talking. Maka ot hitu te humipag man din tagu. Come here because that person will hit you. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
hituwen (hituwe) dem. this; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns and co-occurs with the linker an. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
homok 1pass. having the property of or being in the state of arousing the pity of others. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Oha bo ya mahmok di adol. One more thing is your body is pitiful. Adik bo pinhod an eka mahmahmok an maoh-ohha. I don’t want you to be pitiful, always alone, by yourself. ma‑. Sim: amuyu. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Mercy.) 2feel pity. 2.1trans. to feel compassion for someone in trouble or who is suffering, and do something to alleviate the suffering; usually results in giving material aid; the person receiving the pity and help is in view. Homkonak anhan. Please pity me. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Mercy.) 2.2intrans. to show compassion. Mipangngat an hummok tah ibban tagu. It is one’s duty to have pity on others. Hummok kayu ahan ta umidat kayu hi ittay an boga. Please have pity and give us a little rice. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3comm. the feeling of sympathy for another’s plight or suffering. Namahig di homok di Dios ke ditaku. God has much pity for us. infl. numpahpahmok
hu-up₁ 1trans. to connect; to join one thing with another. Ihu-up mu ya tun lattik. Please connect these rubber bands. Ihu-up mu tun attake te nakhat. Join together these beads as the string broke. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2trans. to connect one thing with another, the focus is on the thing to which something is being connected; to connect by continuing. Hu-upam nan bidam dih hilong. Continue (lit. join together) your story of last night. Aga, ta hu-upak nan kinalik. Come, I’ll continue what I said. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3pass. near; something has been brought near another thing; adjacent to. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. Dimmatong da nah ob-ob an nih-up nah boble ya tinibo na on golang When they reached the spring which was near the community of Patukan, he saw a small girl mi‑/ni‑. der. nunhu-upan infl. ih-up infl. mih-up infl. nih-up
iho (sp. var. ihaw) 1comm. refers to what is bad or evil [Barton in his book ‘Religion of the Ifugao’ claims that panio ‘taboo’ is a derivation of this root.] (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Bad.) 2sta. to be offended by someone’s speech or behavior. Adim ihawon di kaliyak ke he-a. Do not take it badly when I scold you. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.1 - Annoyed.) 3sta. to be a bad or evil person. Naihoy nitaguwana. His life is evil./He is an evil man. ma‑/na‑. infl. naiho
imbabale 1comm. offspring; refer to any age child in relation to parents; son, daughter. Mahlu day imbabalek. My children are industrious. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Hi ke Butale ya binugtung an imbabale. Butale was an only child. Sim: bun’at; Syn: an’ak. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Related by birth, 126.96.36.199 - Child.) 2trans. to consider the child of a relative as one’s own; nephew, niece. der. imbabaleyon der. inimbabaleyan der. mun-imbabale id. ikadangyan di imbabale
impakaiC1- this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. <
> Hanan tagun mangngol hi kalik ya un-unudona ya miingngo nah nanomnoman an tagun nangapyah balenan impakaihammad nay tukud na. (Mateo 7:24) The person who hears what I say and follows it can be compared to the intelligent person who has built his house and strongly stabilized its posts. Sim: pakaiC1-. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.) The C1 geminate is not always pronounced or written.
inayan (der. of ine) comm. mate; husband; wife; spouse. Duwa di inayana te makibabai. He has two wives because he just loves women. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Maid pangal-anah ipakanah inayana ya imbabalena dida. He had no way of providing food for his wife and his children. Syn: ahawa. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206.1 - Husband, wife, 2.6.1 - Marriage.)
ingngo 1intrans. to be similar; to be alike; to resemble; to be equal. Nun-ingngo di bulwati da. They have the same clothes. Adinadaman eka miingngon nah apum. You cannot be equal to your boss. muN‑, mi‑. Sim: obot, umat, paddung. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11.1 - Same.) 2trans. to imitate; to follow or copy what someone does. Ining-ingo nay pungkalkalin inana. She imitated the way her mother talks. Ing-ingo nay pumbulwatin tulang na. She imitates the way her sister dresses. Iingngo yu nah kinapya dan ubunan. Imitate (make one the same) the chair that they made. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Meet a standard.) 3sta. to be identical. Naka-ingngoy angada te dappilda. Their faces are identical because they are twins. naka‑. 4proc. to become the same. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. muN‑ i‑. der. kaingngo der. kiingngohan
ka- -an₁ nominalizer. this circumfix derives a noun from a verb. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast ‘hagabi’ entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Derivational affixes.)
