Search results for "naba"

binabai (infl. of babai) comm. the plural form of woman/female. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Do not involve the women. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

naba intrans. to play the gongs for dancing. Deket mahmahdom on nunnaba da ta manayo da. In the evenings, they play the gongs and dance. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.2 - Play music.)

nabagtu (der. of bagtu) comm. 1town proper; downtown; center of town. Imme dad nabagtu. They went to the town proper. (sem. domains: 4.6.7.2 - City.) 2a place of higher elevation. Wadada ta ked Ambabag ya ad nabagtuy Linda. When we are in Ambabag, Linda is at a higher elevation. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.3.1 - Above.)

nabangngad (infl. of bangngad) sta. to be an Indian-giver; refers to someone who takes back things which he has given. Nabangngad hinaen tagu. That person is an Indian-giver. na‑.

nabayag (infl. of bayag) sta. refers to the completive aspect of a long time; the form mabayag refers to the incompletive aspect.

babai comm. a female human being, a woman or girl. <Morphology: The plural form is irregular; the infix ‑in- marks the plural, binabai.> Em ayagan din babai ta mid-um tudah udum an binabai. Go and call for that woman so that she can join these other women. Hanan it-itay hidiyey appit di babai. While the side with the smaller head represents the woman. (sem. domains: 2.6.5.2 - Woman.) der. kababaiyan der. makibabai infl. binabai

‑in‑₂ num. this infix encodes plural for the noun roots meaning woman, babai, and man, lalaki, and some cardinal numbers. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was many women dressed in the Ifugao skirt. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.2 - Noun affixes.)

abak trans. to compete with someone. 3H Conversive action process. 1.1defeat. 1.1.1trans. to compete with the focus on the ‘defeat’ component. Abakon dakan Juan. Juan will/can defeat you. Abakok nan mittulu I can defeat the teacher. Pangabakom nan pihhuk te bayadam ten ipaabak mu. Make my money win because you will have to pay it back if you lose it. Adika piabbak. Don’t let yourself be defeated. Inabakak ke Pedroh tugal. I lost to Pedro in gambling./Pedro defeated me in gambling. ‑on/‑in‑, pi‑, ipa‑. Sim: apput. 1.1.2sta. to be the one to lose; loser. ma‑. 1.2trans. to win 1.2.1trans. to win something; usually used in relation to gambling. Kaatnay inabak mun dih hilong hi tugal. How much did you win last night in gambling. Man-u te deket nangabak di tagu nah tugal ya mun-an-anla. It might be that when one wins in gambling he is happy. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 1.2.2nom. winnings. [The word may be used in a communication situation: 1. winning in a debate 2. being more articulate than another.] Kaatnay pangabak yu? How much are your winnings?/How much did you win? Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. pangabak infl. maabak infl. mangabak infl. nangabak

akdang (sp. var. akkang) 1comm. a stride; a pace or step. Andukkey akdang di Amerikano. Americans have long strides. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2intrans. to be walking rapidly. Kaakdaakdang nadan binabai. The women were striding rapidly. ka‑ CVCV‑. Sim: akad. der. hin-akdang

albuwang comm. boisterous laughter. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Ag-agam di albuwang didan binabai. How those ladies laugh so boisterously. {literary} Sim: tatawa, gegek, gigi, titit, bog-ak, halekhek, anggak; Sim: bog-ak, halekhek, anggak, bughak. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.4 - Laugh.)

am-in adj. all; referring to people, i.e. everyone, or things, i.e. everything. Makakkaphodan am-in di matiboh tu. Everything that is seen here is beautiful. Am-in on ipabahul nan ha-oy. He blames me for everything. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.6 - Whole, complete, 8.1.5 - All.)

ampuyo 1comm. a native loom woven skirt. [Generally considered to be the type of skirt worn by the kadangyan ‘aristocratic’ class of women.] Antikkey ampuyo na. Her skirt is short. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, inabol, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. donning the skirt 2.1deriv V. to wear the native, loom-woven skirt. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that women would dress in the Ifugao skirt. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.3.7 - Wear clothing.) 2.2deriv V. to dress someone in the native skirt. Ampuyowan yuh tulang yu. Dress your sister in the Ifugao skirt. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

