Search results for "nee"

banneeng intrans. to sleep with parents; children under 5 years old do not sleep separately. Ongal kamo kinali adika makibanneeng hi ammod mu. You are big now therefore you should not sleep with your parents. maki‑. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.)

bilat comm. a needle; traditionally rice straws and slivers of bamboo were made into needles. Ha-adam hi tinulid nan bilat ta ikugut yu tun nabik-in luput. You thread the needle and sew this torn cloth. Banhok di bilat mu ta kugutak tun ampuyok. May I borrow your needle so that I can sew my skirt. Naligat an humgop di sinulid nah ittay an bilat te ittay di uwang na. It’s hard for a thread to enter a small needle because it has a tiny hole. Adi pamga haad hi bilat te mittuwik. We should not just put needles anywhere because they prick. Tutuwikon, hidhid-ipon. (bilat) You prick while you peep. (needle)(riddle) (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.)

butngog comm. joint of bones; knuckle; kneecaps. Adi bo kaya pakagalgal nan ahu nah butngog. The dog cannot chew well the joint. (sem. domains: 2.1.6 - Bone, joint.)

dukkun₁ intrans. to bend knees and rest on them; to kneel. Nundukkun an pihpihmok ke tulang na. He knelt asking for mercy from his brother. Mundukkun ka. You kneel. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.1.4 - Kneel.)

hakti intrans. to sneeze; a sudden, spasmodic, audible expelling of air. Humakti kad dola. You sneeze outside. Naalog kinali himmakti. He is having a cold that is why he sneezed. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2E Body/Phsiological functions. (sem. domains: 2.2.2 - Cough, sneeze.)

hapul 1need. 1.1sta. to be needed; refers to the need for something useful, required, or desired. Mahapul di pihu te mun-iskulak. Money is needed because I am going to school. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum... Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money... ma‑, makaC‑. (sem. domains: 8.1.7.3 - Need.) 2look for. 2.1trans. to look for something that is needed, with the focus on the activity of looking. Eyak munhapul hi ngunu. I am going to look for a job. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.6.2 - Find.) 2.2trans. to look for something that is needed with the focus on the object being looked for. Em hapulon hi inam. Go look for your mother. Nganney hapulom? What are you looking for? (What is it that you need?) Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: masapul.

ilulugan (der. of lulug) trans. to hit with the knee; to knee someone. Inlulugan da ya nundukkun. They hit him with a knee and he knelt. i‑ ‑an, iN‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 7.7.1 - Hit.)

inhinyero comm. an engineer, any type, electrical, civil. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung. That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to place the dynamite sticks. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

lulug 1comm. knee. Nagadgadan di lulug na. His knees were bruised. La-uwanay lulug ya deyan umanidu hin tininggadan da. Its height comes to your knee and yet, it gives heat when they light it. (sem. domains: 2.1.3.2 - Leg.) 2sta. to be knee high. Milulug nan liting nah daulon handi pimmuwok. The water under the house reached up to the knees when it stormed. mi‑. der. ilulugan

mahapul it is necessary. 1.1pred. having a need for something. Mahapul kuy ulo. I need a blanket. Nganney mahapul? What is needed? (sem. domains: 8.1.7.3 - Need.) 1.2sta. to be necessary; predicates necessity; it must be; it is needed. Mahapul an mamitlu kan mun-amo ohan algo. You have to take a bath three times a day. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the Hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao and pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. Mahapul an ume ka. You must go. Sim: kinwani, importante. (sem. domains: 9.4.2.3 - Necessary.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: masapul.

nee adjunct. watch out. Nee nan mangako. Watch out! The thief is coming! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

ta-une comm. 1a bamboo needle with a permanent thread attached to it. Nan ta-une di pangugut mu ot mayam-o nan luput. Use the bamboo needle to sew it, anyway the cloth is soft. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2to attach thread to a bamboo needle. Ta-uneyam ta kugutak nan kamahhitam. Attach the thread to the bamboo needle and I will sew your shirt. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

ahiadug (comp. of adug, ahi) nom. refers to the time when ricefields need to be guarded to prevent rice birds from eating the grain; season for guarding. Dakol di buding nah ahiadug. There are many rice birds during the season for guarding the fields. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 6.2.4 - Tend a field.)

am-am trans. to get almost everything for oneself regardless of the needs of others; greed causes one to get all of something; characteristic of selfish children. Inam-am na nan tinapay. He got almost all the bread. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: bukud. (sem. domains: 6.8.2.5 - Greedy.)

amo jealous. 1.1proc. to be jealous; to be envious. Umamowak ke hiya. I am so jealous of him. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . Sim: ah’ol. (sem. domains: 3.4.2.1.8 - Jealous.) 1.2trans. to envy someone; the affix cross-references the person that is envied. Inamohan dah Pedro. They were jealous of Pedro. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3rec. for two people to jealously guard the amount of work that each needs to do. Mun-inammo dah ngunu. Neither of them want to do the work./Both of them want the other to do the work. muN‑ ‑in‑.