ka-₃ TACR. this prefix encodes a neutral or present tense that co-occurs when the CV(C)CV reduplicant highlights a continuous activity. Kapalapalang nah dulung. He keeps on cutting the floor. Kakalikali ka yaden adik maawatan. You keep on talking yet I cannot understand. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.)
ka-ok 1sta. to be asleep. Ume kamin e nangihid-ip ke hiya ya naka-ok. We went to see him and he was fast asleep. Naka-ok ka nin te uggem dingngol nan kalik. Maybe you had fallen asleep because you did not hear my voice. Mungka-ok ot ahik tayanan. He was almost asleep when I left him. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process-State. Sim: huyop, yongyong. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.) 2nom. bed; sleeping place. Nah dulung di ka-okan taku. We will sleep on the floor. ‑an.
kabing trans. 1to pay attention to advice, allowing the advice to have an effect; to heed advice. Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice (i.e. let it have an effect on you). Ugge na ingkabing di kalin amana. He did not heed the advice of his father. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Obey.) 2to sense or to be affected by something. Uggek ingkabing nan duntuk mu. I did not feel your punch. Punhuplit nah Pedro gapuh pilyuna mu adina ikabing. He would beat Pedro because he was naughty but it had no affect. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object.
kamang sta. to be related as kin; kinfolk. Waday nikamangan mi ke dida mo bumainak an mangalkali. We are related to them but I am ashamed to be telling it. Maphod ta mikamang da Petra ke da Pascual ta kal-iwan day naat handi. It is good that Petra will be related to Pascual so that they will forget what happened before. mi‑/ni‑, mi‑ ‑an/ni‑ ‑an. Sim: iba, manang, ag’i, tulang. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Related by birth.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
kananat adjunct. expresses either a possibility or probability. <
> Ya hin kananat manganga ta adi pakakalit maid di innunan mumbaki. And if he cannot speak, then there is no one who can say the rituals and prayers. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Probably.) comp. hin kananat comp. kananaket The word always co-occurs with the conjunction hin .
kanu adjunct. allegedly; reportedly; it is said; refers to something that was not heard or seen first hand. Wada kanu di manamak ke ha-oy? They say someone is looking for me? Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu kamih tu. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that we should come here. Kanan day deke mo kanu ta pidwana ya adida makie. They said, reportedly, that if there is another occasion they will not join in going. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Report.)
katbalan (der. of tobal) nom. refers to one who is respected, approved or honored. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman te kibalinana ya kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longonah nuwang ya babuy. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect (by his co-villagers) because its very performance shows that he is very rich indeed since he can afford to butcher many carabao and pigs. (sem. domains: 4.5.5 - Honor.)
kay advpred. 1refers to a comparison; to have the same or similar qualities or characteristics. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to an ant when you are walking along the road. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Kay bo uya-uy damdama. It’s just like the Uya-uy-marriage feast. Comparative. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Compare.) 2functions as a comparative predicate; makes a hypothetical comparison of someone or something to a characteristic action or behavior of another person or thing. Mumbutik ka an kay daka pumpudug hi nganneh diye. You are running as though you are being chased by something. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Relations involving correspondences.)
kayngot 1intrans. a facial expression of firm lips along with the gesture of nodding the head from time to time that gives authority to speech. Nadan udum an mungkaykayngot an kumali ya dakdakol di mundongol ke dida. Those people who speak very authoritatively have more people who will listen to them. Nakayngot di pungkalina. His speaking is authoritative. muN‑/nuN‑, na‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Gesture.) 2trans. to give a signal to a previous agreement by nodding of head. Kinayngotanak an ume kami mo. He signaled to me by nodding his head that it was time to leave. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
kibalinana (der. of balin₂) nom. the meaning of a figure of speech or obscure saying; interpretation. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan te kibalinana kaddakaddangyana te dakol di longonah nuwang ya babuy. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect from his co-villagers because its meaning is he is very rich because he butchers many carabao and pigs. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.)
