Search results for "nadah"

hanadah (nadah) dem. those; the plural form based on hanah, a member of Set 2 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to a specific group of people or things. Daanay nangipaayan da hanadah dakol an tagu. Where did they send all those people? Ta hidiye nan lebbengnan munpasalamat dan APU DIOS gapuh ongal pamhod na ya gapun dakol hanadah umipamodwong an inatnan kiphodan da. (Psalm 107:15) Therefore, it is right that they thank God for his great love and for those many miracles he did for them. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

nadah (nah) det. the plural form of the determiner nah; marks grammatical objects that are not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Kay natangan mangang-ang nadah duddutin muntayyapan. It was the first time that she watched dragonflies flying around. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts in strategic places. hanadah

‑um‑ 1TACR. this infix is a default affix for Class 2 verbal roots; non-past tense, punctiliar aspect; cross references the subject. Umali nah langtay ya inang-ang nah Lammooy an dimpanay takle nat iadi nanno umeh Pangka. He came to the bridge and he saw Lammooy who extended his arm preventing Pangka to pass. Sim: ‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2TACR. when affixed to transitive verbs, this infix encodes non-past and punctiliar aspect; it cross-references subject and expresses partitive quantification of the undergoer object. Umidat ka nah kankannom an tinapay. Give me some of the food you are eating. Kumaan ka nah dotag ta ihaang mu. Slice some of that meat and cook it. Sim: umi-. 3proc. when affixed to Class 6 verbs, this infix encodes a process incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did and the child got well. Wumotwot di tugal. Gambling makes a person become poor. 4TACR. this infix derives an intransitive process verb from a noun or adjective; it encodes incompletive aspect and cross-references the subject. Hay humagabi ya hay kadangyan. The man who performs the hagabi-ceremony must be rich. Deket maid di dayakkot ya adi dumanum nan ikail. If there is no glutinous rice to mix in, the preparation will not produce any juice at all. 5TACR. this infix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar or inceptive aspect and cross-references subject. Tinuttuduwak an kumali kali da. They taught me how to speak their language. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was not evidently in good health so he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Deket e mangan, umukmun ni-an hi mahampot an tubun di holok. Before it eats, it first swallows coarse grass.

aamm’od (infl. of ammod) comm. 1elders; ancestors; forefathers. [The traditional religion has been based on beliefs handed down by the Ifugao ancestors.] Hanadan aammod takuy nangapyah payo handih done. It was our ancestors who made the rice fields long ago. Hay pangi-e takud uwani ya nipuun hi pangi-en di aammod taku handi. Our ways today are based on the ways of our ancestors. Apu, damanan tontonom hanadan aammod ku? Grandfather, can you trace my ancestors? (sem. domains: - Related by birth.) 2those who give birth to next generation; parents. Matibon mundogo, ot ibagana nadah aammod nan umayag dah mamakko. She was evidently not in good health. So he advised the parents to call for a mamakko-shaman. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place.

ad-adi (der. of adi) advpred. evaluates and describes something as bad or awful. Hi ke aman din hi Dulawan ya waday ad-adin inat di bumdang ke hiya. As for my late father, Dulnuwan, he had a very bad experience with the bumdang-spirit. Ad-adiy nangiha-ad na nadah karga. He didn’t place the baggage in an orderly way. Hay punnomnom ku tuh liblu ya ad-adi. As for my thinking about the book, it was awful. (sem. domains: - Bad.) infl. ad-adiyon

ah’in 1comm. salt. Ialim nan ahin ta ahinak tun ihda. Bring me the salt and I will salt the viand. (sem. domains: - Cooking ingredients.) 2trans. to add salt to something. Ahinan yu nan ihda. Salt the viand. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. 3intrans. to give salt to an animal. He-ay mun-ahin nadah baka. You will be the one to give salt to the cows. muN‑/nuN‑. 4nom. salt container. [The tubung bamboo container was formerly used to store salt.] Ihaad mu nan ahin nah pun-ahinan. Put the salt in the salt container. puN‑ ‑an.

ako trans. 1to steal something from someone. Adiyu akawon nan manuk. Don’t steal the chicken. Eda immakoh mahapul da. They went to steal some of their necessities. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4C Convey/bring something toward agent. (sem. domains: - Steal.) 2the person who steals; the thief is cross-referenced by the affix. Inakhupan Santiago nan lalakin e nangako nadah manuk na. Santiago caught the man who stole his chicken. Hiya ya mangakon unga. He is a child who steals. maN‑/naN‑. infl. mangako

ala obtain. 1.1trans. to become the receiver or owner of something; get. An inalam nan agam nah butilya? Did you get your medicine from the bottle? E inalan Gaby nan lata mu dakol moy imme nadah allama. Gaby got the can but many of the crabs got away. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Move object toward agent. (sem. domains: - Take something from somewhere.) 1.2intrans. to get a restricted quantity of something. Umala ka hi lappaw ta pun-alad ku. Get some Jerusalem artichoke so I can make a fence. Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a sturdy branch or pole and to this, they tie the hagabi-bench. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3pass. for something to be gotten. Dakol di maalan mangga hidi. There’s a lot of mangoes which could be taken from there. ma‑/na‑. der. mangalana infl. maala

altar comm. sacred table for use in religious rites. Ya nadan holag Aaron di natuddun mumpadin mangiappit bangbanglu ya nadah maghob an miappit Apu Dios nah altar. (1 Chronicles 6:49a) It is the descendants of Aaron who teach the priests to offer incense and those things to be burned as an offering to God on the altar. (sem. domains: - Offering, sacrifice, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Language of Borrowing: English.

aluhi-i (sp. var. haluhii) comm. algae used for fertilizing mulch mounds; floats on water, at first it’s green, then turns violet. Inamung na nadan aluhi-i ot iabono na nadah intanom na. He gathered the algae and fertilized his plants with it. (sem. domains: 1.5.4 - Moss, fungus, algae.)

amit intrans. to climb or scale houses, trees, stonewalls; to climb expertly. Nan mun-ammitan di ayagan yun mangala nah littuku. The one who loves to climb is the one you call to gather the rattan fruit. Mun-amitan nan tagu nadah niyug. The man climbs from coconut tree to coconut tree. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. Sim: kayat, kallehke. (sem. domains: - Move up.)

aN- (sp. var. a-) adj. this prefix inflects adjectives that are dimension quantifiers. Ambiambilog ya dakkodakkol di tatagu. It is very wide and there are many people. (refers to Manila) Umala da nan tataguh andukken hapang ta ihamad dan igakod nan hagabih di. The men in the forest look for a long, sturdy branch or pole and to that, they tie the hagabi-bench. Nikuyug nadah adi matibon iibbana ot adukkey danallanon da. He travelled with his unseen companions for a long way. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.)

