Search results for "na"

‑an₁ dervN. this suffix derives a noun from a transitive verb. Ekami makidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go and meet them in Lagawe because their arrival place is definitely there. Pun-ihap-en Maria nan ulo na ya nabhat nan hablayan. Maria was putting her blanket on the clothes line (lit. hanging-place) when it was severed. Nagibbu ke, ikuyag mu tun nabinokbokan hi lopohhan ya ihukbung mu. After this, pour the rice into the fermentation container (lit. place of fermentation) and cover. Hay ngadan bon nan kay ubunan an eda alan hi muyung ya hagabi damdama. The bench-like figure that they go to get from the forest (during the feast) is also called hagabi. Mumpaha-ad kah basket nah ubunan. Have the basket placed on the seat.

‑ana mod. used in the Hudhud epic to add rhythmic meter to times, places or character names, like Ambalaw[ana]. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. {literary}

‑imm‑ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe got up and er..went climbing toward Talih to his hut. Sim: ‑um‑. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. 3this infix encodes a process completive aspect and cross-references the subject. Himmapit hi Apu Paredes ot kinalikali da mu toan kay dibdib ya abun munlau. Sir Paredes gave a speech, followed by Sir Datumanong’s inspirational talk; they said many good things, but who knows if their words are just like the wind that passes by. Kon tuwali waday kimmadangyan hi tugal? Rightly so, was there ever one who became a rich man through gambling? 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; cross references the subject; past tense. Mu adi nama-ag on himmagabiy tagu. But not just anyone can perform the hagabi ceremony.

‑in‑₁ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense; punctiliar aspect, cross references an object with a patient semantic role. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think well enough about what they will do. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your spare time in the library. Sim: ‑on. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2this infix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an object with a path or destination semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 1B movement verbal roots. 3this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with an experiencer semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 2C emotion and sensation verbal roots. 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; past tense; cross-references the object. An inapatut nan apatut ku? Did you wear my shoes? Pinatlattug da on hamuti. They shot a bird.

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

ab-abig (der. of abig) 1comm. a narrative; a story, true or devised. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 - Story.) 2trans. to tell a story. [In the past, it was believed that some persons had the ability to foretell future events.] Dakol di inab-abig na. He told many stories. ‑on/‑in‑. Speech Verb: Purpose is to entertain. der. ab-abigon der. mangab-abig

abol 1comm. the native loom-woven skirt. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2weave. 2.1intrans. to weave on a hand loom. Mun-abol hi apu. Grandmother is weaving/weaves. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Weaving cloth.) 2.2trans. to weave a particular product on a loom. Nganney iabol mu ad uwani? What will you weave with now? (referring to the thread which is to be used) Wano nan in-abol ku ad nakugab. A loincloth is what I wove yesterday. An maphod di pun-abol nah ampuyo? Does she weave skirts well? i‑/iN‑, puN‑. Class 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2.3trans. to weave with a site-object cross-referenced by affix. Abolan dakah ampuyo. I will weave a skirt for you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

abuna (comp. of abu) advpred. 1it was only; there was only Abunay babuy ya manuk an mundallan. It was only the animals walking about (that she had to play with). Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: - Unique.) 2 it is only; the predicate modifies and constrains what is asserted. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. This is only what I have heard about that case. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu ta. I thought that it is only a fire (that we can acquire heat) and yet even as for that metal (thing), we can warm ourselves. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was very big so I had to hang from a branch. comp. abunadi

abunadi (comp. of abuna) advpred. a compound that expresses the idea that time and effort have been invested in accomplishing a task with little or no result; enough already, don’t bother with more effort. Abunadi ya mun-oonan. Don’t bother anymore, it’s just taking up space. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

ad nakugab (n. ph. of nakugab) adv. yesterday. <Inflected form kugaban for topicalization of the time with delimiter abu.> Ad nakugab di immaliyak. I arrived yesterday. Ad kugaban ya abuy nangang-angak ke hiya. It was only yesterday that I saw him. Time. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.)

ad-addi (der. of adi) advpred. expresses a negative evaluation; displeasing manner; inappropriate; bad; improper. Ad-addiy nangat na. He did it badly. Ad-addiy punggibogibok ku. I don’t feel well. Mangad-addi nan indat mun bulwati. The dress you gave is ugly. Evaluative. (sem. domains: - Wrong, unsuitable.)

adinadama (comp. of adi, nadama) negpred. predicates that an action or event cannot be done or cannot happen; it is impossible. Adinadama bon magatang. It cannot be bought. Adinadaman eda umed uwani They can’t possibly leave now./It’s impossible for them to leave now. Adinadaman hituy pangatan mi. It is impossible that this is what we’ll do. (sem. domains: - Impossible.)

aga nangamung boh pidwana (id. of pidwana) idiom. Bye, until next time; Bye, see you again. Agat ume kami, nangamung boh pidwana. We are leaving, see you next time. This expression is used to politely break off a conversation. (sem. domains: - Leave.)

agamid trans. 1to bring something to oneself; draw towards one’s self. Agamidom din ulo. Draw that blanket towards you. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: akuy. (sem. domains: - Pull.) 2to adopt a child Inagamid na nan imbabalen nan inayana ya nan tindalu. He adopted the child of his wife and the soldier. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Adopt.) 3to take personally something that is said. Adim agamidon di kinalik te bokon he-a. Don’t take personally what I have said because it doesn’t pertain to you. Antipet agamidom am-in di kalida? Why do you listen to everything they say? ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Upset.)

agannat (der. of ag’a) advpred. to go ahead and do something with stress on the intentionality of the action. Agannat ek pakatibbon. I’ll go ahead so that I can see it well. Manner. Sim: nguddan, atta. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.)

Agba 1prop. a ritual usually performed to find the cause of an illness, or to find out who stole something that has been lost. Hay aton da ya mundinol dah Agba. What they do is trust the divination ritual. Sim: Ketema, Pakko. (sem. domains: - Prophecy, - Religious ceremony.) 2intrans. to perform the agba ritual. Hiyay mun-agba ta mainila hin dahdiy nangako. He will be the one to perform the agba-ritual so that the thief will be known. Immen e numpaagbah Bugan te waday nangakoh pihhuna. Bugan went to have the agba-ritual performed because someone stole her money. {ritual} muN‑/nuN‑, mumpa‑/numpa‑.

aggudung 1comm. snail, long, edible, conical-shape; lives in rice fields and rivers. [The shells of the snails are burnt and pounded as lime for betelnut chewing.] Eyak umalah aggudung nah payo. I will go to get some snails in the rice field. Sim: hiyok, kullipaw. (sem. domains: - Fish.) 2trans. to gather snails. Eyak mangaggudung. I am going to gather snails. maN‑/naN‑.

Aginaya (sp. var. Aginnaya) prop. a woman’s name. [The name of female characters in folklore oral literature.] (sem. domains: - Personal names.)

Aginnaya (sp. var. of Aginaya)

agnap comm. older betelnut leaves. [The older leaves of betelnut are not good for chewing; sometimes they are pounded to a pulp, mixed with a little lime and applied to fresh wounds to stop bleeding.] (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant, - Medicinal plants.)

ahhud trans. to pound alternately with pestles; to remove the husk from rice. [More than one person is pounding in a mortar] Mun-ahhud dan mumbayun nah page. They are alternating the pounding of rice. Ahhudan da nan bayuwon. They are alternately pounding the rice. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

ahihopnak (comp. of hopnak, ahi) nom. season for sowing rice seeds; making seed beds. Ahihopnak yaden ugge naaladu nan payo. It is the season to sow rice yet the field is not yet plowed. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahiudanan (udan, ahi) nom. rainy season. Miha-ad hidi inggana handih inlappu nay ahiudanan. He stayed there until the time when the rainy season started. Hanah bulan di July di ahiudanan hitu. The month of July is the rainy season here. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, - Rain.)

akbut 1comm. a backpack; a knapsack. [Formerly, the backpack was always made of animal hide] Pinhod kuy akbut an umat nah ginattang mu. I want a knapsack just like the one you bought. Adida ke ihda nan bolat na ya kapyaon dah akbut. When they do not eat the skin, they make it into a backpack. Sim: bango, pahhiking, hakbat. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use a backpack. Mun-akbut la hin umanamut ka. Use a backpack when you go home. In-akbut na nan bulwatina. He placed his clothes in a backpack. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑.

alak 1comm. irrigation canal. Maid di liting nah alak. There’s no water in the irrigation canal. Mibakilang kanuh Abe nah alak ot kanana kanuy “Aday, aday, aday, aday. According to him, he lay down in the ditch and he said “Ow, ow, ow, ow.” Sim: paluk, boy’a, kanal. (sem. domains: 6.6.7 - Working with water.) 2trans. to build an irrigation ditch. <With this affixation the agent-subject is fronted and cross-referenced.> Hi Jose di mangalak hitu. Jose wil build the canal here. maN‑/naN‑. der. mangalak

alana 1comm. the person who seeks revenge by prowling at night. (sem. domains: - Revenge.) 2trans. to prowl to take revenge; hunt people for revenge; avenge; revenge seeker. [A relative of the victim of a murder goes out at night to look for someone to kill, especially a relative of the one who killed his family member.] Eda mangalana nadan iiban nan pinate da. The relatives of the slain victim are going to prowl the night to seek revenge (lit. seek the one they will kill). maN‑.

alang comm. granary; it is built just like the native house except some have bamboo walls, and there’s no attic support. Inhakyat day pagen nah alang ad nakugab. They brought up the unhusked-rice from the fields to the granary yesterday. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) der. mahin-alangan

alate (sp. var. alatte) intrans. to move across something narrow suspended in the air, e.g. a tree branch, foot bridge. Tumakutak an umalate nah langtay an kaiw te nadunut. I am afraid to cross that wooden bridge because it’s rotten. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

alayyon (sp. var. alayyun) 1comm. spinach variety; glabrous herb of goosefeet family, utricular (pouch) fruit. Dakol di alayyon nah pingngit di payo. There is plenty of spinach at the sides of the ricefields. Chenopodium Sim: amti. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather spinach. Eda mangalayyon nadan u-unga. The children are going to gather spinach. maN‑.

Aliguyun prop. name of man; name of folk hero. [Aliguyun is the husband of Aginnaya in the Hudhud literature. The Lambrecht dictionary states that he is the elder brother of Aginnaya.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic. {literary}

alikamen comm. personal belongings; possessions. Inal-ala nan am-in di alikamen na. He took all of his things. Sim: ngunut. (sem. domains: - Own, possess.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

aliling comm. banana stalk which is dried and used for tying, fine ones are used for sewing. Hay aliling di pamtok mu. Use the banana stalk string for bundling. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool, - Rope, string.)

alina 1comm. flour. Eka gumattang hi alina ta mangapya tah tinapay. You go to buy flour and we will make bread. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to place flour on something. Alinaam nan ihaang mun ihda. Place flour on the food you are going to cook. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: arina.