an₁ lk. 1this form links a main clause and a complement clause. Naka-ang-ang ku an pungkiting daka. I actually saw that you were being pinched. Tinuttuduwanak an kumalih kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Katatakut pay an e buma-el na kalata. It is very dangerous to cross the street. 2this form links a relative clause to noun and verb heads. Handih 25th di Aplil kinalin Mayor an umali kanu da Apu Paredes ke Apu Datumanong hitu ad Ifugao. On the 25th of April, the Mayor said, it is reported, that Mr. Paredes and Mr. Datumanong would come here to Ifugao. 3this form links quantifiers and adjectives to noun heads. <Morphophonology: When the preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel of the linker is reduced and the n attaches to the word.> Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. We, all of us women, wore the Ifugao-skirt. comp. deya ot an

anggak comm. loud, boisterous laughter; guffaw. Namahig di anggak nadan binabai. The women’s laughter was extremely loud and boisterous. Sim: tatawa, gegek, gigi, titit, bog-ak, halekhek, albuwang; Sim: bog-ak, halekhek, albuwang, bughak. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.4 - Laugh.)

baak 1sta. old rice; harvested a year or more ago; rice becomes yellowish. Nabaak nan page mi. Our rice is old. ma‑. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2proc. (fig) to become a spinster; bachelor. Mangahawa ka mot adika bumaak. Marry now so that you’ll not become a spinster. ‑um‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.)

babkog sta. to fall with thudding sound; thumping sound. Mungkalkalli nan am-ama mu indani ya nababkog nah dulung. That old man was talking and in just a moment, he fell to the floor with a thud. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5.1 - Fall, 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

badang 1sta. show up in a place after a long absence. Ug-ugge ka nabadang. You haven’t shown up for a long time. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.4 - Show, let someone see.) 2intrans. to be seen every now and then. Mumbinadang ka. You show up every now and then. mun‑ ‑in‑.

bagbag₂ sta. banana blossoms have moved away from fruit; ready for harvest; the development of blossom or stalk moves away from fruit. Nabagbagan nan puhu. The banana blossom moved away from the fruit.. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 1.5.5 - Parts of a plant.)

bagiw 1comm. moss; lichen, algae. [All types of moss and lichen are called bagiw; all except the algae may be used for fertilizer.] Dakol di bagiw nah loba. There’s plenty of moss on the slope. Spec: layut. (sem. domains: 1.5.4 - Moss, fungus, algae.) 2sta. mossy. Nabagiwan nan gaud nah alang. The spade in the granary is mossy. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

bagtu comm. refers to a site with a higher elevation. [Nabagtu now usually refers to the town center.] Umeyak ad nabagtu. I’m going up to a higher spot. na‑. Sim: tap-o. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.3.1 - Above.) der. nabagtu

bah-ing sta. the sickness of a baki-priest caused by violating the rules for the performance of ceremonies [When performing baki ceremonies the baki priests are to refrain from eating certain legumes and shellfish.] Nabah-ingan hi Dulnuan te nunhidah bulligan ya itab. Dulnuan lost his power (baki power) because he ate 3-cornered beans and peas. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

bahbah pass. for something to be destroyed. Nabahbah nan payo da te pinain di liting nan tuping na. Their ricefield was destroyed because the water destroyed the stonewall. na‑. Syn: pa-i. (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

bak’uy₁ trans. to bend something. Bakuyon da nan gulipu ta umeh baleda. They will bend the pipe so it will go to their house. Bumakuy ka nah gumok. Bend some of the iron bars. Nabakuy di gaud na. His spade is bent/crooked. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: yaku, baking, banguy, killu. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

bakag 1comm. the bones of an exhumed person. [The bones are wrapped in a blanket for the exhumation rites bogwa.] Eda inalay bakag amana ta mamogwa da. They went to take his father’s bones so he’ll have the exhumation rite performed. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2sta. the skeleton of a person; no flesh left. Nabakag mo nan gunit te nala-u moy hintoon nipalpu dih natayana. There is no more flesh on the bones because it’s already more than a year after his death. na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: gun’it. (sem. domains: 2.1.6 - Bone, joint.)

bakante 1comm. vacant; empty. Bakante tun ubunan. This seat is vacant. 2trans. to vacate; to unoccupy. Bakanteyan yu nan ubunan. Vacate the chair. Nabakanteyan nan ubunan. The chair is empty/unoccupied. ‑an, ma‑‑an. 3comm. idle; free time. Bakante ad uwanin algo nan nuwang. The carabao is idle today. Language Of Borrowing: English: vacant.

bakgit 1comm. teeth, canine, the four pointed teeth next to the incisors; tusks; fangs. Andukke mo nan bakgit nan babuy. The pig’s tusks are already long. Sim: ngut-u, wolwol, bikhal. (sem. domains: 2.1.1.5 - Tooth.) 2sta. to have tusks. Nabakgitan mo nan babuy da. Their pig has already grown tusks. ma‑ ‑an/nz‑ ‑zn.