Apu Dios (comp. of apu, Dios) comm. the Christian God; the Lord God. Hi Apu Dios di nangidinolana. He entrusted it to God. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug Apu Dios ke ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of those believing in God would become ill, maybe there would be no more pagan priests. Syn: Maknongan. (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.)

at do. 1.1trans. to do something; refers to an action. Adim aton hina. Do not do that. Atonah tuwet adi mundagan e bumudduy di ena kinan. It does this so that what it eats will not come out at once. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.) 1.2pass. was done/will be done; happened/will happen. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. That is all I have heard about that case (lit. what was done). Tinibon nan ohan nadah mungngunu ya inila na moy naat. One of the workers immediately knew what went wrong (lit. what was done). ma‑/na‑. umat der. kaatan der. pangat infl. aton infl. maat infl. mangat infl. pa-at

athituy (comp. of hitu, umat) advpred. it is like this, a comparative adverbial predicate used to tell someone how to do something or to make a comparison of actions or events. Tipet athituy inat mun ha-on? Why have you done like this to me. Mahapul an athituy aton yu nadah ibbam. It is necessary that you do like this to your companions. Athitu di pinhod na. She wants something like this. (sem. domains: - Compare.)

Bag’ol 1prop. the Ifugao gods, deities and spirits in general; many sub-classes exist. Deket mumbaki da ya idawatan da nadan bagol hi babuy. If they perform the baki they sacrifice pigs to the gods. Idawat da nadah bagol di kalyon da nah pumbakiyan da. They offer the gods what they say in their rituals. Tobotbalona diday bagol ya aammod ta dumalay-up da. He is invoking the gods and his ancestors so that they will bless (him). (sem. domains: 4.9.2 - Supernatural being.) 2intrans. to perform the bagol ritual. Mumbagol da te mundogoh amana. They are performing the bagol ritual because his father is sick. muN‑/nuN‑. Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki (Rituals for Man and Rice Culture) der. mumbagol n. ph. hambal di Bagol

bagtutu trans. to carry someone straddling the neck; carry someone astride shoulders and the neck. [Before coffins were used for burying the dead, the body was carried in this manner to the grave.] Imbagtutun ama nan unga ot ume dad abbat an makimma nadah iibana. The father carried the child astride his shoulders and went to the neighborhood to chew betelnut with his companions. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move object with self. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.)

baki 1comm. ritual, Ifugao sacrificial rite. [The traditional religion has many rites and rituals, all are classified under this generic name.] (sem. domains: - Offering, sacrifice, 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) 2nom. the shaman-priest who performs the baki. <Although the prefix muN- derives a verb, the form functions as a nominal reference, referring to the person who performs the ritual. > Mungkama-id da mo nadan nakaginnilan mumbaki ya wada ke bo ya naka-am-amma da mo ya adida mo pakabbakiy tatagud uwani te hay pangulug da mo ke Apu Dios. Priests who perform the baki ritual are becoming few and if there are any they are very old and many people nowadays don’t perform the baki because of their faith in God. Gulat na nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the believers in God become ill, there would be no more baki-priests. muN‑ . 3sta. refers to the deities or ancestors invoked in a ritual and are the recipients of the sacrifice offered. Mabaki nadan ammod na. His ancestors are invoked in the ritual. der. Mabaki der. mumbaki

big’at (fr. var. bigbigat; sp. var. biggat) 1comm. the following day; tomorrow. <The co-occurring determiner hi is obligatory.> Ahika umalih bigat. You come here tomorrow. Pumtang hi bigat te dakol di bittuwon ad uwani. The sun will shine tomorrow because there are many stars now. (sem. domains: - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2proc. becoming light in the morning; dawning. Mungkabigat handih dimmatong kami. It was about to be daylight when we arrived. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts in strategic places. mungka‑. Sim: pat-al, algo, dilag, potang. (sem. domains: - Time of the day.) der. kabigabigat der. kabigatana der. mabigat der. mungkabigat infl. nabigat

bingay 1comm. share of a harvest of rice grain, fruit, coffee beans, etc. [Usually two-thirds of the produce goes to the owner and one-third to the laborer or tenant. Farm inputs are usually provided by the owner of the land.] Idag-um nan bingay nan kon luta. Drop the share of the landowner. Syn: dowa. (sem. domains: 6.2 - Agriculture, - Part.) 2trans. to give people a share of produce. Bingayon yu nan irik. Divide the lowland rice grain. Biningay da Mara nan page mo. Mara and her side have already divided the rice grain. Maid di mabingay ad uwani. There is nothing to be shared now. Eyak makibingay na inani da. I’m going to have my share of the rice grain that they gathered. Takon di idat yuy bingay ku hanadah ma-ma-idan. You may give my share to those who are poor. Bingayan dakah makan. We will share food with you. ‑on, ‑um‑, ma‑, ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

biyen (sp. var. biyon) comm. betelnut vine leaves. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Inkap-ong Daulayan nan biyen ke nadah bubuggan. Daulayan distributed the betel leaves to the young women. Sim: hapid, dalopdop, hinga. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

buna trans. to get lost; to lose one’s way. Gaput uggek ininghaan ad Manila ya eyak bunbunnaon hanadah iibbak. Because I am not familiar with Manila, my companions tried to make me lose my way. Adina tuwali halipat-an nadan iibba na kinali nabuna. He did not watch his companions that’s why he lost his way. Tibom ta adi ka mabuna. See to it that you won’t get lost. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: talak. (sem. domains: - Known, unknown.)

butgi comm. a shrub variety with edible brown berries. Amungon nadan butgi ta ahim idat nadah iibam. Gather the butgi-berries and give them later on to your brothers. (sem. domains: 1.5.3 - Grass, herb, vine.)