Alla prop. name of a mountain west of central Kiangan. (sem. domains: - Mountain.)

allawin 1comm. a container for snail collecting (a bamboo tube or a dried gourd, attached to the hips of the person gathering snails.). Napnu mo tun allawin kuh battikul. This container is already full of snails. Sim: bayongyong. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2intrans. to use the snail container. Mun-allawin kat eka mangdut. Use the container and go and gather snails. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use a particular snail container. Iallawin mu nan allawin inam. Use the snail-container of your mother. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site.

almador 1comm. white, sleeveless, native blouse. Nan almador di usalom hantuh manayo kayu. Use your native blouse when you dance. Sim: lamma; Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear the native blouse. Mun-almador ka tedeyan maka-atung. Wear the native blouse because it is very hot. muN‑/nuN‑.

alukiki (sp. var. alukikki) comm. the white, inner part of the heart of a banana plant; it is cooked and eaten. Pinhod kun ihda nan alukiki di puhun di balat. I like the inner part of the banana heart. general: Especially good with the bagoong-condiment. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

alutiptip sta. burning sensation when urinating; urge to urinate Aga, aga ta ha-oy ni-an di humgop teden naalutiptippak. Please, let me be the first to use the comfort room for I really need to urinate. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological process - State. (sem. domains: 2.2.7 - Urinate, urine.)

am-amuna comm. green, praying mantis. Sim: ba-atong; Sim: am-amhik, ba-atong, golp’ak, yadit, paggepagge; Syn: ba-atong. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

Amduntug prop. a barrio/village south of Kiangan. Deket wada tah tud Awwa ya mauhdungan di Amduntug hi South ya mauhdungan di Hulungan ya Nagacadan hi North. Anyone who is in Awwa is overlooking Amduntug to the South and overlooking Hulungan and Nagacadan to the North.

ammuna advpred. restricted to being the only thing or action of its kind and no other. Handih kaittay na ya ammunay Clinic an wadad Kiangan. When he was young, there was only a clinic in Kiangan. Ammunay inuinum di tagan yu. You just only drink (liquor) continuously. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: - Unique.)

ammunay uluk an in-agtuk (id. of agtu) an idiom to express the idea of being poor (lit. only my head I carry on my head). Ammunay uluk an in-agtuk. I’m poor; all I own can be carried on my head.

ampit sta. to be disqualified;to be screened out; to be eliminated. Naampit hi Joni nah ay-ayyam. Joni was disqualified from the game. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Can't.) Language Of Borrowing: English: unfit.

amti 1comm. a bush variety with berry-like tiny fruit; the leaves are edible. Adik pinhod an munhidah amti. I don’t like to eat amti. Sim: alayyon. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to gather amti-leaves for eating. Etaku mangamti hi ihda taku. Let us go and gather amti-spinach for our viand. maN‑.

amunna adv. to be unique in number of characteristics. Maid di udum an makiha-ad ke dakami amunna nadan duwan golang an imbabalek ya nan inayak. There were no others living with us, only my two small children and my husband.

Amuyaw prop. a mountain name. [This word refers to the highest mountain peak in Ifugao; the only two people, Wigan and Bugan, who survived the flood were carried to this peak by the flood waters.] (sem. domains: - Mountain.)

Ana prop. a woman’s name that probably came into the language during American times; Anna.

anad trans. to peel vegetables before cooking; knife is used, also used of peeling fruit like papaya. Anadam nan gattuk. Peel the camote. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Sim: uki. (sem. domains: - Remove shell, skin.)

anakkayang (fr. var. of kayang) adjunct. wow; expression of amazement or astonishment; usually used with a positive connotation. Anakkayang di anlan nan u-unga. Wow! The children are very happy. Anakkayang! Tibon yu key dimpap na. Wow! Look at what he caught! Anakkayang peman di laing na! He is so amazing! (in skill or knowledge) (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

analdung comm. a tree variety with soft light wood; good for carving, poor for firewood because it burns up quickly. Pinaot da nan analdung hi tagtaggu. They carved the analdung-wood into a human figure. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

analtap comm. a tree variety with hardwood and white leaves. [This wood is used to make the pestle, and house studdings; it is good for fuel because it is long burning.] (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

anamut 1intrans. to return home Umanamut ka ke ya umianamut kah makan. When you come home, bring some food with you. Maid anamut mu. You do not know how to come home. /You are always out of the house. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: gawid. (sem. domains: - Return.) 2trans. to bring something home with one. Ianamut mu nan kindut mu. Bring home the shells you gathered. Ianamutan dakah makan. I’ll bring home food for you. i‑/iN‑, i‑ ‑an/ iN‑ ‑an. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)

anangnga 1comm. rain-cover made of palm leaves (sem. domains: - Rain.) 2trans. to wear a rain-cover. Mun-annanga ka te mun-udan. Wear a rain-cover because it is raining. muN‑.

anap trans. to look for; to search. <Inflected form: In the inflected past tense form, inanap, the meaning is ‘found’.> Em anapon nan otak amam. You go and look for the bolo of your father. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: ham’ak. (sem. domains: 7.6.1 - Search.) infl. inanap

Anap prop. a divination ritual to discover where something that has been lost can be found. (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony.)

anawa 1trans. to console; to pacify; to keep someone from crying; to interpose, mediate, reconcile, or settle. Ekat em anawaon didan mundinnuntuk. Go and reconcile those who are fighting with each other. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: al-aluk, alubyag. (sem. domains: - Help.) 2intrans. someone who pacifies or reconciles others. Maid di mun-anawa. There was no one to pacify. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

andukkey taklena (id. of dukke) an idiom that refers to someone who is a thief. (sem. domains: - Bad, immoral.)

ange₁ 1comm. a snare trap for catching birds. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to inspect a snare trap to see if something was caught; the activity is in view. E nun-ange ya wada on hamuti. He went to check the snare trap and there was a bird. mun‑, ‑on. id. mun-angeh tagu.

Anghel prop. Proper name for male.

annad sta. to be careful and cautious to respond to any situation appropriately. Hanan nanomnoman an tagu ya maka-annad di atona. A wise person is very careful about what he does. makaC1‑. (sem. domains: - Think about.)

annanayu comm. cicada species, rhey come when the duduli cicada species departs. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

apangdan₁ 1comm. a backpack, without cover type; knapsack. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place something in a backpack. In-apangdanay uggadiw. He put the small fish into his backpack. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site. (sem. domains: - Put in.)

apnal trans. to distribute something over an area, e.g. to spread coffee beans in the sun to dry. Iapnal day kape nah semento. They are spreading coffee beans on the concrete. In-apnal day kape. They spread the coffee beans. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and positiion object at site. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.)

apulidu 1comm. surname; family name; last name. Nun-ingngo di apulidu da mu bokon da hintulang. They have the same family name but they are not related. (sem. domains: - Family names.) 2trans. to use a particular name as a family name. Inapulidu nay ngadan amana. He used his father’s first name as his family name. Cultural note: To use a father’s first name as a surname is a common practice in the culture. i‑/iN‑. Sim: ngadan. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

arina 1comm. flour Arina nan ingkamo na nah ihda. It’s flour that she mixed with the viand. Na-ala ot ikamom nan asukar nah arina ot ihaang mu. You just mix the sugar with the flour and then you cook it. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to put flour on something. Arinaan yu nan ipulitu yun balat. Place flour on the bananas you are going to fry. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: harina.

athina (umat, hina) advpred. to compare an event; like that. athinay

athinay (hina, athina) adjectival predicate. it is like that; a comparative adverbial predicate that compares an event or action; like that. Athina di aton dan mangaan. That is the way they remove it. Man tuwali ot maid di bain mu kinali athinay at-attom. The truth is that you have no shame that is why you are doing like that. (sem. domains: - Compare.)

atta advpred. to purposely do something; to intentionally do something. Adim attaon an iweley hinamal. Do not purposely throw away the cooked rice. Adim attaon an pakgaon hi tulang mu. Do not intentionally cause your sibling to cry. ‑on/‑in‑. Manner. Sim: nguddan, agannat. (sem. domains: - Intend.)

aw-aw₂ sta. to be unable to speak;to be dumb. An naaw-aw kat adika kumali? Are you dumb that you won’t talk? na‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

ba-helna (sp. var. of bahhelna)

ba-inan (infl. of bain) trans. to insult someone by shaming. Ipilit na ke nan pinhod na ya ba-inam. If he insists on what he likes, insult him. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

baduy intrans. to remove clothes from lower half of body; to be naked from waist down. Mumbaduy day u-unga ten mun-udan. The children remove their clothes when it rains. (They will run and play in the rain.) muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: bol’ad. (sem. domains: 5.3.7 - Wear clothing.)

Bagabag prop. a town in northern Nueva Viscaya. Ad Bagabag di pakimalketan nadan kompradol hi nating. It is in Bagabag where the vegetable vendors buy and sell. (sem. domains: - Country.)

bagat 1comm. the four main corner posts of the Ifugao native house; four main, inside posts nailed to the floor joist and girders, holding and connecting girders to roof. Naane nan bagat di bale. The main post is attacked by termites. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to place corner posts. Bagatan yuh palayon nan bale. Use the oak wood for the corner posts. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

bagbag₂ sta. banana blossoms have moved away from fruit; ready for harvest; the development of blossom or stalk moves away from fruit. Nabagbagan nan puhu. The banana blossom moved away from the fruit.. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

Baggabag prop. name of land below Ambabag. Waday lutan da Openg an Baggabag. There is land belonging to the family of Openg Dulnuan which is Baggabag. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

Baguinge prop. a baranggay/barrio of Kiangan. IBaginge tun kadwak. My companion is from Baguinge. (sem. domains: - Community.)

Bahawit prop. a place in Lagawe along the Ibulao River. Eda nun-amod Bahawit. They went to take a bath at Bahawit.

bahhelna (sp. var. ba-helna) comm. refers to the southern part of Kiangan central; the barrios of Amduntug, Antipolo, etc. Nunbaki da apud bahhelna. Our grandfather performed rituals in the places on the other side. Deket kalimana ya dakol di ibahhelnan umalih Poblacion. When it’s Friday many from distant places come.

baki 1comm. ritual, Ifugao sacrificial rite. [The traditional religion has many rites and rituals, all are classified under this generic name.] (sem. domains: - Offering, sacrifice, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2nom. the shaman-priest who performs the baki. <Although the prefix muN- derives a verb, the form functions as a nominal reference, referring to the person who performs the ritual. > Mungkama-id da mo nadan nakaginnilan mumbaki ya wada ke bo ya naka-am-amma da mo ya adida mo pakabbakiy tatagud uwani te hay pangulug da mo ke Apu Dios. Priests who perform the baki ritual are becoming few and if there are any they are very old and many people nowadays don’t perform the baki because of their faith in God. Gulat na nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the believers in God become ill, there would be no more baki-priests. muN‑ . 3sta. refers to the deities or ancestors invoked in a ritual and are the recipients of the sacrifice offered. Mabaki nadan ammod na. His ancestors are invoked in the ritual. der. Mabaki der. mumbaki

bakla 1comm. a gay; a homosexual man; one who is effeminate. Bakla nan imbabalena. His son is a homosexual. 2sta. will become effeminate or a homosexual. Mabakla nan imbabalem hin binabaiy iibbana. Your son will become effeminate if his companions are always girls. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

baknang comm. the supports of the upper framework of a house. wh: ambubulan. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

bakug sta. to be cooked inadequately; partially cooked due to poor firewood or negligence of the cook; usually rice and root crops. Nabakug nan hinamal te adi dumalang nan itungu. The rice is badly cooked because the firewood won’t burn. Nabakug di inhaang Maria. The rice that Maria cooked is not well cooked. Paka-apuyam ta adi mabakug nan gattuk. Put enough fire so the camote will not be badly cooked. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 5.2.1 - Food preparation.)

balai 1comm. trap with dart weapon or gun set-up with a spring-rod for the trigger for wild game. Nakna on ulha nah balai. A wild pig was caught in the trap. Sim: appad, hulu, lingon, bawol. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2intrans. to snare using the balai Mumbalai ka ta wada key makna ya idatan dakami. When you set the snare and something is caught, give us some. muN‑/nuN‑.

Balangaw prop. people from a part of Bontok area. [A place mentioned in the Hudhud.] Nikali damdama nan New Testament hi kalin nadan iBalangaw. The New Testament was also translated into the Balangaw dialect. (sem. domains: - Family, clan.)

balangngon comm. three-sided cooking banana variety. Umihibak ka nah balangngon. You boil some cooking bananas. Sim: dattok, dippig; gen: balat. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

balantina 1comm. eggplant. Muntanom kayuh balantina nah aldattan yu ta waday pangal-an yuh ihda hin-uddum. You plant eggplants in your backyard so you can have something to gather at times. (sem. domains: - Food from vegetables.) 2sta. to have an area planted with eggplants. Mabalantina nan dola da. Their yard is planted with eggplants. ma‑. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

balat 1comm. bananas, generic. Nat-ongan ke nan balat nah habal ne tinabal mu. When the banana in the garden is matured, cut it down. Ad-adiy mipal-um an balat hin ahikotolan te mabatag. It is not good for bananas to be ripened during the cold season because they don’t ripen well, they harden. spec: balangngon, dattok, udding, morado, dippig, lakatan. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.) 2sta. banana plantation. Mabalat nan muyung da. Their forest has lots of banana plants. ma‑. 3sta. The literal meaning of the riddle is that you must cut down the banana stalk to get the bananas. Patayom nih-an di inana ahim ta alan nan imbabalena. (balat) You kill the mother before you can get the child. (banana) (riddle) der. mabalat

ballahiwe intrans. to bypass inadvertently; there is a simultaneity component which gives the meaning that two people were in the same place at the same time. Ek damuwon hi Maria ad Lagawe yaden numballah-iwe kami ot ya abu. I was going to meet Maria at Lagawe but we bypassed each other inadverdently. (As I was going, she was coming and we met on the way without knowing.) muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: kalah-iwang.