baking₁ sta. a deviated big toe which is in-born. Nabaking nan am-amma-an nan am-ama. The old man’s big toe is crooked. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.3 - Finger, toe.)

bakla 1comm. a gay; a homosexual man; one who is effeminate. Bakla nan imbabalena. His son is a homosexual. 2sta. will become effeminate or a homosexual. Mabakla nan imbabalem hin binabaiy iibbana. Your son will become effeminate if his companions are always girls. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

bakug sta. to be cooked inadequately; partially cooked due to poor firewood or negligence of the cook; usually rice and root crops. Nabakug nan hinamal te adi dumalang nan itungu. The rice is badly cooked because the firewood won’t burn. Nabakug di inhaang Maria. The rice that Maria cooked is not well cooked. Paka-apuyam ta adi mabakug nan gattuk. Put enough fire so the camote will not be badly cooked. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 5.2.1 - Food preparation.)

balah-ak sta. to be spotted, e.g. black and white spots on animals. Nabalah-akan nan ahuk. My dog is spotted. na‑ ‑an. Sim: guli-i, balangat. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3.5 - Animal color, marking.)

balangat 1comm. stripes of colors on animals. Mabayak nan balangat nan ahu. The dog’s stripe is white. Sim: dago, batok; Sim: guli-i, balah-ak. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3.5 - Animal color, marking.) 2sta. to be striped. Natalak nan nabalangatan an ahuk. My striped dog is lost. na‑ ‑an.

balango₁ 1comm. fruit flies. Wadaday balango nah nak-ihan an balat. There are fruit flies on the peeled banana fruit. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2sta. to have fruit flies on something. Nabalangawan nan mangga. The mango fruit has fruit flies on it. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

balango₂ 1comm. oxidation in metal; rust. Haitom nan otak ta makaan di balango na. Sharpen the bolo so that the rust will be removed. Sim: lati. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.3 - Metal.) 2sta. rusty. Nabalango nan gulipu. The pipe is rusty. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 7.9.1 - Damage.)

balat 1comm. bananas, generic. Nat-ongan ke nan balat nah habal ne tinabal mu. When the banana in the garden is matured, cut it down. Ad-adiy mipal-um an balat hin ahikotolan te mabatag. It is not good for bananas to be ripened during the cold season because they don’t ripen well, they harden. spec: balangngon, dattok, udding, morado, dippig, lakatan. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.2 - Food from fruit.) 2sta. banana plantation. Mabalat nan muyung da. Their forest has lots of banana plants. ma‑. 3sta. The literal meaning of the riddle is that you must cut down the banana stalk to get the bananas. Patayom nih-an di inana ahim ta alan nan imbabalena. (balat) You kill the mother before you can get the child. (banana) (riddle) der. mabalat

balib-i 1comm. a bulging abdomen; a swollen stomach due to sickness; may be the result of having a tumor. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.) 2sta. to have a swollen stomach. Nabalib-ihan. He has a swollen stomach. ma‑/na‑.

balikawwa trans. to coil something like wire. Ialim hitu nan nabalikawwa an gigit. Bring me that coiled wire. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of something. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.5.1 - Roll up.)

balit 1comm. a stripe from head to tail of pigs and frogs. Mangitit nan balit nan babuy ku. The stripe from head to tail of my pig is black. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3.5 - Animal color, marking.) 2sta. to be striped, for a pig or frog to be striped, Abunay babuy ya bakbak di inilak an nabalitan. The only things I know with a stripe from head to tail are pigs and frogs. na‑ ‑an.

balit’uk 1comm. refers to gold metal. Naligat di balituk an mahamak. It is difficult to find gold. Nabalol di balituk. Gold is precious. Eda nunminas hi balituk ad Benguet. They went to mine for gold in Benguet. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.3 - Metal.) 2intrans. to wear gold jewelry. Mumbalituk ka hin ume ka nah kasar. Wear your gold jewelry when you attend the wedding. muN‑/nuN‑. 3deriv V. made of gold. [Gold usually came from the Benguet area or earlier through trade with lowlanders or the Chinese.] Sim: gombang; gen: gum’ok. 4comm. ornaments made of or coated with gold; usually in the shape of an earring. [The traditional necklaces of gold stringed pieces are shaped like a horn and are generally worn with the pang-o agate necklace.] Waday balituk nan attake na. Her necklace has a golden ornament. Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.4.1 - Jewelry.) der. binalatuk