da₂ quan. plural quantifier; co-occurs with demonstratives, nouns and the existential predicate. <Morphology: The quantifier form becomes an enclitic on Set 1 demonstratives and the existential predicate; it becomes a proclitic on Set 2 and Set 3 demonstratives; it stands alone as an independent form when co-occuring with nouns, common and proper.> Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. Wada da Apu Paredes ya Datumanung nah stage ya Sir Paredes and Sir Datumanung were on the stage together Loktat bo kaya ya wadaday inin-innilak an gagayyum ku. Then, I met some people who became my friends. Ingonay kay da gugutul di tatagu ten mundaldallanan ka nah kalata. You are compared to ants when you are walking along the road. Dakamin da Bugan ke da Kabbigat ya hi Hinayyup di nungkukuyyug. We were together with the group of Bugan, Kabbigat and Hinayyup. Daan da nan iibbam? Where are your companions? (sem. domains: 8.1.1 - Number.) comp. dayyada

dali sta. 1for something to be lost. Nadali nan puunan na. He lost his capital. ma‑. 2mortality; death. Tuluy nadali nadah tindalu. The soldiers had three mortalities. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

dammu (sp. var. damu) 1to meet. 1.1trans. to encounter someone in particular; to meet. Em dammuwon hi inam. Go and meet your mother. Dinammuwak nah muyung. He met me in the forest. Hidiy nanammuwanan nadah bumdang kediyen hilong. There is where he had encountered the bumdang-spirit the night before. ‑on/‑in‑ , nan‑ ‑an. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. (sem. domains: 7.2.3 - Move toward something.) 1.2trans. to meet someone with something; what is being taken is in view. Idammu yu nan payung te mun-udan. Meet him with the umbrella because it’s raining. Mangali ta ahan ya pun-idammum di mahakit an kali. I am just arriving and you are meeting/greeting me with harsh words. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ i‑. 1.3rec. to meet each other. Nundammu da nah kalata. They met on the street. Dahdiy mundammu ke he-a? Who will meet you? muN‑/nuN‑. 1.4trans. meeting place. Daanay pundammuwan yu? Where will you meet? puN‑ ‑an. 2trans. may refer to meeting trouble or difficulty; may also refer to two inanimate objects being brought together to be adjacent. Tibom ta adim dammuwon ad-adin maat. Be careful (lit. see to it) that you don’t meet with something bad. ‑on/‑in‑.

dampillak (sp. var. dampillag) 1trans. to flatten an object. Dampillakon yu nadan namukkol. Flatten the round ones. Dumampillak ka nadah lata. Flatten some of the tin cans. Idampillak mu nah talutu. Flatten it on the log. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: damek. (sem. domains: 7.7.4 - Press.) 2pass. the state of being flat. Nadampillak nan olong na. His nose is flat. Igattin mu nan lata ta madampillak. Step on the can so that it will be flattened. ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Rough.)

dangpa₁ 1trans. to be unsuspecting of someone or something. Dangpahom nan at-attona ot maki-e kan hiya?. You are unsuspecting about what he does and yet you went with him? ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: - Stupid.) 2intrans. naive; innocently childlike. He-a ken manangpa ni-an ya op-opya ka. As for you, you are still childlike so you should keep quiet. Dita ke boppon makannangpa ya adita oggan maki-kie hanadah nakannomnoman te talatalammon dita. Those of us who are very naive should not be going around with those who are clever because they will trick us. maN‑, maka‑.

du-uti (dial. var. dudduti) 1comm. dragonfly, generic. [All species of dragonflies are edible.] Adik pinhod an ihda di du-uti. I do not like to have dragonflies for viand. Spec: ballahang, wittan, ku-ing, buggan, bongngot, u-uhlung. (sem. domains: - Insect.) 2intrans. to catch dragonflies. Eda manu-uti ta ipakan da nadah gawgawa. They are going to catch dragonflies and feed them to the ducks. maN‑/naN‑.

edakayu pers. you, plural; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person plural personal pronoun; a member of Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes an object grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Te edakayu awiton am-in hanadah boblen niayan yu ta ianamut dakayuh tuh boble yu. (Ezekiel 36:24) I will call you from all of the countries where you have gone so that I can return you to your home country. (The agent-subject God is understood in the context.) (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)

gaud 1comm. spade with a long handle; used for soil and fieldwork. Nan gaud di pangaan mun nadah holok. Use the spade in removing the grasses. Doltakom hi gaud nan makakkulhin lamut. Thrust your spade into the hard root. (for the purpose of cutting it) Sim: baung, bangbang, pala, huklay. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to use long-handled spade to remove something such as stones from a site or to prepare a site for planting; to spade. Gaudom di batu ta iwelem. Spade away the stones and throw them away. Em gaudan di payo taku. Go to spade our field. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4A Change structure of object. (sem. domains: - Plow a field.) 3intrans. to till the soil in the ricefield by use of the spade; durative activity. Munggaud dad uwani hi payon Pedlo. They are spading the field of Pedro today. Inilam an munggaud hi payo? Do you know how to spade a ricefield? Munggaud day liman linalaki nah payo. Five men are tilling the soil in the ricefield. muN‑/nuN‑. comp. ahigaud

gipgip (sp. var. gapgap) 1trans. to slice something. Em gipgipon nan patatas. Go, slice the potatoes. Munggipgip kah aba ta kanon di babuy. Slice the taro for the pig’s food. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2comm. a slice of something. Oongngal di gipgip nan gattuk. The camote slices are big. Nan gipgip nadan gattuk di ipakan mun nadah gawgawa. The slices of the sweet potato are the things you feed the ducks with.

gub’at 1comm. war; refers to a violent, armed conflict. [Within the history of Ifugao, this word when used alone usually refers to World War II.] Waday dawdawwatonah pensiyon te tindalu handih gubat. He is receiving a pension because he was a soldier during the war. Dakol di nate handih gubat. Many died during the war. Waday duwan gubat an impala-u taku mo. We have already experienced two wars. (lit. we have been caused to pass through) Istolyaon dan handi kanu ka-gibbun di gubat ya namahig di banig. They say that after the second world war there were many incidences of ghost appearances. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 - Fight, 4.8.3 - War.) 2wage war. 2.1intrans. to wage war. Munggugubat da ad Vietnam. They are at war in Vietnam. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. the information focus is the people upon whom a war is being waged. Gubaton ditaku nadah gaga-ihoy nomnom da. The evil-minded will wage war on us. ‑on/‑in‑. 2.3trans. the information focus is on those who will be involved, i.e. participate in waging war. Inamung nan am-in nadan tatagunan damanan makigubat. He gathered all the people who could join in waging war. maki‑. der. mangubat infl. makigubat

