Search results for "nada"

adinadama (comp. of adi, nadama) negpred. predicates that an action or event cannot be done or cannot happen; it is impossible. Adinadama bon magatang. It cannot be bought. Adinadaman eda umed uwani They can’t possibly leave now./It’s impossible for them to leave now. Adinadaman hituy pangatan mi. It is impossible that this is what we’ll do. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.9 - Impossible.)

binadayan comm. gin, may also be used as a generic term for liquor other than rice wine. Dakol nan binadayan an nipainum dih kasal. There was plenty of gin served at the wedding. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.7 - Alcoholic beverage.)

Hagoho di hakdol di kakinadangyan a ritual to protect the health and wealth of a family. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.4 - Religious ceremony.)

hanadah (nadah) dem. those; the plural form based on hanah, a member of Set 2 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific group of people or things. Daanay nangipaayan da hanadah dakol an tagu. Where did they send all those people? Ta hidiye nan lebbengnan munpasalamat dan APU DIOS gapuh ongal pamhod na ya gapun dakol hanadah umipamodwong an inatnan kiphodan da. (Psalm 107:15) Therefore, it is right that they thank God for his great love and for those many miracles he did for them. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hanadan (nadan) dem. those; the plural form of hanan, a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things. Dahdi da hanadan nungkanta? Who were those who sang? Inayagak hanadan iibak ta munhuhummangan kami. I called for those relatives of mine so that we can have a talk. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

Hay uya-uy di puntopong hi kinadangyan di ohan tagu. (say. of kadangyan) The uyauy prestige feast is the yardstick of a man’s wealth. (sem. domains: 6.8.1 - Have wealth.)

kinadallom (der. of dalom) nom. the distance from the surface of something to its bottom; depth. kina‑. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.5 - Deep, shallow.)

korsonada 1comm. infatuation; crush; to have strong feelings about someone. Korsonada daka. I have a crush on you. (sem. domains: 4.3.3 - Love.) 2trans. to intend to do something bad to someone. Korsonadaan dakan nadah tatagu di hin athinay at-attom. The people there will have bad intentions towards you if you do not change your ways. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: corsonada.

manada trans. to copulate, animals or poultry; to mate with. Manadaon nan poltan nan uppa. The rooster will mate with the hen. Minanadan nan laki nan laban ahu. The male dog mated with the female dog. Nan babuy an mangitit di nummanada nah babuy ku. It was the black pig that mated with my sow. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: puli; Syn: polot. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry, 1.6.4 - Animal actions.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: manada. der. manador

nada demonstrative. plural with third person definite reference; shortened form of hanada. Nadan u-ungay paunnaon mun pakanon. Feed those children before hand. Nada bon dakol an ibbada ya nalpu da kanuh Malacanang. As for those, their many companions, it is said, they came from Malacanang.

nadah (nah) det. the plural form of the determiner nah; marks grammatical objects that are not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Kay natangan mangang-ang nadah duddutin muntayyapan. It was the first time that she watched dragonflies flying around. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts in strategic places. hanadah

nadama (der. of damana) advpred. refers to something that is possible or states that someone is able to do something. Hay oha bo ya adi nadaman ena itikod an mummogmog hi manuk ni-mo. Another reason is that he cannot stop raising chickens. Modality. comp. adinadama

nadan (nan) det. the plural form of the determiner nan; the form marks either a grammatical subject or object that is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb; the noun referent is definite or specific. Ipabaul mu nadan buding. You cause those birds to be driven way. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Don’t involve those women. hanadan

nadandani (der. of dani) advpred. refers to indefinite intervals of time related to actions or events. Nadandani on immalih tu. Every now and then, he comes here. Nadandani on ingkiwam ta gagalan mabao. Now and then, stir it (the rice) so that it will cool quickly. Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. ma‑/na‑. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.6.6.2 - Sometimes.)

nadanuman nan bale (id. of danum) an idiom that implies that although a lot of water was used to put out a fire, the house was completely destroyed by fire (lit. the house was watered).

polot intrans. to copulate, mating of animals. Numpollot nan ahu yu ya nan ahumi. Your dog and our dog mated. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Syn: manada. (sem. domains: 1.6.4 - Animal actions.)

puli₂ 1comm. a race or strain of man or breed of an animal. Maphod an puli nan manuk na. The breed of his chicken is good. 2trans. to breed animals. Nan ongal an laki di banhom ta puliyana tun babuy taku. Borrow the large pig so that it will crossbreed with our pig. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: manada. (sem. domains: 6.3 - Animal husbandry.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

‑an₂ TACR. this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; it encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with a site semantic role. Indani ya- ena kanu iuduk onno mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on the books Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Adugan yu nan ihda te ibtik nan puha. Guard the viand because the cat will run off with it. Wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut nunhituwan mid Longnga. There was a person who saw him and helped him to return to where we were staying in Longnga. Sim: ‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

‑in‑₁ TACR. 1this infix is the default affix of Class 4 verbal roots; past tense; punctiliar aspect, cross references an object with a patient semantic role. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal We saw that what was prepared for us were two basins of rice Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think well enough about what they will do. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your spare time in the library. Sim: ‑on. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this infix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an object with a path or destination semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 1B movement verbal roots. 3this infix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross references an object with an experiencer semantic role when it co-occurs with Class 2C emotion and sensation verbal roots. 4this infix derives a verb from a noun; past tense; cross-references the object. An inapatut nan apatut ku? Did you wear my shoes? Pinatlattug da on hamuti. They shot a bird.

‑on TACR. 1this suffix is a default affix for Class 5 verbal roots; encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; cross-references the patient-object. Pinhod mun inilaon di Manila. Do you want to know about Manila? Handi pinghanan umeyak hidi ya kalyok on matalakak. When I went there for the first time, I thought I would get lost. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom. You should already prefer to read informative books. Sim: ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9 - Grammar.) 2this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an object that is either a path or destination. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. Nundodollop dat eda hogpon hidiyen kuwantel di Ippangyol. They became allies to enter the camp of the Spanish. 3this suffix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and cross-references an object that is an experiencer. 4this suffix derives a verb from a noun. Hukapona ya- hiya peman an dumangdang nan no; toan an kay tubung. He covered it and yes, it really can give heat; what I don’t know, it’s like a tube. Mangin-innum da moy tagu ya hamulon da nan ongngal an nuwang an makalin hidug. After the free-for-all rice-throwing, the people go on with the merrymaking, drinking and feasting on a big carabao called a hidug. general: Both of the above sentences are from texts. The first is from a text about a kerosene heater, and the second is from a text about the hagabi-bench and the celebration associated with it. pa- -on

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

‑um‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a non-past tense process and cross-references a specific object. Ya hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. And the most important thing is to spend (your money) on those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Oha bo ya nakalligat di pumalattugan. Another reason is, their guns were hard to shoot (not automatic). Bumanidbidak hi liblu nah bakasyon. I do nothing but read books during vacation. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2non-past tense, reciprocal action. Pumanuddugan da yaden nahuyop hi inada. They keep running after each other while their mother is asleep.

aamm’od (infl. of ammod) comm. 1elders; ancestors; forefathers. [The traditional religion has been based on beliefs handed down by the Ifugao ancestors.] Hanadan aammod takuy nangapyah payo handih done. It was our ancestors who made the rice fields long ago. Hay pangi-e takud uwani ya nipuun hi pangi-en di aammod taku handi. Our ways today are based on the ways of our ancestors. Apu, damanan tontonom hanadan aammod ku? Grandfather, can you trace my ancestors? (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2those who give birth to next generation; parents. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was evidently not in good health. So he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place.

abu 1adv. (prim) an adverb that limits and minimizes whatever concept that it modifies, e.g. an action, process, number, emotion. <Morphology: Derivation and compounding are common word formation processes with this morpheme.> Ha-on ya abu di ume. I only will go. Hanada ya abu makahhapul muy gatangom. Spend only for things that you really need. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us was only two basins of rice. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: ampod. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.) 2adv. (sec) an expression of restriction or limitation. Abu moh nae! Stop that! Abu moy kumodokodoh pihhu. Enough of your begging for money! 3trans. can become a derived verb that cross-references an object. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. comp. abuna comp. adin-abu comp. ot ya abu der. ab-abbu der. abuwan der. abuy

abul trans. to drive away, e.g. small animals, birds. Abulon yu nadan manuk ta adida kanon nan page. Drive away those chickens so that they will not eat the rice. Imme dan mun-abul hi buding. They went to drive away the rice birds. Dahdiy e mun-abul hi payo ad uwani? Who will go to drive away (the rice birds) in the ricefield today. Eyak mun-abul hi buding hi payo. I am going to drive away the rice birds in the fields. Abulom nan manuk ta adi na kanon nan boga. Drive the chicken away so it won’t eat the rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, dulun, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)

ad-adi (der. of adi) advpred. evaluates and describes something as bad or awful. Hi ke aman din hi Dulawan ya waday ad-adin inat di bumdang ke hiya. As for my late father, Dulnuwan, he had a very bad experience with the bumdang-spirit. Ad-adiy nangiha-ad na nadah karga. He didn’t place the baggage in an orderly way. Hay punnomnom ku tuh liblu ya ad-adi. As for my thinking about the book, it was awful. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.1 - Bad.) infl. ad-adiyon

adal trans. to learn; generally refers to a formal mode of learning rather than the traditional mentoring or modeling mode. Adalom an munha-ang. You should learn to cook. Mun-an-anlah inadan nangngol an dakol di inadal da. Their mother was happy to hear that they had learned so much. Man-uke kanak hidiye ya adalon dan mumbaki nah eda pundongdongollan ya abu. The reason I say that is that they learn to recite the rituals and prayers by listening only. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.2.2 - Learn.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: aral. infl. adalon infl. maadal infl. naadalan

adawwi (infl. of dawwi) adj. to be far away from a given point. Takon di bumtik da ya adida maatu ya takon di adawwiy danadallon da ya adida mahalangob. (Isaiah 40:31c) Even when they run, they will not be tired and even if they walk a long way they will not grow faint. a‑. Dimension quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.5.2.6 - Away from.)

adi maboblayan sta. this phrase refers to an uninhabited and uncultivated area; wilderness. Ot bumtik da nah adi maboblayan ta ibtikan da nadan tindalun di holag Israel, mu pindug da dida ot patayon da dida. (Hanadan Huwes 20:42) And so they ran away toward the wilderness, running away from the soldiers, the descendants of Israel, but they chased them and they killed them. (sem. domains: 9.4.6.1 - No, not.)

adi manghop (ph. v. of ngohop) . implies that a person has a desire that is unlikely to be fulfilled, but continues to have hope; fits the English saying ‘to hope against hope’. {The Christian Bible references are given for the purpose of encouraging research as to how this phrase is used in a story context.} Adi manghop hi Juan an emun-adal. John is not without the desire/hope to go and study. Hidiyen babai ya adi manghop ot mundukkun hi hinangngab na. (Matthew 15:25) That woman, she did not lose hope and so she knelt before him. Mu hi David ya adi manghop. (1 Samuel 17:34) But as for David, he did not lose hope. Kapyanan wadada nadan adi manghop. As expected, there were those who did not lose hope. Nanongnan adi kayu manghop. You still did not lose hope. (sem. domains: 3.2.7.1 - Hope.)

agalin 1pass. to transfer; a process of change. Adim ikamo nan maingit an bulwati nah mabayak te maagalinan. Do not mix the red dress with the white because the color will transfer. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3.6 - Change color.) 2trans. for one person to influence another, particularly used in a negative sense. Hay gaga-ihon tagun takon di ohana ya mabalin an agalinana nadan udum. A bad person, even if he is the only one, can influence others. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.4.2 - Use a person.)

agang hungry. 1.1sta. to be hungry; non-agentive cause of hunger is exertion, work, time. Maagangan da nadan mungngunu. Those working will be hungry. Naagangan te ugge nangan dih biggatna kinali immanamut hi gagala te maal-aliwot hi inagang na. She was hungry because she didn’t eat breakfast; that’s why she went home early because she was feeling dizzy from her hunger. Idadaan yu ta mangan da te naagangan da. Prepare (the food) so that they can eat because they are hungry. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6A Physiological states. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.5 - Hungry, thirsty.) 1.2proc. to become hungry; the process is in view. Immagang. I have become hungry. Umanamutak te imma-agang. I’ll go home now because I have become very hungry. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. maagangan

agid trans. to sharpen to a point, e.g. wood, sticks, rattan strips. [The end of rattan strips are sharpened for weaving baskets.] Nipniphod an naagidan nan patanong nan am-ama. The walking stick of the old man was nicely sharpened. Inagidan Pedro nan uwe. Pedro sharpened the point of the rattan strips. Mun-agid nadan u-ungah uwe. The children are sharpening the tips of the rattan strips. Umagid kah bilau ta puntobong. Sharpen some canegrass sticks for spits. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. Class 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

agtu carry. 1.1trans. to carry something on head. [Women are usually the ones who carry things on their heads.] Iagtu na nan bintok nan page. She will carry the bundle of palay on her head. Agtuwon yu nadan page. Carry the palay on your head. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. Sim: pah-on. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) 1.2trans. to carry an indefinite object or some of an indefinite object on head. Mun-agtuh bulhe hin dumayyu. She will carry beans on her head when she comes down. Umagtu kah page. Carry some rice on your head. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) id. ammunay uluk an in-agtuk id. In-agtunay langkak na.

ah’in 1comm. salt. Ialim nan ahin ta ahinak tun ihda. Bring me the salt and I will salt the viand. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.3 - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to add salt to something. Ahinan yu nan ihda. Salt the viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3intrans. to give salt to an animal. He-ay mun-ahin nadah baka. You will be the one to give salt to the cows. muN‑/nuN‑. 4nom. salt container. [The tubung bamboo container was formerly used to store salt.] Ihaad mu nan ahin nah pun-ahinan. Put the salt in the salt container. puN‑ ‑an.