Ballituk prop. the name of a folk hero in Ifugao mythology. O-ohha day mungngadan hi Ballituk. There are a few who are named Ballituk. (sem. domains: - Fable, myth.)

Ballugu prop. a woman’s name. Hi Ballugu di ngadan apu. The name of my grandmother is Ballugu. (sem. domains: 9.7.3 - Name of a thing.)

Balog₁ prop. a male name. Nangan moh Balog. Balog ate already. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.)

ban-uk intrans. to feel annoyed by another’s action or speech. Mumbanban-uk hi Bugan nah em nangitud-akan ke hiya. Bugan is showing she is annoyed in your sending her for an errand. Bimman-uk hi Bugan dih nangidatana nah hapid. Bugan was annoyed when she gave the betelnut-leaf. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: mutmut, ngutuwol, ngudu, ngalotongot. (sem. domains: - Angry.)

banag comm. news Waday banag an waday umalin puwok. There is news that there is a storm coming. (sem. domains: - Report.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bananu comm. a metaphor for ricefield. Indalanah bananu. She passed through the ricefields. {ritual} Sim: payo, pukung. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.)

Banaue prop. Ifugao town. Hanada ken natdaan an Ippangyol ya hi aman Tomas Morado ad Kiangan, hi Beyer ad Banaue, hi Hora ad Bontok ya nan ohan binumtik ad Bambang. The Spaniards who survived were the father of Tomas Morado in Kiangan, Beyer in Banaue, Hora in Bontok and one who ran away to Bambang.

banawat comm. a metaphor for fire. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Madalang nan banawat da. Their fire is blazing. {literary} Sim: ap’uy.

banawe sta. to be taller, taller than those of the same species applied to men, horses, and quadrupeds in general. Mabanaweh Dulnuan. Dulnuan is tall. Ek tinibo nan golang ya mabanawen tu ten maong-ongal. I went to see the child and he will be tall and slender when he grows up. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: tayag, tag-e. (sem. domains: - Tall.)

Banawe (fr. var. of Bannawol)

banawol comm. chimney swift; a bird grey in color, swift in flying. Naligat an matiboy banawol on imme te nal-ot an tumayap. It is difficult to see the banawol-bird when it goes because it is swift in flying. Apodidae (sem. domains: - Bird.)

Banawol (sp. var. of Bannawol)

banbanaggo comm. house lizard; gecko. [When it talks, it’s a sign visitors will arrive.] Dakol di bumudal an banbanaggo nah hilong ten waday dilag. Many house lizards come out at night when there is light. Mungkali ke kanu nan banbanaggo ya waday bisitan umali nah bale. It is said that if a lizard speaks in your house, a visitor will come. Munggango ke kanu nan banbanaggo ya waday bisitan umali na bale. When the house lizard sounds at your house, a visitor will come. Sim: kutkutli, banniya, kallulu; Sim: amulilit. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

bangi₁ comm. snake, poisonous black species; 3” diameter, 6’ long. Kinalat di bangi na dapana ot linullumbagan. A bangi-snake bit his foot and it became badly swollen. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

bangko₂ 1comm. bank, a financial institution. Inhaad nay pihhu na nah bangko. He placed his money in the bank. Waday ittay an pihhuk nah bangkod Lagawe. I have a small amount of money in the bank at Lagawe. (sem. domains: - Owe.) 2trans. to place money in the bank. Em ibangko nan pihhum ta adi map-u. Go and bank your money so that it will not be spent. Ibangkom nan binoklam. Put your wages in the bank. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to bank money. Mumbangko ka ta mahapul mu ke on em inala. Bank (your money) so that if you need it you can just draw some out. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

bannawag trans. to speak about something that has been said in confidence; spread confidential information. Adim ibannawag nadan adim lebbeng an mipainila. Don’t spread those things that are not your right to make known. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

Bannawol (fr. var. Banawe; sp. var. Banawol) prop. Banawe; town in Ifugao. Imme dad Bannawol. They went to Banawe.

bantuk trans. 1to strike, downward motion; refers to the manner in which a snake rears up and strikes to bite. Adika umeh na te bantukon daka. Don’t go there because (a snake) might strike you. Waday inang-ang muh binantuk di ulog? Have you seen one whom a snake has struck? Adik pe pinhod an pibantuk hi ulog kinali adiyak ume dih maholok an mun-ay-ayyam. I don’t want to be struck by snakes that’s why I avoid playing in grassy places. ‑on/‑in‑, pi‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 2to strike on the head with weapon, e.g. hit a fish with a bolo, a person with a piece of wood. Bantukon nan dolog hin tumapo. Hit the fish on the head if it comes to the surface of the water. Binantuk nan dalit nah puhung. He hit the eel on the head in the pool. ‑on/‑in‑.

bat’ag sta. 1bananas that are not ripened properly; the bananas develop hard, darkened parts. Mabatag nan nipal-um te kotol. The bananas will not ripen properly because it’s cold. ma‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 2to be dried-up, hard fruit due to improper ripening or insects which suck the moisture; discoloration on skin may be evidence of the condition. Nabatag nan tabuyug an emi kanon. The pomelo we were going to eat is dried-up. general: Normally bananas are the only ones which are mabatag; for other fruit they are described as makuti. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano .

battanan 1trans. to set apart creating an interval of time or space. Battanan yuh duwan algo ne ahiyu inhaad nan kodot. Leave it for two days then place the poison. Battanam hi duwan dopa nadan tukud di alad. Put the post at intervals of two arm lengths. Mabattanan hi tulun algo on ahim kinan nan agam. Take (lit. eat) your medicine at intervals of three days./Take your medicine every three days. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time, 8.5.5 - Spatial relations.) 2intrans. to be absent on a pre-arranged date. Battanak hi duwan algo ta ahiyak umali. I will absent myself for two days.

bayyaung (sp. var. bayyaong) comm. a native woven blanket, black with red and white stripes; rich man’s blanket. [Formerly, only the rich used a bayyaung-blanket; it was used as a carrying-blanket and for special occasions when men wore it thrown over the shoulders with the middle hanging over chests.] Em ihap-e nan bayyaung apum. Go dry the blanket of your grandfather in the sun. Eda gumatang hi bayyaung ta ieda nah nate. They will buy a blanket for the dead. Sim: gamong. (sem. domains: 5.3.4 - Clothes for special occasions.)

bayyon sta. inadequate; lacking in ability or expected characteristics. Bayyon hihiyen tagu. That person is inadequate. Bayyon di otak. The bolo is dull. Bayyon di lattik. The slingshot has lost its elasticity. Bayyon ka kattog anhan! You are a coward- what a pity! (sem. domains: - Wrong, unsuitable.)

bela₁ intrans. to go to an occasion such as a wedding or other celebration. [This word is only used when someone is dressed in Ifugao traditional clothing.] Daanay pumbelaam? Eyak mumbelabelad Kiangan. Where are you going? I am going to Kiangan. muN‑/nuN‑ CVCV‑, puN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.2.2 - Social event.)

Bert prop. shortened form of a common proper name among the Ifugao, Alberto.

bibyang (sp. var. of biyang) 1) comm. personal concern or personal affairs. Maid bibyang mu te uggem inilay naat. You have no business in being involved because you don’t know what happened. Nganney bibyang mu hin naapputak? What concern is it of yours if I lost? Sim: giman. (sem. domains: - Private, public.) 2) trans. to interfere in someone’s personal affairs; to have concern for something or someone. Adika makibibyang hitu te uggem inilay naat. Do not interfere here because you do not know what happened. Adiyak biyangan. Do not mind me./Leave me alone. Adika makibibyang. Do not interfere. [The meaning of this word always seems to refer to two people: one person has a concern about the personal affairs or business of another person. However, the word is usually used to refer to the negative attitude or feelings of the one who does not want the other person interfering with what he considers to be his personal business or affairs]Sim: alabat. (sem. domains: - Meddle.)

biggabiggatna (infl. of biggatna) comm. very early morning; dawn. Biggabiggatna yaden umutang ka pihhu It is early morning, and yet you are borrowing money. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

biggatna (comp. of biggat, na) comm. refers to the 2-3 hour time period from cockcrow to early morning, about 8:00 a.m.; morning. Umali kah biggatna. Come in the morning. Kottokottol nah biggatna. It’s so cold in the morning. Ohan biggatna ya himmalaman dan nangan. One morning they ate very early. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.) infl. biggabiggatna

binaang intrans. to glow; to glitter, e.g. stars, fire. Mumbinaang nan matan di nuwang nah hilong. The eyes of a carabao glow when it’s night. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Shine.)

binabai (infl. of babai) comm. the plural form of woman/female. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Do not involve the women. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

binadayan comm. gin, may also be used as a generic term for liquor other than rice wine. Dakol nan binadayan an nipainum dih kasal. There was plenty of gin served at the wedding. (sem. domains: - Alcoholic beverage.)

binaggi (der. of baggi) comm. hand-rolled cigar or cigarette. Makahammuy nan binaggi na. His cigar is very odorous. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

binahi (sp. var. of binnahi) comm. rice wine. Sim: bubud. (sem. domains: - Beverage.)

binakle (infl. of bakle) comm. rice cake wrapped in banana or rattan leaves. Pinay-an dah niyug nan binakle. They put coconut in the rice cake. Waday iggattang da nah Sabadu hi binakle. They sell rice cakes on Saturdays. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

binalaan (der. of bala) trans. to load a weapon with ammunition. Binalaana nan lattik hi lubay. He used lead in his slingshot as its bullet. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Weapon, shoot.)

binalatuk (der. of balit’uk) v. to have a covering of gold; gold-plated. Binalituk nan takkalang na. Her bracelet is gold-plated. (sem. domains: - Metal.)

binang intrans. to boast loudly, usually done by a drunken person, both talking and singing. Donglon yu din mumbinang an kadangyan kanu. Just listen to that drunken man boasting that he is a wealthy man. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: - Boast.)

binat trans. to stretch; to pull something taut. Binatom nan lattik. Stretch that rubber. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: bikang, inat. (sem. domains: - Extend.)

binattu (der. of bat’u) adj. something made of stones or rocks, e.g. a house or wall. Natag-en binattun alad di nunlinikkod kediyen boble ya himpulut duway hoob na. (Revelation 21:12a) The stone wall around the city is tall and there are 12 gates. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 6.5.3 - Building materials.)

bingit (sp. var. benget) sta. to be about to break; refers to anything which is damaged and will break if not replaced, e.g. frayed string or rope. Nabingit di ohan linubid na. One of the ropes is about to break. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.1 - Break.)

binnah-el (der. of bah-el) intrans. 1on both sides. Mumbinnah-el nan wang-wang di nangal-an dah batu. They gathered stones on both sides of the river bank. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Both.) 2to be on opposite sides. Mumbinnah-el di imbunan da. They sat on opposite sides. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Across.)

binnahi (sp. var. binahi) (der. of bahi) comm. rice wine, old term for wine. [Formerly, wine was served only in coconut shell cups, ungut.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic and rituals, particularly the Ketema ritual.. Tagan dah taug hi binnahi. They went on serving rice wine (in bamboo cups). {ritual} Syn: bay’a. (sem. domains: - Alcoholic beverage.)

binnanno intrans. to take turns in using something.

bintal na (id. of bot’al) to approve something without thinking. (lit. his volunteering) (sem. domains: - Agree with someone.)

biyang (sp. var. bibyang) comm. personal business.

bognat sta. to experience a relapse after sickness. Adika e mungngunu te mabognat ka man. Do not go to work because you might have a relapse. Adika ni-an mumbalbal te mabognat ka te kattungom. Do not wash clothes yet because you just gave birth and you will have a relapse. ma‑. Sim: gid’u, makihal. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

bokon 1neg. (prim) is not; are not; the negation form for the predicate constituent of an equational clause. Bokon he-a nan emi kalkalyon. It is not you whom we are talking about. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. Kananay “Man bokon mu hi Lammooy man impangang-ang ku.” He said, “It could not be, but I saw him as Lammooy?” Sim: ugge. (sem. domains: - No, not.) 2(sec) a negative feeling or reaction. 2.1trans. (sec) to be annoyed; to feel resentment; to react negatively to something that is said or done. Adim boknon tun kalyok ke he-a. Do not be annoyed about what I tell you. ‑on. (sem. domains: - Angry.) 2.2proc. (sec) to feel slighted; to feel hurt. <Inflected form: bumkon> ‑um‑. (sem. domains: - Upset.) 2.3sta. (sec) refers to someone who is exceptionally sensitive to being slighted; inclined to pout or sulk. ma‑. bumkon comp. hin bokon der. mabkon

bokon ke negpred. a negative predicate to express there is an alternative to what has been previously predicated; on the other hand; not that, rather this. Bokon ke, wada nin nangayana. (1Kings 18:27) On the other hand, maybe there is somewhere that he has gone. Atok nin weno bokon ke ya adik bo aton. I might do it or, on the other hand, I might not do it.

bol’ad 1trans. to remove clothes; to be naked. Boladam nadan u-unga ta mun-amo da. Take off the clothes of the children so they can bathe. Adik mo pinhod an ma-operate te boladan dita. I don’t like to be operated on because they remove all our clothes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: baduy. (sem. domains: 5.3.8 - Naked.) 2intrans. to become or be naked. Mumbolad kayun u-unga ta mun-amo kayu. Children remove your clothes, and take a bath. Numbobbolad nan u-unga ya immen nah kalata. The child was naked and he went to the street. muN‑/nuN‑.