gulatna conj. signals a condition or situation that results in or would result in an event or situation that would be different had the preceding condition or situation not existed. if only; had it not been for. Gulatna ta ugge immali ya wadan umeyak ta ek tibon. If he had not come, I would have gone to see him. Gulatna ot ta waday pihhu ya wadan ugge nate. If there had been money then he would not have died. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki Maybe if none of the Christians would become ill, there would be no more shamans. Athidi bon gulatnat mama-id am-in di mumbaki ta hiya ya abuy matdaan Like that also, if there are no shamans except for him (sem. domains: - Condition.) der. munggulat

gunggung₂ 1intrans. refers to the sound of the barking of dogs. Munggunggung day aahu handi hilong. The dogs were barking last night. Gumunggung di ahu hin ugge dita inila. Dogs bark at us if they don’t know us. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: aluul. (sem. domains: - Animal sounds.) 2trans. for a dog to bark at someone. Gunggungan daka ya abu nadah ahu da. Their dogs will only bark at you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

hanan (han) dem. the; that; a member of Set 1; co-occurs with a noun, and refers to specific people or things. <This form must co-occur with a noun; nan is shortened form> Hanan mittulu mi ke ya impakainnila nay mungkanta. The teacher knows how to sing well. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the Hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao and pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. Hanan it-itay hidiyey appit di babai. While the side with the smaller head represents the woman. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

handidan dem. those; the plural form of handin, a member of Set 1 demonstrative pronouns; co-occurs with a noun and refers to specific people or things in past times. Handidan aammod taku ya adida mungkamihhita. Those forefathers of ours did not wear T-shirts. Maid ke handidan aammod an kimmalikali an kanan day matongaal tan mun-itkul ya wada ot an ohaak damdama hanadah natag-ey adal na. If it hadn’t been for those old folks who kept discouraging me and saying that studying is distracting and has no value, I could have been one of those highly educated now. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.)

hipyat trans. to throw away water; throw out; to slosh out referring to liquid only. Ihipyat mu nan danum nah basin. Throw away the water in the basin. Ihipyat muy udum nah liting nadah nungkitanom. Throw out some water from the container on the planted things. Adiyak ot hipyatan hi maatung an danum. See that you don’t slosh out hot soup on me. Mihipyat nan liting nah aluwog te nakapnu. The water in the bamboo tube will slosh out because it is very full. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, mi‑/ni‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: dulhuk. (sem. domains: - Throw.)

huyung 1comm. a water channel made of betelnut trunks or bamboo. (sem. domains: 6.7.3 - Carrying tool, - Irrigate.) 2trans. to channel water. Huyungon taku nan liting nah wa-el ta ume nadah garden. Let us channel the water in from the creek to the gardens. ‑on/‑in‑. Sim: tulaluk.

iliw sta. to be homesick; to feel lonely or to miss someone. Nun-oppot da Juan ke Maria an maka-iliw dan duwa. Both Juan and Maria miss each other. Mailiw nadah imbabalena ot umanamut. He missed his children so he came home. ma‑, makaC1‑. Sim: ilmu, ingle. (sem. domains: - Sad.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

indamyo 1comm. a scaffold, planks of wood. Ongal nan indamyon didan mungngunu. The scaffolding of the workers is big. 2trans. to make a walkway out of planks of wood. Indamyuwan yu nan pangipadalnan nadah batu. Make a walkway where the stones will be brought up. ‑an/iN‑ ‑an.

ipi- (sp. var. ipa-) TACR. this prefix encodes a causative; cross-references the object; non-past tense. [This variant of the prefix ipa- usually co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.] Ot ipien Annas hi Jesus an nanongnan nabalud hi kad-an Kaypas an natag-en padi. (Juan 18:24) And then, Annas had Jesus who was still bound taken to Kaypas the high priest. Ot ipipaptok na nadah imbabalenan linalaki. (Genesis 30:35b) And then, he had his sons taken care of them (sheep and goats). Sim: impa-, ipa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

kaasi 1comm. pity; mercy. Maid di kaasi yu nadah nawotwot. You have no mercy for those who are poor. (sem. domains: - Mercy.) 2trans. to pity someone. Kanan Pangkayyo- “Lammooy, pangpangaasim man adika nah dalan te umeyak hi bale a, an nahilong.” Pangka said er...”Lammooy, will you please (lit. pity me) get out of the path because I am going home, see, and it’s dark.” paN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kadaklan (der. of dakol) advpred. mostly; largely. Kadaklan nadah u-unga ya iLinda. Those children are mostly from Linda. Kadaklana ya umanamut nah biggatna. Most of the time, he returns home in the morning. ka‑ ‑an. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: - Most, almost all.)

karga 1comm. baggage, sack, anything considered to be cargo carried on a vehicle. Ad-adiy nangiha-ad na nadah karga. He didn’t place the baggage in an orderly way. Iphod muy pangiha-ad mu nadah karga. Place the baggage nicely (lit. make good the placement of the baggage). (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to load baggage or other cargo on vehicle. Ikargam nan bulhe nah talak. Load the beans in the truck. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. Language of Borrowing: Spanish: carga.

kattog adjunct. 1expression of a feeling of uncertainty; also, there can be a sense of futility based on the inability to fulfill expectations or the futility of an action; uncertainty. Hituwe kattog di midat mi. This is only what we can give. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You may think that what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Unsure.) 2expresses a feeling of disappointment; unfortunately. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented with just following her brothers.

kipustuwan nom. an assigned post, e.g. a soldier who is assigned to stand guard at a certain place. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts (in strategic places). (sem. domains: 4.8.3 - War.)

korsonada 1comm. infatuation; crush; to have strong feelings about someone. Korsonada daka. I have a crush on you. (sem. domains: 4.3.3 - Love.) 2trans. to intend to do something bad to someone. Korsonadaan dakan nadah tatagu di hin athinay at-attom. The people there will have bad intentions towards you if you do not change your ways. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: corsonada.