ahenten comm. those who trade and do business. Gintang nadan ahenten hi silber. Those traders bought silver. (sem. domains: 6.9.4 - Commerce.)

ahi₁ 1asp. future time aspect verb auxiliary when co-occurring with a non-past tense verb; there is also a modal component, i.e. a determination or an intention to act or a certainty that something will happen component. {This form is used primarily in clauses expressing time sequences having purpose or prediction.} <This form occurs before the verb; pronouns become enclitics> Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaippaptok am-in. Perhaps the next time, it will be well-planned. Ahitaku bo ume. We shall go again. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangmung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2asp. encodes a sequential aspect of events encoded in the verbs when co-occurring with past tense verbs; before. <Occurs preceding the second event verb in a sentence.> Ne dinanuman ta ingganay lumuwag ya ahi inha-ad nadan udum an midum. Then, add water and bring to boil before adding the other ingredients. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It is night before it comes out to fly around. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a pagan priest has to perform a ritual to make him well (before he will be well). comp. ta ahi

ahi₂ dervN. time-of; season-of; compounds with verbs to indicate important event times. Mun-uubbu hanadan tatagu te ahigabut. The people will share-work because it is the season for cleaning ricefields. Ahi taku umeh did bobleh ahiani. We will go to the barrio during the harvest season. Spec: ahiani, ahibungaan, ahigabut, ahigaud, ahihagophop, ahikotolan, ahikulpi, ahilai, ahipaad, ahipuwok, ahitul-u, ahitunod, ahikagokoh, ahiadug. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) ahiudanan comp. ahiadug comp. ahiani comp. ahibakle comp. ahibungaan comp. ahigabut comp. ahigaud comp. ahihagophop comp. ahihopnak comp. ahikagokoh comp. ahikotolan comp. ahikulpi comp. ahilai comp. ahilida comp. ahitul-u

ahikotolan (comp. of kotol, ahi) nom. cold season during the months from November to February. Mabuut bo nadan bulhe hanatuh ahi kotolan. The beans will be moldy during the cold season. Oh-oha day munhawwangan te ahi kotolan. There are very few roaming around because it’s the cold season. Dakol day mate nah ahikotolan, namam-a nadan aam-ama ya iin-ina. Many die during the cold season, especially old men and old women. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

akdang (sp. var. akkang) 1comm. a stride; a pace or step. Andukkey akdang di Amerikano. Americans have long strides. (sem. domains: 7.2.1.1 - Walk.) 2intrans. to be walking rapidly. Kaakdaakdang nadan binabai. The women were striding rapidly. ka‑ CVCV‑. Sim: akad. der. hin-akdang

ako trans. 1to steal something from someone. Adiyu akawon nan manuk. Don’t steal the chicken. Eda immakoh mahapul da. They went to steal some of their necessities. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring something toward agent. (sem. domains: 6.8.9.1 - Steal.) 2the person who steals; the thief is cross-referenced by the affix. Inakhupan Santiago nan lalakin e nangako nadah manuk na. Santiago caught the man who stole his chicken. Hiya ya mangakon unga. He is a child who steals. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mangako

akuy₂ trans. to be kind to someone; to have compassion for someone, the feeling always results in giving help. Hi Maria ya inakuy na nan in-ina. Maria had compassion on the old woman. Maphod di akuyon nadan u-ungan maid di ammod da. It’s good if orphans are adopted. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: agamid. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.2 - Help.)

ala obtain. 1.1trans. to become the receiver or owner of something; get. An inalam nan agam nah butilya? Did you get your medicine from the bottle? E inalan Gaby nan lata mu dakol moy imme nadah allama. Gaby got the can but many of the crabs got away. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Move object toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.3.3.1 - Take something from somewhere.) 1.2intrans. to get a restricted quantity of something. Umala ka hi lappaw ta pun-alad ku. Get some Jerusalem artichoke so I can make a fence. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a sturdy branch or pole and to this, they tie the hagabi-bench. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3pass. for something to be gotten. Dakol di maalan mangga hidi. There’s a lot of mangoes which could be taken from there. ma‑/na‑. der. mangalana infl. maala

alana 1comm. the person who seeks revenge by prowling at night. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.5 - Revenge.) 2trans. to prowl to take revenge; hunt people for revenge; avenge; revenge seeker. [A relative of the victim of a murder goes out at night to look for someone to kill, especially a relative of the one who killed his family member.] Eda mangalana nadan iiban nan pinate da. The relatives of the slain victim are going to prowl the night to seek revenge (lit. seek the one they will kill). maN‑.

alas comm. hour. Indani ya ena imama-uwan ya maid mo nadan e nangikuyug ke hiya, an wada nin an alas kuwatro mon diye. Then, at about 4:00 a.m. he suddenly noticed that he was left alone by his abductors. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)

alayyon (sp. var. alayyun) 1comm. spinach variety; glabrous herb of goosefeet family, utricular (pouch) fruit. Dakol di alayyon nah pingngit di payo. There is plenty of spinach at the sides of the ricefields. Chenopodium Sim: amti. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) 2trans. to gather spinach. Eda mangalayyon nadan u-unga. The children are going to gather spinach. maN‑.

alig comm. 1a species of small honeybee, nests inside tree trunks in forest, also in walls inside homes; light brown striped color. Nabukal da nadan alig. The small honeybees scattered. Sim: babayung, balingog, pahok, pappahluk, iyyukan. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2honey (from this bee); considered to be second class honey. Malumiiy alig. Honey is sweet. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

altar comm. sacred table for use in religious rites. Ya nadan holag Aaron di natuddun mumpadin mangiappit bangbanglu ya nadah maghob an miappit Apu Dios nah altar. (1 Chronicles 6:49a) It is the descendants of Aaron who teach the priests to offer incense and those things to be burned as an offering to God on the altar. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Language of Borrowing: English.

aluhi-i (sp. var. haluhii) comm. algae used for fertilizing mulch mounds; floats on water, at first it’s green, then turns violet. Inamung na nadan aluhi-i ot iabono na nadah intanom na. He gathered the algae and fertilized his plants with it. (sem. domains: 1.5.4 - Moss, fungus, algae.)

aminul 1intrans. to salivate; mouth watering, especially. when induced by sour food, delicious food, or when hungry. Mun-am-aminulak handi tinibok nan mangga. My mouth watered when I saw the mango fruit. Mun-am-aminul nadan u-unga te inang-ang dakan mangan hi mangga. The childrens’ mouths were watering because they saw you eating mango. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 1E Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2 - Body functions.) 2trans. to swallow something; swallow something without chewing by allowing saliva to soak it first before swallowing. Aminulom nan agam ta waday atom an pumhod. You swallow your medicine so that you will get well. ‑on/‑in‑.

amit intrans. to climb or scale houses, trees, stonewalls; to climb expertly. Nan mun-ammitan di ayagan yun mangala nah littuku. The one who loves to climb is the one you call to gather the rattan fruit. Mun-amitan nan tagu nadah niyug. The man climbs from coconut tree to coconut tree. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. Sim: kayat, kallehke. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.4 - Move up.)

Amlag 1prop. a ritual, something is offered to the spirit of a dead relative. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2intrans. to gather clothing and other things such as ampuyo ‘skirt’, attake ‘necklace’ balko ‘belt’, coins and place them in a winnowing basket, ligau. They are then offered to a dead relative for appeasement. Mun-amlag da te mundogoh inada. They are performing the Amlag-ritual because their mother is sick. muN‑/nuN‑.

amlong happy. 1.1intrans. refers to a feeling of well-being and contentment. Mun-am-amlong nadan aammod na handih nibangngad. His parents were very glad when he returned. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑. 2C Emotion and sensation. Sim: anla. (sem. domains: 3.4.1.2 - Happy.) 1.2intrans. refers to a happy feeling at a point in time. Umamlong ka ot immalih inam. Be happy because your mother arrived. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3sta. to be happy, characterizes someone as being happy. Maam-amlong dan am-in. They are all happy. ma‑ CV(C). 1.4trans. refers to the reason for feeling happy. Adim amlongan di adi maphod. Do not be happy about bad things. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.5caus. for someone or something to cause happiness. Hin-uddum ya mangipaamlong an ang-ang-angon di plawer. Sometimes seeing flowers causes one to be happy. Hay inap-apu diday mangipa-amlong hi aammod. Grandchildren cause grandparents to be happy. mangipa‑/nangipa‑.

ammod 1comm. parents; elders; kin of parent’s generation; relatives. Handih kaittay ku ya dakol di istolyan di aammod ya nadan umali bale. When I was small, I heard many stories from older folks and from those who came to our house to visit. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2trans. to be related to. Ammodok diday iAmbabag. Those from Ambabag are my relatives. ‑on. infl. aamm’od

ammung 1comm. a group that pools their money, and then, gives loans to members. Nadan imarket ya mundadammudah kabulabulan ta punhuhummanganan day panggep nan ammung da. Those from the market place gather once a month to talk about their cooperative venture. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: ubbu, bokla, kalu. (sem. domains: 6.8.6 - Money, 4.2.1.7 - Crowd, group.) 2trans. to contribute money to a cooperative group. Iammung ku tun hinggatut. I will give this one hundred pesos as my share capital. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 4.1.2.1 - Working relationship.)

amung 1trans. to gather scattered things; to pile things together. Amungon yu nadan nag-an papel. Gather the papers which fell. Umamung kah bilau ta punlagim taku. Gather some cane sticks for us to use in singing. Mun-amung dah batu nah wangwang. They are gathering stones in the river. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: bingil, bungul, alimungmung, kampeg, panu. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.) 2pass. for people to gather in a group Maamung takuh tuh hilong ta ahi taku makilophak. Let’s assemble here tonight before we go for the vigil. Adi kayu maamu-amung hina ta amungon yu ot ya abu tudan holok. Don’t just be assembling there, but instead gather all these grasses here. Wada day naamung an tatagu nah kalata. There are people gathered in the street. ma‑/na‑.

amunna adv. to be unique in number of characteristics. Maid di udum an makiha-ad ke dakami amunna nadan duwan golang an imbabalek ya nan inayak. There were no others living with us, only my two small children and my husband.

aN- (sp. var. a-) adj. this prefix inflects adjectives that are dimension quantifiers. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is very wide and there are many people. (refers to Manila) Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a long, sturdy branch or pole and to that, they tie the hagabi-bench. Nikuyug nadah adi matibon iibbana ot adukkey danallanon da. He travelled with his unseen companions for a long way. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.)

anad trans. to peel vegetables before cooking; knife is used, also used of peeling fruit like papaya. Anadam nan gattuk. Peel the camote. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Sim: uki. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.2.1 - Remove shell, skin.)

andong 1sta. to be straight; refers to something which has the attribute of being straight, not bent or crooked Maandong nan kaiw. The wood is straight. Maka-andong nan patanong mu. Your cane is very straight. ma‑/na‑, makaC‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: linteg, limpiyu. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.3 - Straight.) 2straighten. 2.1trans. to straighten something. Andongon yu nan linya yu. Straighten your line. Inandong da nan kaiw. The straightened the wood. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 2.2intrans. refers to a reflexive action of straightening oneself. Kalyam nadan u-ungat mun-andong dan tumaddog. Tell the children to stand straight and to straighten their lines. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3trans. refers to a straightening action that quantifies the object being acted upon. Umandong ka nah gumok. Straighten some of the iron bars. 3sta. to be fair or just in judgment. Maandong di nunhumalyan nan huwes. The judge gave a fair decision. (sem. domains: 4.3.1 - Good, moral.) infl. maandong

anggak comm. loud, boisterous laughter; guffaw. Namahig di anggak nadan binabai. The women’s laughter was extremely loud and boisterous. Sim: tatawa, gegek, gigi, titit, bog-ak, halekhek, albuwang; Sim: bog-ak, halekhek, albuwang, bughak. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.4 - Laugh.)

angngal intrans. 1to compete in a contest of wealth. [A competition between two families of the same rank by providing pigs and carabao for feasts.] Nun-a-angngal day aammod nadan immuya-uy. The families of the bride and groom competed during the wedding. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. 2to intermarry, involves two rich families who arrange the marriage of their children.

anikdul intrans. to make a pounding noise on floor or walls, often done by children playing. Tipe bot mun-anikdul day u-unga? Why are the children making all that noise? Umanikdul da nadan u-unga hin ipukung yu dida. The children will make noise if you lock them up. muN‑, ‑um‑. Sim: alidogdog, alikudukud; Sim: kudu. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.)

annung intrans. 1to fulfill a wish, desire, a promise or a prophecy; to come true. Hay idut di aammod ya umannung. The curses of parents will come true. Ahi dumatong di algon annungan nadan kinalik. The day will come when what I said will come true. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2for something that is said to come true. Ahi dumatong di algon annungan nadan kinalik. The day will come when what I said will come true. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

antam intrans. sour; for something to have a sour taste. Maantam di tibona. It looks sour. Mun-antam di tamtam na. It tastes sour. Umantam te nadang-o. It is becoming sour because it is spoiled. Immantam nan ihda handi inudman dah suka. The viand became sour when they added vinegar. ma‑, muN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: lan-u, nginul. (sem. domains: 2.3.3 - Taste.)

anud carried by current. 1.1trans. to be washed/carried away by current of water. Anudon yu nadan kaiw. Let the river current carry away the logs. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: bulubul. 1.2pass. something is carried away by a current. Maanud nan golang hin mag-a. The child will be washed away by the river current if he falls. ma/na. 1.3pass. carried away Nianud nan bulwatik. My dress was carried away by the current. mi‑/ni‑.

apostoles (sp. var. aposel) comm. apostle; refers to Jesus’ companions in the New Testament. Himpulut duwa nadan apostoles Jesus. Jesus had twelve apostles. Hi Juan di ohan apostoles Kristo. Juan is one of the apostles of Christ. (sem. domains: 4.9.7.1 - Religious person.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

appil trans. to separate; to part; to set aside. Appilom nadan nabuluk an mangga. Separate the rotten mangoes. Umappil kah ihdan inam. Set aside some viand for your mother. Pun-appilom nan munpatten ahu. Separate the fighting dogs. Adi maappil nadan hintutulang. The siblings could-not/will not be separated. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.)

