kimma (der. of moma) sta. to chew betelnut; implies going with someone to chew because one is lacking some part of a ‘chew’. [Sharing what one has and talking are two important meaning components of this word.] Umali dah bale an makimma te dakol di hapid. They come to my house to chew because there is plenty of betel leaves. ma‑. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Bite, chew.)
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1this infix is the default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Verb affixes.) 2when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. 3this infix encodes a process completive aspect and cross-references the subject. Himmapit hi Apu Paredes ot kinalikali da mu toan kay dibdib ya abun munlau. Sir Paredes gave a speech, followed by Sir Datumanong’s inspirational talk; they said many good things, but who knows if their words are just like the wind that passes by. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; cross references the subject; past tense. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi ceremony. . TACR
bagtutu trans. to carry someone straddling the neck; carry someone astride shoulders and the neck. [Before coffins were used for burying the dead, the body was carried in this manner to the grave.] Imbagtutun ama nan unga ot ume dad abbat an makimma nadah iibana. The father carried the child astride his shoulders and went to the neighborhood to chew betelnut with his companions. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move object with self. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.)
baluhak 1comm. the stem which attaches the betelnut cluster to the tree. Kimmayat ot ogahoany ohan baluhak nan moma. He climbed and dropped a stem-cluster of betel nuts. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.) 2trans. to detach clamp-like stem of a cluster of betelnuts from a tree. Kumayat ka ta em baluhakon nan moma. Climb up and detach that cluster of betelnuts. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Remove, take apart.)
bayyube (sp. var. bayube) 1comm. a cane-grass symbol of prohibition; no trespassing symbol. Eyak makimmah balen da Gabina ya numbayyube da ot adiyak humgop. I was going to chew betelnut at Gabina’s house but they had placed the prohibition sign so I did not enter. Adika gumawah na te neyay bayube/pudung. Don’t step into that part for there’s a keep-off sign. Sim: pudung, pile. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2trans. to prohibit an action. Bayubeyan yu nadan page nah pingngit di kalata. Put a keep-off sign on the rice grains along the path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
da₂ quan. plural quantifier; co-occurs with demonstratives, nouns and the existential predicate. <
> Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. Wada da Apu Paredes ya Datumanung nah stage ya Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanung were on the stage together Loktat bo kaya ya wadaday inin-innilak an gagayyum ku. Then, I met some people who became my friends. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to ants when you are walking along the road. Dakamin da Bugan ke da Kabbigat ya hi Hinayyup di nungkukuyyug. We were together with the group of Bugan, Kabbigat and Hinayyup. Daan da nan iibbam? Where are your companions? (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) comp. dayyada Morphology: The quantifier form becomes an enclitic on Set 1 demonstratives and the existential predicate; it becomes a proclitic on Set 2 and Set 3 demonstratives; it stands alone as an independent form when co-occuring with nouns, common and proper.
dakami pers. 1us, exclusive; first person, plural exclusive pronoun; member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ialiyan dakami ya- hi ubunan mi. Please bring us chairs and we will sit down.. Indattan dakamih kendi. Teya ay, kanak an pun-ukat ku nan kendin imbolsak. “She gave us candy. Here it is,” I said as I took the candy from my pocket. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2we, exclusive; first person, plural exclusive; member of Class 4 subject pronouns; the subject is preposed before the verb and is cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Dakami nan kimmanantan dih hilong. We were the ones who kept on singing last night. Dakami ke ya intuddu day iskul hi sentral ot ume kamih di. We were told to go to the Central School, so we went there. n. ph. ke dakami
handidan dem. those; the plural form of handin, a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things in past times. Handidan aammod taku ya adida mungkamihhita. Those forefathers of ours did not wear T-shirts. Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ka-₁ 1nominalizer. this prefix nominalizes an adjective or verb. Handih kaittay na ya ammunay Clinic an wadad Kiangan. When he was young/little, there was only a clinic in Kiangan. Nah kadakol di tatagu ya mahapul an halipat-an di pihhu With the large number of people, you have to be careful with your money. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even very dangerous/frightening to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Derivational affixes.) 2dervN. the affix renominalizes a noun, changing the meaning. Manomnom kun handi keh kau-unga mi ya wadaday nihag-on kediyen ob-ob hi o-ongal an batu I remember that when we were children (lit. childhood), there were big rocks beside the same spring Nipalpun dih kagolang na inggana kediyen kimmat-agu ya maphod di pangi-ena. From the time of his childhood until he was a young man, his nature was good.