kulug 1to believe. 1.1trans. to believe in something or someone. Kulugon da nan kinalina yaden makallay-a. They believed in what he told them yet he is a liar. Ditaku ken Ipugaw ya kulugon takun wadaday bibiyo weno pinading. We Ifugaos believe that there are bibiyo spirits or pinading spirits. ‑on/‑in‑ . (sem. domains: - Believe.) 1.2trans. the affix cross-references those who believe; believers; Christians. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki. Maybe if none of the Christians (lit. those who believe in God) would become ill, there would be no more priests of the traditional religion. maN‑. (sem. domains: - Religious person.) 2intrans. the process of becoming true or fulfillment of a predicted event or happening. Kimmulug nan kinalim. What you said became true, (it happened) ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. kakulugana der. makulug der. pangulug infl. mangulug

lahhin trans. to set apart; to separate or isolate. Lahhinom di nal-um nadah kamatis. Separate the ripe tomatoes from the unripe. Munlahhin kayu hi kahyupan. You will have separate sleeping arrangements. Ilahhin mu nan ihdan inam. Set apart the viand of your mother. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.)

layut₁ 1comm. rags; ragged clothing. Umidat ta keh bulwati nadah nawotwot ya bokon kay layut di idat. If you give clothes to the poor, don’t give rags. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear ragged clothes. Tipet eka munlaylayut? Why do you wear rags? muN‑/nuN‑. 3intrans. discarded ragged clothes. Idat mu nan nunlayutam. Give me your ragged clothes. (the ones you have already discarded.) nuN‑ ‑an.

leha 1comm. sandpaper. Ihait mu nan uwa nah leha. Sharpen the knife on the sandpaper. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to sand something. Lehaom tun ubunan. You sand this chair. Munleha ka nadah pinaot. You sand some of the carvings. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Touch - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 7.7.5 - Rub.)

liglig detour. 1.1intrans. to take an alternate path for the purpose of a shortcut or in order to avoid being seen. Munliglig kayu nah muyung ta gagala kayun dumatong. Take a detour through the forest so that you will arrive earlier. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: - Walk, - Way, route.) 1.2trans. focus is on the alternate path, rather than the action. Wada key pangayak on iliglig ku te tibonak ke nadah imbabalek on nakilaliw da. Whenever I go somewhere I have to pass the other way so that my children will not see me, otherwise they will insist that they will go with me. Munnomnom an iliglig na. He decided to take an alternate path i‑/iN‑.

lii trans. to look at something out of the corner of the eye; to glance sidewards at someone or something. Li-li-iyona nan mangako. He looked at the thief out of the corner of his eye. Ilillii na nadah mala-u. He was looking askance at the ones passing by. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Look.)

litig trans. to get the sticky sap of a tree with a thin stick. [Sap from the jackfruit and pakak-tree is gathered to use for a trap to catch birds and for gluing things. ] Litigom nan kakaw ta hidiyey pamukot tah bigat. Get the sap of the jackfruit tree and we will use it tomorrow in the pukot-trap. Munlitig nadan u-ungah pamukot da nadah du-uti. The children are getting sap for them to catch dragonflies. Linitig da nan pakak. They got the sap of the pakak-tree. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring object toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather, 6.1 - Work.)

logom 1advpred. refers to a random thing or person involved in an action, may refer either to the agent or the thing acted on. Logom nadi on inalak. I took things randomly. Nalgom/Nalogologom di kalyom. You talk just anything/nonsense. Nalgom di tagu an humgop hi balen di kandidato. Just anyone can enter the house of the candidate. Hay ke bo pihhu ya adi nalnalgom on ginatang. And as for money, don’t just spend it on anything. ma‑/na‑. Manner. Sim: kumpulmi. (sem. domains: - Intend.) 2trans. to do something randomly and hastily with the focus on the action itself, not the modification. Logmona ha-ad hi pihhuna. He just puts his money anywhere/carelessly. Ilgom nay pangibalowana hanadah hintutulang. He will not just randomly revenge it among the relatives. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑. infl. nalgom

maadal (infl. of adal) pass. this refers to something that can be learned or someone who can learn. Dakol di maadal mun miha-ad hi library. You can learn much by being in a library. Hanadan maphod an maadal ya malpu nadah nanomnoman, bokon hanadah makudang di nomnom na te dida ke ya maid di inila dah maphod anituttudu. (Proverbs 15:7) Those good things that can be learned come from those who are wise, not from those whose minds are lacking wisdom because they don’t know anything that is good to teach.

mahapul it is necessary. 1.1pred. having a need for something. Mahapul kuy ulo. I need a blanket. Nganney mahapul? What is needed? (sem. domains: - Need.) 1.2sta. to be necessary; predicates necessity; it must be; it is needed. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the Hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao and pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. Mahapul an ume ka. You must go. Sim: kinwani, importante. (sem. domains: - Necessary.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: masapul.

malalao (infl. of lalao) sta. to be immoral. Adita makihayyup nadah tatagun mangat hi malalao. Let’s not join in friendship with those people who do immoral things. Hay pangi-eda ya gaga-iho te aton day malalao. As for their way, it’s bad because they do immoral things. ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: - Bad, immoral.)

malkadu (sp. var. markadu; sp. var. malket) 1comm. market place, open-air stands selling a variety of food, clothing and other things. Eka munggattang hi malkadu. Go and sell in the market. E nuntenda hi malkadu. He went to sell in the market. Sim: tendaan. (sem. domains: 6.9.3 - Marketing.) 2intrans. to go to buy things in a market place. E mummalkadu hi pihda na nadah mungngunu. He is going to buy food for the workers. Eyak mummalkadu hi ihda. I am going to buy viand. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to buy things offered in a market. Minalket kuy duwan dolog. I bought two mudfish in the market. Imalketam hi ihda da. Buy viand for them. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: mercado.

mamaga adj. describes land that is very dry. Dahdiy mangipaalih udan hanadah mamagan adi maboblayan ta tummol holok? Job 38:26-27) Who will cause rain to come to those dry, uninhabited places so that grass will sprout?

mandal 1intrans. to have control of and give orders; to command. Hiyay mummandal nadah mungngunu te kapatas. He will be the one to command the workers because he is a foreman. muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Command.) 2trans. to give orders to a particular person. Mandalom ta galgal-ana. Command him to hurry. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: mandar.

mangipa- caus. this prefix encodes a causative agent that is topicalized and cross-referenced; non-past tense. Hay pundallanan ina di mangipaatun hiya. It is mother’s walking that makes her tired. Hanan mittuluy mangipataddog hanadah u-unga. It is the teacher who will have the children stand. Nganney mangipadukke hi buuk? What will make the hair grow long? Sim: nangipa-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

mangulug (infl. of kulug) trans. refers to one who believes in something or someone, particularly used of Christians. Datuwen nadan mangulug nah tuttudun Kristo. These are those (people) who believe in Christ’s teachings. Gulatna nin ta maid di mundogo nadah mangulug ke Apu Dios ya maid da nin di mumbaki Maybe if none of those who believe in God would become ill, there would be no more pagan priests. maN‑. (sem. domains: - Believe, - Religious person.)

