mi- pass. this prefix encodes the passive of Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Hanadan bibiyo ya miha-ad da kanuh liyang, nah buddalan di ob-ob. These bibiyo or pinading accordingly stay or live in caves, near the springs. Da ke Magappid ya miha-ad da nah dommang nan boble. Magappid lived across the valley from their village. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like those in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. Sim: ni-. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Verb affixes.)
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umi- TACR. this prefix encodes a partitive quantity of an indefinite object; non-past tense. Umiballabag da boh iittay an kaiw ta pangipah-odan da. They also use short poles tied across it (the hagabi-bench) so that they can shoulder-carry it. Umiali dah pihum. They will bring some of your money. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.)
haklung 1comm. a utensil for dipping something. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to dip out liquid or semi-liquid substamce. Haklungom nan ihda. Dip the viand. Ihaklunganak pay. Dip another cup for me. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: bano, ak’ud, hoklad, ado₂. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Cooking utensil.)
halab 1trans. to roast over flames; to position food, usually meat, over flames to cook it. Ihalab mu ke. You roast it. i‑/iN‑. 3D Move an object with a resulting change of state. Sim: pul’uk, hongba, dangpa₂. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Cooking methods.) 2pass. roasted food, usually meat. Pinhod kuy nihalab an dotag. I like roasted meat. mi-/ni-.
halla 1miss. 1.1trans. to miss a target. Adim ot ihalla. Don’t miss the target. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Weapon, shoot.) 1.2pass. for a target to be missed. Nihalla di namalattug na. His shots missed the target. mi-/ni-. 2pass. (fig) to be mistaken; to be wrong. Nihalla nan humang na. His answer was wrong. Ha-on di nihalla. I was the one who was mistaken. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: bahho. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Misunderstand.)
talugtug comm. a semi-soft rock; two varieties: one is reddish in color, the other is whitish; may be used to mix with earth in building stone walls. Adiyu itping di talugtug de dadagonay tuping. Don’t use talugtug-rock as riprap because it will destroy the terrace wall. Sim: muling, dulmug; gen: bat’u. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Rock.)
‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.
ni- 1pass. this prefix is the passive form for Class 3 verbal roots; past tense. Dakol di inggampa dan nibangngad mu hay kapkaphodan ke Bugan ya nan gawgawa. They had many gifts in a basket that they returned home with but the very best for Bugan was the duck. Nate moh apu Casilda ya maid moy oggan mangialih allaman nibayuh puhu. After Grandmother Casilda died, there was no one to bring crabs pounded with banana blossoms. Sim: mi-. (sem. domains: 22.214.171.124 - Verb affixes.) 2mod. functions to encode non-volitionality.
ak pers. 1I; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 2 subject pronouns, cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <
> Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2me; first person, singular pronoun; a member of Set 3 object pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Adiyak danugon te mahakitanak Don’t hit me because I easily feel pain. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Morphophonology: When a verb ends in a vowel, this pronoun attaches to the verb as an enclitic, and a consonant will be inserted between the verb and the pronoun.
gi-u (sp. var. gin-u) to break. 1.1trans. to break long objects. Gi-uwom tun paul ta tumikke. You break this stick so that it will become shorter. Nagi-u nan pencil ku. My pencil was broken. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.) 1.2trans. to break something at a specific spot. Igi-um nah gawwa na. Break it at the middle part. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the information focus is on the partitive concept, to break some, not all. Gumi-u kah paul ta punlagim taku. Break some dried sticks for us to use in singeing. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
ingha intrans. 1to become accustomed to something; to be used to something; adjusted. Adim oggan ipatnan munlukut te umingha. Don’t ever try smoking because you will become used to it. Immingha mon hiya nan hamuy di ahuk. He is accustomed to the smell of smoke. Imi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.) 2to be acquainted with someone. Immingha kamin Estrella. We are acquainted with Estrella. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.
kay’a adjunct. adds emphasis to a statement; in fact, certainly, definitely. Kanan Rosa di umed Manila mu adi kaya. Rosa said she is going to Manila but in fact, she is not. Adika kaya mahaul. Don’t ever be tempted (even if they insist)! Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I definitely became adjusted. Hinae toan bumdang hidiyen bokon kaya hi Lammooy. That is what I don’t know, roaming spirits there, but definitely not Lammooy. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 126.96.36.199 - Markers of emphasis.)
mami 1comm. Chinese or Japanese noodles flavored with pork, beef or chicken, onions and vegetables. Nunha-ang da hi mami. They cooked Chinese noodles. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to eat noodles. Eda nummami hi kad-an da Sion. They went to eat mami-noodles at Sion's place. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Chinese.