konoknong₂ trans. to control oneself, in speech or action. Konoknongom di pungkalim. Control your speech. (You better be careful what you say.) Impoltante punkonoknong hi adol. It’s important to have self-control. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: kolokla, mahang-anon. (sem. domains: 4.3.6 - Self-controlled.)
kuling₂ 1sta. to have a high-pitched voice; for one’s voice to become high-pitched. Makuling di kalin Winston yaden lalaki. The voice of Winston is high-pitched and yet he is a boy. Deke on kumuling di kalim. Sometimes your voice becomes high pitched. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to sing with a high pitch. [This would be particularly true when a man sings falsetto.] Mungkankanta kayu ya maimatun di boses mu te kulkullingom. You were singing and your voice could be recognized because you were singing in a high pitch. (lit. making voice high-pitched)
lau₂ (sp. var. la-u) 1intrans. for a person or thing to pass by; for time to pass. Himmapit hi Apu Paredes ot kinalikali da mu toan kay dibdib ya abun munlau. Sir Paredes gave a speech, followed by Sir Datumanong’s inspirational talk; they said many good things, but who knows if their words are just like the wind that passes by. Malau kami pe. May we pass by. muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Move past, over, through.) 2trans. to pass by something or someone. Lauwam nan bale mi. You’ll pass by our house. Kon ugge daka inila ke hiya ta linauwan daka? Doesn’t she know you so that she just passed you by? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. lauhan
law-an 1sta. to speak without thought; slip of the tongue; unintentional or careless speech. Tibom ta adi milaw-an di kalim. See that you don’t say words unintentionally. Waday nilaw-an an kinalik hi bingkona. I said something I should not have said that displeased him. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: luhu. (sem. domains: 3.5.5 - Foolish talk.) 2nom. to be careless in behavior; requires a co-occurring negative. Tibok ta maid di ek kilaw-anan hi atok. I will watch so that there will be no carelessness in what I do. ki‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168.1 - Below standard.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
limu 1go down. 1.1sta. to be submerged; to have sunk below the surface; to vanish out of sight from a horizontal plane. Nalimu nah adalom. He was submerged in the deep spot. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Move down.) 1.2nom. refers to the sunset. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. Imme da nah nalimuhan di algo. They went after the sun had set. ka‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199.3 - Time of the day.) 2proc. disappearing from view. Mungkalimuy bulan ot ahi kami umanamut. The moon was already disappearing when we went home. Mungkalimuy algo. The sun is disappearing. mungka‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) n. ph. kalimuwan di algo ph. v. nalimuwan di algo
linga sta. to be nearly cut through, e.g. rope, elastic bands. Mungkalinga nan tali. The rope is nearly cut. Mungkalingay inga na te madam-ot di hingat na. Her ears are nearly cut through because she has heavy earrings. ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)
ma-₂ pass. this prefix derives the passive form of Class 4 verbal roots; non-past tense. Matbal da mo peman! Now they are highly respected indeed. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitied. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You think what can be seen are houses but these are what they call ships. Sim: na-₂. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.)
mialig sta. to be comparable in some way; a figurative form that indicates that one thing or event is compared to another by way of illustration. Hay maulen kali ya mialig nah iyyukan an malumii, paphodonay gibok ya pal-otona nan mangngol. (Proverbs 16:24) A kind word can be compared to honey that is sweet, it causes a good feeling and strengthens the one who hears. mi‑. Sim: kialigan. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Compare.)
1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. < . TACR > Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp. Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.
mungka- proc. this affix encodes a durative time process; cross-references the subject. Ohan algo ya ek bo tinangad nan mangga ya mungkap-u moy bungana. Then one day, I went to look up at the mango tree and its fruit was almost gone. Mu inilanan mungkabigat te muntatalan-uy manuk nah boblen nih-up hidi. He could tell the time (becoming dawn) by the cocks crowing in the nearby village. Indani ya mungkapnu nan lata. After a while the can was almost full. Ya gapu kediyen naat ya nundingngol hi kabobbobley mipanggep hi kalin nan Ap-apu taku ta mungkadakol day mangulug ya mungkihamad di pangulug da. (Acts 19:20)
And because of what happened, the message concerning our Lord spread throughout the cities and villages so that many became believers and their faith was strengthened.
