mam-a 1sta. to be more so; as a comparative, for something to become more so in degree. Immanamut da kediyen algo ya dakol di istolya da, namam-an Julie. When they went home, they told many stories, especially Julie. Namam-an mahong-o hin udman pay hi gatan di niyug. It is more tasty if coconut milk is used. Mamam-ay dogona te maid kanona. His sickness will become worse because he has had nothing to eat. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Increase.) 2trans. to increase the degree of a condition or event; to make worse. Adim mam-ahon nan hakit di uluna. Do not worsen his headache. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: lodlod. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Become, change state.) 3proc. to become better or worse. Numpulbus ya immam-anay binlana. She used powder and it enhanced her fairness. Mungkamam-a nan dogo na. His ailment is becoming worse. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mungka‑. infl. namam-a
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namam-a (infl. of mam-a) advpred. to show an action or feeling to an extreme degree; by comparison, even more so. Namam-a te kanan hanadan iibanay adida mo pakiayon hi pidwana. What was even worse, her brothers told her that she could not come with them again. na‑. Comparative. Sim: namahig. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Markers of emphasis, 18.104.22.168 - To a large degree.)
lodlod advpred. a process of becoming more so, usually a negative change, e.g become worse; more of a bad thing. Deket kalyan ya ilodlod na ot ya abuy pilyuna. When you talk to him he just becomes more naughty. Inlodlodnay giknaona. His sickness became worse. i‑/iN‑. Evaluative. Sim: mam-a. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Become, change state.)
namahig advpred. an intensifying modal predicate; to a high degree. Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. Uggena pinadas an mundogoh namahig. He has never experienced a serious illness. Comparative. Sim: namam-a. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - To a larger degree.)
1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑₁. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on . TACR
ahikotolan (comp. of kotol, ahi₂) nom. cold season during the months from November to February. Mabuut bo nadan bulhe hanatuh ahi kotolan. The beans will be moldy during the cold season. Oh-oha day munhawwangan te ahi kotolan. There are very few roaming around because it’s the cold season. Dakol day mate nah ahikotolan, namam-a nadan aam-ama ya iin-ina. Many die during the cold season, especially old men and old women. Gen: ahi₂. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)
akhop 1sta. having little relative height; situated below normal height; low. Naakhop nan kaiw di be-et. The guava tree is very low. Umakhop nan duplanu. The airplane will lower itself. Naak-akhop di kad-an nan baleyu. Your house is on a lower place. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6D Descriptives. ant: tag-e. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Low.) 2intrans. to be aware of one’s shortcomings; to show respect for others; to be humble. Maphod di mun-akhop namam-a hin waday bahul. One should be humble especially if he is at fault. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Humble, 220.127.116.11 - Low status.)
buttiki 1comm. the calf of the leg. Mahakit tun buttikik kinali intaggek. My calf aches that is why I lifted it up. Adi maphod nan ongngal di buttiki, immam-a na hanadan binabai. It’s ugly to have big calves, more so for a woman. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Leg.) 2sta. to have a pronounced calf. Nabuttikiyan te dimmanallanan. She has a pronounced calf because she has been walking a lot. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.
dadang 1comm. cooked rice that is crusted and browned; found at the bottom of the cooking pot. Idatam nadan u-ungah dadang. Give the children some crusted rice. Pinpinhod di uunga an mangan hi dadang. Children like to eat the crusty rice. Pinpinhod di udum di dadang immam-ana hin maatung pay. Others like very much the crusted rice especially when hot. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2sta. for rice to become crusted and browned. Deket natduk nan hinamal ya kaanon nan mundadalang to abuna nan bala ta madadangan. If the cooked rice is dry, remove the burning wood so that only the coals remain and the rice will become crusted and brown. muN/nuN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6C Process or state of inanimate object.
dago comm. a pig with brownish stripes; any animal with stripes. [A dago-pig is easy to find when it’s lost because of its color.] Maphod di ang-ang di dago immam-ana hin mataba. A brownish-pig has a very nice appearance especially if it is fat. Sim: balangat, batok. (sem. domains: 1.6.1 - Types of animals.)
halohalo 1comm. a snack mixture of ice, sugar, milk and some ingredients like camote, banana, coconut, sweetened beans, and other ingredients suitable to mix. Naimas di halohalo immam-ana hin tialgo. Halohalo is delicious, especially in the summer. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2intrans. to have a snack of halohalo. Munhalohalo taku hi himbatangan. We will have a snack of halohalo this afternoon. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.
hingngi 1trans. to detour; make a side stop somewhere instead of going directly to destination; go out of the way. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2intrans. to detour; to take a different way than the normal one. Adi kami humingngi ta adi kami mataktak. We will not detour so that we will not be delayed. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to take something, going toward a destination Inhingngi na nah makape. He went towards the place with many coffee plants.