Bolnat prop. ritual for the taking of seedlings from the seedbed, November-December. Cal: Lukat, Pudung, Loka, Ugwid, Bolnat, Kulpi, Hagophop, Paad, Pokol, Ingngilin, Tuldag, Ponpon, Takdog, Kahiu, Hikgut, Apui. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

Botbotan (botbot) prop. name of village [It is said that the name comes from a legend about a group suicide in the area.] Hay Botbotan ya wadad Tuplac. Botbotan is in Tuplac. (sem. domains: 9.7.2 - Name of a place.)

boy’a comm. small water conduit; small canal, in a swidden or garden. An waday liting nah boya? Is there water in the water conduit? Sim: paluk, alak, kanal. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

Bugan 1prop. a woman’s name, one of the most popular Ifugao names. [In the hudhud, the main heroine is usually Bugan, wife of Aliguyon.] Ha-on hi Bugan an in-Aliguyon. I am Bugan, wife of Aliguyon. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.) 2prop. the daughter of the Skyworld god, Wigan, who with her brother, Kabbigat, produced the first Ifugao. [father was Wigan] (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 3comm. in traditional speech and oral literature, the name may simply be used to refer to a woman.

bugat 1comm. the content of the large intestine and stomach of grass-eating animals. Adi makan di bugat. The contents of the large intestine of animals can’t be eaten. (sem. domains: 1.6 - Animal.) 2sta. the undigested contents of a ruminant’s stomach. Paka-iwwahwam hinae te nabugatan. You rinse that very well because it has undigested grass. na‑ ‑an.

buhihi intrans. to alienate by opposing; to cause enmity.. Kon adi kayu bumain an dakayu pen hintutulang on mumbubuhhihi kayu? Aren’t you ashamed that you who are relatives are disliking each other? Nganne humlun hi pumbuhihiyan yun hintulang? What is the reason why you siblings are opposing each other? muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.1.6 - Disunity.)

bulinnayu comm. a tree variety with a sweet reddish fruit. Kinayat nadan u-unga nan bulinnayu ot polagaon dan am-in. The children climbed the bulinnayu-tree and gathered all of its fruit. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bumudal nah hospital (ph. v. of bud’al) to be discharged from a hospital.

buna trans. to get lost; to lose one’s way. Gaput uggek ininghaan ad Manila ya eyak bunbunnaon hanadah iibbak. Because I am not familiar with Manila, my companions tried to make me lose my way. Adina tuwali halipat-an nadan iibba na kinali nabuna. He did not watch his companions that’s why he lost his way. Tibom ta adi ka mabuna. See to it that you won’t get lost. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: talak. (sem. domains: - Known, unknown.)

bunabun comm. a snake species; the dominant color is brown. Waday bunabun nah payo. There is a bunabun-snake in the field. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

bunag intrans. to transfer or transport something; usually done little by little; to transport specified things. Ekami numbunag hi kape. We made several trips to carry sacks of coffee. It-itayon yun e mumbunag nah lona. You carry the sand little by little. Kalyom ke dida ta eda punbunag nan karga yu. Tell them to go and carry our cargo. Binunag hanadan imbabalek nan batu. My children carried the stones little by little. Bunagon yuh tu nadan liblu. Carry the books here little by little. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: ubu. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bunat to be a descendant. Sim: an’ak, tanud, holag. infl. ibunat

bungbung 1comm. explosives; dynamite; the sound of dynamite exploding. Inibka da nan bungbung nah wangwang. They threw the dynamite into the river. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to blast something with the use of dynamite or any explosive. Bungbungon yu din ongngal an batu. Blast that big stone. Mumbungbung da nadan mungngunuh kalata. The road workers are blasting rocks. Nabungbungan nan batu kinali niwahiwahit hi nungkikidawwi. The stone was blasted, that is why it is scattered that far. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, na‑ ‑an. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 3intrans. to dynamite fish; to fish with explosives. maN‑. der. mamungbung der. pumbungbung

busina 1comm. a vehicle’s horn. Napai di businan nan tolak na. The horn of his vehicle is destroyed. (sem. domains: - Vehicle.) 2intrans. honking of vehicles. Mumbusina da yaden mihahhaad ka nah gawwan di kalata. They are honking their horns yet you continue to stay in the middle of the road. Bumusina ka hin waday tagu nah kalata. Blow your horn if there is a person on the street. muN‑, ‑um‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

butyug 1intrans. to be pregnant. Mumbutyug te nangahawa. She will be pregnant because she got married. Nabutyugan din babai. That woman is pregnant. Numbutyug man nan babain nungkodoh tabuyug ot idatak. The pregnant woman begged for a pomelo so I gave one to her. muN‑/nuN‑, na‑ ‑an. Sim: himmiga; Sim: inaw, nawadaan, higa, ngidlu, himmiga. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 2sta. any person male or female, with a big belly. na‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: butchug.

Cain prop. name of Biblical character. Nadug-ahan hi Cain. Cain was cursed.

Catalina prop. name of woman. [Many Spanish proper names were introduced during the time when there were Spanish priests who gave baptismal names.]

Cubao prop. the name of a city in the Manila area.

daana mo (comp. of daan, mo) int. where now. [This implies that given the present circumstances there is a question that what is needed is not likely to be found.] (sem. domains: - Ask.)

daanay int. interrogative question regarding the location or destination of someone or something. Daanay pangayam? Where are you going?

dadiye nan ugge nalutu (id. of lutu) white-skinned people (lit. those uncooked/unripe ones).

Daggana (dagga) prop. the bottomless sub-layer of the underworld; the Beyond Place. In-en Kabbigat nan numbakiyana nah Daggana. Kabbigat (a supernatural being) took sacrificed-meat to Daggana. (sem. domains: 1 - Universe, creation.)

dalinat comm. the foundation stones of rice terrace walls. (sem. domains: 6.5.3 - Building materials.)

dalnat sta. to be lukewarm, referring to a liquid. Madalnat an danum di pun-amon tun unga. The baby will be bathed with lukewarm water. Dumalnat nan liting hin adim apuyan. The water will become lukewarm if you do not fix the fire. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.4 - Hot.)

damana advpred. refers to what is within the limits of circumstances, ability or power; can; is possible; is allowed. Datuwen bibiyo ya damanan ipkod day tagu. Those bibiyo-spirits can take hold of a person’s life. Kinalin nan mittulun di grade one an ume ka te damana mon munggrade one ka. The grade one teacher said that you can go to school and be in grade one now. Modality. (sem. domains: - Possible.) der. nadama ph. v. damana man nin ph. v. damanat nangamung

damana man nin (ph. v. of damana, man, nin) advpred. each word in the phrase has independent meaning, but together they assert that the information in the complement statement is possible or probable. Damana man nin an makulug. It may well be true. Damana man nin an mun-ay-ayyam. He might well play (but I don't know for sure). Modality. (sem. domains: - Possible.)

damanat nangamung (ph. v. of damana, ta nangamung) advpred. 1asserts that something is always feasible; modifies the information in a complement clause. Modality. 2one can always do something. Damanat nangamung an mahuyop ka nah dulung. You can always sleep on the floor. (sem. domains: - Can.)

damuna advpred. 1to delimit time by expressing the simultaneity of two different events; meantime; meanwhile. Um-umbun taku ni-an ta damunay kalutuwan nan kanon. Let us sit while the food is being cooked. Idadaan mu nan panganan ta damunay datngan da. Set the table, while waiting for them to arrive. Time. (sem. domains: - At the same time.) 2to delimit an amount; enough or more than enough; may relate to quantifying space, amount, accomplishment. Damunay ginastum yaden uggem pay ginibbuy adal mu. You spent much yet you still haven’t finished your studies. Damunay nginunum. You have accomplished more than enough. Damunay ginabutam. You cleared enough, a wide space. (sem. domains: 8.1.7 - Enough.)

danae demonstrative. the plural form of Set 3; those there by listener; anaphoric (back reference) in text. Kon dahdiy ugge nanginilan danae? (Job 12:3c) Is there anyone who doesn’t know those things? (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) danaey n. ph. ke danae

danaey (danae) demonstrative predicate. those there near you are the ones; identifying something that is away from speaker near the listener. Danae di alam an bulhe. Those are the beans you are to get. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

danag 1intrans. to worry; to be anxious; to be concerned. Adika mundanag tulang ku mu mundasal ka ta baddangan dakan Apu Dios. Don’t be anxious, sister, but instead pray for God’s help. Dumanadanag hi inam te ugge ka immanamut. Your mother kept worrying because you did not come home. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑ ‑an‑. Sim: kagu. (sem. domains: - Worried.) 2sta. Deket mungkahilong on madanagan hi inam ke he-a. When it is becoming dark your mother worries about you. Makadannaganak ad nakugab te mundogo nan golang. I was so worried yesterday because the baby was sick. ma‑ ‑an, maka‑ ‑an. 3caus. to cause worry or concern on the part of others. Adim padanagon di ammod mu. Do not make your parents worry. pa‑ ‑on. 4intrans. to be the one causing worry. Mangipadanag kan ad-addi ka umanamut. You are worrying us by not coming home. mangipa‑/nangipa‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. madanagan

daplal 1comm. payment to a native priest that can either be money or in kind, e.g. bolo. [This payment is only for certain rituals.] Hinggatut di daplal na. The native priest’s fee was a hundred pesos. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2intrans. to pay the fee to the native priest for a ritual. Impibakik di munlabi ya dinaplalak hi himpulut liman pihu. I had the munbaki ritual performed and I gave a priest’s fee of fifty pesos. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

dattok₁ comm. a type of banana. Makalummii boppo nan dattok ta hidiye nan adi on nahinglaak. The dattok-banana is so sweet that I easily become tired of it. Sim: balangngon, dippig; Gen: dippig; gen: balat. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.)

daun comm. a leaf of a banana plant. [Banana leaves are often held over the head like an umbrella to protect from the rain.] Muntudung kah daun. Use the banana leaf for protection (from the rain). Sim: lap’it.

daydayuna 1advpred. a tendency; to be prone to. Daydayuna tuwalin kumga ka. You have a tendency to cry. Daydayunay panayo na. His manner of dancing is graceful. Manner. 2sta. to be fitting; to be appropriate; to be perfectly well done; becoming in appearance. Nidaydayuna nan taddung nah ulum. The hat is very becoming on your head. Naka-iddaydayunay panayona. Her manner of dancing is very fitting. (good dancer - graceful) mi‑/ni‑, naka‑ i‑. Sim: bagay. (sem. domains: - Right, proper.)

dee (sp. var. of die) sta. to be urinating frequently. Nadee nan golang te intaganah inum hi liting. The child is always urinating because he kept on drinking water. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy.)

dehna (comp. of de, hina) demonstrative predicate. there is; predicates the existence of someone or something there, by you (the listener). Dehnan nah indoggan mu nan uwa. The knife is there at your back. Sim: deyahna. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

deyahna (comp. of deya, hina) exispred. something exists and is located near hearer; involves a degree of emphasis. Sim: dehna.

dinabol comm. a type of woman’s skirt; another name for the gamit skirt. Sim: gam’it, inabol, ampuyo, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.)

dinaldalaan (der. of dala) 1comm. a food dish of blood and internal organs, with a little flesh and fat included. Adina kanon di dinaldalaan. He does not eat blood pudding. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to cook blood pudding. Mundinaldalaan taku hin paltiyon taku nan babuy. We will cook dinaldalaan if we butcher the pig. muN‑/nuN‑. Language of Borrowing: Ilocano: dinardaraan.

dinalman comm. a big wine jar with dragon designs on the sides. Kinailan da nan dinalman te imbangon Juana tuh umalin bulan. They brewed rice wine in the dinalman-jar because it’s the betrothal of Juana this coming month. Gen: buhi. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

dinap-ul (der. of dap-ul) comm. gray color; ash-colored. Ginattang da nan dinap-ul an manuk. They bought the ash-colored chicken. (sem. domains: - Color.)

dippig (sp. var. dipping) comm. banana, cooking variety, may be boiled, broiled or fried. Damanan mihday puhun di dippig. The banana blossom of the cooking banana can be made into viand. Sim: balangngon, dattok; Spec: dattok; gen: balat. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

disiplina 1comm. refers to the training or punishment of someone. (sem. domains: - Discipline, train.) 2trans. to train or punish someone. Deket disiplinaom di imbabalem ya luminggop ka. If you discipline your child, you will experience peace. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact.

dohhok₂ intrans. to be uncoordinated in action; to be clumsy. Mundohhok ka. You are clumsy. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with manner component. (sem. domains: - Can.)