apu 1comm. refers to grandparent and siblings of grandparent; grandmother; grandfather; great aunt; great uncle. {The context will disambiguate the specific reference.} Inayagan apun hi Indungdung am-in nadan inap-apu na. Indungdung, my grandmother, called for all her grandchildren. Maan-anlah apuna te tinibo nay hinlun di inap-apuna. His grandfather was very happy because he saw that his grandson was industrious. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.) 2prop. may be used as a respectful address of grandparents as well as anyone of grandparents’ age. Apu, daanay pangayan ina? Grandmother, where did mother go? 3prop. respectful address of older male or authority figure; sir. Wada da Apu Paredes ya Datumanung nah stage. Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanung were on the stage together. (sem. domains: 4.5.1 - Person in authority.) comp. Apu Dios der. inap-apu der. inapu der. mun-apu

Apu Dios (comp. of apu, Dios) comm. the Christian God; the Lord God. Hi Apu Dios di nangidinolana. He entrusted it to God. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug Apu Dios ke ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of those believing in God would become ill, maybe there would be no more pagan priests. Syn: Maknongan. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

at do. 1.1trans. to do something; refers to an action. Adim aton hina. Do not do that. Atonah tuwet adi mundagan e bumudduy di ena kinan. It does this so that what it eats will not come out at once. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.) 1.2pass. was done/will be done; happened/will happen. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. That is all I have heard about that case (lit. what was done). Tinibon nan ohan nadah mungngunu ya inila na moy naat. One of the workers immediately knew what went wrong (lit. what was done). ma‑/na‑. umat der. kaatan der. pangat infl. aton infl. maat infl. mangat infl. pa-at

at-aton (infl. of aton) trans. to continually do something to a specific object or objects. Makainnila nadan maphod an at-aton da. The good things that they are doing are very well known. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.)

at’op 1comm. roof; roofing material. Hinnanotak di atop nan balemi. I changed the roof of our house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to construct a roof; to use as roofing. Iatop yu nan gulun. Roof with the cogon grass/Use cogon grass for the roof. Atopan yu nan baleda ad uwani. You are going to roof their house today. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3pass. to be roofed. Naatopan moy baleda. Their house is already roofed/has a roof. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to make a roof. Mun-atop da nadan mungngunu. The workers are constructing the roof. Umatop kayuh pun-hiduman taku. Make a roof for our shelter. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

atal 1comm. a share of meat usually cooked during a feast. Iyalim di atal ku. Give me my share. Sim: ahap. 2trans. to divide into shares; distribute meat. Iatalan yu nadan u-unga. Distribute some of the meat to the children. Deket imbango on painnatal day ihda. With the Ifugao engagement feast, the viand, particularly the meat, is distributed individually. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an, pa‑ ‑inn‑. (sem. domains: 7.8 - Divide into pieces.)

athituy (comp. of hitu, umat) advpred. it is like this, a comparative adverbial predicate used to tell someone how to do something or to make a comparison of actions or events. Tipet athituy inat mun ha-on? Why have you done like this to me. Mahapul an athituy aton yu nadah ibbam. It is necessary that you do like this to your companions. Athitu di pinhod na. She wants something like this. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2 - Compare.)

ato-aton (sp. var. atoaton) trans. to habitually do a specific thing/things. Ato-aton da nadan gaga-iho. They habitually do bad things.

awa 1comm. a natural or man-made pass between mountain ridges or trees in which a net is placed for a trap for bats. Dimmatong nah awa ot mun-iyatu. He reached the trap site and there he rested. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to trap bats with a net. Inawa da datuwe. They used a net trap to catch these. Adi maaway eruplanu. An airplane cannot be caught in a bat-net-trap. i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: tawang, hikit. 3intrans. to trap. Imme nadan linalaki dih hilong an e mun-awa. The men went last night to trap (bats). muN‑.

ayag 1trans. to call for someone or something. Ayagan yu nadan u-unga. Call for the children. Em ayagan ta mangan taku. Go call for him so that we can eat. Umayag kah ibbam. Call for someone to accompany you. Dahdiy immayag ke ha-on? Who called for me? Ot ohan algo, inayagan Malya hanadan iibana So one day, Malya called for her brothers ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 5C Goal oriented actions. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.4.1 - Call, 3.5.1.4.2 - Contact.) 2n. ritual for sickness; during this ritual the shamans shout or call the name of the dead person whose spirit is thought to be causing the sickness; gongs are also sounded as a part of the ‘calling’. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

ayup (sp. var. ayum) 1trans. to tame an animal or bird. Ayupon yu nan baka ta nadan u-ungay mangipattol. Tame the cow so that the children will be the ones to pasture it. ‑on‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 6.3.1 - Domesticated animal.) 2sta. for an animal to be tame. Maayup nan babuy. The pig is tame. ma-/na-.

ayyam 1recreation time. 1.1intrans. refers to spending recreational time with others; may be used in regard to both children and adults. 2friend. 2.1comm. playmate; friend. Immali nan ayyam ku. My friend came. Syn: gayyum. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.) 2.2intrans. to befriend someone. Ayyamon yu nadan udum an u-unga. Play with/Befriend the other children. ‑on. ayyamon. 3intrans. Adim mo painnay-ayyam te mahapul an mun-istudy kah ustu. You are not going to squander your time because you must study. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) ayyamon der. mangay-ayyam

ayyamon (ayyam) to befriend someone. Ayyamon yu nadan udum an u-unga. Play with/befriend the other children. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.1.1 - Friend.)

ayyog intrans. to mumble. Mun-ayyog nadan am-ama. The old men are mumbling. general: This refers to louder mumbling than ayyong. muN‑/nuN‑. Speech Verbs - Manner of speaking. Sim: goh-om, ayyong. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.)

ba-at (fr. var. be-et; fr. var. bayya-bat) 1comm. guava fruit or tree. Adim tagan hi kakan hi ba-at te matubol ka. Do not eat too many guavas because you might become constipated. 2trans. to gather guavas. Eda mama-at nadan u-unga. The children went to gather guavas. maN‑/naN‑.

ba-hel (sp. var. bah-el) 1comm. refers to the back side or other side of a building or place. 2trans. for something to be on the other side. Indani ya ninomnom di iba-hel na an dadiye ya iAmduntog ya iAntipolo ya nadan iBae, iAmbabag, iBayninan, iNagacadan ya iHulungan I remembered that on the other side, there are the people of Amduntog, Antipolo, Bae, Ambabad, Bayninan, Nagacadan and Hulungan

baba 1comm. refers to a place of lower elevation. Immeh baba te waday ena tibon. He went down because he went to see someone. Sim: da-ul. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.) 2intrans. to get down; to go below. Bumaba kah na. Get down from there. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3proc. the process of something becoming lower, whatever has degrees of elevation or levels. Hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblun mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. What is important is that your spending should be for those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Bimmaba day magatang. They lowered (the price) of what was being sold. 2G Processes. 4trans. (sec) to lower one’s status. i‑/iN‑.

babayung (sp. var. babbayong) comm. bumble bee; short antena in head, body seems to be wooly with yellow spots on it. Nabukal hanadan babbayung. The bumble bees have scattered. Sim: alig, balingog, pahok, pappahluk, iyyukan; Spec: pahpahluk, balingog, kamming-it, inalit. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

badang 1sta. show up in a place after a long absence. Ug-ugge ka nabadang. You haven’t shown up for a long time. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.4 - Show, let someone see.) 2intrans. to be seen every now and then. Mumbinadang ka. You show up every now and then. mun‑ ‑in‑.

Bag’ol 1prop. the Ifugao gods, deities and spirits in general; many sub-classes exist. Deket mumbaki da ya idawatan da nadan bagol hi babuy. If they perform the baki they sacrifice pigs to the gods. Idawat da nadah bagol di kalyon da nah pumbakiyan da. They offer the gods what they say in their rituals. Tobotbalona diday bagol ya aammod ta dumalay-up da. He is invoking the gods and his ancestors so that they will bless (him). (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2intrans. to perform the bagol ritual. Mumbagol da te mundogoh amana. They are performing the bagol ritual because his father is sick. muN‑/nuN‑. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture) der. mumbagol n. ph. hambal di Bagol

bag’ut (sp. var. bag-ut) 1trans. to uproot; to remove something inserted in the ground. Em baguton nadan paul an nialad. You pull out the cane that have been placed as a fence. Adim baguton nan laya. Do not uproot the ginger. Binagut da nan intanom mid nakugab. They uprooted what we planted yesterday. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 6.2.4.2 - Uproot plants.) 2dig or uproot. 2.1trans. to dig and gather root crops. Eka mumbagut ad uwani aba. Go and gather aba (a root vegetable). muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, 7.8.6 - Dig.) 2.2trans. indicates the manner in which to uproot a plant. Ibagut mun nah puuna. Uproot it by holding it at the base. i‑/iN‑. 2.3trans. encodes a partitive idea; uproot some, not all. Bumagut kah ittay an danggu. Uproot/Pull out some spring onions. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

Bagabag prop. a town in northern Nueva Viscaya. Ad Bagabag di pakimalketan nadan kompradol hi nating. It is in Bagabag where the vegetable vendors buy and sell. (sem. domains: 4.6.7.1 - Country.)

bagtutu trans. to carry someone straddling the neck; carry someone astride shoulders and the neck. [Before coffins were used for burying the dead, the body was carried in this manner to the grave.] Imbagtutun ama nan unga ot ume dad abbat an makimma nadah iibana. The father carried the child astride his shoulders and went to the neighborhood to chew betelnut with his companions. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move object with self. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.)

bak’ug 1sta. hunchbacked. Mabakug dah gagala nadan aammod an mungngunuh payo te iyuyuung da. Those parents who work the ricefields become hunchbacked because they are bent-over everyday. ma‑. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2trans. to hunch the back; slouch; bent from waist. Adim bakbakuggon te ad-adin tibon. Do not hunch your back because it is not good to look at. ‑on/‑in‑ CV(C)‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.1.8 - Bend down.)

baki 1comm. ritual, Ifugao sacrificial rite. [The traditional religion has many rites and rituals, all are classified under this generic name.] (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2nom. the shaman-priest who performs the baki. <Although the prefix muN- derives a verb, the form functions as a nominal reference, referring to the person who performs the ritual. > Mungkama-id da mo nadan nakaginnilan mumbaki ya wada ke bo ya naka-am-amma da mo ya adida mo pakabbakiy tatagud uwani te hay pangulug da mo ke Apu Dios. Priests who perform the baki ritual are becoming few and if there are any they are very old and many people nowadays don’t perform the baki because of their faith in God. Gulat na nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the believers in God become ill, there would be no more baki-priests. muN‑ . 3sta. refers to the deities or ancestors invoked in a ritual and are the recipients of the sacrifice offered. Mabaki nadan ammod na. His ancestors are invoked in the ritual. der. Mabaki der. mumbaki

bakle 1comm. rice cake or candy made of glutinous rice; usually made at the end of harvest during Thanksgiving celebration; wrapped and cooked in banana or rattan leaves. Pinay-an dah niyug nan binakle. They put coconut in the rice cake. Waday iggattang da nah Sabadu hi binakle. They sell rice cakes during Saturdays. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2intrans. to make rice cakes. Mumbakle da hi bigat. They are going to make rice cakes tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to use a specific kind of rice for making rice cakes. Ibakle da nan dayakkot. They are going to make rice cakes out of the glutinous rice. i‑/iN‑. 4participatory. to attend a harvest thanksgiving celebration. Etaku makibakle ad Nagakadan. We’ll go to Nagakadan to join the harvest thanksgiving. maki‑/naki‑. 5comm. a ritual celebrated at the end of rice harvest. Na keh ahibakle ya dakol di umalin bumaddang an mangapyah binakle ta nalutu ke ne waday punhahanggaan nadan nakibakle hi pun-am-amlongan da. When it is thanksgiving time, many come to help make rice cakes so that they will be cooked and presented for the happiness of those coming to join in the thanksgiving celebration. Sim: Alawag. comp. ahibakle der. mumbakle infl. binakle

balagbagan comm. a hanging place for things to dry; a rope or wire strung up or a long, thin piece of wood placed across an area. Maphod di waday balagbagan te nadawo di pangibalagbagan hi pinhod nan mun-ul-ulen mamag-anan. It is good to have a line because it’s ready for hanging whatever you want to dry slowly. Syn: hablayan. (sem. domains: 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.)