And because of what happened, the message concerning our Lord spread throughout the cities and villages so that many became believers and their faith was strengthened.
ngahngah intrans. to breathe rapidly; to gasp for breath resulting from running or brisk walking; gasping or panting because one is tired or having difficulty in breathing. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I shouted as I gasped for breath. Maka-atung kinali mungngahngah nan ahu. It is very hot, that is why the dog is panting. muN‑/nuN‑. Class 2E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2.1 - Breathe, breath.)
nganga comm. unclear speech; can produce sounds, but can’t pronounce words correctly; to be dumb, i.e. inability to speak. Adi maawatan di pinhod na te nanganga. One can’t understand what he wants because he can’t talk properly. Ya hin kananat manganga ta adi pakakalit maid di innunan mumbaki And if he cannot speak, then there is no one who can say the rituals and prayers. ma‑/na‑. Class 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Mute.)
ngihom 1sta. to grimace in showing displeasure, frustration or disappointment. Dingngol nay kalim ya nangihom. When he heard your voice, he looked displeased. ma‑/na‑. 2trans. to grimace at or about something. Ngingihomona ta nangamung. He is always grimacing (at something). ‑on/‑in‑.
nipa- -an pass. this circumfix encodes passive, causative, topicalization; past tense. Datuwen am-in di nipaannungan nan nitudok nah kalin Apu Dios....(Romans 2:24a) All of these are the fulfillment of the written word of God... Ipaali na boy kolyog ya iwagot na nadan batun nipab-unan tun luta. (Job 9:6) He will again bring an earthquake and he will shake the rocks that are seated on the earth. Sim: mipa- -an. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
olot 1comm. the state of being strong; strength. Maid olot na te mundogo. He has no strength because he is sick. Sim: kilog, bika, kuhog. (sem. domains: 2.4.1 - Strong.) 2trans. to strengthen something or to strengthen one’s body. Oltom di kalim ta madngol. Make your voice loud so it can be heard (lit. strengthen your voice). Kaatna anhan di inlot mu? By the way, how strong are you? ‑on/‑in‑. 3sta. to be strong. Nal-ot hi Juan. Juan is strong. na-.
ongngal (ongal) quan. quantifies by size, any noun referent, i. e. person, place or thing. Manibo dah ohan magangan ongngal an kaiw. They search for a large, hardwood tree. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. (sem. domains: 8.2 - Big.) infl. kaongngalan
opot (sp. var. oppot) 1comm. the fault of person, implies the assigning of responsibility for something bad. Opot mu te adika magilat. It is your fault because you never learn your lesson. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Bad.) 2intrans. to act together similarly; to collaborate in wrongdoing; to ape or imitate with a negative connotation. Nun-ooppot di pangat yu. All of you act in the same bad way. muN‑/nuN‑ CV‑. 3trans. to imitate others in wrongdoing. Ip-ot mu damdaman adim donglon di kalin amam. You are also imitating them, not listening to your father. i‑/iN‑.
opya intrans. to be quiet; to be silent. Opya ka ta donglom tun kalyok. Keep quiet and listen to what I say. Umop-opya kayu ta donglon taku nan pungkali na. Keep quiet and let us listen to what he is saying. Op-opya-an handi nala-u nadan tindalu. He kept very quiet when the soldiers passed by. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑an. 2H General class. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199.5 - Say nothing.)
pa- -on (‑on) caus. this circumfix encodes non-past and a causative concept; it cross-references the patient-object relation rather than the causative agent. Hanadan tatagun maka-am-amlong ya paamlongon day ibba da ya paphodon nan maphod an kalyon day gibok nan mangngol. (Proverbs 15:30) The people who are very happy cause their companions to be happy and by the good things they say, they cause those who hear to feel good. Inun-unud day kalina ot pab-unon da nadan tatagu. (Luke 9:15) They followed what he said and had the people sit down. Sim: pa-. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Verb affixes.)
paga trans. to beat with a stick. Apa, dahdiy em pagaon? Oh, whom will you beat? Ipagam nan payung hi tokona hin kumalikali. Hit her mouth with the umbrella if she keeps on talking. Adik pinhod an indallan hina te pumaga nan mun-ango. I do not want to pass there because the crazy person will hit with a stick. Pumpaga na nan kama ta mag-a nadan kitob. He was beating the bed so that the bedbugs will fall. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, puN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch. Sim: bakdung, huplit. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)
pamga (sp. var. pamaga) 1trans. to do without caution; tactlessly or carelessly done. Adim pamga hi kali. Do not be tactless with your words. Impamga nah haad nan payung kinali natalak. She placed the umbrella carelessly, that is why it got lost. i‑/iN‑. 2adv. expresses a limiting concept. Adiyak pakaippol an ek pamgay op-opya. I cannot endure just keeping quiet. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Attitude.)