ka-ut 1to dig. 1.1trans. to dig a hole. Ka-utan yu nah daul di mangga. Dig a hole below the mango tree. Mange kamid Lagawe ya pungka-utan da hanadan kanal an dalanon di liting. We were going to Lagawe and they were digging the canals for the water to pass. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.6 - Dig.) 1.2trans. the activity or act of digging is in view. Mungka-ut da nadan tatagu hi balituk. The people are digging for gold. Kimma-ut dah uwang nah gawwan di dola da. They dug a hole in the middle of their yard. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3pass. for something to be dug up or a hole to be dug. Naka-utan nan balituk ad Hungduwan handih mo tuwali ot ahi kayu umeh di. The gold at Hungduan had been dug up long before you went there. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 2trans. to dig a hole to bury an animal. Ingka-ut mi hanan ahum an nate. We buried your dog that died. i‑/iN‑.
kadangyan 1comm. traditionally this word referred only to the class of Ifugao who had performed prestige rituals, aristocrat, but it may now refer to any person who has wealth. Kadangyan di tagun waday pangulug nan Apu Dios. A person who has faith in God is rich. Inilak nan ohan iiba taku an kadangyan ni-an mu numbalin hi nawotwot te matugal. I know of one of our relatives who was once a very rich man but turned out to be a poor man because he was a gambler. Bokon taku met kadangyan ya maid di tawidon yu. We are not rich and you have nothing to inherit. Opp: wotwot. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people, 18.104.22.168 - Rich.) 2comm. this word is used to refer to the highest class of people in Ifugao traditionally, those who have performed all of the rituals of prestige feasts. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The one who performs the humgabi-ritual must be rich. Cultural note: In traditional society, there were three classes of people: kadangyan - aristocrats, tagu - common people, children of the kadangyan who did not perform the wealth rituals, nawotwot - the poor. 3proc. to become rich or wealthy. Kumadangyan day mahlun tagu. Industrious people become rich. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes. 4trans. to enrich someone with something or to be enriched. Ikadangyan mu nan inakom. You will enrich yourself with what you stole. Pakiala day kinadangyan diyen boble. They will also get the wealth that enriched that village. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an,‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. id. ikadangyan di imbabale say. Hay uya-uy di puntopong hi kinadangyan di ohan tagu.