Balangaw prop. people from a part of Bontok area. [A place mentioned in the Hudhud.] Nikali damdama nan New Testament hi kalin nadan iBalangaw. The New Testament was also translated into the Balangaw dialect. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.8 - Family, clan.)

balbagan comm. a hanging place for things to dry; a rope or wire strung up or a long, thin piece of wood placed across an area. Maphod di waday balagbagan te nadawo hi pangibalagbagan hi pinhod nan mun-ul-ulen mamag-anan. It is good to have a line because it’s always ready for hanging for whatever you want to dry slowly.

balko 1comm. belt, may refer to anything which cinches the waist of a woman; may also refer to the traditional woven belt. Nan balkon inam di usalom. Use your mother's native decorative belt. Gen: gamgam. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear belt. Mumbalko ka ta adi mag-a nan ampuyom. You use your woven belt so that your skirt will not fall off. Balkowan yu nadan ampuyo yu. Wear the native decorative belt with your skirts. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. Spec: mayad.

ballakbak₂ comm. yellow-green winged beetle which is edible. Inamung da nadan ballakbak ot inhanglag da. They gathered the yellow-green beetles and roasted them. Sim: maabal, daldalmong, anggigiya, lingaling; Gen: anggigiya. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

balol (sp. var. balor) 1comm. refers to the value or worth of something. Kaatnay balol di ginatang mu? How much did you pay (value) for what you bought? (sem. domains: 8.3.7.9 - Value.) 2intrans. to be worth an amount. Mumbalol hi ohan gatut nan ginatang na. What he bought is worth one-hundred pesos. muN‑/nuN‑. 3sta. to be valuable; priceless. Hidiy kahamakan di namahman balituk ya nadan nabalol an batu. That is where pure gold and valuable stones are found. Nabalol di luta. A piece of land is valuable. na‑. infl. balolan

baltung 1comm. ritual in which the Ifugao shamans stamp their feet after each sentence of the ritual chant. Ingunu da nan baltung nah hogop. They perform the baltung-ritual during the hogop-ritual. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the baltung-ritual. Baltungan dah tulun babuy nan balen da Jose. They are going to perform the baltung ritual with three pigs in the house of Jose. Mumbaltung hi Jose. Jose will perform the baltung-ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑. 3comm. refers to the sound of the rapid stamping of feet. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 4intrans. to stamp one’s feet in rapid succession. [performed during the hogop ritual.] Mumbaltung da boh hilong. They are going to stamp their feet again tonight. Bumanalbaltung hanadan u-unga. The children are always stamping their feet. Mapmaphod hhi Dulyaggan ten mumbaltung. Dulaggan was very skillful when he was doing the baltung ritual. muN‑, ‑um‑.

balud₂ 1comm. refers to someone who has been arrested and placed in jail or prison; a prisoner. Am-in da nadan balud nah baludan ad Tiger Hill ya ongal di babahul da. All those prisoners in the prison in Tiger Hill were charged with serious offenses. Binumtik nan balud. The prisoner escaped. (sem. domains: 4.7.7.3 - Imprison.) 2trans. to imprison; to incarcerate. Ibalud yu nan mangako. Imprison the thief. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move object and position at site. der. baludan

baluketket (sp. var. balukitkit) trans. to sort through a pile or collection in search for something. Baluketketom nadan bulwati nah kalton ta tibon nan maingit an kamahhita. Sort through the clothes in the box to look for the red shirt. Binaluketket ku nan kad-an di bulwati te ek hamakon nan bulwatih maingit. I sorted through the clothes because I was looking for my red dress. Deyan binaluketket mun am-in ya deket waday hinamak muh kanam hi bagim. There, you have searched through everything so say if you found something that belongs to you. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.6.1 - Search.)

Banaue prop. Ifugao town. Hanada ken natdaan an Ippangyol ya hi aman Tomas Morado ad Kiangan, hi Beyer ad Banaue, hi Hora ad Bontok ya nan ohan binumtik ad Bambang. The Spaniards who survived were the father of Tomas Morado in Kiangan, Beyer in Banaue, Hora in Bontok and one who ran away to Bambang.

banbanilag (sp. var. banilag) 1comm. flame-like lights which appear, move, multiply and disappear. [It is believed that spirits are roaming around when the lights appear. The appearance of the lights is sometimes like a flame and sometimes like a smoldering torch.] Deket nahilong ya ahi matibo nadan banbanilag nah kawad-an di wangwang. When it is dark, you can see the flame-like appearnace of spirits near the river. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2intrans. to twinkle. Waday mumbanbanilag nah kad-an di ob-ob. There is something twinkling near the spring. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.3 - Light.)

bang-al 1comm. hips and upper buttocks. Ong-ongal di bang-al di binabai mu hay linalaki. The hips of women are bigger than those of men. Nan babai an ittay di bang-al na an mumpaligat an muntungo. The woman who has small (narrow) hips will have difficulty in childbirth. Hanada ken aammod ya adida pihday bang-al di babuy hi u-unga te hay kanan da ya adida maam-ama weno main-ina ya humakit di bang-al da. The old folks prohibit the young people from eating the hip part of the pig because they say they will suffer backache if they do. Sim: tim-uy, tipa. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2sta. to have wide hips. Namag-al hi Jose yaden lalaki. The hips of Jose are wide yet he is a man. na‑.

bang-ot 1trans. to put cooking pot over the fire. Ibang-ot mu nan boga. You cook the rice. (implies putiting the rice in a pot and putting the pot on the fire) Ibang-otan yu nadan mungngunu. Cook rice for those who are working. Nganney bang-otan? Nan ong-ongal an bangay bang-otan te dakol kami. What pot shall I cook with? Cook with the big pot because there are many of us. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: ha-ang, apin. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.) 2intrans. to cook food, usually thought of as rice. Mumbang-ot kah kanon hi datuwen tatagu. Cook food for these people. muN‑/nuN‑. infl. mumbang-ot

bangibang 1intrans. the ceremony of revenge; part of the ceremony is what is described as a war dance. Numbangibang day aammod Pedro. Pedro’s relatives performed the war dance. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: git’ak, him-ung. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.5 - Revenge.) 2comm. a rhythm block musical instrument; percussion instrument; the primary use is in the bangibang revenge ritual. Intungu na nan bangibang. He used the bangibang-block for firewood. Sim: gikkong. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 3trans. to perform the revenge war dance ritual for someone who has been killed. Bangibangan da nan pinate dad nakugab. They will perform the wardance for the person killed yesterday. Mumbangibang da nadan iiban nan pinalang da. The relatives of the one slain-by-machete are performing the revenge ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.) 4trans. a ritual performed to drive away rats. [Men form a possession and proceed to the next village, making noise by banging things. Eventually they perform a ritual to curse rats’ spirits.] Manuel Dulawan: Readings on Ifugao (Sense #4)

bangka₁ 1comm. the card dealer; the banker in a gambling game. Nangabak nan bangka. The dealer won. Makakulluk nan bangka kinali nunggugulu da nadan muntutugal. The man who deals the cards is a crook so there was trouble among the card players. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to bankroll a gambling game. He-ay mumbangka ot dakol di pihhu. You will bankroll the gambling game, anyway you have a lot of money. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.5 - Pay.) 3trans. what is used to bankroll a gambling game. Ibangka yu nan pihhun inapput yu. Use the money you won to bankroll a gambling game. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: banco.

bangun₂ 1intrans. to awaken and get up. Bimmangun kanuh ho- Abe ot to- mangen muntikid an umed Talih hi abung na. Reportedly, Abe awakened/got up and er...went climbing toward Talih to his hut. “Bumangun kayu mon iimbabalek, kanan inada. “Wake up, children,” their mother said. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2E Body/Physiological functions. (sem. domains: 5.7.3 - Wake up.) 2trans. to awaken someone; the affix cross-references the person being awakened. Kanan Juliey “Nganat edakami hinalaman an binangun? Julie asked, “Why did you wake us up so early?” ‑on/‑in‑. bumangun infl. bangunon

bangunon (infl. of bangun) intrans. to wake up; to shake someone awake. Bangunom nadan umeh iskul te mungkabigat mo. Wake up those who are going to school because it’s almost daylight. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 5.7.3 - Wake up.)

banhal trans. to place logs to dry and often used for benches; these are placed side by side on the ground. Inumbun nadan tatagu nah binanhal. The people sat on the logs arranged to dry. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

bannawag trans. to speak about something that has been said in confidence; spread confidential information. Adim ibannawag nadan adim lebbeng an mipainila. Don’t spread those things that are not your right to make known. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) Language of Borrowing: Keley-i Kallahan.

basketbol 1comm. refers to the game of basketball or the ball used in the game. E nun-ay-ayyam hi basketbol ad da-ul. He went to play basketball down below. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to play basketball. Mumbasketbol da nadan u-unga. The children are playing basketball. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English: basketball.

battanan 1trans. to set apart creating an interval of time or space. Battanan yuh duwan algo ne ahiyu inhaad nan kodot. Leave it for two days then place the poison. Battanam hi duwan dopa nadan tukud di alad. Put the post at intervals of two arm lengths. Mabattanan hi tulun algo on ahim kinan nan agam. Take (lit. eat) your medicine at intervals of three days./Take your medicine every three days. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time, 8.5.5 - Spatial relations.) 2intrans. to be absent on a pre-arranged date. Battanak hi duwan algo ta ahiyak umali. I will absent myself for two days.

batya 1comm. large tub or basin, usually used for doing laundry; may be made of galvanized iron, aluminum or plastic. Maphod di batya an punbalballan. A big laundry tub is good for doing laundry. Sim: palanggan, beysin. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to place something in a big tub. Ibatya yu nadan mabalbalan. Place the clothes to be washed in the big basin. Adi mibatya. It cannot be placed in the basin. i‑/iN‑, mi‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bawag trans. to pass on or spread around information. Hanan midinol an tagu ya adina ibannawag nadan adina lebbeng an mipainila. The trustworthy person will not pass on (information) that he has no right to make known. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: 3.5.2.1 - Report.)

bayyube (sp. var. bayube) 1comm. a cane-grass symbol of prohibition; no trespassing symbol. Eyak makimmah balen da Gabina ya numbayyube da ot adiyak humgop. I was going to chew betelnut at Gabina’s house but they had placed the prohibition sign so I did not enter. Adika gumawah na te neyay bayube/pudung. Don’t step into that part for there’s a keep-off sign. Sim: pudung, pile. (sem. domains: 3.5.6 - Sign, symbol.) 2trans. to prohibit an action. Bayubeyan yu nadan page nah pingngit di kalata. Put a keep-off sign on the rice grains along the path. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

bentahe 1comm. an advantage; a benefit. Ongal di bentahe na te nih-up hi kalatay baleda. He has a great advantage because his house is along the road. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.2 - Help.) 2intrans. to benefit from something done; have more advantages. Munbentahe nadan iTinoc hin miphod nan kalata da. The people from Tinoc will benefit if their road will be fixed. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

bidung 1trans. to blow air into something; to inflate something. Mumbidung nadan u-ungah bola. The children are inflating balls. Bumidung kah duwan balloon. Inflate two balloons. Bidungom nan kabuut ta ay-ayyamon nadan u-unga. Inflate the pig’s bladder so the children can play with it. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑, ‑um‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 2.2.1 - Breathe, breath.) 2pass. to be blistered; to be swollen. Nabidung nan naatungan hi taklena. The burn on my hand is blistered. Nabidung nan angan nan am-aman mundogo. The face of the sick old man is swollen. ma‑/na‑.

big’at (fr. var. bigbigat; sp. var. biggat) 1comm. the following day; tomorrow. <The co-occurring determiner hi is obligatory.> Ahika umalih bigat. You come here tomorrow. Pumtang hi bigat te dakol di bittuwon ad uwani. The sun will shine tomorrow because there are many stars now. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2proc. becoming light in the morning; dawning. Mungkabigat handih dimmatong kami. It was about to be daylight when we arrived. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts in strategic places. mungka‑. Sim: pat-al, algo, dilag, potang. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.3 - Time of the day.) der. kabigabigat der. kabigatana der. mabigat der. mungkabigat infl. nabigat

bilibili trans. to look closely at something; inspect. Bilibiliyok nadan tulun lalaki ya maid pinhod kun dida. I inspected the three men and I didn’t like any of them. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bidade, binbin, biling. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.3 - Examine.)

biling₁ comm. a game of flipping coins or cards. [Names regarding winner or loser depends on th picture on either side of the coin, e.g. a person or wing on the one centavo piece.] Naapputak nah biling. I was defeated in the heads or tails game. Mumbibiling nadan u-unga. The children are flipping cards. muN‑, maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.)

biling₂ trans. to examine something carefully; to search carefully among things in a container or things that are stacked together. Bilibilingona nadan bulawati na te waday punhamak na. He is examining closely his clothes because he is looking for something. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: bilibili, bidade, binbin. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.)

bimmoble (der. of boble) nom. inhabitants of a specific village. Nadan bimmoble di nangidadaan hi makan. It was the home-villagers who perpared the food. Diday bimmoble hitu. They are the original settlers of this place. (sem. domains: 4.6.6.5 - Politics.)

binabai (infl. of babai) comm. the plural form of woman/female. Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. Adim ilagat nadan binabai. Do not involve the women. ‑in‑. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

bine 1comm. fish roe. [caviar] Maphod di bine ad ihda. Fish roe is good for viand. Sim: iple. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2sta. to have roe. Nabineyan nadan dolog nah pukung. The fish in the small rice pond have roes. na‑ ‑an.

bingay 1comm. share of a harvest of rice grain, fruit, coffee beans, etc. [Usually two-thirds of the produce goes to the owner and one-third to the laborer or tenant. Farm inputs are usually provided by the owner of the land.] Idag-um nan bingay nan kon luta. Drop the share of the landowner. Syn: dowa. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, 8.1.6.1 - Part.) 2trans. to give people a share of produce. Bingayon yu nan irik. Divide the lowland rice grain. Biningay da Mara nan page mo. Mara and her side have already divided the rice grain. Maid di mabingay ad uwani. There is nothing to be shared now. Eyak makibingay na inani da. I’m going to have my share of the rice grain that they gathered. Takon di idat yuy bingay ku hanadah ma-ma-idan. You may give my share to those who are poor. Bingayan dakah makan. We will share food with you. ‑on, ‑um‑, ma‑, ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bingig intrans. 1buzz, sound produced by bees, flies, mosquitoes or other insects; whizzing sound of a flying missile. Mumbingig nan hinumgop hi ingana. The thing that entered his ear is buzzing. Bumingig tun ay-ayyam nan golang. This toy of the child buzzes. Mumbingngigan day babbayung. The bees are buzzing. Pabingigom nan indat inam an ay-ayyam mu. Let the toy that your mother gave you buzz. Mabingig nadan pappahluk. The bees emit buzzing sounds. muN‑, ‑um‑, pa‑‑on, ma‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2to make a buzzing sound. Mumbingig an nala-u nan tolak. The vehicle passed by with a whizzing sound. muN‑/nuN‑.