pohod 1to be valued as good. 1.1sta. to have the property of being good; to meet a standard of something to be desired or something that is favorable for someone; good, beautiful, nice. Maphod tun bulwatin indat da. This dress that they gave you is beautiful. He-ay kapkaphodan hi bale nah tud Kiangan. You have the nicest house in Kiangan. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. It was good because there were many rides so that we could go. Mabalin bon kalyok an maphod di memory na. I think he probably has a good memory too. ma‑, ka‑ CVC ‑an. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 1.2advpred. to meet an accepted standard of appropriate or good behavior. Mumpohod kayun umbun. You sit properly. muN‑/nuN‑. Evaluative. 2to repair, fix or improve. 2.1trans. to cause something to become good, implies that something is in disrepair or less than good. <
> Adim piphod ke ha-oy te uggek inila. Don’t let me fix it (lit. make good) because I don’t know how. Iphod mu nan apuy ta adi gumanab. Fix the fire so that it won’t burn its surroundings. pi‑/impi‑, i‑/iN‑. 2.2caus. to improve the life or welfare of someone. Ipaphod Apu Dios di nitaguwan taku hin mundinol takun hiya. God will make our lives good if we trust in him. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Bless.) 2.3trans. to show benevolence. Iphodam hi tulang mu takon di iboboh-ol daka. Show benevolence/favor to your brother even if he is always angry with you. i‑ ‑an/ iN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 2.4intrans. to become better, i.e. to recover from sickness; get well. Kanom am-in tun agat kal-ina ot ya pumhod ka. Take all this medicine so that you can get well. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy, 2.5.1 - Sick.) 3to love. 3.1trans. to love. Pohdom di ibbam an tagu umat hi naminhod muh adol mu. Love your fellow man as you love yourself. Impakappinhod daka. I love you very much (supremely). Pakappinhod ku mu bumainak an mangalkalin hiya. I love her very much but am ashamed to tell her. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I do not like to eat wildcat meat. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. 3.2nom. the nominalized form is equivalent to the English noun ‘love’. Hay paminhod di immanhan an intanuttudun Jesus hanadah tatagu. Love is what Jesus emphasized in his teaching of people./Love is the focal point of Jesus’ teaching of people. Hay naminhod kun he-a ya maid di kiingngohana. My love for you is beyond comparison. paN‑/naN‑. 4trans. to love each other. Mumpohhodan da kinali nun-ine da. They love each other that is why they got married. muN‑ ‑an. 5advpred. try one’s best. Ip-iphod nat tobotbalon da. He is trying his best for their approval. i‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Try, attempt, 8.3.7 - Good.) 6trans. to want or desire something; to like something. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your time in the library during your vacation. Imi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I don’t like wildcat meat. ‑in‑. der. kiphodan der. maphod der. pamhod id. iphodan hi kali infl. iphod infl. kapkaphodan infl. pinhod infl. pumhod n. ph. pohod hi kali Morphology: paka-ip-iphod , superlative, to fix perfectly.
puhipu 1trans. to end or finish an action. Indait puhipuwona nan pungkali na ta ahita ume. Wait till he finishes his speech before we go. Adi mapuhipu nan pun-ibagak ya hinumang mu. I did not finish asking my question and you answered it. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. 2pass. refers to the end of an action. Napuhipu da nan mumpaparade an tatagu ot ahina ipabduk nan palattug na. The parade ended before he fired his gun. Napuhipu nan ulog ot ahiyak dumallan. I waited till the snake crossed then I started walking. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Stop moving.)
pultik trans. to hit someone or something with a fillip; to snap or flick with the finger. Adika kumalikali te pultikok di tokom. Stop talking or I will flick your mouth. Pinultik nay olong ku. He flicked my nose. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: pukdit. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) der. pinnultik
puN-₁ 1dervN. when this prefix is affixed to a verb, the result is a nominalized clause that expresses the manner or reason for an action or activity. Ya hay gapunah adina pangitikodan ya alanganin di biyag na hi punnomnom na. And the reason he does not stop is that his thinking is, his life would be uncertain. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. Hay punnomnom ku ya wada nin an dakdakkol di naat mu, mu hituwe. My thinking was that you would have done much more than this. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Derivational affixes.) 2distr. this prefix encodes the distribution of an action among plural objects. Ya himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. And the raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. They passed some small huts with small people living in them.