Domingo prop. name of man. Domingoy ngadan amana. His father’s name is Domingo. (sem. domains: - Personal names.)

dopdoponay kalata (id. of dopdop) he wanders around, just loitering (lit. he is tamping-down the road). (sem. domains: - Wander.)

Dudduli prop. name of woman. Dudduliy ngadan inana. Her mother’s name is Dudduli. (sem. domains: - Personal names.)

dudug advpred. personal involvement in an action. <When used, there is an agent emphasis because there is a focus on the fact that the person performing the act is the unexpected agent; a mediator, messenger or some other person is expected to be the agent.> Nundudug pen e nunsorender. He himself went and surrendered. (gave himself up) He-a pe ot dudugom an pinate nan inayam. You yourself are the one who killed your wife. nuN‑, ‑on. Manner.

Dugung prop. the name of a village. Ad Dugung di bale da. Their house is in Dugung.

Dulnuan prop. a common proper name among the Ifugao; name of male or family name.

Dumlaw prop. a man’s name.

dumop-ay linnawak₁ (id. of linnawa) I’m very hungry. (lit. My soul will-jump-down.) (sem. domains: - Hungry, thirsty.)

dumop-ay linnawak₂ (id. of dop-a) I’m very scared. (lit. My soul will-jump-down.) (sem. domains: - Afraid.)

dunge sta. to be telling or asking something again and again; to be nagging; to be reiterating. Nadunge ka hin nabutong ka. You are a nagger when you are drunk. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. Sim: duti. (sem. domains: - Repeat, - Complain.)

dunu intrans. to be unaware; to be ignorant of something. Mundundun-u taku yaden mumpapatte dad Lagawe. We were unaware that they were fighting in Lagawe. muN‑/nuN‑. Opp: inila. (sem. domains: 3.2.3 - Know.)

duppunan trans. to share expense, e.g. rice, money, meat quota; more than two go together in sharing expense. (sem. domains: 6.8.3 - Share wealth.)

ekaw ot ya abu idiom. expresses an evaluation that an event or action is unfortunate. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

ena ihongbay adol na (id. of hongba) he is getting into more trouble He is getting into more trouble. (lit. He went to roast his body.) (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

ena₁ int. a tag question form used to evoke confirmation of a statement. Umali ka, ena? You will come, won’t you? Pinhod mun mihaad hitu, ena? You like staying here, don’t you?

ena₂ pers. he, she, it; the form is a compound of e ‘to go’ and the 3rd person singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 1, the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is not cross-referenced by the verb. Indani ya ena iuduk on mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

gagangay comm. natural, characteristic of human nature or the situation. Gagangay tuwalih naen e naat. What happened is just but natural. Gagangay nan umat hina te unga ne-an. Naturally he is like that because he is a child. Sim: kapyana. (sem. domains: - Nature, character.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

gagaom 1comm. things needed for a ritual or the things to be used in the death of a person; animals for sacrifice are not included. [Some of the things needed are: a binuhlan ‘loincloth’, ulo ‘blanket’ for a man; an ampuyo ‘skirt’, balko ‘belt’ for a woman.] (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2intrans. to place special clothing on a corpse. Nganney pungagaom mu ke amam? How will you clothe your father? puN‑.

gala 1comm. donations or gifts of money given to a couple during their marriage celebration. [Dances are announced for each sitio. After the dancers finish they are served rice wine. They line up in a single file and put money in a container to start the couple in their married life.] Nan napanaun gala di kay da numpuunan. The money collected served as their capital. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money.) 2intrans. to give a donation. Gumala taku ta kay taku baddang ke dida. Let’s give money as our help to them. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Give, donate.)

gam’it 1comm. a native loom-woven skirt, red and black striped. [One type of woven skirt worn by women of wealth.] Hay iusal nadan mumpalaya an pepensiyonados ya gamit. The old folks who are receiving pensions will have a parade and will wear gamit-skirts. Sim: dinabol, inabol, ampuyo, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to wear the native skirt. Munggamit da nadan manayon u-unga. The children who will dance the native dance will wear the gamit-skirt. muN‑/nuN‑.

gamdut trans. to seize something quickly; to snatch; to grab. Ginamdut nan ahu nan kanok. The dog snatched my food. Innang ta mag-a nan golang mu ginamdut ku. The baby was about to fall but I grabbed him. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

gamgam₁ 1comm. complete native attire or costume; the attire and ornaments different for men and women. Spec: balit’uk, ginuttu, padang, kango, wano, attake, balko, almador, dungdung, giniling. (sem. domains: 5.4 - Adornment, 5.3.7 - Wear clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a complete native costume. Mungamgam da te umuya-uy da. They are going to wear the complete native costume because they are performing the uya-uy. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. traditionally meant to dress a corpse in proper attire for the death ceremonies and burial.

ganab intrans. fire spreads to surroundings outside the fireplace. Iphod mu nan apuy ta adi gumanab. Fix the fire so that it won’t spread to its surroundings. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 5.5.4 - Burn, 5.5 - Fire.)

ganad comm. a mountain ridge. (sem. domains: - Mountain.)

ganag the sediment that sinks to the bottom of liquid. (sem. domains: 5.6.1 - Clean, dirty.)

ganal (sp. var. ganar) 1comm. salary rate. Kaatnay ganal muh ohan algo? How much is your salary rate for one day? Nabongley ganal na hi ohan algo. His salary for one day is fifty pesos. Sim: tangdan, bokla, ngunu, suweldu. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2intrans. to receive a specified salary. Mungganal hi hinggatut hi ohan algo. He is paid a hundred per day. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to give someone a specified salary rate. Ganalan dakayuh liman pihu hi hin-olat. He will give you a salary rate of five pesos an hour. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

ganansiya (sp. var. of ganansya)

ganansya (sp. var. ganansiya) 1comm. a gain in money; a profit. Ongal di ganansya na handi igattang na nan babuy. He made a big profit when he sold the pig. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money.) 2intrans. to gain a profit. Mungganansya kah ongal hin he-ay mangied Lagawe. You will gain much if you will be the one who brings it to Lagawe. Gimmanansya hi ongal dih nunggattang hi bulhe. He gained a lot when he sold his beans. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ganar (sp. var. of ganal) wage; salary

ganas 1comm. enjoyment. Maid di ganas kun mangan. I have no enjoyment in eating. 2sta. to be enjoyable; something that gives a happy, good feeling. [This may describe the characteristic of a thing or event and may also describe what a person feels about something.] Kon naganasan nah nidat ke hiya? Is he pleased with his present? (lit. what was given to him.) Nakagganas nan binuya taku. What we watched was very enjoyable. Nakagganas di gibok ku. I’m feeling very good. na‑, na‑ ‑an, naka‑. (sem. domains: - Happy for, - Enjoy doing something.) 3trans. to enjoy something or someone. Ganganasok an mundongol. I enjoy hearing it. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. ganganas

ganatgat sta. to be chewy; describes the characteristic of certain foods or something that is not thoroughly cooked. Maganatgat tun ugge nakallutun gattuk. This half-cooked camote is chewy. Maganganatgat di ugge naiyad an niyug. Ungrated coconut is chewy. ma‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

ganganas (infl. of ganas) sta. refers to something that is enjoyable. Naganganas nan sini. The movie was enjoyable.

ganna 1comm. pain; sickness. Immali bo nan ganna na kinali adi mungngunu. His sickness recurred that is why he is not working. Sim: dogo, bon-ag. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.) 2intrans. to be sick. Mungganna hi inana kinali ibakiyan da. His mother is sick that is why they are performing a baki ritual. muN‑/nuN‑.

gapuna (comp. of gap’u, na) comm. marks the reason for an event or action. Nganney gapunat u-umyung ka? What is the reason for why you are grieving? (sem. domains: - Cause, - Reason.)

gawan di gawana n. refers to the very center of a settlement; residential area of prestige. (Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History) {hist}

gennat 1trans. to grab, particularly used in regard to carabao meat or money used in gambling. Inggennat da nan nuwang. They had (the meat of) the carabao as the free-for-all. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: gehhel. (sem. domains: - Take something from somewhere.) 2rec. to grab each other's meat or money. Munggegennat da nadan muntutugal handih nama-id di dilag. The gamblers were grabbing each other’s bets when the lights went off. muN‑/nuN‑.

gibu 1comm. a fine imposed; penalty payment. [A fine that is imposed because of the violation of a custom; the fine may be in the form of cash, gold, beads, blankets or animals.] Mumbagaday iiban Ana hi gibu ke Tomas te nunlangkak. The relatives of Ana are demanding a fine from Tomas because he was unfaithful. Kaatnay gibu hi ibaga da? How much is the fine they are demanding? (sem. domains: - Fine.) 2trans. to pay a fine for violation of a custom. Gibuwom ot Tomas te patayon daka man! Pay your fine, Tomas, lest they kill you. ‑on/‑in‑.

gikna trans. to sense something or to become aware; to feel physical sensations. Indani ya giknaom di mahakit. After a while, you’ll feel the pain. Giknaonay inagang na te mangidlu! She felt her hunger because she is lazy. Tibom ta adika gumiknah malaria. See to it that you don’t get sick (feel sick) with malaria. Inggiknak ya waday tagun hinunggop. I suddenly woke up and sensed that someone had entered the house. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, i‑/iN‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: hiktam. (sem. domains: 2.3 - Sense, perceive.)

giman sta. to take a personal interest or show concern about something. Adika makigimgimman hitu. You have no business here. maki‑ CVC‑ ‑an. Sim: bibyang. (sem. domains: - Interested.)

ginaletget comm. a native loom-woven skirt. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, inabol, ampuyo, intinlu, ginalit. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.)

ginalit comm. a native loom-woven skirt. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, inabol, ampuyo, intinlu, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.)

ginatangan comm. land that was bought in contrast to land that has been handed down through generations. Nan ginatangan an luta di indat dan hiya. The land which his parents bought was given to him. ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 1.2.1 - Land.)

ginayang (der. of gayang) nom. a victim of murder; the root gayang is the name for a spear used in the Hudhud epic. [The soul of a victim of murder is thought to go to the Skyworld which is the wrong place for a soul. (Lourdes S. Dulawan)]

ginayat comm. chopped tobacco wrapped in tobacco leaves or paper to be smoked. Inbaggi na nan ginayat. He wrapped the chopped tobacco in tobacco leaves. Sim: dinubla. (sem. domains: - Plant product.)

ginga 1comm. a small snail, fragile-shell; found in rice paddies. Pinhod mun ihday ginga? Do you like ginga-snails to eat? Sim: kuwiwwiw, battikul, kohol. (sem. domains: - Fish.) 2trans. to gather snails. Eka manginga. Go and get ginga-snails. maN‑/naN‑.

ginulat advpred. to do something intentionally; to do something on purpose. Ginulat nan numpate. He killed himself on purpose. (He committed suicide) Manner. (sem. domains: - Purpose.)