baliw 1intrans. to change, transform one’s attitude, behavior, mind, physical appearance and things. Mumbaliw ka mo te naam-ama ka. Reform/Change your ways because you are already old. Ug-ugge numbaliw. He didn’t change at all. Dih nun-ahawa da Bugan ke Jose ya numbaliw hi ustu Jose. Adi mo makanginnum ya adi pay muntugal ot maan-anla Bugan. When Maria and Jose got married, Jose reformed. He stopped drinking and gambling and that made Maria very happy. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: lumman. (sem. domains: 4.3.8 - Change behavior.) 22.1trans. to change something, e.g. change and twist someone’s words or the truth. Adim balbaliwan nan kinalik. Don’t be changing/twisting what I have said. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2.2pass. refers to something that has been or will be changed. Nabaliwan di nun-ubuna. His sitting position changed. Pinhod kun mabaliwan di pangi-em. I want your life-style to change. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. infl. mangibaliw

ballambag sta. 1elongated shape; referring to geometrical shape. Hay ke tibon di itlug ya nabalambag. The shape of an egg is oblong. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.1 - Shape.) 2to place something in a horizontal position. Ballambagan yuh tabla nan kanal. Place a board across the canal. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

balol (sp. var. balor) 1comm. refers to the value or worth of something. Kaatnay balol di ginatang mu? How much did you pay (value) for what you bought? (sem. domains: 8.3.7.9 - Value.) 2intrans. to be worth an amount. Mumbalol hi ohan gatut nan ginatang na. What he bought is worth one-hundred pesos. muN‑/nuN‑. 3sta. to be valuable; priceless. Hidiy kahamakan di namahman balituk ya nadan nabalol an batu. That is where pure gold and valuable stones are found. Nabalol di luta. A piece of land is valuable. na‑. infl. balolan

balu₁ 1sta. to be a widow; widower. Hinae ken tagu ya nabalu on numbintan. That person was widowed and remarried several times. na‑. (sem. domains: 2.6.6 - Die.) 2trans. to mourn for a dead spouse. Imbaluwanah hintoon nan inayanan. He mourned for his dead spouse for a year. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.3 - Funeral.)

banduyyo sta. sound of the sudden movement of something. [The use of the word implies contra-expectation; for example one might be expecting a rat but instead it is something like a bird or a snake. Usually, checking results in confirmation of what actually made the movement.] Nabanduyyo on gando. A rat made a moving noise. na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

bang-al 1comm. hips and upper buttocks. Ong-ongal di bang-al di binabai mu hay linalaki. The hips of women are bigger than those of men. Nan babai an ittay di bang-al na an mumpaligat an muntungo. The woman who has small (narrow) hips will have difficulty in childbirth. Hanada ken aammod ya adida pihday bang-al di babuy hi u-unga te hay kanan da ya adida maam-ama weno main-ina ya humakit di bang-al da. The old folks prohibit the young people from eating the hip part of the pig because they say they will suffer backache if they do. Sim: tim-uy, tipa. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2sta. to have wide hips. Namag-al hi Jose yaden lalaki. The hips of Jose are wide yet he is a man. na‑.

bangkuwa sta. to arise and get out of bed. Nabangkuwa nan patul. (Daniel 6:19) The king arose/got out of bed. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

banglu (fr. var. bangbanglu) 1sta. to be fragrant; aromatic; smell sweet. Nabanglu nan hinamal an nabayu. The pounded rice smells good. Maid di bangluna te nakleng It has no fragrance because it is withered. na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 2.3.4 - Smell.) 2proc. to become fragrant. Bumanglu nan bulwatim hin balbalam. Your dress will become fragrant if you launder it. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: hayumuhum. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. id. maid moy bangluna

banguy sta. for something to be bent. Nabanguy ik-ikingngan ku. My little finger is bent. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: bak’uy, yaku, baking, killu. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.5 - Bend.)

bao₁ sta. to be an abandoned house; describes the state, not the action of abandoning. Pinhod mun e mihdi dih nabaon bale? Do you want to live in that abandoned house? ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.)

bao₂ 1trans. to cool something that is too hot, e.g. food, an electrical appliance, metal being formed. Baawom nan kape te maka-atung. Cool your coffee because it’s very hot. The coffee will become cool later. Nabao nan hinamal an nidadaan. The cooked rice that was set on the table cooled off. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 8.3.4 - Hot.) 2proc. to cool off; the process of cooling. Bumao nan kape hi andai. The coffee will become cool later. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3sta. cool. Opwatom nuppe nan hinamal, akudom hi ligau ta madibdiban ta mababao. Remove the pot from the fire, ladle out the rice into a winnower so the air will help to cool it. ma‑/na‑. pab-owon

bat’ag sta. 1bananas that are not ripened properly; the bananas develop hard, darkened parts. Mabatag nan nipal-um te kotol. The bananas will not ripen properly because it’s cold. ma‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.) 2to be dried-up, hard fruit due to improper ripening or insects which suck the moisture; discoloration on skin may be evidence of the condition. Nabatag nan tabuyug an emi kanon. The pomelo we were going to eat is dried-up. general: Normally bananas are the only ones which are mabatag; for other fruit they are described as makuti. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano .

bati₁ sta. to be without heir; heirless. Nabatih tulang mi. Our brother died without an heir. na‑. Sim: butin. (sem. domains: 2.6.3 - Birth.)

batok 1comm. stripes; streaks; printed design. Sim: dago, balangat; Sim: lihha. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.4 - Pattern, model.) 2sta. to be striped; to be tattooed. Nabatokan di taklena. Her arms are tattooed. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

batung’ul 1comm. disease of fowls affecting the eyes. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick, 1.6.1.2 - Bird.) 2sta. to have eye sores. Nabatungul day manuk ku. My chickens eye infections. ma‑.

bayag 1sta. a long time. Nabayag di nundalanan mi ot ahi kami dumatong. We walked a long time before we arrived. Adika makabayyag nah pangitud-akak ke he-a te mabayag ka ke man ya tayanan daka. Do not be a a very long time where I will send you because if you stay there long, we will leave you. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: ehem, uhup. (sem. domains: 8.4.2.2 - A long time.) 2duration of an activity. 2.1intrans. for someone to take a long time in doing an activity. Adi mumbayag ya ume da. It will not take long and they will go. Adi mumbayag hidiyen at-attona. He will not continue for a long time in that which he is doing. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. to take a long time in accomplishing a specific task with the task cross-referenced by the affix. Adim baybayaggon nan at-attom. Do not take so much time in what you are doing. Deket waday insapata yu ya mahapul an adiyu baybayaggon. If you have vowed to do something, it is necessary that you do not delay a long time (before doing what you vowed).. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. nabayag ph. v. adi mumbayag

bayyay sta. to be slow in walking. Nabayyay hi Jose. Jose is a slow walker. na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.)

bikkung (sp. var. bikkong) comm. small musical instrument of brass used for courting (notes are like words); wind instrument made of brass. [Old men and women may also play the instrument during lonely hours at night.] Immeh Pedro nah dolan di agamang di binabai ot e mumbikkung. Pedro went near the girls dormitory and played his bikkung. Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao

bolda 1trans. to decorate something with ornamental needle work; to embroider something. Boldaam nan bulwatin tulang mu. Embroider the dress of your sister. Bumolda kah iha-ad ku nah kuwartu. Embroider something that I will place in the room. Makakkaphod di binoldaan Fely. Fely’s embroidery is very beautiful. Naboldaan hi maingit nan bulwatina. Her dress was embroidered in red. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an,‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2intrans. to embroider as an activity. Mumbolda da nadan u-ungan binabai. The young girls are embroidering. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: burda.

buttiki 1comm. the calf of the leg. Mahakit tun buttikik kinali intaggek. My calf aches that is why I lifted it up. Adi maphod nan ongngal di buttiki, immam-a na hanadan binabai. It’s ugly to have big calves, more so for a woman. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.2 - Leg.) 2sta. to have a pronounced calf. Nabuttikiyan te dimmanallanan. She has a pronounced calf because she has been walking a lot. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

dahuy sta. to be disabled, legs are disabled in some way, causing difficulty in movement; to be lame. Nabayag an nundogo ot ahi madahuy. He was sick a long time before he became lame. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 2.5.4 - Disabled.)

em pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 1; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is not cross-referenced by rhe affix on the verb. Em iayag din binabait mid-um tudah udum an binabai. Call those women to be added to these other women. Em gaudan di payo taku. Go spade our rice field. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

habad trans. to encounter misfortune by chance. Hinabad na on pumate. He chanced to encounter a killer. (was killed) Adita munhilhilong ta maid di habadon hi gulu. One should not be going out at night so as to avoid encountering misfortune. Nganne kattog bo tuwen hinabad mu. Oh! what a thing to encounter again. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.)

habal 1comm. swidden planted area on mountain slopes, usually planted with sweet potatoes or other tubers. Gattuk di nitanom nah habal da. Their swidden plot is planted with sweet potatoes. Sim: baung, uma. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture.) 2trans. to prepare a swidden plot or to plant in a swidden plot. Habalan yu nan luta yu ot maid at-atton yu. Make a swidden plot on your land anyway you are not doing anything. Nganney inhabal yu? What did you plant in your swidden? Gattuk ya gahhilang di inhabal mi. We planted sweet potatoes and corn in a swidden plot. Ambilog di hinabalan da te mahlu da. They made a wide swidden because they are industrious. Munhabal kah gattuk. Make a swidden plot for sweet potaotes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑.