kali 1comm. language. 1.1comm. human speech: may refer to any unit of utterance such as a word or sentence; may refer to a particular language or dialect. Hinnatkon di kali dah bale da. They speak a different language in their house. Am-in di kalin amam ya un-unudom. Obey all the words of your father. Binalonay nay kalim te inlot mu yaden dakol day tatagu. He didn’t like the way you told him because you said it loudly and there were many people. Uggek bo udot inila nan kali da. I didn’t even know their language. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Word.) 1.2comm. (fig) refers to the vocal mechanism and the sounds produced; voice. Mababol di kali na. His voice is bassy. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Types of sounds.) 2speak. 2.1to speak; to say. Sim: hapit. 2.1.1trans. to say something with a focus on what is said. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanong will come here to Ifugao. Hay pinhod kun kalyon ya piliyom di maphod an barkadom. What I want to say is that you should choose good friends. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech verbs. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.2intrans. to talk; to utter words; to communicate ideas and thoughts. An kimmali ka? Did you talk? Ugge mi dingngol di nangikalim hi kalida. We did not hear how you talked in their language. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Nih-up da kanu nadan no- mungkalkali ot itikod na. According to him, those who were talking came near him and he stopped. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 2.1.3nom. A nominalization that focuses on the manner of speaking. Hay pungkalim an pabinnugtak. Your manner of speaking is abrupt and angry. puN‑. 2.1.4trans. to scold or warn. Kinalyana nadan imbabalena ta adida mangun-unud ke hiya. He warned his children so that they will not follow him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Warn.) 2.2trans. to say something by calling to someone. Kaliyam aga din mangen unga. Do call back the boy who is going. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman. This so-called prestige feast hagabi entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) 3think. 3.1trans. to use the mind to process or consider information or data; to think. Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Pangalik pe on attiken tagu mu handi immomwa ya atag-e. I thought he was a short man but when he straightened up he was tall. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) der. makali id. kay kidul di kalim id. malumii di kali na id. nidallom an kali infl. pangali
kapuy 1proc. to become weak; diminish in strength; for something to lessen. Kimmapuy nan nuwang an mun-aladu. The carabao has become slower in plowing. Kimmapuy di pangana. His appetite has lessened. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes. (sem. domains: 2.4.2 - Weak.) 2sta. to be weakened in strength. Nakapuy di dibdib. The wind is weak. Ya adi mungngalat hin adi nakapuy di apuy an punha-angan. And it is cooked well in strong fire (lit. not weak fire) so it doesn’t become pungent and itch. ma‑/na‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
kat-agu (der. of tagu₁) 1adj. young adult male or female; adulthood ranges in age from about 15-35 years old. Kat-agu mo nan imbabalem. Your child is already a grown-up. Qualifier. Sim: hikon. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.) 2proc. to become an adult. Kimmat-agu di nagibbuy gubat. He became an adult after the war. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kimmat-agu
kawa 1intrans. for something to be wasted. Kumawa nan liting nah gulipu hin adim idakig. The water from the pipe will be wasted if you do not close it. Kimmawa nan inhaang dan hinamal. The rice they cooked was wasted. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2G Processes. Sim: ayo, sayang. 2trans. to waste something. Adim pakawaon nan liting. Do not waste the water. paka‑ ‑on.
kayat 1to climb upward. 1.1intrans. to move upward, climbing a stake, tree, or other climbable object. Kimmayat didan u-unga dih mangga. The children climbed the mango tree. Nag-ahak handi kinali adik mo ipidpidwan kumayat. I fell once, that’s why I’ll never climb trees again. Uggek ni-an inilan kumayat handi te ittayak. I didn’t know how to climb trees then because I was small. ‑um‑/‑immi‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: amit, kallehke. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Move up.) 1.2intrans. to climb from one upright object to another with durative aspect. Mungkayyatan da. They are climbing from tree to tree. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an . 2to climb something. 2.1trans. to climb a specified upright object; the focus is on the patient-object being climbed. Kayatom nan ba-at ta alam nadan nal-um an bungana. Climb the guava-tree and get the ripe fruit. ‑on/‑in‑ . 2.2trans. to climb an upright object, carrying something; the focus is the conveyed object being carried. Ikayat mu nan basket ta pangiha-adan yuh polagon yu. Climb up with the basket and load it with the fruits you gather. i‑/iN‑ .
kaynit 1intrans. to be startled by someone or something with a component of fear or alarm. Adika kumaynit hi pangngolam hi palattug. Don’t be startled upon hearing a shot. Kimmaynit handi nag-a nan banga. He was startled when the pot fell. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . Sim: bugtak₂, togna. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Surprise.) 2caus. to cause someone or something to be startled. Pakaynitom nan ahu ta bumtik. Startle the dog so that it will run away. Impakaynit dakami. He caused us to be startled. paka‑ ‑on, impa‑.