mohmo 1comm. a big bundle of rice grains. 2trans. to make big rice grain bundles. Adiyu imohmoy pamtok yu. Do not make your rice bundles big. Namohmo di numbotok da nadah page. They made big bundles of rice grains. i‑/iN‑, na‑. 3comm. bundled dried tobacco leafs, around three inches in diameter. Kaatnay himmohmo? How much is a bundle? hiN‑. (sem. domains: - Group of things.) 4trans. to bundle dried tobacco leaves, around three inches in diameter. Aga, ta mohmohon taku tun tabaku. Come, let us bundle these tobacco leaves. ‑on/‑in‑.

molta 1comm. fine; penalty. Duwan babuy di molta na. His fine is two pigs. 2intrans. to produce a fine; to be penalized. Mummolta kah duwan babuy. You are to produce two pigs for your fine. Mamolta ka hi tulun babuy. You will be fined three pigs. muN‑/maN‑, ma‑. (sem. domains: - Fine.) 3trans. to fine or penalize someone. Moltaon daka nadah ammod na hin adim ituluy. Her parents will fine you if you do not push through with your plans. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: 4.7.7 - Punish.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: multa. der. moltaon infl. mamolta

moma 1comm. betelnut and tree; areca palm. Daan di momam? Aga, ta mummoma ta. Where’s your betelnut? Come, let's chew. wh: mom-on; Spec: ballugu. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2trans. to chew betelnut; to chew betelnut with others is to socialize. An mummoma ka? Are you chewing betelnut? Mimma mi nan moma nah libbutan. We chewed the betelnuts in the bag. Makimma ka nadah tatagu nah malkadu. Chew betelnut with the people in the market. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, maki‑/naki‑. (sem. domains: 4.2 - Social activity.) 3comm. a riddle, the answer is betelnut because the ingredients for a chew number three. Nan tulu o opat an hin-aagi an hinumgup na liyang andanit bimmudo da ya maingit da. (moma) Three brothers or sisters that entered a cave, and came out red. (betelnut) der. kimma der. mom-on id. Daan di momam?

mumbullubullug (infl. of bullug) multiple pairs of male and female animals walking in a line. Tibom ta umipaghop kah himpipitun numbullubullug nadah aggayam an napilin miappit ke ha-on ya ohan numbullug ya abu nadah adi miappit. (Genesis 7:2) See to it that you cause to enter seven each of male and female pairs of animals chosen to be sacrificed to me and one male and female pair that will not be sacrifriced.

munhilhilong (der. of hilong) intrans. to stay out late, implying being out when it is the darkest part of night. Adi kayu munhilhilong nadah dalan te wadaday mangalana Do not stay out late at night on the roads because there are many revenge seekers. muN‑/nuN‑ CVC‑.

nangipa- -an₁ caus. this circumfix encodes a causative, topicalizes and cross-references a place; past tense. Daanay nangipaayan da hanadah dakol an tagu? Where did they send all those people? Sim: pangipa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

natangan sta. first time experience. Kay natangan mangang-ang nadah duddutin muntayyapan. It was as though it was the first time she had seen dragonflies flying around.

numpa- -an caus. this circumfix encodes a subject-causative agent with the cross-referencing of a site-object; past tense. [The site-object is often semantically a recipient or beneficiary of the action encoded in the verb.] Nganney ginun-ud yuh eyu numpabaddangan hanadah iEgypt ya iAssyria? (Jeremiah 2:18a) What did you gain by helping the Egyptians and the Assyrians? Hi Herod damdama ya nadan tindaluna ya tinaltalanggaan da ya numpadngolan da. (Luke 23:11) Herod and his soldiers also mocked and ridiculed him (Jesus). Sim: pumpa- -an; Sim: mumpa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

o conj. conjoins alternative choices. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume, ongngal an banga o palyuk, binokbok ya buhi. These are needed in the making of rice wine: ordinary rice, glutinous rice to be mixed with it, a big pot or vat, native yeast (leaves of the binokbok- plant) and a wine jar. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao or pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. Coordinating conjunctions. Sim: weno. (sem. domains: - Clause conjunctions.)

og’a₁ 1trans. to drop something. Inggana nan banga ot maphik. He dropped the pot and it broke. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 2to fall. 2.1intrans. to lose balance and fall off or fall down. Mun-oga kah na hin mipinggit ka. You will fall off there if you stay on the side. An pinatnaam di mag-ah nitag-e? Have you ever fallen from a high place? Impakakkag-an nan dibdib nah nihap-e. The wind caused all the clothes in the clothesline to fall. muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: balintuwag, lotwad, tu-un, uhbung. (sem. domains: - Fall.) 2.2pass. for an inanimate thing or animal to fall off or down. Nag-a day bungan di mangga te maid udan. The mango blossoms fell off because there has been no rain. Nag-a nan nuwang ot mate. The carabao fell off and it died. ma‑/na‑. 2.3trans. refers to something falling; the place where it falls is in view. Daanay nag-ahan nan talak? Where did the truck fall off? Adida mag-ahan nadah batun mungkakag-a. They can be safe from the falling pieces of rocks. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

olom 1intrans. to be suspicious. Mun-olom an maki-e nadah ibaliwon. He is suspicious about going with the lowlanders. Umoloolom handi mangali kamih tu. He was always suspicious when we were coming here. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: madla. (sem. domains: - Think so.) 2trans. to distrust someone or something. Oloman dan makikan nah inhaang mu. They distrust what you cooked. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

ong-ong trans. to dedicate something to a god or a cause. Ianamut pay nadan ngunut an nakapya balituk a silber an miong-ong nadah dios da. He will take home the objects made of gold and silver to be dedicated to their gods. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Dedicate to religious use.)