biyag 1comm. life. Pumhod di biyag hin waday dinol ke Apu Dios. Life will be better if we put our trust in God. Te mama-id key manuk ya hidiyey poppog di biyag nah punnomnom na. Because without chickens, he thinks that would be the end of his life. Sim: nitaguwan. 2sta. to be alive; to live. Mabiyag kaya nadan intanom mu. Those you planted will definitely live. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. 3nom. refers to making a living; supporting oneself and dependents. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. puN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. biyagon der. mabiyag der. mumbiyag

biyahe 1comm. trip. Waday biyahe hi bigat. There will be a trip tomorrow. Sim: pasada. (sem. domains: 7.2.4 - Travel.) 2intrans. take a trip; to travel. Mumbiyahe hi bigat nan tolak. The vehicle will make a trip tomorrow. Bumiyahe dah bulhe. They will transport beans. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. transport. Ibiyahe da nadan bulhe hi bigat. They will transport the beans tomorrow. Maid di mabiyahe. There is nothing to be transported. (passengers and cargo) i‑/iN‑, ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

biyen (sp. var. biyon) comm. betelnut vine leaves. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Inkap-ong Daulayan nan biyen ke nadah bubuggan. Daulayan distributed the betel leaves to the young women. Sim: hapid, dalopdop, hinga. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

bol’ad 1trans. to remove clothes; to be naked. Boladam nadan u-unga ta mun-amo da. Take off the clothes of the children so they can bathe. Adik mo pinhod an ma-operate te boladan dita. I don’t like to be operated on because they remove all our clothes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. Sim: baduy. (sem. domains: 5.3.8 - Naked.) 2intrans. to become or be naked. Mumbolad kayun u-unga ta mun-amo kayu. Children remove your clothes, and take a bath. Numbobbolad nan u-unga ya immen nah kalata. The child was naked and he went to the street. muN‑/nuN‑.

bolda 1trans. to decorate something with ornamental needle work; to embroider something. Boldaam nan bulwatin tulang mu. Embroider the dress of your sister. Bumolda kah iha-ad ku nah kuwartu. Embroider something that I will place in the room. Makakkaphod di binoldaan Fely. Fely’s embroidery is very beautiful. Naboldaan hi maingit nan bulwatina. Her dress was embroidered in red. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an,‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2intrans. to embroider as an activity. Mumbolda da nadan u-ungan binabai. The young girls are embroidering. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: burda.

bolyad trans. to straighten a crooked nail, wire or any metal. Bolyadom nadan patak ta pamatak taku nah dingding. Straighten the crooked nails so that we can use them in nailing the walls. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press, 8.3.1.3 - Straight.)

bomba₁ 1comm. an explosive missile. Ingan nan duplanu nan bomba. The airplane dropped the bomb. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.7 - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to use a bomb; to drop bombs. Binomba da nan boble. They bombed the village. Bombaom yu nan nitaluwan da. Bomb their hiding place. Mumbomba da nadan duplanu. The planes are dropping bombs. Bumomba da. They will drop bombs. Ibomba da nan indat di Hapon. They will use the bomb given by the Japanese. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 4.8.3 - War.)

bon’al trans. to throw something, usually stones, with the intention of hitting someone or something. Numbonal ku hanadan gulding an nangan hi page. I threw (stones) at the goats that ate the palay. Ugge mi inilay binumnal ke he-a te dingkug mi nan panto. We do not know who threw (stones) at you because our backs were against the door. Ibnal mu nan od-odnam. Throw the thing which you are holding. Inibnal na nan pakko. He threw the spoon at someone. Bonalom nan manuk ta adi na kanon nan page. Throw something at the chicken so it will not eat the palay. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑inum‑, i‑/ini‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: wele, boka, tongba, gayang, balnu, alo, top-’al, wengngak; Sim: tongba, gayang, baladung, balnu, boka, alo, balabal. (sem. domains: 7.3.1.1 - Throw.)

bontog trans. to follow one after another in parade-like fashion. Bonbontogon yu nadan lata. Place the cans one after the other in a line. Na keh Sabadu on mabonbontog day umalin munggattang hidih malkadu. During Saturdays, vendors are coming one after another to sell at the market place. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.5.2 - Follow.)

boppo (bo, po) indefinite time or thing. 1.1adjunct. indefinite time with a repetitive component; also has a disagreement or disapproval component. Kikiyongom boppo hin inang-ang daka. Whenever I see you, you are scowling. Wada boppo ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whenever I buy a toy, you destroy it. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time, 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 1.2adjunct. indefinite reference to an action, along with a disapproval component. Ittay boppo on kumiting ka. For just any little thing, you pinch. 1.3adjunct. the concept of participation in an action or process; also. Kumali ka boppo. You talk, too. (join in conversation) Adik boppo maawatan. I don’t understand. (others do) Ta adida maktol, ne ha-on ke boppo ya immeyak bot ek ipatna ya ek umbun hidiye an kanan di “Ay hiya. So that they won’t be cold; as for me, I went to try, and I sat down there and said “Yes. Satisfying.”

bubbuwit (sp. var. bubuwit) comm. black ant species; usually lives in trees in hives. Matuntun-ud nadan bubbuwit an mangubuh kanon da. The black ants are in a row transporting their food. gen: gutul. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

bugbug 1trans. to detach corn kernels from cob; to pick coffee beans from tree. Bugbugom nan gahhilang ta ipakan mun nah manuk. Shell the corn and feed the chicken. Mumbugbug hi Juan. Juan is removing corn from the cob. Bumugbug kah kanon nan gawgawa. Shell some corn for the ducks to eat. Nabugbug mo nan kanon di manuk. The corn for the chicken is already shelled. ‑on, muN‑, ‑um‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.) 2detach produce. 3trans. corn cob, i.e. the shelled remains. Amungon yu nadan namugbugan yu ta itungu taku. Gather the shelled-corn-cobs for us to use for firewood. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mamugbug

bughak 1trans. to spit something out of mouth. Adina pinhod di danum an nadalnat ta imbughak na. He didn’t like the lukewarm water so he spit it out. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: bog-ak, halekhek, anggak, albuwang. (sem. domains: 2.2.3 - Spit, saliva.) 2sta. to laugh loudly and suddenly; pent-up laughter is released. Inang-angak ya nibughak di tatawana. When she saw me she exploded in laughter/suddenly laughed. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.4 - Laugh.)

bugol comm. black ant species, with hooked horns. Dakol da nadan bugol nah dalan. There are many horned ants along the way. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

buk’a 1trans. to set/let loose; to let go; release; to free; to untie. Ibukam nan ahu ta waday innunan mun-adug tuh bale. Release the dog so it can guard the house. Bukaan yu nadan manuk ta mun-ay-ayyam da. Set the chickens free so they can roam around. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3B Move and release object. Sim: bulus. (sem. domains: 7.2.6.4 - Set free.) 2intrans. an animal frees itself form a pen or from its tethering rope. Numbuka nan nuwang ot ume nah payo. The carabao set itself loose and went to the ricefield. Tibon yu te bumuka nan ahu. Be careful because the dog might free itself.

bukbuk₁ trans. to pour out solid substances from a container. Ibukbuk mu nan nihudu nah kulbung. Pour out the contents of the rice container. Bukbukan yu nadan holok ta mate da. Pour some on the grasses so they will wither. Nun-ibukbuk nay asukal ya gattak nah duyuna. He poured too much sugar and milk on his plate. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, nuN‑ i‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.)

bukkak comm. unripe light red fruit, refers specifically to upang, bulinnayu, and bahag fruits Adiyu polagon hanadan bukkak te kumawa. Don’t pick the light red ones because they will be wasted. (sem. domains: 8.3.3.3 - Color, 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

bul’u comm. tree, small variety. Amungon yu nadan namag-anan an bulu ta itungu ot mabala. Gather the dried bulu-wood for firewood anyway it gives off good heat. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bul’uk 1sta. to be rotten, decomposed, decayed. Nabuluk nan inhaang dan ihda. What they cooked for viand is rotten. Nakabulluk ot ahi hamakon hanadan tindalu. It was fully decomposed before the soldiers found it. Bulbulukkan kinali uggeyak gimmatang. It is a little bit rotten that is why I did not buy it. ma‑/na‑, naka‑. Prpcess or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.8 - Decay.) 2trans. to let or cause something to rot. Hanada ken iBontoc ya bulukon day dotag ta ahida ihda. The Bontoc people let meat rot before they use it for viand. ‑on/‑in‑. 3v. (fig) to be caused to be evil. Dakamiy kon bahul te binuluk mi. We are at fault because (you) caused us to be evil. ‑in‑.

bulag proc. to become blind. Golang ot mabulag te tinayanan hanadan tutulang na. He was a baby when he became blind because his brothers/sisters left him alone. Binulag di papan di ohan matana. One of his eyes was blinded by a bullet. Adina pinhod an ituduy numbulag ke hiya te kal-in patayon da. He does not want to point out who made him blind because they might kill him. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑, muN‑nuN‑. Sim: budking, bulding; Sim: kulap, budking, bulding. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See, 2.5.4.1 - Blind.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

bulang 1comm. a cockfight. Waday bulang hi Sabadu. There will be a cockfight on Saturday. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2trans. cocks fighting. Mumbubulang da hi bigat. There is going to be a cockfight (lit. cocks will fight) tomorrow. Em ibulang tun baud ku. Take this cock to fight. E makibulang hi Sabadu nadan iMabbalat. Those from Mabbalat will go to the cockfight on Saturday. Bumobboh-ol hi Vicente te hinnatkon di nangibulang hi poltana nah bulangan. Vicente is very mad because somebody else had his cock fight in the cockpit. muN‑, i‑, maki‑, nangi‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. bulangan

bulinnayu comm. a tree variety with a sweet reddish fruit. Kinayat nadan u-unga nan bulinnayu ot polagaon dan am-in. The children climbed the bulinnayu-tree and gathered all of its fruit. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bulok (sp. var. buluk) sta. to be rotten, vegetables or fruit. Nabulok nadan mangga. The mangoes are rotten. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: dang-o. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.8 - Decay.)

bultung 1comm. wrestling. Bultung di aton di ammod dih donen manginila hin dahdiy munlay-a. Wrestling was the method by which our forefathers determined who was lying. Syn: alibadbad. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight.) 2intrans. to wrestle. [Wrestling was traditionally used to settle property boundary disputes, kiggad; the boundary was set wherever one was pushed and downed the farthest. Wrestling was also used in accusations of theft, ako, with two suspects, the loser was considered to be the thief.] Etaku ang-angon nadan mumbultung. Let’s go and see those who will wrestle. Ibultung da ta tibon da hin daanay koltog tun luta. They are going to wrestle to see the boundary of this land. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. Sim: pali.

bulyaggo₂ 1comm. a child’s game using a top to split an opponent’s top without spinning the top but by using it as an ax. Pini-ang da nan bawwot Jose nah bulyaggo. They split the top of Jose in the bulyaggo-game. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2intrans. to play the spinning-top game. Mumbubulyaggo da nadan u-unga. The children are trying to split each other’s tops. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)‑.

bumangun (bangun) intrans. to get up; to wake up. Humalaman kan bumangun ta panganom nadan manuk. Wake up early and feed the chickens. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

buna trans. to get lost; to lose one’s way. Gaput uggek ininghaan ad Manila ya eyak bunbunnaon hanadah iibbak. Because I am not familiar with Manila, my companions tried to make me lose my way. Adina tuwali halipat-an nadan iibba na kinali nabuna. He did not watch his companions that’s why he lost his way. Tibom ta adi ka mabuna. See to it that you won’t get lost. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: talak. (sem. domains: 3.2.3.1 - Known, unknown.)

bunag intrans. to transfer or transport something; usually done little by little; to transport specified things. Ekami numbunag hi kape. We made several trips to carry sacks of coffee. It-itayon yun e mumbunag nah lona. You carry the sand little by little. Kalyom ke dida ta eda punbunag nan karga yu. Tell them to go and carry our cargo. Binunag hanadan imbabalek nan batu. My children carried the stones little by little. Bunagon yuh tu nadan liblu. Carry the books here little by little. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: ubu. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bungbung 1comm. explosives; dynamite; the sound of dynamite exploding. Inibka da nan bungbung nah wangwang. They threw the dynamite into the river. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to blast something with the use of dynamite or any explosive. Bungbungon yu din ongngal an batu. Blast that big stone. Mumbungbung da nadan mungngunuh kalata. The road workers are blasting rocks. Nabungbungan nan batu kinali niwahiwahit hi nungkikidawwi. The stone was blasted, that is why it is scattered that far. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, na‑ ‑an. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 3intrans. to dynamite fish; to fish with explosives. maN‑. der. mamungbung der. pumbungbung

bungubung comm. 1a distant place, farthest place from the center of a village. [This word usually refers to Julongan-towards Tinok side.] Nalpu nadan aamod ku bungubungna. My forefathers came from a distant place. (sem. domains: 8.2.6.1 - Far.) 2from a distant place. Dakol day ibungubung nan nakipasyal. There are many people from the distant places that came to visit. Dakayu ken ibungubung na ya makiapu kayu tuwali hantudah ipoblacion ta ne adi kayu munnanong hidi. Those of you who live the farthest should intermarry with those from the poblacion (center) so that you won’t stay there. i‑.

bungul₂ 1comm. a cluster of things grouped which could be counted; grouped closely. Gumattang kah ohan bungul di littuku. Buy a bunch of rattan-fruit. Sim: bingil, amung, alimungmung, kampeg, panu. 2sta. to be in clusters. Nabungul nadan mungngunu nah pingngit di kalata. The workers where gathered in clusters on the street side. ma‑.

buntul trans. to work for needs, e.g. food or wages. Hay nadan kakadangyan handi ya eda mo bumuntul hi kanon da. Those who were rich before now work for their food. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

buta sta. speck in eye; foreign material in the eye. Tibom ta adi mabuta nan golang. See to it that he child doesn’t get a speck in his eye. Nadandani on waday nibutah matak. Every now and then a particle accidentally enters my eye. Maingit mo anhan di matak te mabutabuta. My eyes are already red because often times particles acccidentally enter my eyes. Inhabuwag na nan pantal ot hididyey numbutah matan Felisa. He threw the sand that went inside the eyes of Felisa. ma‑. mi‑, muN‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.1.1.1 - Eye.)