1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. . TACR
labulab (sp. var. labu) 1intrans. to use swear words; to use vulgar language. [It is considered extremely bad behavior to use vulgar language in the presence of any relative of the opposite sex up to 3rd cousins.] Panioy munlabulab namam-a ten wada day tutulang. It is taboo to use vulgar language, especially in the presence of brothers and sisters. Adika munlabulab te ad-adin dongdonglon. Don’t talk indecently because it’s not good to hear. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Obscenity.) 2trans. Panion labulaban di aammod. It is evil to use vulgar words to parents. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
lati 1comm. metal oxidation, rust. Ad-adam nan latin nan palanggana ta adi namam-an lumati. Scrub the rust of the basin so that the rust will not become worse. Sim: balango₂. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Metal.) 2sta. to be rusty; to become rusty. Nalatiyan nan gumok. The iron is rusty. Gagalan lumati nan gulipu te ingka-ut da. The pipe will become rusty faster because they buried it. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
maki- -an participatory. this circumfix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; the object referent is cross-referenced; non-past tense. Paddungnay naatu kan nakibuttikan hi tatagu mu ahi namam-a moy inatum ten makibuttikan kah kakabayu. (Jeremiah 12:5b) It’s like you were tired joining in racing people but you would be more tired if you joined in racing horses. Sim: maki-₁, naki- -an. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Verb affixes.)
mangitakdog (infl. of takdog₂) trans. one who defends another or acts as an advocate. Ta hidiye nan namammam-a mon madinol taku te hi Jesus di mangitakdog ke ditakuh hinangngab Apu Dios ya mihwang taku nah ena pangastiguwan ke ditaku. (Romans 5:9b) Therefore, our trust should be even greater because Jesus defends us before God and we are saved from his punishment of us. mangi‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.3 - Theology.)
paki- -on caus. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references a patient-object. Namam-a te kanan hanadan iibanay adida mo paki-ayon hi pidwana. What was even worse was her brothers told her that she could not come with them again. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)
pay adv. 1refers to an addtional item; also. Ihaklunganak pay. Dip another cup for me. Indai otto- kanana pay di “Maphod ta hiyo- nan bumdang ya- maule.” Later on er...he added “It’s good that the bumdang-spirits are kind.” Dakol di damanan mitakke adi ya abuh ginattut mo udum nat linibu pay. Many people can ride and it is not only the hundreds but sometimes by the thousands also. Additive. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - And, also.) 2adds emphasis to a statement; definitely. Madney pay ta ahida umali. It will definitely be a long time before they come. Namam-an mahong-o hin udman pay hi gatan di niyug. It is definitely more tasty if coconut milk is added. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Certainly, definitely.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
pohpo trans. to apply or exert pressure on something, to wring or squeeze, e.g. to wring the water from cloth or clothing. Pohpohom nan bulwatim. Wring your dress. Pumpohpok nan nakattinan bulwatik ya immam-ana ot an inlot nay udan. I was squeezing my drenched shirt when the rain worsened. Pinohpon nan imbabalek nan impan di manuk yu. My child squeezed the chick of your hen. Deket bokon danum di iusal ta hay gatan di niyug ya nan mamangulun pumpohpohan hi niyug di iusal. If one prefers coconut milk rather than water, then use the first extract (lit. squeezed milk). ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑um‑ ‑an. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: apy’ut. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)
ten (sp. var. tehin) conj. 1the shortened form of tehin ‘because, when’. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to an ant when you are walking along the road. Nakal-ot di bungug nan duplanu ten munda-ul. The plane produces a loud noise when it is about to land. Antipet idihhan muy tukuk mu ten mungkaliyak. Why do you coincidentally shout while I’m talking? (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Condition.) 2the shortened form of tehin ‘because, if’ which combines a reason and condition; in case that. Maid umali ten adika umayag. Nobody will come if you do not invite anyone. Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. I don’t know if it is true, but if it is true, you heed my advice. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way.