baddang 1trans. to help someone; to aid; to assist. Bumaddang kayun mamah-on nah intungu. Help in carrying the firewood. Eyak bumaddang, atok di damanan atok I will help; I will do what I can. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: tulung, dang-a, abono. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.2 - Help.) 2comm. assistance or help that is given to someone; often it is in the form of money, but it can be general assistance in anything that is needed. Hay oha bo ya nomnomom an ongal di baddang Apu Dios ke he-a ot maischolar ka. Another thing is remember that God helped you greatly to become a scholar. 3trans. to help someone who is specified. Em baddangan nah payo da. Go and help them in their field. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 4trans. to give something, often money, to help someone; what is given is cross-referenced as the grammatical object. Hituwey ibaddang kun he-a. This is what I will give to help you. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. infl. mamaddang

bakka 1intrans. to move, by crawling on hands and knees or toes; crawl Mumbakka mo nan golang. The baby is crawling now. Mumbakkaan nan golang nah dola. The child can already crawl around outside. Pumbakkaom din golang nah dulung. Let the baby crawl on the floor. muN‑/nuN‑, muN‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑on. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: bullu, kadap. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2trans. this form focuses on a specific direction of crawling or focuses on another movement, modifying it by indicating crawling as the manner of moving. Ibakka nan ume. He went by crawling. Hin ibakka nah pingngit na ya mag-a. If he crawls to the edge, he’ll fall. Ibakkanan umalih kad-am. He will crawl, coming towards where you are. i‑/iN‑.

balun 1comm. a packed meal; provision for subsistence away from home which could be either money or food. Adim kal-iwan nan balun mu hin ume kah payo. Do not forget your packed lunch if you go to the fields. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2trans. to prepare food to take with oneself; to take food or money for travel needs. Balunon yu nan natdaan an ihda. Pack the left-over viand for your lunch. Nap-u mo nan binalun kun pihhu. The money I took along was already gone. Mumbalunak ta adiyak maagangan. I will pack a lunch so that I will not be hungry. Mumbalun kah hinamal. Pack cooked rice for your lunch. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bokla₂ 1trans. to work for wages or other needs. Boklaok nan ginawat kun boga. I will work for the rice I borrowed. Kaatnay binoklam nah em nakiboklaan? How much did you earn where you went to work (lit. joined in earning)? ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: ganal, tangdan, ngunu, suweldu. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2intrans. to join in earning. Eyak makibokla ad baliwon. I am going to earn a living in the lowlands. maki‑/naki‑. der. makibokla id. kay ta makiboklan nuwang

bolbol comm. a cone-bearing evergreen tree with needle-shaped leaves. [There are a few trees in the area; probably brought from Baguio and planted. Mostly found in the western part of Kiangan towards the Benguet boundary.] Dakol di matiboh bolbol ad Baguio. A lot of pine trees can be seen in Baguio. pt: gaplo; Sim: halong. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)

bolda 1trans. to decorate something with ornamental needle work; to embroider something. Boldaam nan bulwatin tulang mu. Embroider the dress of your sister. Bumolda kah iha-ad ku nah kuwartu. Embroider something that I will place in the room. Makakkaphod di binoldaan Fely. Fely’s embroidery is very beautiful. Naboldaan hi maingit nan bulwatina. Her dress was embroidered in red. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an,‑um‑/‑imm‑, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2intrans. to embroider as an activity. Mumbolda da nadan u-ungan binabai. The young girls are embroidering. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: burda.

buntul trans. to work for needs, e.g. food or wages. Hay nadan kakadangyan handi ya eda mo bumuntul hi kanon da. Those who were rich before now work for their food. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

dasal 1pray. 1.1intrans. to pray, the focus is on the activity. Mundasal taku. Let us pray. Kanayun kan mundasal an mumpasalamat kan hiya. Pray always to him, thanking him. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.2 - Pray.) 1.2trans. to pray, the focus is on praying a specific prayer. Idasal taku nan Ama Taku. Let’s pray the Lord’s Prayer. i/iN. 1.3trans. to pray for someone who has a need. Dasalan taku nadan mumpundogo. Let us pray for the sick. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 2comm. refers to the Christian speech act of praying to God. Dinawat nan padi nah dasal nan pumhod ka. Their priest asked in his prayer that you will become well. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.2 - Pray.) Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

gagaom 1comm. things needed for a ritual or the things to be used in the death of a person; animals for sacrifice are not included. [Some of the things needed are: a binuhlan ‘loincloth’, ulo ‘blanket’ for a man; an ampuyo ‘skirt’, balko ‘belt’ for a woman.] (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2intrans. to place special clothing on a corpse. Nganney pungagaom mu ke amam? How will you clothe your father? puN‑.