tangguyub (sp. var. tangguyup) 1comm. an animal horn used as a single note trumpet; used for calling assemblies or sounding alarms. Ipagangom nan tangguyub ta mamanug da nadan tataguh tu. Sound the animal horn so that the people will assemble here. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52.1 - Call, 184.108.40.206.2 - Contact.) 2intrans. to blow the horn. Muntangguyup day ammod dih done. Our ancestors used to blow the animal horn. muN‑. 3intrans. a trumpet instrument. [This is the word used to translate the instrument used to call together people in the Tuwali Ifugao Bible.] Hantuh aliyanan malpuh langit ya wada donglon takuh nal-ot an kalin mun-ayag ke ditaku ya muntukuk bo nan ap-apun di anghel ya midihhan an gumango nan tangguyub Apu Dios. Then he (Jesus) will come from heaven and we will hear a loud voice calling us and a shout from the leader of angels and at the same time the sounding of the trumpet of God.
ten (sp. var. tehin) conj. 1the shortened form of tehin ‘because, when’. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to an ant when you are walking along the road. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a loud noise when it is about to land. Antipet idihhan muy tukuk mu ten mungkaliyak. Why do you coincidentally shout while I’m talking? (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Condition.) 2the shortened form of tehin ‘because, if’ which combines a reason and condition; in case that. Maid umali ten adika umayag. Nobody will come if you do not invite anyone. Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. I don’t know if it is true, but if it is true, you heed my advice. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way.
tikke (sp. var. tike) 1adj. short, describes a short thing or time; may not refer to a person. Antikkey patanong mu. Your cane is short. Antikkey nitaguwan tuh luta. Life on earth is short. Antiantikken he-a nan bulwatim. Your dress is too short for you. Hituwey katikkeyan. This is the shortest. Antiantikke bo tuwali nan bulwatim ya impaan-antikkem bo. Your dress is very short and you even made it shorter. a‑/aN‑, CVCV‑, ka‑ ‑an. Dimension quantifier. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Short, not long.) 2trans. to shorten; to become short. Tikkeyom di kalim. Make your speech brief. Tumikke nan linubid hin tagam hi puttut. The rope will become short if you keep on severing it. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. infl. antikke
tudu₂ 1intrans. to teach or train. Muntuttuduh Juana an munha-ang. Juana is teaching how to cook. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 3.6 - Teach.) 2trans. to show; to point out; to teach something specific. Ituddum di dalanon. Show us the way. Naligat an adalon nadan mapmaphod an mitudtudu mu deket nan gaga-iho gagala on inadal di tatagu. Good teaching is hard to learn but as for the bad, people easily learn it. Ituddu nad uwani aton an muntanom. He will teach us now how to plant. Dakami ke ya intuddu day iskul hi sentral ot ume kamihdi. As for us, we were told to go to the Central School, so we went there. Adi maphod nan itudtudum hantudah iibam. What you are teaching your brothers is not good. i‑/iN‑. 3trans. to teach a particular person. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Tudduwan ditakun mungkugut. She will teach us how to sew. Adim tuttuduwan tun imbabalek an e munduka. Don’t influence (lit. teach) my child to go roaming around. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal Oriented Sites. id. manuttudu infl. mangituttudu
tul-u 1intrans. to sprout, refers to the shoot of a plant sprouting through the ground. Manul-u nan haping di balat. The banana shoot is coming up. maN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: timil. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 2trans. to lift something higher. Patul-uwom nan pantalon mu te mungkaunu. Lift up your pants because they are falling. pa‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Lift.) 3intrans. (fig) to come forth or out of. Adi tumuttul-uy kalik. I could not speak. (lit. my speech would not come out.) ‑um‑. comp. ahitul-u
tuppa (sp. var. tupa) 1comm. the fluid excreted by the salivary glands; saliva; spit. (sem. domains: 2.2.3 - Spit, saliva.) 2to spit. 2.1trans. to spit something on someone or something. Adi kayu mun-ay-ayyam hina te tuppaan dakayu nadah mummomad tap-o. Do not play there because the the betelnut chewers above will spit on you. Ituppam nah lata. Spit in the can. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 2.2intrans. to spit, implies a continuing act. Dakol day tatagu yaden muntuppa ka. There are many people around and yet you are spitting. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3intrans. the act of spitting. Intibok ya maid di tagu ot tumuppaak ya nala-u ka. I looked to see and there was no one so I spat and you passed by. Handih himbatangan dih kalimana ya ustun eyak timmupan dih kanal It was last Friday afternoon when I went out to spit in the canal. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