butgi comm. a shrub variety with edible brown berries. Amungon nadan butgi ta ahim idat nadah iibam. Gather the butgi-berries and give them later on to your brothers. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

buti₁ comm. bottle; glass container. Hanada ken aammod ya deke on kanan day umala kan di ahan hi buti ta inumon mi. As for the old folks, sometimes they say “Please get a bottle for us so we can drink.” Sim: botilya. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

butong 1intrans. to be drunk; to be intoxicated. Mumbutong hi amam. Your father is getting drunk. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.7.2 - Drunk.) 2intrans. to become intoxicated; become drunk. Bumutong di baya. Rice wine is intoxicating. Adi bumutong tun bayam te nadanuman hi liting. Your rice wine does not cause intoxication because water has been added. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to cause someone to be drunk. Binutong Alfred hi Allen te indat nan hiyan am-in nan bayan od-odnana. Alfred was the cause of Allen’s being drunk because he gave him all the rice wine he was holding. Ibutong na nan binoklana. He will use his pay to get drunk. Butongon daka hin adika mangan. It will cause you to be drunk if you do not eat. 4sta. to be drunk. Adik pinhod an mabutong ka te uggem inilay at-attom. I do not like you to be drunk because you do not know what you are doing. Hidin nah bale day nabutongak. It was there in their house where I got drunk. Nabutong day dakol dih kasal dih Linggu. Many were drunk during the wedding last Sunday. na‑, na‑ ‑an. 5trans. focus is on reason for being drunk. Imbutongan Mario di nunhannuwan dan Maria. Mario got drunk because he and Maria argued with each other. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an.

buttiki 1comm. the calf of the leg. Mahakit tun buttikik kinali intaggek. My calf aches that is why I lifted it up. Adi maphod nan ongngal di buttiki, immam-a na hanadan binabai. It’s ugly to have big calves, more so for a woman. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.2 - Leg.) 2sta. to have a pronounced calf. Nabuttikiyan te dimmanallanan. She has a pronounced calf because she has been walking a lot. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

buwag trans. to uproot plants or trees. Buwagon nan puwok nan tupaya. The storm will uproot the papaya-tree. Bimmoh-olak ke hiya te imme ot ena punbuwag hanadan impatanom lakay ku. I got angry with him because he went and uprooted all those which my husband had planted. Binuwag Jerry hanan abukadu te nakah-nid. Jerry uprooted the avocado because the plants were crowded. Nadan kaiw an tinummol nah natigging ya nalakan mabuwag. The trees that grow on the slope are easily uprooted. Handin immalin nal-ot an udan ya dibdib di gapunah nabuwagan am-in nan intanom kun balat. The cause of the uprooting of all the banana-plants that I planted was the strong rain and wind that came. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑, ma‑, na‑ ‑an. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 6.2.4.2 - Uproot plants.)

buwaya comm. crocodile, alligator. Maid hitud Kiangan di buwaya mu hanadan ken aammod ya kalkalyon day buwaya; toan hin daanay nanib-an da. There are no crocodiles in Kiangan but the old folks talk about crocodiles; I don’t know where they have seen them. Tumakutak hi buwaya te kuman hi tagu. I’m afraid of crocodiles because it’s said that they eat people. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.)

buya₂ intrans. to watch; to look on as of a by-stander or spectator; to watch something, e.g. a show or spectacle. Imme nadan u-ungan mumbuya hi ay-ayyam. The children went to watch a game. Buyaon dakan mun-ay-ayyam. We will watch you play. Maid di mabuya ad uwani. There is nothing to be watched now. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: tibo, ang-ang; Sim: ang-ang. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

buyong 1trans. for the wind to cause the motion or movement of something; swaying movement caused by the blowing of the wind. Imbuyong nan dibdib nan apuy kinali nakiaala nan bale yu. The wind blew the fire towards your house, that’s how your house caught fire. Mibuyobuyong nadan tutubu. The leaves are being blown. (swaying movement can be seen). i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3E Move an object directionally. (sem. domains: 1.1.3.1 - Wind.) 2sta. to be shaded, area shaded on the ground by the branches of a tree. Nabyongan nan intanom kun petchay. The petchay I planted is shaded by the tree ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

da₂ quan. plural quantifier; co-occurs with demonstratives, nouns and the existential predicate. <Morphology: The quantifier form becomes an enclitic on Set 1 demonstratives and the existential predicate; it becomes a proclitic on Set 2 and Set 3 demonstratives; it stands alone as an independent form when co-occuring with nouns, common and proper.> Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. Wada da Apu Paredes ya Datumanung nah stage ya Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanung were on the stage together Loktat bo kaya ya wadaday inin-innilak an gagayyum ku. Then, I met some people who became my friends. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to ants when you are walking along the road. Dakamin da Bugan ke da Kabbigat ya hi Hinayyup di nungkukuyyug. We were together with the group of Bugan, Kabbigat and Hinayyup. Daan da nan iibbam? Where are your companions? (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) comp. dayyada

dadag destroy. 1.1trans. refers to the destruction of concrete objects; may also refer to people or their reputations; to ruin; to destroy; to damage. Adim dadagon nan intanom ku. Do not destroy what I planted. Wada boppoy ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whatever toy that I buy, you destroy it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object . (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 1.2pass. the passive form refers to the state of being damaged or destroyed, without an agent. Madadag am-in di nitanom te itotool nay udan. All the plants will be damaged because it keeps raining. Nadadag nan ingkail ku te makudang di inha-ad kun binokbok. The rice wine I prepared is ruined because I did not put enough yeast into it. ma‑/na‑. 1.3mod. expresses the facility with which an undergoer-object can be put into a condition or state; easily destroyed. Kadinaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. ka‑ ‑inn‑. 1.4nom. the derived noun refers to the concept of destruction. Hay tumbuk di kadadagan di dakol an tagu. It is gossip that is the destruction (reputation) of many men. ka‑ ‑an. 1.5trans. to destroy, with an added component of having the ability to do this. Dumadag hi bale nan puwok an umali. The storm that is coming can destroy houses. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

dadal sta. to be mature or ripe, refers to vegetables and fruit. Nadadal mo didan bulligan. Those winged beans are already matured. Nadadal danaen mangga an maphod an iha-ad ta mal-um. Those mangoes are matured which are good to be stocked to be ripened. Madadal da ke ot didan gagallat ya hiya. It is good if those pineapples will be matured. ma‑/na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Spec: luum. (sem. domains: 1.5.6 - Growth of plants.)

dadang 1comm. cooked rice that is crusted and browned; found at the bottom of the cooking pot. Idatam nadan u-ungah dadang. Give the children some crusted rice. Pinpinhod di uunga an mangan hi dadang. Children like to eat the crusty rice. Pinpinhod di udum di dadang immam-ana hin maatung pay. Others like very much the crusted rice especially when hot. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2sta. for rice to become crusted and browned. Deket natduk nan hinamal ya kaanon nan mundadalang to abuna nan bala ta madadangan. If the cooked rice is dry, remove the burning wood so that only the coals remain and the rice will become crusted and brown. muN/nuN‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6C Process or state of inanimate object.

daga₁ intrans. for a substance or liquid to go through holes; to fall through; seep through. Mundagay hinamal nah dulung mi te nadaddawwa. Rice falls through our floor because the boards are a bit far apart. Adim ihudu nan liting nah buhi te dumaga. Do not put the water in the jar because it will seep/flow out directly. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movment with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.)

dagup trans. to gather unlike things together. Dinagup Mariay inggampanan ihda. Maria gathered different kinds of vegetables and put them in her basket. Nadagup day tagud Baguio te ongal an boble. Different kinds of people have gathered together in Baguio because it’s a city ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.)

dakal 1intrans. to come out of water, implies that one steps on to the bank or ricefield dike. Dimmakal hi Kabbigat ya waday inodnanah ongngal an bakbak. Kabbigat came out of the water and he was holding a big frog. Dumakal ka ot te kalaton daka man hi bilabil. Come out of the water because a water leech might bite you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement, from one place to another.. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.4.1 - Out, outside.) 2trans. to bring something or someone out of the river to the bank; the prefix cross-references the object brought out. Idakal yu nan nalting. Bring the drowned person to the riverbank. Indakal da nadan batu. They brought the stones to the riverbank. i‑/iN‑. 3E Move an object directionally.

dakog 1adj. much; many; a lot. Dakog day tatagud Manila. There are many people in Manila. Number quantifier. Sim: dakol. 2intrans. to become many; to increase. Dumakog nadan manuk mu. Your chickens will became many/increase. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. an active, transitive verb meaning to get many or much of something. Dakogom di alam hi boga. Get plenty of rice. ‑on/‑in‑.

dali sta. 1for something to be lost. Nadali nan puunan na. He lost his capital. ma‑. 2mortality; death. Tuluy nadali nadah tindalu. The soldiers had three mortalities. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

dalikan 1comm. hearth stones; fireplace, three stones set in a triangle to serve as the place for setting the cooking pot in a fireplace in an Ifugao house. Iphod mu nan dalikan ta adi katinnu-i. Fix the hearth stones so that they will not be unstable. (sem. domains: 5.5 - Fire.) 2trans. to use in making a hearth. Idalikan yu nadan muling. Make a hearth using the river stones. Tulun hintutulang nangdon tuh luta. (dalikan) (riddle) Three relatives hold earth. (hearth)(riddle) i‑/iN‑.

dalipe 1comm. stepping stones; paving stones. [The stones are usually large and flat and may be used to pave a yard or on the dikes in fields for a path.] Ha-adam hi dalipe nan banong. Put stepping stones on the ricefield dike. Sim: pidipid. (sem. domains: 6.5.3 - Building materials.) 2pass. refers to a site where stepping stones have been placed. Adi mapitok hin nadalipeyan di dola. It’s not muddy if the house yard has stepping stones. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3trans. to place stepping stones. Idalipe yu nan nalpud Ibulao. Use the stones from Ibulao for stepping stones. Dalipeyan yu nan kalata. Place stepping stones on the path. Oongngal an batu nan nidalipe. The stones used for paving were large stones. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

dalipunga sta. to be itchy or painful between toes or fingers. Nadalipungay huki na te adina pinhod an mun-apatut. There is an itchy-painful sensation in his feet because he does not want to wear shoes. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. (sem. domains: 2.5.2.2 - Skin disease.)

dalu trans. to spade off the grass on the dike top and slope. Etaku manalu te namahig di holok ya nahalman di utut an pungkakan da nan page. Let’s go to scrape off with a spade because it’s grassy and the rats are eating the rice grains. Daluwan yu nadan banong. Spade off the grasses from the rice field dikes. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, maN‑/naN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 6.2.4.1 - Cut grass.)

daluhdu trans. to remove grasses with a bolo. Idaluhdum nan punggabut mu nah kaddat ta makikaan nan lamut na. You remove the crabgrass (with the bolo) so that its roots will also be removed. Mundaluhdu nadan mungngunu nah payo. The field workers are removing the grasses (with a bolo). i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

damek 1trans. to flatten an object. Damekon yu nan gulipu. Flatten the pipe. Dinamek na nadan talkat. He flattened those bottle caps. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. Sim: dampillak. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 2pass. flat. Adi madamek te makulhi. It can not be flattened because it's hard. Nadamek di olong na. She has a flat nose. ma‑/na‑.

dammu (sp. var. damu) 1to meet. 1.1trans. to encounter someone in particular; to meet. Em dammuwon hi inam. Go and meet your mother. Dinammuwak nah muyung. He met me in the forest. Hidiy nanammuwanan nadah bumdang kediyen hilong. There is where he had encountered the bumdang-spirit the night before. ‑on/‑in‑ , nan‑ ‑an. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 1.2trans. to meet someone with something; what is being taken is in view. Idammu yu nan payung te mun-udan. Meet him with the umbrella because it’s raining. Mangali ta ahan ya pun-idammum di mahakit an kali. I am just arriving and you are meeting/greeting me with harsh words. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3rec. to meet each other. Nundammu da nah kalata. They met on the street. Dahdiy mundammu ke he-a? Who will meet you? muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. meeting place. Daanay pundammuwan yu? Where will you meet? puN‑ ‑an. 2trans. may refer to meeting trouble or difficulty; may also refer to two inanimate objects being brought together to be adjacent. Tibom ta adim dammuwon ad-adin maat. Be careful (lit. see to it) that you don’t meet with something bad. ‑on/‑in‑.

dampillak (sp. var. dampillag) 1trans. to flatten an object. Dampillakon yu nadan namukkol. Flatten the round ones. Dumampillak ka nadah lata. Flatten some of the tin cans. Idampillak mu nah talutu. Flatten it on the log. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: damek. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 2pass. the state of being flat. Nadampillak nan olong na. His nose is flat. Igattin mu nan lata ta madampillak. Step on the can so that it will be flattened. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 8.3.2.2 - Rough.)

danag 1intrans. to worry; to be anxious; to be concerned. Adika mundanag tulang ku mu mundasal ka ta baddangan dakan Apu Dios. Don’t be anxious, sister, but instead pray for God’s help. Dumanadanag hi inam te ugge ka immanamut. Your mother kept worrying because you did not come home. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑ ‑an‑. Sim: kagu. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.4.1 - Worried.) 2sta. Deket mungkahilong on madanagan hi inam ke he-a. When it is becoming dark your mother worries about you. Makadannaganak ad nakugab te mundogo nan golang. I was so worried yesterday because the baby was sick. ma‑ ‑an, maka‑ ‑an. 3caus. to cause worry or concern on the part of others. Adim padanagon di ammod mu. Do not make your parents worry. pa‑ ‑on. 4intrans. to be the one causing worry. Mangipadanag kan ad-addi ka umanamut. You are worrying us by not coming home. mangipa‑/nangipa‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. infl. madanagan

dang-o₁ sta. to be spoiled, refers to food. Nadang-o nan ihda an in-ali da. The viand they brought was spoiled. Mungkadang-o nan nihaad nah banga. The food in the pot is becoming spoiled. ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: bulok. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food, 8.3.7.8 - Decay.)