ginuttu (sp. var. ginutu; sp. var. ginittu) 1comm. men’s ceremonial belt worn with the loin cloth. [The belt is a series of disk-shaped rings made of shell or bone that hold the sheath of a bolo.] Konan di waday ginuttuna. Those who have a ginuttu-belt are very rare. Sim: palpaldang, gimbatan; Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.4 - Adornment.) 2intrans. to wear ceremonial belt. Mungginuttu ka ta latlatuwon daka. Wear a ginuttu-belt so I can take a picture of you. muN‑/nuN‑.

ginuyud nan wangwang (id. of wangwang) drowned (lit. the river pulled him/her). (sem. domains: 2.6.6 - Die.)

gobernadol 1comm. refers to a governor; the head of the provincial government in the Philippines. Mungngunu nan gobernador ad Lagawe. The governor holds office (works) in Lagawe. (sem. domains: - Government official.) 2intrans. to become the governor; to work as a governor. Pinhod Pedlon munggobernadol. Pedro wants to become the governor. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

golong 1trans. to press with fingernail tips; make an indentation with fingernail; usually done to squeeze pimples at the back or any itch at the back. Golngom di odog ku ta ahi daka tangdanan. You prick my back (with your fingernails) and I will pay you. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 2intrans. to squeeze pimples at the back by two people alternately; to take turns pressing each others’ pimples. Munginnollong ta. Let us press the pimples on our backs. muN‑/nuN‑ ‑inn‑.

gonad trans. to move something. Gonadom nan kama ta higidam nan dulung. Move the bed and sweep the floor. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: dul’ig. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) infl. magnad

got’ad (sp. var. gott’ad) 1comm. the climaxing day of the uya-uy marriage feast or prestige feast. [The Gotad day follows the final night holyat of two weeks of nightly dancing. On this day, there is much drinking, dancing and singing of liwliwa-love songs for the whole day.] Kakon-anay gotad ad Baguinge? When is the gotad feast of the wedding in Baguinge? Sim: Ballihung, uya-uy. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2intrans. Ginumtad dad Bayninan. They performed the gotad feast in Bayninan. ‑um‑/‑inum‑. 3comm. a line of people going to attend a ceremony. [For a procession, gongs are used for the music and the tune of gongs is for a procession or during the bogwa ritual.] Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

gul-unnan (der. of gul-un) comm. heddle bar, a weaving instrument used to guide threads on a loom. [The thread is wound on the rod lengthwise.] Halipat-am ta adi maguyud nan gul-unan. Be careful so the heddle bar will not be pulled off. Whole: ablan. (sem. domains: 6.7.8 - Parts of tools.)

gulatna conj. signals a condition or situation that results in or would result in an event or situation that would be different had the preceding condition or situation not existed. if only; had it not been for. Gulatna ta ugge immali ya wadan umeyak ta ek tibon. If he had not come, I would have gone to see him. Gulatna ot ta waday pihhu ya wadan ugge nate. If there had been money then he would not have died. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki Maybe if none of the Christians would become ill, there would be no more shamans. Athidi bon gulatnat mama-id am-in di mumbaki ta hiya ya abuy matdaan Like that also, if there are no shamans except for him (sem. domains: - Condition.) der. munggulat

gunay 1comm. movement. Ad-adiy gunay mu. Your movements are not good. 2intrans. to move. Antipet ad-addi ka gumunay. Why are you not moving? Munggunay kayu mo ta adi taku maladaw. Start moving now so that we will not be late. Kay nahedel di punggungunay mu. Your constant movement makes you seem like a silly person. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

gunguna comm. to have a use or value. Bumaddang ka tuh ngunu ta waday gungunam an immali. You help in the work so that there’s a use in your coming. Sim: hilbi; Sim: gun-ud. (sem. domains: - Value.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

gutab trans. to nibble; to gnaw; done usually by rats or sometimes by dogs locked in an enclosure. Hukbungam nan tinapay te gutabon di utut. Cover the bread because the rats might nibble it. Ginutaban di utut nan kaban. The rats gnawed the box. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: kalut. (sem. domains: - Bite, chew.)

hagab comm. a divination ritual using betelnut and leaf. (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony.)

Hagoho di hakdol di kakinadangyan a ritual to protect the health and wealth of a family. (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony.)

hakit 1intrans. to have pain, emotionally or physically; to ache; to be hurt. Humakihakit di uluk nah himbatangan. My head aches every afternoon. Munhakit di uluk. My head is aching. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: - Pain.) 2trans. to feel bad emotionally; have ill feelings towards someone. Hakitok nan inat mun ha-oy. I feel bad about the thing you did to me. Dakol di hakihakitok ke he-a. I have a lot of hurt feelings toward you. Makahakkit di nomnom Malya te ittay di in-anamut da. Malya was very sad because there were only a few crabs which they took home. ‑on/‑in‑, maka‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.4.2 - Feel bad.) 3trans. for some part of the body to pain a person. Pumalak hin ihakit nah indani. He will moan later because of the pain. i‑/iN‑.

hakuku comm. snake species, like a cobra; a poisonous, big, spitting snake; strikes by lifting its head. [Old people say if you see a spitting cobra you or someone in your family will die; they believe that it sends out a vapor of invisible poison.] Maid di ek inang-ang hi hakuku. I haven’t sees a hakuku-snake. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

halohalo 1comm. a snack mixture of ice, sugar, milk and some ingredients like camote, banana, coconut, sweetened beans, and other ingredients suitable to mix. Naimas di halohalo immam-ana hin tialgo. Halohalo is delicious, especially in the summer. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.) 2intrans. to have a snack of halohalo. Munhalohalo taku hi himbatangan. We will have a snack of halohalo this afternoon. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

halupinnak intrans. to sit on floor; to squat on floor. Anusan takun munhalupinnak tuh dulung teden kumulang di ubunan taku. Do excuse us, and be willing to sit on the floor for we lack chairs. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: ubun. (sem. domains: 7.1.2 - Sit.)

hana mon (sp. var. na mon) adjunct. marks the result of an action or event; therefore.
Te hi Jesu Kriston namahuwan di nihannot an idinol taku ta hana mon pinhod Apu Dios di aton taku. (Romans 7:4c)
Because of Jesus Christ’s resurrection we were changed to trust him and as a result, God is pleased with what we do.
Attitudinal. Sim: kinali, ambule. (sem. domains: - Result.)

hana ot ta adjunct. 1an expression of wishing for something; used like an invocation for good; may it be so. Hana ot ta munnananong an wadan ditakun am-in di hayudut an malpun Jesu Kristo an hi Apu taku. (Rom. 16:24) May the grace that comes from our Lord Jesus Christ always be with us all. Hana ot anhan ta pumhod di nomnom na. May it be that his mind will change for the better. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2a good event Hanahana ot kaya an matagu ka. It’s good that you are alive after all. (speaker heard the person was dead) (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 3a subjunctive meaning to have a wish or hope. Hana ot ta umaddu da! May their tribe increase! (sem. domains: - Hope.)

hanadah (nadah) dem. those; the plural form based on hanah, a member of Set 2 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific group of people or things. Daanay nangipaayan da hanadah dakol an tagu. Where did they send all those people? Ta hidiye nan lebbengnan munpasalamat dan APU DIOS gapuh ongal pamhod na ya gapun dakol hanadah umipamodwong an inatnan kiphodan da. (Psalm 107:15) Therefore, it is right that they thank God for his great love and for those many miracles he did for them. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hanadan (nadan) dem. those; the plural form of hanan, a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Dahdi da hanadan nungkanta? Who were those who sang? Inayagak hanadan iibak ta munhuhummangan kami. I called for those relatives of mine so that we can have a talk. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hanah (han) dem. the; that; a demonstrative pronoun belonging to Set 2; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific person, place, time or thing. Inwalakana hanan lata ot ikawot na hanah ongal an batu. She let go of the can and held on to a big stone. Hanah dinalan da ya wada on i-itay an babalen lina-uwan dan wadaday i-itay bon tatagun numpumbaleh di. The place where they walked, they passed some small huts with small people living in them. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hanakul trans. 1to try by all means to do something; to try one’s best. Ihanakul nan manamak hi ngununa. He is trying his best to find a job. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Try, attempt.) 2to give something sacrificially.

hanan (han) dem. the; that; a member of Set 1; co-occurs with a noun, and refers to specific people or things. <This form must co-occur with a noun; nan is shortened form> Hanan mittulu mi ke ya impakainnila nay mungkanta. The teacher knows how to sing well. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the Hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao and pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. Hanan it-itay hidiyey appit di babai. While the side with the smaller head represents the woman. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

handih lappuna (n. ph. of lappu) referring to the beginning of a past event. Handih lappuna ya lintun Apu Dios di kabunyan ya luta. In the beginning, God created the sky and the earth. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

hannaul trans. 1to be paired with someone, e.g. in marriage, in dancing. [Children can be paired in a marriage arrangement.] Restrictions: Hudhud epics. Nunhannaul da Indangunay ke Indumlao hi inipulda. Indangunay and Indumulao exchanged head beads. nuN‑. 2to accompany someone in dancing. Lumahun hi Aliguyyn ot hannaulanah aydunan hi Guminigin an managtaggam nah daulon. Aliguyon came down from the house and paired with or accompanied his brother-in-law Guminigin dancing under the house. ‑an.

hapad₂ 1comm. a hand of bananas; bunch of bananas. Kinan kuy hinhapad an balat. I ate a hand of bananas. hin‑. (sem. domains: - Food from fruit.) 2trans. to break or cut into individual hands of bananas. Hapadom nan balat. Cut the bunch of bananas into hands. Hinapad na nan tinbal amana. He cut the bananas gathered by his father into hands. ‑on/‑in‑.

Hay mabungot an tagu, ikate nay bungot na. (say. of bungot) He who deals with anger dies with it. (sem. domains: - Angry.)

Hay pumihul ibbanah tagu ya pihulonay adol na. (say. of pihul) He who despises others, despises himself. (sem. domains: - Attitude.)

Hay tagu umat hi bulan, naongal on naittay. (say. of tagu) A person’s life is like the moon, sometimes it’s full, sometimes it’s small.

Hay uya-uy di puntopong hi kinadangyan di ohan tagu. (say. of kadangyan) The uyauy prestige feast is the yardstick of a man’s wealth. (sem. domains: 6.8.1 - Have wealth.)

hayyudut (sp. var. hayudut) 1sta. to be kind, loving or gracious; compassionate. Mahayyudut hi Juan. Juan is kind and loving. general: This word is rarely used by younger speakers. {arch} ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.1 - Good, moral, 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2proc. to become kind. Humayyudut mo te waday mahapul na. She is becoming kind now because she needs something. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to be kind or loving to someone in particular. Hayyudutam di imbabalem. Have a great love for your children. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. mahayudut

heyya adjunct. the signal for the choristers to join the soloist at the end of the line in an epic chant. Restrictions: Hudhud epics. Deya ot ya abu Aliguyun nak Amtalao, heyya. There Aliguyun, son of Amtalao, heyya. {literary}

hi det. 1a determiner that marks any noun referring to a person, including kin terms and proper names. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘i’ of the determiner is reduced, and the consonant ‘h’ is attached to the preceding word.> Hi Juan di nangidat ketuwe. It was Juan who gave this. Takon maka-atung on kinawot da ta ialo dah ibba da. Even if it’s very hot, they grab it and throw it at their companions. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2marks a definite place that is not a proper noun. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. 3marks an indefinite direct or indirect object noun; the marked noun is not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tawagam hi Tayaban ta bumano kah pihhuna. Call Tayaban and borrow money from him. “Maule ot di bibiyo te umidat hi kendi, hiya ina,” an kanak bo. “Fairies are kind because they give candy, isn’t that right, mother?” I said again. 4marks an embedded nominalized clause that expresses a reason for a condition or state in the main clause. An daana udot di pangal-am hi em itugatugal? Where do you get the money to be continuously gambling? hantuh hidiye

hib-at intrans. the alternate sounding of the gongs. [One player beats a gong with his palms; that is called the tobab rhythm. Three or four players play the hib-at rhythm to complement the tobab.] Hib-atom ta manayo kami. Beat the gongs so that we will dance. Mahaldot di panib-at nah gangha. The mannner in which he is striking the gongs is very sonorous. ‑on/‑in‑, paN‑. Sim: pol-ag. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

hiding intrans. to be pregnant; conceiving a child. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Himmihhiding hi Bugan. Bugan was pregnant. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Syn: higa. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.)