udot adjunct. 1expressing perplexity. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling. Kon adita udot mundogoh athitu? Why, won’t one get sick that way? Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.2.4 - Understand.) 2expression of what is contrary to expectation; something is unusual. Tipe udot ta em alan di bulwatik. Why in the world do you take my clothes? Tibom ke udot din ungan nala-ing an munsala. You see, that child is unusually good in dancing. 3envious expression of displeasure; displeased. [The udot in this sentence expresses some sarcasm and jealousy. The true English equivalent would be a sarcastic intonational contour.] Inay udot man-un he-a te dakol di pihhum. It’s fine for you because you have plenty of money! 4expression of surprise. Kayang udot waday payung mu! Hey! Good for you, you’ve got an umbrella! der. mah-udot
ugge neg. the negative form used with verbs in the past tense. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. Takon nadan enungkanta ya nanayo ya uggeda nangan. Even those who participated in the songs and dances did not (eat). Uggek ni-an inilan kumayat handi te ittayak. I didn’t know how to climb trees then because I was small. Sim: bokon. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - No, not.) der. ug-ugge
upag 1comm. froth. Waday upag hi tokona hin taganah kalikali. There is froth in the corners of his mouth when he keeps on talking. 2intrans. to froth. Mun-uupag di tokona te imminum hi kodot. Her mouth is frothing because she drank poison. Umupag nan hinamal hin bumayakbak. The rice will froth when it boils. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 1.3.2 - Movement of water.)
uppe adjunct. an expression of contraexpectation; so at last; why only now. [An intended action or desire is contravened by another action or desire.] Kinan da ke uppe on ahim hapulon. After they’ve already eaten it, then you look for it. Imme kami ot ahim uppe ibuddal nan tinapay; talagam naimut ka. We were already gone when you brought out the bread; you are really selfish. Immali ka uppe te imme. So now you came because he left. Immali uppe te nagibbuy ngunu. Only now he came because the work is over. An maawatam uppey kinali na? Do you understand at last what he said? Maid muppe di makalim. So now you have nothing to say. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)
wigiwig 1trans. to shake head back and forth, sideways, with negative meaning. Adim iwigiwig te teyan maphod tun pungkalik. Don’t shake your head because all that I am telling you is good. i‑/iN. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. Sim: yang-od. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Gesture.) 2intrans. to shake head back and forth. Munwigwigiwig handi dingngol na nan inat mu. He was shaking his head when he heard what you did. muN‑/nuN‑.
yaden (den) (comp. of ya, den) conj. 1connects a clause with information that expresses contraexpectation and is antithetical to that encoded in the preceding clause; and yet. Maid inat kun hiya yaden dumuntuk. I did nothing to him and yet he wants to box me. Pituy toona yaden makangngun-unud ya makabbaddang. He was only seven years old, and yet he was obedient and helpful. Wada da nan munhona ta kanan di bumaddang da yaden mungkulkullawing da ot ya aabu ta mid-um di dam-ot da. There are those naughty ones who say they will help carry the load, and yet instead they hold on to the pole and swing from one side to the other, thereby adding to the load. Ugge nabubungan yaden ahi udan mo. It’s not roofed, and yet it’s almost rainy season. Ammunay katem yaden mabungot ka. You are about to die, and yet you are angry. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Concession.) 2connects a clause encoding an event that takes place at the same time as the one in the preceding clause; frequently, there is also a contraexpectation concept expressed in the context of the conjunction use; while. Munha-ang yaden mangan. He is cooking while eating. Man-un dakami te nakangngan kami yaden toattoan da peman di udum. Good for us because we ate while the others did not. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath while I was shouting at our house. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11.2 - At the same time.)