Dangli 1prop. a funeral ritual, generally performed by the wealthy, aristocratic Ifugao. pt: hablag. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2comm. animals butchered during a wake with baki funeral rituals. Nuwang di Danglin nan nate. A carabao is the animal butchered during the wake. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice.) 3trans. to provide sacrificial animals during the wake of a relative. Dangliyan dah inada. They will produce the necessary animals for the wake of their mother. Kababain mo ahan hin adika pakadanglin amam. It is particularly shameful if you cannot afford your father’s funeral ritual. (i.e. produce the minimum number of animals to be butchered) ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History

dango 1comm. stinkbug, several species which emit a foul odor; destructive to plants. Pinain di dango nan bulhe. The beans were destroyed by stinkbugs. Hemiptera (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2sta. to be infested, refers to the condition of plants attacked by stinkbugs. Nadango nan bulhe. The beans have been infested by stinkbugs. (lit. The beans are stinkbugged.) ma‑/na‑.

dangpa₁ 1trans. to be unsuspecting of someone or something. Dangpahom nan at-attona ot maki-e kan hiya?. You are unsuspecting about what he does and yet you went with him? ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.1.4 - Stupid.) 2intrans. naive; innocently childlike. He-a ken manangpa ni-an ya op-opya ka. As for you, you are still childlike so you should keep quiet. Dita ke boppon makannangpa ya adita oggan maki-kie hanadah nakannomnoman te talatalammon dita. Those of us who are very naive should not be going around with those who are clever because they will trick us. maN‑, maka‑.

danug 1comm. a forceful punch. Nal-ot di danug Juan. Juan’s punch is strong. Gen: duntuk. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.3.4 - Power, force.) 2trans. to sock someone; to punch someone. Danugon daka hin mungngohe ka. I will sock you if you are being obstinate. Adim danugon nan ibam. Do not punch your brother. Halipat-an yu te dumanug nan nabutong. Be careful because the drunk punches. Uggek pinatnaan an nadanug. I have never experienced being socked. Linumbag nan nadanug. Th spot which was punched is swollen. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

dap-ul 1comm. ashes; dust. Mahdol di dap-ul nah kalata. The dust on the street is thick. Sim: hupuk, tapuk. (sem. domains: 1.2.2.1 - Soil, dirt.) 2sta. to be dusty or full of ashes. Nadadapul ka. You are very dusty. Nadap-ulan di bulwatik. My dress has dust on it. ma‑/na‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 3trans. Dap-ulan yu nan napipitok. Put ashes on the spot which is muddy. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4nom. hearth or cooking place; dirt is placed on the wooden floor for the fire. [The hearth is considered to be the female side of the house.] 5nom. gray color; ash colored. Ginattang da nan dinapul an manuk. They bought the ash-colored chicken. der. dap-ullan der. dinap-ul

dapig trans. to change shape by pressing; to flatten. Dapigom nan kapyaom an tinapay. Flatten the bread you are to bake. Mangapya kah gampa mu dapigom ta nalaka an miagtu. Make a gampa-basket, but make it flat so that it’s easy to carry on the head. Nadapig di nangat mu yaden kanak di mukkolom. You made it flat, yet I told you to round it. Hay nadapig an batuy ialim hitu. Bring a flat stone here. Mungkadapig nan uluna. Its head is becoming flat. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.)

dasal 1pray. 1.1intrans. to pray, the focus is on the activity. Mundasal taku. Let us pray. Kanayun kan mundasal an mumpasalamat kan hiya. Pray always to him, thanking him. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.2 - Pray.) 1.2trans. to pray, the focus is on praying a specific prayer. Idasal taku nan Ama Taku. Let’s pray the Lord’s Prayer. i/iN. 1.3trans. to pray for someone who has a need. Dasalan taku nadan mumpundogo. Let us pray for the sick. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2comm. refers to the Christian speech act of praying to God. Dinawat nan padi nah dasal nan pumhod ka. Their priest asked in his prayer that you will become well. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.2 - Pray.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

datong₁ 1intrans. to reach a destination; to arrive. Dimmatong dad Lagawe ad nakugab. They arrived at Lagawe yesterday. Madatong di tiempon ahi daka tibon. The time will arrive when I’ll see you. Dakol day tatagun e munhood hi iiba dan dumatong. Many people go to meet their relatives who are arriving. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑. 2A Movement, from one place to another.. (sem. domains: 7.2.3.3.1 - Arrive.) 2trans. to arrive, bringing something with oneself. <The prefix cross-references the object that is brought.> Idatong yu nan itunguh bale. Bring the firewood up to our house. Indatong da nan babuy dih indai. They arrived with the pig a while ago. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with onself. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.) 3trans. the site of arrival is an object that is cross-referenced, a person, place or time. <Morphophonology: datngan; dinatngan; the ‘o’ in the second syllable of the root is lost when a suffix is added.> Datngan hiyah di. You will arrive there where he’ll be. Dinatngan Jose hitud Kiangan ad nakugab. Jose arrived here in Kiangan yesterday. Indani ya nadatngan hidiyen nagtud an algo. Then, the appointed day arrived. ‑an/‑in‑‑an. infl. madatngan

datong₂ trans. to report something. Indadatong nadan nalpuh boble yu an wada da kanun dakayuy munhahannu. There are some from your place who have reported that there are some among you who are quarreling. i‑/iN‑. Speech Verbs - General. (sem. domains: 3.5.2.1 - Report.) infl. datdatong

datuwe dem. 1these; the plural form of hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns; refers to plural things close to speaker that have previously been referred to, must co-occur with noun head. Datuwen bibiyo ya damanan ipkod day tagu. They can take hold of a person’s life. Mumbohboh-ol an numbagan datuwen odon. She was very angry when she asked for these things. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 2these here. <When the things being referred to are understood contextually, the demonstrative may occur without a noun reference.> Makie kamin emakidamun datuwe ad Lagawe te hidiy naduttuk hi datongan da. We will go with others to meet them in Lagawe because that is where they will arrive. De, datuwe ot nadan liblun ek hamahamakon! Aha, these books are exactly what I was looking for! der. datuwey n. ph. ke datuwe

daw’o sta. to be easily used; ready-to-use. [The use of the word implies that there is a short time component that results in efficiency.] Kudukdul na bo nan taldinat di em alan ta nadadawon na-ala ot ya indadaan ta mangan nganne. It’s better if you get sardines because they are easily prepared, just put them on a plate (lit. prepare) and eat them. Alak tun bolpen ta nadawo puntudok. I’ll get this (type of) ballpen because it’s always ready to write. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 6.1.2.8 - Efficient.)

dayaw to honor. 1.1trans. to honor; pay tribute to; to praise; to worship. Dayawon yuh apuyu. Honor your grandparent. Madayaw peman te maid di dakodakol an makalkalih mipanggep ke hiya. He is honored because not many things (bad) are said about him. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: 4.5.5 - Honor.) 1.2trans. to honor, involving the manner or reason for honoring. Atom keh na ya kon idayaw mu? If you do that, will it be for your honor? Idayaw yu nan maphod di at-attona. Honor the one who does good. i‑/iN‑. 1.3v. the activity of honor, praise or worship is in view. Immali dan mundayaw ke he-a. They came to honor you. Mundayaw da nadan mangulug ke Apu Dios. The believers are worshipping God. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

dayyukung sta. 1to be concave, a part of a curve; particularly refers to a landscape or a road. Hay kad-an nan payo da ya nah nadayyukung. Their field is in the curve of the road. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.6.1 - Concave.) 2to be a valley; refers to the hollow place between mountain ridges. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.4 - Valley.)

dedah tu (ph. v. of de, da, hitu) demonstrative predicate. predicates the place where people or things are; see, they are here. Ya hanada ken imbabalek ya dedah tu. As for my children, they are here. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

dede 1intrans. to level out rice pond with feet; to trample rice pond mud to fill holes or cracks so that water is retained. [This is done when carabao are not available.] Mundede da nadan tatagu. The people are leveling the field with their feet. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: kiblu, daya. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.) 2trans. to level the soil in a particular area by trampling with feet. Idedem nan binangbang mu. You level out what you have dug. i‑/iN‑.

di₁ lk. 1the di form has an allomorph y that links the existential, demonstrative and adjectival predicates and interrogative pronouns to the other constituents of the clauses. Waday duwan tulang Pedro mu nate da. Pedro had two brothers but they died. Nganney oras di punlukatan nan tendaan yu? What is the hour of the opening of your store? Daanay pangipab-unam hanadan bisitam? Where will you let your visitors sit? 2the di form links a preposed clausal constituent to the predicate and remaining constituents of the clauses. Hi Juan di mangigakod nah ahu. Juan will be the one to tie the dog.

diing 1intrans. to twirl; to spin. [The most common use of the word is in relation to children spinning the bowwot tops.] Dumiing nan kinapya nan bowwot. The top he made spins. Adi dumiing te maid patak na. It cannot spin because it has no nail. Mundi-ingan nadan bowwot da. Their tops were spinning. Madiing nan bowwot na. His top spins beautifully. Madiing di bowwot Pedro. The top of Pedro spins beautifully. Mumbibiling da ke, ne mahapul an pakaipaddiing da nan kalang on ahida kinaluban. If they are playing biling, they must make the coin spin very well before they cover it. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: tiyong. (sem. domains: 7.3.5 - Turn something.) 2comm. toy top. der. paddiing

diladila (sp. var. dildila) comm. slug; snail-like, but has no shell. [The Ifugao do not class slugs as snails.] Kinan nadan diladila nan tubun nan bulhe. The slugs ate the leaves of the beans. Hay diladila ya mangan hi nitanom. Slugs eat the leaves of plants.

dingding 1comm. wall of any building, e.g. houses or granaries. Napa-i nan dingding. The wall was destroyed. (sem. domains: 6.5.2.1 - Wall.) 2trans. to build a wall; to put up walls. Ugoy indingding da. They walled-it with fine bamboo. Dingdingan yuh tabla. Wall with the boards. Pundingdingan da. They are walling-it. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 4A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) 3intrans. to place a wall. Mundingding da ad uwani nah balen da Pedro. They are putting up a wall now in the house of Pedro. Dumingding kah kiha-adan nadan u-unga. Wall off a spot for the children to live in. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

dipendal trans. to defend or protect someone. Hanadan tindalu ya uggeda dinipendalan nan boble da. As for those soldiers, they did not defend their own village. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. (sem. domains: 4.8.2.4 - Defend.)

distulbu (sp. var. dittolbo; sp. var. distorbo) 1comm. disturbance; annoyance. Opya ka te distulbu ka ya abu. Keep quiet because you are only a disturbance. Kaanom nan alad te distulbu tuh ingunu. Remove the fence because it is a disturbance to the task. 2trans. to disturb. Adim distulbuwon nan golang te nahuyop. Do not disturb the child because he is asleep. Madistulbu nadan nahuyop hi ngalam. Those asleep will be disturbed by your noise. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) 3intrans. to annoy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

dog-al trans. to send away people; drive away animals, usually done when someone or something is disturbing the peace and quiet. Pundog-al na nadan manuk handi dimmatongak. He was driving the chickens away when I arrived. Dog-alom nadan tatagu nah dola tedeyan manukal da. Send away those people outside because they are keeping me awake. Dog-alom nan ahu. Drive the dog away. Adi madog-al nan baka. The cow cannot be driven away. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑, puN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: abul, dulun, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3 - Move something.)

dogap 1trans. to treat impartially or indifferently; to act in a way that does not differentiate among people. Idgap da kanuy pangibalohan da nah iKiangan. They do not differentiate among the people of Kiangan in taking revenge. Inidgap day ayag an adi umat nah waday imbitasyon an ammuna nadan nidattan an ume. They did not differentiate in their inviting of people, unlike when there are invitations and only those who receive them may go. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 4.7.9.1 - Impartial.) 2vary an action or activity. 2.1trans. to change or vary an activity ; to vary an action or activity without differentiating. Adim dogapon di pakikanam. Don’t eat at just anybody’s house. (randomly selected) Dogapom di ubunam. Why don’t you find a permanent seat and quit jumping from seat to seat. (check) morphology: dogapon ‑on ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 2.2pass. to be non-discriminate; varied. Nadgap di ngunuk. I have work that is varied. Nadgap di inayagan da. They called for just anyone. Nadgap di kalkalyom. You are talking of various topics.

dohdo press down. 1.1trans. to press down long grass, done with hands or feet. Dohdohon yu nan dalnon da. Press down the grasses where they will pass. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile actions. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 1.2pass. for grasses to be pressed down. Nalakan mahamak nan e mitaluh mahlok te mainnilay kad-ana hin un-unudon nan nadohdon holok. It’s easy to find someone who is hiding among the grasses because it can be determined by following the grasses that have been pressed down. ma‑/na‑. 1.3trans. to press down with a distributive action. Pundohdon nan nuwang nadan nitanom. The carabao is pressing down/stepping-on the plants. puN‑.

dokop trans. to hold two or more things in one hand. Pundokopon yun odnan nadan hukin di manuk. Hold the chicken’s feet together. ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑ ‑on. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: poka, gam’al, pongol. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.4 - Hold.)

dol-ak 1comm. a poisonous vine or coffee-bean-like poison for use in fishing; the vine is crushed then dried to be placed in the ricefields to catch fish. E immalah dol-ak hi ama. Father went to get the poisonous vine. Sim: ipe, tuba. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.) 2intrans. to use the vine to catch fish. Eda manol-ak. They are going to catch fish using the dol-ak-vine. maN‑. 3intrans. to use the vine to catch a particular kind of fish. Dol-akon da nadan yuyu nah payo hi bigat. They will put the poison vine in the ricefield tomorow to get the Japanese fish. 4intrans. extended meaning to refer to something that tastes strong and may cause drunkenness. Dumol-ak nan impainum da. The thing they had me drink is strong. Nadol-ak te intaganah inum hi baya. He is drunk because he kept on drinking rice wine. ‑um‑.