higa 1comm. laziness; indolence. Namahig di higan tun imbabalek. The laziness of my child is too much. Sim: inaw, nawadaan, ngidlu, butyug, himmiga. (sem. domains: - Lazy.) 2trans. to be pregnant, euphemism. [It could be that higa for pregnancy is associated with laziness because pregnant women often do not work.] Himmiga. She is pregnant. Nihiga di tiempon di gubat. She was pregnant during the war. ‑imm‑, ni‑. Syn: hiding. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) 3trans. to be pregnant with a specified child. Nanomnomok di dolog handih inhigak hi Ana. I was always thinking of fish when I was pregnant with Ana. i‑/iN‑. der. munhighigga id. Hay humiga maagangan. infl. himmiga

hikna trans. to insist or persist in doing something. Deke ihiknanan aton hi gaga-iho ya adida makie. If he insists on doing something bad, they will not go with him. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Insist.)

hiknad trans. to complete work; to finish a task; to end something. Maid hiknad di ligat hantuh tap-on di luta. There is no end to the hardships on this earth. Gal-an yu ta ihiknad yu di ngunu yu. Hurry up so that you will complete your work. Nihiknad mo. It is completed. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: gibbu. (sem. domains: - Complete, finish.)

hilut 1sta. to be tangled, long thin things, e.g. strings, hair, ropes; to be snarled. Nahilut di buuk na dih bimmangun. Her hair was tangled when she woke up. ma‑/na‑. 2trans. to entangle things purposely. Hilutom an ibobod ta adida pakaubad. Tie it by entangling it so that they will not be able to untie it. ‑on/‑in‑.

himma-al (sp. var. hima-al) comm. the first quarter of the moon. [The new moon may be seen at around 2:00 p.m. in the west.] Ad uwanin himma-al di pangayan mi mo. This lunar first quarter is time for us to leave. Hay udum an tatagu ya muntanom da hin himma-al di bulan. Some people plant when the moon is in the first quarter. (sem. domains: - Moon.)

himmiga (infl. of higa) became lazy; pregnant. ‑imm‑. Sim: butyug; Sim: inaw, nawadaan, higa, ngidlu, butyug.

hin kananat (comp. of kananat, hin) conj. if by chance Hin kananat manganga ta adi pakakalit maid di innunan mumbaki. If by chance, he became dumb and could not speak then there is no one to perform baki (say the rituals and prayers). Hin kananat umeyak hi langit ya dehdi ka. (Psalm 139:8a) If by chance, I go to heaven, you are there. (sem. domains: - Maybe.)

hina dem. demonstrative pronoun; there by you, definite reference to something near hearer. Hinay pinhod ku. There is where I want. Umaliyak hina. I will come there. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) athina athinay comp. dehna comp. deyahna comp. wadahna der. ihna

hina-ang (der. of ha-ang) comm. cooked rice. Tuwen malutu di hina-ang ku. My rice is almost cooked. Syn: hinamal, inda-dinan. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

hinae₁ (nae, hi) demonstrative. Class 3 demonstrative pronoun; definite reference to something near hearer; endophoric reference. Iwagot muh naen hapang ta mag-a da nadan abal. Shake that branch so that the beetles will fall. Iha-ad muh nae. Place that one. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hinae₂ demonstrative predicate. demonstrative predicate; refers to the existence of something that is away from the speaker and close to the hearer. Hinaey pinhod ku. That is what I want. Hinae nan imbabalen Pedro. That is Pedro’s child. Hinaey alam hi baleyu. That is the one you will bring home. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hinag comm. rays of sun at sunset. Sim: hil-o. (sem. domains: 1.1.1 - Sun.)

hinag-on (der. of hag-on) comm. neighbor. Hinag-on kuh Pedro. Pedro is my neighbor. ‑in‑. Sim: pinaldang. (sem. domains: 4.1.4 - Neighbor.)

hinal intrans. to be overfed; to overeat. Munhinhhinal hi binhug na. He was overeating to be satisfied. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.2 - Eat.)

hinal-itan comm. a type of wine jar. Gen: angang. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

hinalong (sp. var. of hinalung)

hinalung (sp. var. hinalong) comm. a large, double-edged knife; bolo. [This knife is not used for cutting grass unless it is old; it is preferred for wearing during ceremonial performances.] Haitom nan hinalong. You sharpen the double-edged bolo. Makataddom din hinalong din lakay. The old man’s bolo is very sharp. Sim: kulukul, otak, uwa. (sem. domains: 6.7.1 - Cutting tool.)

hinamal comm. cooked rice. An waday hinamal? Is there cooked rice? Apuapuyam ta maphod di lutun di hinamal. See that the fire burns continuously so that the rice will be well-cooked. Inwele na nan nadang-on hinamal. He threw away the spoiled rice. Syn: hina-ang, inda-dinan. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

hinangngab (der. of hangngab) comm. to be in front of someone or something; thought of as a spatial area; in the presence of others. Timmaddog hi hinangngab ku. He stood in front of me. Nunsapata hi hinangngab di dakol an tagu. He made an oath in front of/in the presence of many people. (sem. domains: - In front of.)

hinangngal (der. of hangngal) comm. the panels of a native skirt. In-ampuyona nan hinangngal. She used the paneled-skirt. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.)

hinap trans. 1to spread something; to distribute something over an area. Ihinap muy pangihaad mu. Distribute it so that it will cover the whole area. Mihinap di dogo te nungkakammoy tagu. Sickness will spread because there are so many mixed people. Adim ihinap di hinamal. Don’t spread the cooked rice. Tipet ihinap muy lugit mu? Why spread your dirt? i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: - Distribution.) 2to extend an action in time or space; distribute. Hinapom am-in di tendaan hi pun-utangam. You are going to each and every store for credit. Hinapom di kabobboble. You go to all places. Adim hinapon di kabalebale hi em panganan. Don’t go to each and every house to eat. Hininap kuy kaboboble hi ek nanapuhapulan ke he-a. I have passed through villages looking for you. Hinapon yun iwahit nan abono. Spread (over a wide area) the fertilizer by scattering it. ‑on/‑in‑.

hinay demonstrative predicate. that is the place; predicates and refers to the location of the addressee/hearer; there by you. Hantuh aliyak hinay pitlunah panib-ak ke dakayu....(2 Corinthians 13:1) When I come that will be my third visit to you there.... (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hinggampay iduna (id. of idu) someone eats house to house, mooching off others (lit. her/his spoons are a big basketful). (sem. domains: - Below standard.)

hinna-ob (infl. of ha-ob) intrans. on opposite sides. Pangdalam hi nunhinna-ob ta adi matu-i. Shore it up on both sides so that it will not fall down. nuN‑ ‑inn‑. (sem. domains: - Across.)

hinnanalima (der. of nalima) comm. a measure referring to fifty each of something. Hinnanalima di nunbotok na. He bundled it at fifty each. hiN‑ CV‑. (sem. domains: 8.1 - Quantity.)

hinnatkon 1adj. another kind or type of thing; different looking. Hinnatkon nan inbulwatina ad uwani. She has a different dress now. Toan. Uggemi inila te hinnatkon di kali na. Kay na pay punggalgal di kalkalyona. We don’t know what she said because her speech was different. It was as though she chewed on the words she was saying. Qualifier. (sem. domains: - Different.) 2intrans. to become different; to be different. Huminnatkon di tibom hin mumpapu-lit ka. You will look different if you have a haircut. Munhinnatkon di ginattang da. They bought different things. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑. 3trans. to do something to make a thing different. Hinnatkonon yu nan kapyaon yun ha-on. Make mine different. 2G Processes.

hintoon (comp. of toon) comm. refers to native rice which is planted, cared for and harvested during a one year cycle. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

hiyok comm. snail, a large, edible cone species. Dakol di hiyok nah payo da . They have many large snails in their ricefield. Sim: aggudung, kullipaw. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

hoddomna (infl. of hodom) comm. evening; twilight; sun has already set. Hoddomna mo yaden wadada pay nah payo. It is already twilight and they are still in the ricefields. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.)

hol’ok 1comm. grass, generic term. Ginabut ku nan holok nah dalan. I cut the grass on the way. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2sta. to be very grassy; describes an area that is very grassy. Maholokan bo tedeyan immudan. It will be grassy again because it rained. ma‑ ‑an. 3comm. medicinal grass; usually made up of hapid with oil and ginger with Japanese grass. Eyak mungkodoh holok hi clinic. I went to ask for medicine at the clinic. 4trans. to treat with medicine; to cure with medicine. Doctor, holkam anhan hi ina. Doctor, please cure/treat my mother. Adi humlok di alcohol. Alcohol does not cure anything. Damanan mahlokan/maholkan di tibi. Tuberculosis can be cured. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an, um‑/‑imm‑. 5comm. marijuana. Kumdowak hi holok yu. May I have some of your grass.

holok comm. marijuana. Nunlukutak hi holok. I smoked marijuana. (sem. domains: 1.5 - Plant.)

holyat 1comm. the wedding celebration final day, celebrated on the night of the uya-uy, following the gotad, may also refer to the last day of the hagabi celebration. Holyat hi Sabado. The holyat-celebration is on Saturday. wh: uya-uy. (sem. domains: 4.2.2 - Social event, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to celebrate the uya-uy marriage ceremony on the final night. Holyaton dah Sabado. They will have the celebration on Saturday. Etaku makiholyat. Let’s go join in the celebration. ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑/naki‑. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

hommohommok comm. snake, coral species, black and red in color. Tumakutak hi hommohommok takon di ittay an ulog ya abu. I am afraid of the coral snake even though it is small. Micrurus (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

hona 1intrans. to be capricious; often refers to the actions of a child who has been overindulged. Namahig di honan nan imbabalek. My child is capricious. Munhona te balen da apuna. He is capricious because it is his grandfather's house. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: lagda. (sem. domains: - Immature in behavior.) 2sta. to be dependent on; too attached; overly dependent on someone. Makahonna nan ibam, ibaganan am-in di pinhod na takon di inilanan nakangngina. Your sister is too dependent on you, she asks for anything even if she knows it is expensive. Makahonna tudan u-unga ke amada te idat na ya un-unudonan am-in di ibagada. These children are spoiled/dependent on their father because he gives and he follows all that they ask for. maka‑. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations.)

hongwat trans. to cut stalks diagonally, on a slant, e.g. bamboo, reeds. Hongwatam nan kawayan. Cut the bamboo diagonally. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

hopnak 1trans. to sow rice in a seedbed. [This is done by laying the rice heads on the mud and afterwards filling the paddy with water.] Ek ihopnak tun dayakkot. I will sow this glutinous-rice. Kadwaanak an munhopnak. Come with me to sow rice. Eda manopnak. They are going to sow rice. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 6.2.3 - Plant a field.) 2comm. season for sowing. 3comm. rice seedbed. comp. ahihopnak der. inhopnak der. punhopnakan

hubing comm. a shelf outside the granary that holds a canegrass mat. Impattuk na nan kubi nah hubing. He placed the chicken coop on the shelf outside the granary. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.)

hukit₁ (sp. var. hukkit) sta. 1to be limited in width; narrow. Nahkit tun panto yu. Your door is narrow. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Narrow.) 2for a space to be very crowded; to be full of people; occupied fully; related to being a small or narrow area. Nakakkahkit nan bale mi te itaitay. Our house is very crowded because it is very small. nakaC‑ CVC‑. der. hukkihukit

huldung to adopt the name of an ancestor or older relative. [This name is given by the shaman during the amung ritual.] (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony, - Family names.)

humawang di langkak na. (id. of hawang) the truth was exposed (lit. his lie came out). (sem. domains: - Tell a lie.)

humilong di pangang-ang na. (id. of hilong) refers to extreme anger (lit. his seeing is darkened). (sem. domains: - Angry.)

i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.

ibunat (infl. of bunat) trans. to name after a relative; to use an ancestor’s name. Imbunat nah apunan hi Malayyu. She inherited her grandmother’s name, Malayyu./She is named Malayyu after her grandmother. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.)

id’o comm. snake, brownish-green python. [It is said that it comes to the village at night to catch chickens, and then goes back to its hiding place. It is edible and tastes like chicken.] Kinan nan idon ulog nan manuk min mango-ob-ob bo udot. The ido-snake ate our mother hen that was even brooding. (sem. domains: - Reptile.)