pahok₁ 1comm. a wedge used to split logs and rocks, usually made of steel. Usarom di pahok ta bumaddang an mami-ang nah kaiw. Use a wedge to help split the wood. 2trans. to cut stones with a wedge. Pahokom hituwen batu ta itping da. Cut these stones so that they will use them for riprap. Mumpahok dah batu nah pingngit di kalata. They are cutting stones at the side of the road. Pinahok na nan kaiw te mainot. He used a wedge on the wood because it was elastic. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.8 - Divide into pieces.)
pahyal (sp. var. pasyal) 1intrans. to take a walk without a specific destination or purpose; to stroll. Etaku munpahyal hidi nah shrine. Let us go take a walk to the shrine. Ipahyal mu tun ungad nabagtu ta adi umi-ingle. Take this child to the town center for a stroll so that he will not be bored. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 188.8.131.52 - Walk.) 2trans. to visit. Mumpahyal dad Lagawe. They are going to Lagawe for a visit. Pahyalom nadan inap-apum te pun-ibaga daka. Visit your grandchildren because they are asking for you. Pumahyal ka hi bale mi damdama. Visit our house also. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑. Sim: ay-ayyam, hungdu. (sem. domains: 184.108.40.206 - Visit.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: pasyal.
pi-ang trans. to cut in two parts; to break apart; divide, generally refers to fruit or a cooked root vegetable, not bananas. Pi-angom tun tupaya. You cut the papaya into two pieces. Pani-angom tun tupaya. You cut this papaya into many parts. Pumi-ang kanah tinapay. Cut a part of the bread. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an‑ ‑on, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: tagip. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)
pohod 1to be valued as good. 1.1sta. to have the property of being good; to meet a standard of something to be desired or something that is favorable for someone; good, beautiful, nice. Maphod tun bulwatin indat da. This dress that they gave you is beautiful. He-ay kapkaphodan hi bale nah tud Kiangan. You have the nicest house in Kiangan. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. It was good because there were many rides so that we could go. Mabalin bon kalyok an maphod di memory na. I think he probably has a good memory too. ma‑, ka‑ CVC ‑an. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 1.2advpred. to meet an accepted standard of appropriate or good behavior. Mumpohod kayun umbun. You sit properly. muN‑/nuN‑. Evaluative. 2to repair, fix or improve. 2.1trans. to cause something to become good, implies that something is in disrepair or less than good. <
> Adim piphod ke ha-oy te uggek inila. Don’t let me fix it (lit. make good) because I don’t know how. Iphod mu nan apuy ta adi gumanab. Fix the fire so that it won’t burn its surroundings. pi‑/impi‑, i‑/iN‑. 2.2caus. to improve the life or welfare of someone. Ipaphod Apu Dios di nitaguwan taku hin mundinol takun hiya. God will make our lives good if we trust in him. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 220.127.116.11 - Bless.) 2.3trans. to show benevolence. Iphodam hi tulang mu takon di iboboh-ol daka. Show benevolence/favor to your brother even if he is always angry with you. i‑ ‑an/ iN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 2.4intrans. to become better, i.e. to recover from sickness; get well. Kanom am-in tun agat kal-ina ot ya pumhod ka. Take all this medicine so that you can get well. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy, 2.5.1 - Sick.) 3to love. 3.1trans. to love. Pohdom di ibbam an tagu umat hi naminhod muh adol mu. Love your fellow man as you love yourself. Impakappinhod daka. I love you very much (supremely). Pakappinhod ku mu bumainak an mangalkalin hiya. I love her very much but am ashamed to tell her. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I do not like to eat wildcat meat. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. 3.2nom. the nominalized form is equivalent to the English noun ‘love’. Hay paminhod di immanhan an intanuttudun Jesus hanadah tatagu. Love is what Jesus emphasized in his teaching of people./Love is the focal point of Jesus’ teaching of people. Hay naminhod kun he-a ya maid di kiingngohana. My love for you is beyond comparison. paN‑/naN‑. 4trans. to love each other. Mumpohhodan da kinali nun-ine da. They love each other that is why they got married. muN‑ ‑an. 5advpred. try one’s best. Ip-iphod nat tobotbalon da. He is trying his best for their approval. i‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 18.104.22.168 - Try, attempt, 8.3.7 - Good.) 6trans. to want or desire something; to like something. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your time in the library during your vacation. Imi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I don’t like wildcat meat. ‑in‑. der. kiphodan der. maphod der. pamhod id. iphodan hi kali infl. iphod infl. kapkaphodan infl. pinhod infl. pumhod n. ph. pohod hi kali Morphology: paka-ip-iphod , superlative, to fix perfectly.