ota 1comm. the unhusked rice grains mixed with the husked rice. Dakol di otan nan binayu da. The rice they pounded has many unhusked grains. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to remove unhusked rice grains. Otaan yu nan boga ta ahiyu ihaang. Remove the unhusked rice grains before cooking it. Pun-otaan yu nan nambayu. Remove the unhusked rice grains. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3comm. (fig) refers to someone who is different from others within a group. Kay otan nikamkamo nadah tatagu. He was so prominent (lit. very different) mixed there with people. (sem. domains: - Different.) id. kay ota

pakaC2- -an this circumfix intensifies the action of the agent-subject and cross-references a definite object. Ot pakaguwwalyaan da ot maid moy oggan madngol nadah bibilid ad Israel hi katatakut an olmom na. (Ezekiel 19:9a) They carefully guarded him and so never again would his fearful roar be heard in the mountains of Israel. Sim: C2, pakaC2- -on, pakaC1- -on. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

pangi- dervN. this prefix is a clausal nominalizing affix. Dida boy mangiat nadah mahapul hi pangipaptok ke datuwe. They are the ones who will do what is necessary in caring for those things. Iphod muy pangiha-ad mu nadah karga. Place the baggage nicely (lit. placement of baggage) Sim: impaN-, impangi-. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.)

pangipa- -an caus. this circumfix has a topicalized agent, a causative agent in the subject position in the clause, and a definite cross-referenced object. Dahdiy pangipaalian da nadah liblu? Who will they have bring those books here? Hi Juan di pangipadikhalak nah ongal an kaiw. Juan will be the one that I will have split the big piece of wood. Sim: nangipa- -an. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

pattuk (sp. var. patuk) 1intrans. to stand up on something that is higher than the ground or floor. Numpattuk nah ubunan. He was standing on the chair. Pumattuk ka ta pakatibo ka nadah mun-ay-ayyam. He stood up on the chair. Nah ubunan di pattukam. Stand up on the chair. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2A Movement from one place to another. (sem. domains: 7.1.1 - Stand.) 2trans. to put up on top of something; place something higher. Ipattuk mu tun ihda nah aparador ta adi kanon di ahu. Put the viand up on the cupboard so the dog won’t eat it. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

pi- caus. this prefix encodes the presence of a causative agent in the action. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao and pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

pohod 1to be valued as good. 1.1sta. to have the property of being good; to meet a standard of something to be desired or something that is favorable for someone; good, beautiful, nice. Maphod tun bulwatin indat da. This dress that they gave you is beautiful. He-ay kapkaphodan hi bale nah tud Kiangan. You have the nicest house in Kiangan. Maphod te immaliy dakol hi lugan ot ume kami. It was good because there were many rides so that we could go. Mabalin bon kalyok an maphod di memory na. I think he probably has a good memory too. ma‑, ka‑ CVC ‑an. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 1.2advpred. to meet an accepted standard of appropriate or good behavior. Mumpohod kayun umbun. You sit properly. muN‑/nuN‑. Evaluative. 2to repair, fix or improve. 2.1trans. to cause something to become good, implies that something is in disrepair or less than good. <Morphology: paka-ip-iphod, superlative, to fix perfectly.> Adim piphod ke ha-oy te uggek inila. Don’t let me fix it (lit. make good) because I don’t know how. Iphod mu nan apuy ta adi gumanab. Fix the fire so that it won’t burn its surroundings. pi‑/impi‑, i‑/iN‑. 2.2caus. to improve the life or welfare of someone. Ipaphod Apu Dios di nitaguwan taku hin mundinol takun hiya. God will make our lives good if we trust in him. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: - Bless.) 2.3trans. to show benevolence. Iphodam hi tulang mu takon di iboboh-ol daka. Show benevolence/favor to your brother even if he is always angry with you. i‑ ‑an/ iN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.3.7 - Good.) 2.4intrans. to become better, i.e. to recover from sickness; get well. Kanom am-in tun agat kal-ina ot ya pumhod ka. Take all this medicine so that you can get well. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy, 2.5.1 - Sick.) 3to love. 3.1trans. to love. Pohdom di ibbam an tagu umat hi naminhod muh adol mu. Love your fellow man as you love yourself. Impakappinhod daka. I love you very much (supremely). Pakappinhod ku mu bumainak an mangalkalin hiya. I love her very much but am ashamed to tell her. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I do not like to eat wildcat meat. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. 3.2nom. the nominalized form is equivalent to the English noun ‘love’. Hay paminhod di immanhan an intanuttudun Jesus hanadah tatagu. Love is what Jesus emphasized in his teaching of people./Love is the focal point of Jesus’ teaching of people. Hay naminhod kun he-a ya maid di kiingngohana. My love for you is beyond comparison. paN‑/naN‑. 4trans. to love each other. Mumpohhodan da kinali nun-ine da. They love each other that is why they got married. muN‑ ‑an. 5advpred. try one’s best. Ip-iphod nat tobotbalon da. He is trying his best for their approval. i‑ CVC‑. (sem. domains: - Try, attempt, 8.3.7 - Good.) 6trans. to want or desire something; to like something. Pinhod kun mimih-ad kah library nah bakansen oras mu. I want you to spend most of your time in the library during your vacation. Imi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I became adjusted. Adik pinhod an ihday amunin. I don’t like wildcat meat. ‑in‑. der. kiphodan der. maphod der. pamhod id. iphodan hi kali infl. iphod infl. kapkaphodan infl. pinhod infl. pumhod n. ph. pohod hi kali

porman 1comm. foreman; superintendent of workers. Hiyay porman tudan mungunuh kalata. He is the foreman of these people working on the road. (sem. domains: 4.5.3 - Exercise authority.) 2intrans. to act as a foreman or superintendent of a group of workers. Hi Jose di mumporman nadah mungngunu nah kapyaon dan iskul. Jose acts as the foreman of those working to build the school. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

potok 1trans. to choose something from a group. Potkom di niptok an humang nadah nitudok. Choose the right answer from the ones written. Em potkon di pinhod mu. Choose what you want. Pintok muy nangitaluwak. You found the place where I kept it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: - Choose.) 2trans. to hit the mark; to be right or correct. Iptok mu tuh uwang. Hit this hole. Niptok di nunggayang mu. You hit the mark (with stone). Niptok ka. You are right. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: - Meet a standard.) 3sta. to be certain; for an action or activity to have direction. Maptok di aton hin waday mangipangulu. Our work has direction if someone leads. Adi maptok hin kakon-anay pangayan mi. It’s not certain as to when we will go. ma‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: - Certainly, definitely.) 4sta. to be able to identify. Adida pakaptok hin dahdiy nangako. They cannot correctly identify who is the stealer. paka‑. (sem. domains: - Recognize.) der. maid maptok infl. iptok ph. v. maid di maptok ph. v. maid kapotok na

pusta 1comm. a bet; a wager. Ongal di pustana nah manuk mu. He has a big bet on your rooster. Sim: topa, taya. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) 2v. to make a bet. Mumpusta da hin dahdiy mangapput nadah mun-ay-ayyam. They are betting on who will win in the game. Pumusta ka damdama. Place your bet also. Pustaan da hin dahdiy maunnan dumatong. They will make a bet on who will arrive first. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: apuesta.