igot 1comm. a cloth used as a sanitary napkin, used during menstruation. Hinanotana di igot na. She changed her napkin. 2intrans. to use a sanitary napkin or cloth. Adida mo mun-igot di binabaid uwani. Women now do not use sanitary cloths. muN‑/nuN‑.

ihbu 1comm. fluid excretion from kidneys; urine. Mun-agub di ihbun di kabayu. The urine of the horse smells bad. 2intrans. to excrete fluid from kidneys; to urinate. Mun-iihbu yaden mundallanan. He is urinating while walking. Umihbu ka mod uwani ta adim ihbuwan nan pantalon mu. Urinate now so that you will not urinate in your pants. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Class 2E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2.7 - Urinate, urine.) 3trans. to urinate. <The affixes cross-reference an object that is, the urine, or its placement.> Iihbum nah kad-an the nitanom. Urinate where there are plants. Paihbuwom nan golang te pinhod nan umihbu. Let the baby urinate because he wants to urinate. Umihbu ka mod uwani ta adim ihbuwan nan pantalon mu. Urinate now so that you will not urinate in your pants. i‑/iN‑, pa‑ ‑on, i‑ ‑an. id. kay wa-el di ihbu na

ihna (der. of hina) trans. to place something by the person being addressed; store there by you; keep there by you. Ihnam nah hap-ayan nan bulwati. Place the clothes there on the clothesline by you. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) der.infl. mihna

ikan₁ (infl. of kan) trans. to buy snacks. Idat kuh tuwen liman pihut em ikan ta adika maagangan. I’m giving you this five pesos to buy snacks so you won’t get hungry. Makangngan ka tuwali nah bigatna ta adim e ikan am-in nan pihum. You eat well in the morning so that you will not spend all your money on snacks. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Buy.)

iken comm. nickname for an old man; folklore name; name of makibaki ‘one who performs rituals’. Timmatawah iken an hi Amtalao. Old man Amtalao laughed. (sem. domains: - Nickname.)

impah-onay ligat na (id. of pah-on) he has many problems (lit. carry-on-shoulder problem his).

impaN- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root; co-occurs with Class 4 and 5 verbal roots. <The use of this prefix is related to syntactic structure that has a topicalized constituent. > Hanadan u-ungan impanaptok ku ya mangohe dan ha-on. (Isaiah 1:2b) The children that I have cared for are rebelling against me. Man-uket makakkahlu kamin mangitaniuttuduh mipanggep ke Kristo ya gapuh impaminhod nan ditaku. (2 Corinth 5:14a) The reason that we are so very industrious to constantly teach about Christ is because of his love for us. Sim: impangi-, pangi-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

impangi- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root. Ahina bo ipainilay makulug an impangi-en di hin-oh-an ditaku, takon nadan ugge nainilan inat taku ya nadan wada nomnom taku. (1 Corinth 4:5b) He will cause to be known the truth about the way of each one of us, even what is not known about what we have done and thought about doing. Sim: impaN-, pangi-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

imuk 1comm. gnat, loves to enter the eyes. Dakol di imuk an tumanayapan. There are many gnats flying around. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2sta. to have gnats in or on something. Naimukan nan matan nan golang. Gnats entered the eyes of the child. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.

In-agtunay langkak na. (id. of agtu) an idiom to express that someone is a liar (lit. He carrying-on-head his lie.) In-agtunay langkak na. He is a liar. (lit. He carries on his head his lie.) (sem. domains: - Tell a lie.)

in-ina (der. of ina) 1comm. old woman. In-ina mo nan nangiabban ha-oy handi. The one who cared for me when I was a child is already an old woman. Kanan nan in-inay ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka. The old woman said, I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard.” CV(C)‑. (sem. domains: - Woman.) 2sta. to be old. Nain-ina moh ina. Mother is already an old-woman. na‑ CV(C)‑.

ina-om (der. of ina) nom. parent-in-law of either gender. (sem. domains: - Related by marriage.)

ina-on (der. of ina) nom. refers to the female sibling of either parent; aunt. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.)

ina₁ intrans. to do something habitually or often. Immina ka on indaw-em tuh ibam. You often (habitually) hurt your sister. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) umina

ina₂ comm. 1female biological parent; mother. Deyah inam an mangali. Look there, your mother is coming. Syn: mama. (sem. domains: - Father, mother.) 2respectful form of address for any female of mother’s generation; auntie. Ina, an ume kayuh payo? Auntie, are you going to the ricefield? (sem. domains: - Uncle, aunt.) der. ina-om der. ina-on der. inaon der. in-ina der. mungka-in-ina der. nain-ina der. naka-in-ina

ina₃ (sp. var. inah) intrans. 1(prim) to get up from a lying or sitting position; to arise; to stand up. Umina ka ni-an ta guyudok tun ubunam. Please get up so that I can move your seat. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Change of position. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2(sec) to recover from illness; to get well. Tipet nabayag hi inam hi hospital ya ugge pay immina. Why is it that your mother was in the hospital for a long while and she has not yet recovered. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy.)

inabol comm. a native loom-woven skirt. Maphod nan inabol Matima. The skirt of Matima looks nice. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, ampuyo, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.)

inadipan comm. fetus; lit. what is being born. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Matibo moy inadipana. Her being pregnant can be seen. (sem. domains: - Fetus.)

inado (der. of ado) comm. mulch mounds of grass and mud at the side of a rice paddy on which vegetables are planted; made a couple of months after harvest during the field fallow season. Intanom kuy kolet nah inado. I planted cabbage on the paddy-mound Tanmam nan inado hi buttata. Plant the paddy-mounds with pechay. Sim: pingkol. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.)

inadu 1comm. a ladle to dish out rice; thin, long and flat. Ulaham nan inadu ta mun-akud ka. Wash the ladle and scoop out the rice. Odnam di inaduh winawwan mu. Hold the ladle with your right hand. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to use a ladle to serve food. Aduwon nan gattuk Ladle/serve the sweet potato. ‑on/‑in‑.

inah (sp. var. of ina) intrans. 1) to get up to go do something. Imminahak ot mibangngadak nah ngunuk. I got up and returned to my work. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2) to recover from illness.

inal-ala adjunct. a contrastive expression; to be more so; but as for. Immeh Mary ot gumatang hi ittay an asukal, inal-alak ot an maid di ginatang ku. Mary went to buy a little sugar, but as for me, I did not buy any. Inal-ala nan ha-oy. Even more so if I’m the one. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Markers of emphasis.)

inalan nan wangwang (id. of wangwang) drowned (lit. the river got him/her). (sem. domains: 2.6.6 - Die.)

inalit comm. bee species, they live in oblong shaped hives hanging from trees. Tinilod di inalit handi e nanogpat. The inalit-bee stung him when he went to get canegrass. Gen: babayung. (sem. domains: - Insect.)

inanap (infl. of anap) trans. for someone to find something that has been misplaced or lost. Inanap hi Jose nan otak amana. Jose found his father’s bolo. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.6.2 - Find.)

inang interj. expresses concern about something unexpected or troubling. Indai ot ya abut mangalin nah wa-el, inang ay, waday munhuhummangan. Later on, he was approaching the creek; oh my, there were voices conversing. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

inaon (der. of ina) trans. to bring someone into a mother-child relationship who is not one’s own biological child. Inaok hi Maria. I consider Maria as my mother. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: - Adopt.)

inap-apu (sp. var. ap-apu) (der. of apu) comm. grandchild; grandchild; grandson; granddaughter. Hi Pedro ya inap-apun Juan. Pedro is the grandchild of Juan. (sem. domains: - Related by birth.)

inappowan (infl. of appo) trans. to have overtaken someone in a race or a task being performed. ‑in‑ ‑an.

inapu (der. of apu) comm. in-laws Inapuda hi Pedro. Pedro is their in-law. (sem. domains: - Related by marriage.)

inat (sp. var. innat) trans. 1to extend something by pulling, e.g. rope or thread Inatom tun linubid. You stretch this rope. Inatom tun tinulid ta adi mahilut. Stretch this thread so it will not be entangled. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: bikang, binat. (sem. domains: - Extend.) 2to set a fractured bone. Umaliyak ta inaton daka? Shall I come to reset your broken bone. ‑on/‑in‑. 3to pull in two different directions; tug-of-war. Adiyu pun-innatan nan golang. Do not pull the child in two directions. puN‑ ‑an.

inatu comm. fruit or results of one’s labors or efforts, e.g. money, property, produce. Datuwen pagey inatun ama yu. These ricegrains are the fruit of your father’s labors. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

inaw intrans. to be pregnant. Mun-inaw hi Immaya. Immaya is pregnant. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: nawadaan, higa, ngidlu, butyug, himmiga. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

inay (sp. var. inoy) adjunct. expression of fear or surprise; Oh my! Inay, deyay banig! Oh my, there’s a ghost! Inay, maid bain mu! Oh my, you have no shame! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) inay-aw

inay-aw (inay) adjunct. expression of surprise, can be positive or negative. Tinibom hi Bugan an e nanayo yaden nabutong. Inay-aw tipet maid di baina. I saw Bugan dance and yet she is drunk. Oh my, why doesn’t she have any shame? Inay-aw, nakagganas man! Wow! What a wonderful time we’ve had! Inay-aw, tumakutak, indae ya matalak da! Oh my! I’m so afraid they’ll get lost. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

inayan (der. of ine) comm. mate; husband; wife; spouse. Duwa di inayana te makibabai. He has two wives because he just loves women. Adina anhan dongolon di kalin nan inayana an kananay ahida mahmok di imbabale da. He did not heed the protests of his wife who said that their children would be pitiful. Maid pangal-anah ipakanah inayana ya imbabalena dida. He had no way of providing food for his wife and his children. Syn: ahawa. (sem. domains: - Husband, wife, 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

inda-dinan comm. cooked rice, old term used in rituals. Wadaday inda-din nah banga. There is cooked rice in the pot. {ritual} Syn: hina-ang, hinamal. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

Indangngunay comm. a woman character in Hudhud epic. Hi Indangngunay an maka-aki. Indangngunay who is very envious/jealous. (sem. domains: - Personal names.)

ingga-inggana (infl. of inggana) adv. continuance without time ending; for something to last forever. Hiyay ap-apu taku ta ingga-inggana. He is our leader forever. Time. (sem. domains: - Forever.)

inggana conj. 1until, continuance of an action or activity ending with a specified time event or action. Mahuyop ka inggana umaliyak. You sleep until I come. (sem. domains: 8.4.7 - Continue, persevere.) 2until; marks an adverbial time phrase. Ingganad uwani ya nanongnan mumbaki ama takon di nun-iskul handi. Until now, my father continues to be a pagan-priest even though he has gone to school. Man-ut nun-iskul mu ingganah grade four ya abu. He took formal education to grade four only. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. comp. ta inggana infl. ingga-inggana

ingnguddan (sp. var. ingudan) advpred. to do something intentionally, but may be used with the negative, i.e. unintentional. Ayyu-, uggek ingnguddan. Sorry, I didn’t intend it. Ingnguddan dan maid kinali dan hiya. They intentionally said nothing to him. Manner. (sem. domains: - Intend.)

inhopnak (der. of hopnak) nom. rice seedling. Inhaad da nan inhopnak nah banong. They placed the rice seedlings on the mud dike. Pungkan di gawgawa di inhopnak yu. The ducks are eating your rice seedlings. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.)

innang advpred. a limiting concept; almost; nearly. Maphod ta immali ka te innang an umeyak. It’s good that you came because I almost left. Innang ta mungkaanak hi iskul. I almost dropped out of school. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: dandani. (sem. domains: - Approximate.)

innat (sp. var. of inat)

intinlu comm. a native loom-woven skirt; 3-piece skirt joined by black and red thread, one weave cut into three and sewn to make one. [This skirt is generally worn by the poor. ] Gimmatang hi intinlu te uggena inilan mun-abol. She bought a intinlu-skirt because she doesn’t know how to weave. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, inabol, ampuyo, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) (Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History)

intuppi comm. rice snack; immature rice is roasted and husked by pounding. Pinhod kuy intuppi mu naligat di ngunu na. I love the intuppi-snack but it’s preparation is hard work. Sim: ballu. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

inudanan (der. of udan