igot 1comm. a cloth used as a sanitary napkin, used during menstruation. Hinanotana di igot na. She changed her napkin. 2intrans. to use a sanitary napkin or cloth. Adida mo mun-igot di binabaid uwani. Women now do not use sanitary cloths. muN‑/nuN‑.

ina₃ (sp. var. inah) intrans. 1(prim) to get up from a lying or sitting position; to arise; to stand up. Umina ka ni-an ta guyudok tun ubunam. Please get up so that I can move your seat. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Change of position. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2(sec) to recover from illness; to get well. Tipet nabayag hi inam hi hospital ya ugge pay immina. Why is it that your mother was in the hospital for a long while and she has not yet recovered. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy.)

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

iwe intrans. 1to be independent from parents; married couples to live independently from parents. Immiwe da Pedro ke Maria. Pedro and Maria are living independently from their parents. Nabayag dan nun-ahawa yaden ugge da ni-an immiweh. They have been married a long time now and yet they are not yet independent from their parents. Maphod di umiwe ta hin nalahin ta. It’s proper and fitting to live separately (from parents) when married. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. 2to live alone, separated from family or others. [It is unusual for anyone to live alone in Ifugao society.] Immiweh Mattimah baleda. Maxima lives alone in their house. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

kaban₁ 1comm. a measure of rice; a container with 50 kilos of rice. Deket kalyon day ohan kaban an boga on limay pulun kilo kinali hingkaban di upuwon dah ohan bulan. If they say one container of rice is fifty kilos that is why one container is what they consume in one month. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure, 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. refers to a container that has been filled with 50 kilos of rice. Kinaban di gattangonah boga te dakol da. He buys rice by the kavan-container because there are many of them. ‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

kabaut trans. to grasp something with hands. Adim kabauton nan hinamal te madang-o. Do not grasp the rice with your hands because it will spoil. Kinabaut na nan dotag nah banga. He grasped for the meat inside the pot. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.4 - Hold.)

kahon 1comm. wooden box; crate. Ipal-um mu nan balat nah kahon. Ripen the bananas in the wooden box. Ihaad mu nan ukkon nah kahon. Place the puppy inside the wooden box. Sim: kaban. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place in a box. Nikahon nan impaalin tulang ku yaden binukatan yu pay. The one sent by my sister was placed in a box and yet you still opened it. Pun-ikahon yu datuwe ta ahi taku munlugan. Put these in boxes before we ride. Dahdi boy nangikahon an uggek binilang. Who again put it in the box when I did not count it? Naane bulwatim te ingkahon mu nabayag. Your clothes have been eaten by termites because they have been in a box for a long time. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, puN‑ i‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3A Move and position at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.6 - Put in.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: caja. der. kinahon

kalatyaw comm. a lowland machete with a carabao horn handle. Kalatyaw di inalanan e nanabal. He used the lowland machete to cut down banana trees. Sim: pinahhig, tabas. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kami pers. we exclusive; first person, plural, exclusive pronoun; member of Set 2 subject; cross-referenced by verbal affix. Maid kami hidi handi hilong. We were not there last night. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. Luckily there were many rides so that we could go. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

kamison 1comm. a chemise; a slip, full or half body. E gimmatang hi kamison na. She went to buy herself a chemise. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a chemise. Hay da binabai di mungkamison. It is the women who wear a chemise. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: camison.

kay-ahan (comp. of anhan) advpred. an expression indicating that someone feels relief about the end of something that has taken a long time. Kay-ahan ya magibbu dan iskul. Finally, they will finish their studies. Nabayagak an nunho-ho-od ot innang an eyak ume, mu kay-ahan ya immali. I waited a long time and almost left but he finally came. Anusam, kay-ahan ya pumhod ka kaya. You must endure, finally (soon) you will surely get well. Modality. (sem. domains: 3.4.1 - Feel good.)