pustu comm. refers to an assigned position, e.g. soldiers assigned to guard or attack. Handih mungkabigat ya imme da nadah kipustuwan. When dawn came, they took their posts in strategic places. ki‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 8.5.3 - Be at a place, - Appoint, delegate.)

suku intrans. to surrender, as in war. Mapilit kayun munsuku nadah buhul yu. You will be forced to surrender to your enemies. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class. Sim: solendel. (sem. domains: 4.5.4 - Submit to authority.)

ta hidiye nan conj. therefore; for that reason. <This is a phrase consisting of a conjunction, ta, a demonstrative, hidiye and a determiner, nan. It functions as a logical conjunction that connects the following sentence with the sentence that precedes it in context.> Ta hidiye nan lebbengnan munpasalamat dan APU DIOS gapuh ongal pamhod na ya gapun dakol hanadah umipamodwong an inatnan kiphodan da. (Psalm 107:15) Therefore, it is right that they thank God for his great love and for those many miracles he did for them.

takidil sta. to stay close to something or someone. Mitatakidil kan ha-oy. You are always standing close to me. Mitakidil kan ha-oy ta adi daka damaon hanadah u-unga. You stay close to me so those children won’t hurt you. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: - Near.)

taktakut (sp. var. tattakut) comm. scarecrow, made of old clothes, old hat and grasses. Dakol di nitattayun hi taktakut nadah papayo. There are a lot of scarecrows in the ricefields. Sim: kidlo. (sem. domains: - Afraid.)

tanud₂ trans. to support financially. Tanudam tun imbabalem. You support this child of yours. Wadaday tanudak kinali tagak hi ngunu. I have some people to support financially that is why I keep on working. Eyak makiboklat waday pananud ku hanadah imbabalek. I will go to earn money so I will have something with which to support my children. Ad uwanin naligat di kitaguwan te hay kanginan di magattang ya adiyak mo ahan pakatanud nah opat an imbabalek. At this time it’s hard to live because of high prices and I can hardly support my four children. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, paN‑, paka‑. 5C Goal oriented actions. (sem. domains: - Provide for, support.)

tayyap (sp. var. tayap) 1intrans. to fly around; to fly away. Ditakun tatagu ya kulugon takun wadaday mundallanan weno muntayyapan an adi matibo. It is a common belief that there are unseen beings who are either walking around or flying in the air. Adi muntayyapan nah mapat-al. It does not fly around during the day. (This refers to an owl.) Nah barracks di maphod an puntayyapan nadah kite. The barracks are a good place to fly kites. Muntayyapan da nadan manuk te timmakut da nah banniya. The chickens are flying about because they are afraid of the forest lizard. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: - Fly.) 2trans. the wind causes something to fly away; to blow away. Intayap di dibdib nan inhap-em. The wind blew away your laundry. Mitayap nadan papel hin bukatam nan tawang. The papers will be blown away if you open the window. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑.

tulaluk 1comm. an irrigation conduit usually made from bamboo or betelnut tree trunk. Umala kah kaiw ta em panudngul nadah tulaluk te mungkakag-a da. Get some wood and use it to support those conduits because they are falling. Sim: huyung; Sim: alluwang. (sem. domains: - Irrigate.) 2trans. to place a water conduit. Tulalukam hitu ta umen dih bah-el na nan liting. Place a water conduit here so that the water will go to the other side. Itulaluk mu nan kawayan. Use the bamboo in making a water conduit. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something.

tun-ud 1to follow. 1.1trans. to follow someone carrying an object. Ot ituntun-ud mon kattog Malya hanan lata hanadah iibanan linalaki. Malya had to hold the can and be contented in just following her brothers. Itun-ud ku nan pihhu binanok. I will follow you with the money I borrowed. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Follow.) 1.2trans. to follow someone in a line. Tun-udon taku dida. We will follow them. Natuntun-ud da. They were lined up. ‑on/‑in‑, na‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: haynod. 2intrans. to follow one after the other spatially; to line up; refers to the sequential ordering related to time or space. Muntun-ud kayun umali. You come one after the other. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Muntutun-ud an algon nate day manuk na. Day after day, his chickens died. muN‑/nuN‑.

tuppa (sp. var. tupa) 1comm. the fluid excreted by the salivary glands; saliva; spit. (sem. domains: 2.2.3 - Spit, saliva.) 2to spit. 2.1trans. to spit something on someone or something. Adi kayu mun-ay-ayyam hina te tuppaan dakayu nadah mummomad tap-o. Do not play there because the the betelnut chewers above will spit on you. Ituppam nah lata. Spit in the can. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 2.2intrans. to spit, implies a continuing act. Dakol day tatagu yaden muntuppa ka. There are many people around and yet you are spitting. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.3intrans. the act of spitting. Intibok ya maid di tagu ot tumuppaak ya nala-u ka. I looked to see and there was no one so I spat and you passed by. Handih himbatangan dih kalimana ya ustun eyak timmupan dih kanal It was last Friday afternoon when I went out to spit in the canal. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

tutung trans. to light a cigarette; to start a fire from coals. Tutungam tun ilukut ku. Light my cigarette. Itutung mu nah bala. Light the cigarette on the coals. Muntutung kan nadah mala-u. Light your cigarette from those who pass by. ‑an/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 5.5.1 - Light a fire.)

ulup₂ sta. to sleep in a narrow space beside or between others. Miulup kan nadah iibam an nahuyop nah ohan di kuwartu. Sleep in a space between your brothers in the other room. mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

yam-o 1sta. to be soft or become soft. Mayam-oy kahuypam. What you sleep on is soft. Yimmam-o nan inha-ang kun dotag. The meat that I cooked became soft. ma‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Soft, flimsy.) 2trans. (fig) to soften one’s attitude toward another. Payam-ohom di puhun nadah nawotwot. Soften your heart towards the poor. pa‑ ‑on.