dolog 1comm. fish, generic; mudfish; found in rice paddies, rivers and small lakes. Nadandani on in-ohnong na ta ang-angona nadan oggan tumul-un dolog nah liting. From time to time, Bugan would stop walking and look at the fish that came to the surface of the water. spec: yuyu, dalit. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.5 - Fish.) 2trans. to catch fish. Eda manlog nah payon Bugan. They are going to catch fish in Bugan's field. maN‑/naN‑. 3trans. to have fish in pond or ricefield; to place fish into pond or ricefield. Nadlogan di payomi. Our rice field has mudfish in it. Dologan yu nan payoyu. Place mudfish in your ricefield. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

dolwak comm. heron; a wading bird found in ricefields and grassy areas. Kanon di dolwak nadan gando nah payo. The heron eats the rats in the fields. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.)

dongla comm. a shrub with large red leaves. [The leaves are used in the headdress for some ceremonies; one particular ceremony is the revenge ceremony him-ung.] Hina-adan dah dongla nadan intaddung nadan mumbangibang. They placed dongla-leaves on the headgear of the revenge-dancers. Cordyline Terminalis (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

dongol (sp. var. dongngol) 1to listen. 1.1trans. to listen, giving concentrated attention to specific things being heard; to allow oneself to be persuaded to give heed to and follow a suggestion or advice. <morphophonemics: When infixed, the vowel ‘o’ in the first syllable of the root is deleted.> Donglon yuy kalyon apuyu. Listen to what your grandfather will say. Dingngol mu? Did you hear it? He-a ken ohan ap-apuk ya donglom tun kalik. My grandson, listen to me. Dingngol ku an makattugal ka. I heard that you are an habitual gambler. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 1.2trans. the affix focuses on the manner of listening. Tipet idngol muh kalin di tatagu? Why do you listen (pay attention) to what people say? i‑/iN‑. 2to hear. 2.1trans. to perceive sound with the ear; to make an effort to hear something with durative aspect. Mundongol kah kanta nah ladyu. You hear music from the radio. Mundongol kayu ke tuwalit maawatan yuy kalkalyona? Why don’t you listen so that you’ll understand what he is saying? Intugun inada an mun-ule dah dalan ya mundongol dah iskul ta waday inilaon da. Their mother instructed them to be careful on the way and to listen in class so they would learn something. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 2.3.2 - Hear.) 2.2pass. refers to what can or cannot be heard. Deya ot an madngol di tatawa da. There, their laughter can be heard. Adi pakadngol di ingak te nahulatan. My ear cannot hear because it’s obstructed. ma‑, paka‑. 3cause to be heard. 3.1caus. to cause something to be heard. Impadngol nay kantana. He caused his song to be heard. Dahdiy nangipadngol? Who let it be heard? ipa/impa‑, mangipa‑/nangipa‑.. (sem. domains: 9.5 - Case.) id. Donglom tun pangiha-adak id. Madngol di bangluna infl. midngolan infl. mundingngol infl. padngol

dopog 1comm. heavy footsteps; the sound is prominent. Makainnila ten he-ay mundaldallan te nan dopog mu. It is easily known if you are the one walking because of your heavy footsteps. (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2intrans. to walk heavily and loudly. Nadan ded tap-o, adi kayu mundodopog te deyan mungkag-ay dap-ul. Those of you who are upstairs, don’t walk heavily because dust is falling down here. Adi kayu dumopodopog ta adi bumangun hanadan nahuyop. Don’t walk heavily so that those who are sleeping won’t wake up. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

du-uti (dial. var. dudduti) 1comm. dragonfly, generic. [All species of dragonflies are edible.] Adik pinhod an ihda di du-uti. I do not like to have dragonflies for viand. Spec: ballahang, wittan, ku-ing, buggan, bongngot, u-uhlung. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2intrans. to catch dragonflies. Eda manu-uti ta ipakan da nadah gawgawa. They are going to catch dragonflies and feed them to the ducks. maN‑/naN‑.

dudun comm. a large, edible locust; a jumping species. Hanada ken aammod handi ya takutan day dudun te bumitil da. Long ago, our forefathers were afraid of locusts because they cause famine. Adi kumpulmiy kawad-an di dudun. Locusts are not found just anywhere. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.)

duhdu₂ trans. to block the passageway of rats in ricefields by using mud. Duhduwon yu nadan balen di utut. Block the passageways of the rats into their nests. Manuhdu kayu nah loba. Block the entrance to the rats’ nests in the field’s slope. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.3.6.2 - Block, dam up.)

duhngil trans. to curse. Bimmobboh-ol hi amana ot dungilana nadan nama-ih intanom da. His father was very angry so he cursed to destroy what they had planted. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Speech Verbs - Purpose is to affect recipient. Sim: idut, dug-a, Ayak, Hagoho, gamud, hiblot, bong’eg. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.4 - Curse.)

duladul trans. to poke something so that the contents will fall into a container, e.g. the house of the allaga-ant. Duladulaom nan balen di allaga ta ihda taku nadan inana. Poke the house of the allaga-ant so that we will have the queen ants for viand. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: hudpak, hukit, dunghak, hudng’ak. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

dulduli (sp. var. dudduli) comm. cicada, large, green or brown; sings in the afternoon. Kanan di dulduliy “Duli, duli.” The cicada says “Duli, duli“. Nakangalla nadan dulduli. The cicadas are very noisy. Cicadidae

duluk intrans. to walk in the rain. Munduluk dan umanamut te maid di payung da. They are going to walk in the rain in going home because they do not have any umbrellas. Induluk na te mungkahilong. He walked in the rain because it was getting dark. Mundullukan da nadan u-unga. The children are playing in the rain. muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑.

dulun trans. to drive animals or poultry away from a particular area. Dulunom nadan gawgawa ta adida ume nah payo. Drive away the ducks so that they will not go into the ricefield. ‑on/‑in‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, abul, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3.3.5 - Drive along.)

duntuk 1to punch with fist. 1.1trans. to hit with clenched fist, a very strong square blow on the body; to sock. Duntukon daka hin adika ume nah nangitud-akak ke he-a. I will sock you if you will not go to where I sent you. Linumbag nan matanan naduntuk. His eye that was socked is swollen. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile actions. Spec: kulpig, danug. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.) 1.2trans. to direct a punch to a particular site. Iduntuk muh odog na. Punch him on his back. Induntuk nah ulpuk mu adi mahakit. He punched my thigh but it does not hurt. i‑/iN‑. 1.3intrans. to sock, attention is on the person(s) doing the socking. Dumuntuk da hin mala-u tah dih kad-an da. They will sock [anyone] who passes along their turf. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.4rec. to exchange punches. Mundinnuntuk da nadan u-unga nah dola. The children outside are punching each other. muN‑ ‑inn‑/nuN‑ ‑inn‑. 2pass. to be punched; to be socked. Maduntuk ka hin mun-anawa ka. You will be socked if you try to pacify them.

duwag comm. a shelf recessed out under the roof of native houses. Wada nah duwag nadan duyu. The plates are on the shelf under the roof. Sim: patye. (sem. domains: 5.1.1 - Furniture.)

dyeli comm. jelly; jam. Ulahan yu nadan be-et ta kapyaon yuh dyeli. Wash those guavas so that you can make them into jelly. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) Language Of Borrowing: English: jelly.

e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.6.4 - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume

e-ele 1comm. refers to an area that is outside of a residential area, Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. 2move away. 2.1intrans. to move away from a particular area. Ume-ele kayu te bumduk man nan bomba. Move away because the bomb will surely explode. Imme-ele da ot datngan da nadan babalen nihag-on nah ob-ob. They went further and reached the houses near the spring. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2.2trans. to move something away from a particular area. Ie-elem nan ngalam. Move your noise away. i‑/iN‑.

eda pers. they; this form compounds the marker e with the 3rd person plural pronoun, a member of Set 1 and 2; the form is preposed before the verb in a clause, encodes a subject grammatical relation and may or may not be cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Nadan udum ya eda maniboh wakal. Others, they go to look for vine. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

edakayu pers. you, plural; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person plural personal pronoun; a member of Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes an object grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Te edakayu awiton am-in hanadah boblen niayan yu ta ianamut dakayuh tuh boble yu. (Ezekiel 36:24) I will call you from all of the countries where you have gone so that I can return you to your home country. (The agent-subject God is understood in the context.) (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

emi pers. we, exclusive; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 1st person plural, exclusive personal pronoun, a member of Set 1; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Kanan nadan muttatyunay “Pinhod mu ke ya emi gabuton?” (Mateo 13:28b) His servants asked “Do you want us to go and spade?” (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

gabut to cut grass. 1.1trans. to cut grass to ground level, usually done in a field in preparation for planting. Em gabuton nadan hoholok nah dola taku. You go and cut the grasses in our backyard. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 1.2trans. the site of the grass-cutting is prominent. Gabutan yu nan loba ta adi punbalayan di gando. Cut the grasses on the slope of the field so that the rats will not nest there. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3intrans. the activity of cutting grass is prominent. Munggabut da nadan u-unga nah garden. The children are cutting grasses in the garden. muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. the instrument used in cutting grass is prominent. Pinhod kuy lida an punggabut. I would like the grass-bolo for cutting the grass. puN‑. comp. ahigabut

gag-a trans. to urge someone to do something that the speaker doesn’t want to do. [The word may be obsolete.] Pun-igag-an Tayaban nadan imbabalena ta eda ibaloy namatayan da nah tulang da. Tayaban urged his sons to go and revenge the death of their brother. puN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: 3.3.3.3 - Persuade.)

gahat 1comm. fate; luck; destiny. Adik gahat an kumadangyan. It’s not my destiny to become rich. Uggek inilay gahat ku. I don’t know my fate. (sem. domains: 4.4 - Prosperity, trouble, 3.2.5.5 - Philosophy.) 2intrans. to become lucky. Gimmahat ya nagapput handi hilong. He became lucky last night and won. Nagahat te matagu pay. He is lucky to be still alive. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. for luck to bring riches. Inggahatanay kakinadangyana. It’s his luck to be rich. i‑ ‑an/ iN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: gasat.

galgal trans. to chew something; to masticate. Galgalom nan kankannom ne ahim inukmun. Chew your food well before swallowing it. Gumalgal kan nah inhaang dan makan. Chew some of the food they cooked. (a form of an invitation to eat). Munggalgalgal da nadan u-ungah bolat di nuwang. The children are chewing boiled carabao skin. Pakaggalgalom di kanom. Chew your food well. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change structure of object. spec: kotkot, taptap, kutmu. (sem. domains: 5.2.2.1 - Bite, chew.)

gam’it 1comm. a native loom-woven skirt, red and black striped. [One type of woven skirt worn by women of wealth.] Hay iusal nadan mumpalaya an pepensiyonados ya gamit. The old folks who are receiving pensions will have a parade and will wear gamit-skirts. Sim: dinabol, inabol, ampuyo, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2trans. to wear the native skirt. Munggamit da nadan manayon u-unga. The children who will dance the native dance will wear the gamit-skirt. muN‑/nuN‑.

gattang (sp. var. gatang) trans. 1to buy something. Wada boppoy ginattang kuh ay-ayyam on dinadag mu. Whenever I buy a toy, you destroy it. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.1 - Buy.) 2to sell something. Wada da boy tetendaan hitun kay ad Cubao mu nangingina day migattang. There are stores like in Cubao but what they sell is more expensive. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑.

gaud 1comm. spade with a long handle; used for soil and fieldwork. Nan gaud di pangaan mun nadah holok. Use the spade in removing the grasses. Doltakom hi gaud nan makakkulhin lamut. Thrust your spade into the hard root. (for the purpose of cutting it) Sim: baung, bangbang, pala, huklay. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to use long-handled spade to remove something such as stones from a site or to prepare a site for planting; to spade. Gaudom di batu ta iwelem. Spade away the stones and throw them away. Em gaudan di payo taku. Go to spade our field. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4A Change structure of object. (sem. domains: 6.2.2.2 - Plow a field.) 3intrans. to till the soil in the ricefield by use of the spade; durative activity. Munggaud dad uwani hi payon Pedlo. They are spading the field of Pedro today. Inilam an munggaud hi payo? Do you know how to spade a ricefield? Munggaud day liman linalaki nah payo. Five men are tilling the soil in the ricefield. muN‑/nuN‑. comp. ahigaud

gehhel trans. to grab carabao meat. [The grabbing for carabao meat tends to be a free-for-all fight among those participating.] Igehhel da nan nuwang. They will grab (the meat of) the carabao. Munggegehhel da nadan tatagu. The people are all grabbing at once. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: gennat. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.5 - Actions of the hand.)

gennat 1trans. to grab, particularly used in regard to carabao meat or money used in gambling. Inggennat da nan nuwang. They had (the meat of) the carabao as the free-for-all. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: gehhel. (sem. domains: 7.3.3.1 - Take something from somewhere.) 2rec. to grab each other's meat or money. Munggegennat da nadan muntutugal handih nama-id di dilag. The gamblers were grabbing each other’s bets when the lights went off. muN‑/nuN‑.

gihigi intrans. the particular movement of the feet in the war dance. Munggihigi da nadan mumbangibang handi nala-u dah tu. Those dancing the bangibang were moving in a shuffling manner when they passed by here. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance.)

gipgip (sp. var. gapgap) 1trans. to slice something. Em gipgipon nan patatas. Go, slice the potatoes. Munggipgip kah aba ta kanon di babuy. Slice the taro for the pig’s food. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2comm. a slice of something. Oongngal di gipgip nan gattuk. The camote slices are big. Nan gipgip nadan gattuk di ipakan mun nadah gawgawa. The slices of the sweet potato are the things you feed the ducks with.

goh-om intrans. 1to grunt. [A grunting sound usually made by a pig but at times, old people may make the sound, or can be part of a chant.] Munggoh-om nan babuy te nauwo nin. The pig is grunting because it might be thirsty. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds. Sim: ayyong, ayyog. 2to hum, may not have tune. [