kina- 1mod. this prefix expresses the concept of a quality or characteristic being inherent or evident. Hi Apu Dios ya impatibo na kinaDios na. As for God, he has shown his Godness. Bumobboh-ol damdama ke dadiyen tulun gayyum Job te uggeda kinabaelan an hinumang hi Job hi ustu ta kay mo hi Apu Dios di nihalla an bokon hi Job. (Job 32:3) He was also very angry with Job’s three friends because they did not have the ability to adequately answer Job so that it was like God was mistaken, not Job. Deket mundama kayun tulang mu wenu hay udum an tatagu ya adi nalgom di kalyon hi kinagaga-iho da. When you quarrel with your brother/sister or other people, don’t tell about their evil. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.) 2dervN. the prefix derives a noun. Impakiala da nadan limmu da ya am-in di kinadangyan da. They got their property and all of their riches. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)

kulkulung comm. refers to the cricoid cartilage of the larynx; Adam’s apple. Maid di kulkulung di binabai. Women do not have an Adam’s apple. (sem. domains: 2.1.1 - Head.)

kumbaba 1intrans. to humble oneself. Mungkumbaba ka te he-ay nabahulan. Humble yourself because you are the one at fault. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 4.3.2.2 - Humble.) 2caus. to cause oneself to be humble. Hanadan tatagun ipakumbaba day adol da ya umamlong da. As for the people who humble themselves, they will be happy. ipa‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

lag’at 1trans. to involve others; include others. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Do not involve the women. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 4.2.1 - Come together, form a group.) 2pass. to be included or involved in a group. Maphod key pangat di tagu ya ahi milaggat ke Apu Dios. If a man is good, he will be included as a member of God’s group. Adika mih-up dih mundadama te milagat ka. Don’t go near those who are fighting because you might be involved/affected. mi‑/ni‑.

laggat trans. to include with others; to involve someone. Adim ilaggat nadan binabai. Don’t involve the women. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: gappat, hayyup, lak-am, lanud, sakup. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.6 - Participate.)

lappu (sp. var. lapu) 1advpred. to start an activity; to begin something. Ilappum nan dasal taku. You start our prayers. Dahdiy nangilappu nah nundadama? Who started the trouble? i‑/iN‑, nangi‑. Time. Sim: lugin. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.1 - Start something.) 2sta. to be source of; come from. Nalpudda Manila nakugab. They came from Manila yesterday. Wada boh Abe an nalpuh tud Nabagtu. There is also this Abe who came from Nabagtu. ma‑/na‑. 3comm. beginning Maid di lappuna. It has no beginning. 4intrans. one who ritually begins the seasonal ricefield work. Hi Aguinaya di munlapu. Aguinaya is the starter. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) infl. mipalpu infl. nalpu infl. palpu n. ph. handih lappuna

mabaal (infl. of baal) intrans. to voluntarily take sides with someone in a fight; to be aroused to action. Nabaal ot ya abuwan hi Jose nah nundamaan da Pedron Pablu. Jose voluntarily helped Pedro when they fought with Pablu. ma‑/na‑.

mahmahdom (infl. of hodom) comm. refers to the end of the day and the beginning of night when it is becoming dark; dusk; evening. Deket mahmahdom on nunnaba da ta manayo da. In the evenings, they play the gongs and dance. CVC‑. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.)

manayo (infl. of tayo) intrans. to dance. Deket mahmahdom on nunnaba da ta manayo da. In the evening, they play the gongs and dance. maN‑.

mid-uman (infl. of udum) sta. to join with others. Mid-umak nah ibbak an binabai. I will join (lit. be added to) my female companions. mi‑ ‑an/ni‑ ‑an.

muN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, durative time aspect; it cross-references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Mungngahngahak yaden mungkaliyak hi bale mi. I gasped for breath and yet I shouted at our house. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. An mun-in-inop ka? Inid-onah nunhina-ob an pukol ku. “Are you dreaming?” She held me by my shoulders. 2non-past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occuring with a transitive verbal root, cross-references subject. Dakol kami an naamung nah plaza an munhood kamih lugan. Many of us gathered at the plaza to wait for a ride. Ta mundadaan dah ibaddang dan hiya. So that they will prepare whatever they will give to help. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes non-past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross-references the subject. Deket palhu di pangiha-angam, mahapul an uggan mu ikiwa ta mun-iingngoy lutu na. If a skillet is used, it is necessary to stir the rice from time to time so that it will be cooked evenly. Mumpaypaytuk ya mungkuli. She was jumping up and down and screaming. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places (becoming dark) or in trees with thick, leafy branches. Deket dakol di binokbok na ya mapul-ukan an mumpait. When too much binokbok-yeast is used, the wine will become bitter. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes non-past tense and cross-references the subject. Ya pinhod ot Mayor ya dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo. What the Mayor wanted was that many women would wear the Ifugao skirt. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They prepare rice and make wine. Adina itikod an mumbaki te wadanwaday takut na an kumpulmin tiempu ya mate. He does not stop doing the rituals because his fear is that he might die at anytime. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, reflexive and cross-references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day (bathe yourself). Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid themselves outside of the camp.

nadan (nan) det. the plural form of the determiner nan; the form marks either a grammatical subject or object that is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb; the noun referent is definite or specific. Ipabaul mu nadan buding. You cause those birds to be driven way. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Don’t involve those women. hanadan

nuN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense and durative time aspect; it cross references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Nip-ot bo te nundogo ot mate. To top it all off, he fell sick and died. Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is as good for nothing without education (lit. have not learned) and without a job. 2past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occurring with a transitive verbal root, cross references subject. Nuntudokak ke hiya nimpe. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross references the subject. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes past tense and cross references the subject. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes past tense and cross- references the subject. Man-ut nun-iskul mu ingganah grade four ya abu. He took formal education to grade four only Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. 6the prefix encodes past tense, reflexive and cross references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Indani ya naatu da nin nundopap. After a while maybe they were tired of grappling with each other.

ot₃ adjunct. an optative modal expressing a wish, hope or desire. Ya pinhod ot Mayor an dakol day binabain mun-ampuyo What the Mayor wanted was that women would dress in the Ifugao skirt Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.5 - Uncertain.)

pahyal (sp. var. pasyal) 1intrans. to take a walk without a specific destination or purpose; to stroll. Etaku munpahyal hidi nah shrine. Let us go take a walk to the shrine. Ipahyal mu tun ungad nabagtu ta adi umi-ingle. Take this child to the town center for a stroll so that he will not be bored. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2trans. to visit. Mumpahyal dad Lagawe. They are going to Lagawe for a visit. Pahyalom nadan inap-apum te pun-ibaga daka. Visit your grandchildren because they are asking for you. Pumahyal ka hi bale mi damdama. Visit our house also. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑. Sim: ay-ayyam, hungdu. (sem. domains: 4.2.1.4 - Visit.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: pasyal.

pantalon 1comm. pants. Iusar mu nan balun pantalon mu hantu graduation yu. Use your new pants on your graduation day. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to wear pants. Mumpantalon ka hin umalikad nabagtu. Wear pants when you come to the town center. Ipantalon mu nan ka-gattang. Use the newly bought pants. Pantalonan yu nan golang te maktol. Have the child wear pants because he feels cold. muN‑/nuN‑, i/‑in‑‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

pilaan (der. of pila) nom. a space for the lining up of people or things, e.g. public utility vehicles for loading of passengers; a place for people to line up to be served at a feast; a place for a queue. Ad nabagtu di pilaan. The parking space for public vehicles is in the town center. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

puluy 1comm. direction. Munpa-ed dawa di puluy nan dibdib. The direction of the wind was towards the west. 2trans. to move in a certain direction. <The direction component is so important, it makes the verb transitive.> Nalakan inilaon nan puluyon di dibdib hin waday kaiw an pangiang-angan. It’s easy to know the direction of the wind if there is a tree by which we can see it. Inipluy nadan binabaih kad-an mi. The women came in our direction. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/ini‑.

puy-uk intrans. to flow out freely, referring to water. Mumpuy-uk di liting nan ob-ob. Water is flowing freely from the spring. Makappuy-uk nan ek tinudde ta pakappinpinhod di binabain pun-amhan. The water flows freely from the bamboo tube I placed so that the women enjoy bathing there. muN‑/nuN‑, maka‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 1.3.2 - Movement of water.)

tayuktuk sta. to be talkative; describes a garrulous person. Adik pinhod an maki-kieh binabain natayuktuk. I don’t want to mingle with women who are talkative. na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. Sim: tetet. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

tudah dem. these; the shortened form of the demonstrative pronoun hantudah. Em ayag din binabait mid-um tudah udum an binabai. Go call those women so that they will be included with these other women. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) hantudah

yaden deman ot conj. this phrase is a combination of conjunctions and adjuncts that connect two clauses; it combines the idea of contraexpectation or contradiction related to the first statement, along with the emphatic modal idea that the truth of the second statement should be obvious; and yet, see there; instead, see there. Kay makaphod di aton da ya kalyon da yaden deman ot an gaga-ihoy wadah nomnom da. (Psalm 26:4) It is as though what they do and say is very good, and yet, see there, what is in their mind is bad. Kay makakullug an makaphod da yaden deman ot an hauhaulon da nadan nabalun binabait pun-ala day limmu da. (Mark 12:40) It is as though they are truly very good, instead see there, they are deceiving widows so that they can get their property. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.3.3 - Contradict.)