ginumta trans. 1for a spirit to have bitten someone to indicate a need [This word is related to rituals, usually involving a sacrifice, that are intended to counteract events caused by the bite of a spirit.] {ritual} Syn: kimmalat. 2to have caused something. {ritual} Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Baki

hawwal 1comm. extra part; surplus; over-the-limit; over-the-requirement; may refer to both count and mass things. Kaatnay hawwal na? How much is the extra. Umidat kah hawwal na. Give some extra. Sim: suruk, hubla. (sem. domains: 8.1.3.1 - Many, much, 8.1.7.1 - Extra.) 2trans. to give more than enough; to do more than enough. Hawwalam hi lima. Give five for extra. Ihawwal muy opat. Give four for the extra. Tipe bot hawwalonah na-e. Why should he leave that as extra? Had-om ta waday hawwalok. Wait until I leave something extra. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑. 3trans. to save or keep what is not needed. Nun-iboten Maria nan hinawwal min pintor. Maria bottled the paint we saved. ‑in‑.

hulul 1trans. to barter something; to trade something for another thing. <The prefix cross-references what is being given for the trade transaction.> Kanan nan in-inay ek ihulul tun onom an itlug hi manteka. The old woman said, I’m going to barter these six eggs for lard. Em ihulul tun babuy taku. You go to trade our pig. i‑/iN‑. 3H Conversive action process. Sim: hannot. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.1 - Buy, 6.8.4.2 - Sell.) 2trans. to barter or trade for something that is wanted. <Morphology: This affix set cross-references what is being traded for, i.e. bought.> ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3comm. this refers to the small pig that a girl’s family takes to the boy’s house during the engagement process; this is optional, but if the hulul is given, the bride’s family does not need to repay the bride price if the engagement or marriage should be dissolved. infl. hululan infl. munhulul

hunggop di ulog hi bale yu (id. of ulog) your house yard grass needs to be cleaned ( lit. snake will enter your house).

ipot proc. to become tight; the space between two things is evaluated as less than standard or what is needed, commonly used regarding clothing. Umipot tuwali nan pantalon mu ya em ipilit an usalon. You know that your pants are tight and you insist on wearing them. Immipot nan apatut ku. My shoes became tight-fitting. Umipotak nah panto. The door is narrow for me. Nan kahodol nay numpaipot. It’s the thickness that made it tight. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, numpa‑. 2G Processes. (sem. domains: 8.2.8 - Measure.)

lamang advpred. 1to be unafraid of the possible consequences of an action. Lamang anhan ya nundag-u kat indat mu nan indat dan he-a an nidat ke dida. If only you had been brave and dropped by to have given the thing to be given to them. Manner. (sem. domains: 4.3 - Behavior.) 2to dare to do something risky out of despair, extreme need or importance; to risk. Ilamanganan ume te mundogoh amana. He will risk his life to go because his father is sick. Inlamanganan enangako te naagangan. He risked stealing because he was hungry. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an.

lugal 1comm. space, e.g. room to stand or sit in. Maid di lugal mu te napnu. You have no space because it is full. (sem. domains: 8.5.4.3 - Space, room.) 2trans. to make a space for placing something or someone, generally done by moving something that is occupying the space needed. Lugalan yu nan ka-hogop na ta waday ubunana. Make space for the one who just entered so that he can sit down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of a site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 3comm. generally refers to having time to do something. Maid di lugal kun makingunud bale yu. I have no time to join in working at your house. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: lugar.

market comm. a large area of a town with many open stalls selling everything needed in a household. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to the market.

puku intrans. 1to lie or sit down curled up with knees close to chest. Mumpuku day aam-ama te maktol da. Old men lie curled up because they are cold. muN‑/nuN‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. Sim: bakilang, bakne, baktad. (sem. domains: 7.1 - Posture.) 2to sit with hands covering the head which is bent down toward knees; to cower; to cringe.

takombo (fr. var. of kombo) adjunct. an expression of concession; never mind!; it’s okay! This expresses an interpersonal concession meaning that the hearer doesn’t need to be concerned about or pay attention to something. Takombo di adiyak maki-e. Never mind, I will not come along. Kombo maid di idat mu muden ta umali ka. Never mind if you give nothing as long as you come. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

tamak 1comm. refers to an object placed underneath an uneven board, rock or anything that needs to be stabilized in place, e.g. an unbalanced table. (sem. domains: 6.7 - Tool.) 2trans. to place a wedge under something to stabilize it. Nan mungkidung an ubunan ya mahapul an tamakan. A chair that is not sturdy needs a stabilizing wedge placed. Tamakam tun lamesa teden mungkidug. Put a wedge under the table leg to make it stable. Nan ongal an batu di panamak mu. Wedge the big stone underneath. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, paN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding somthing. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

tulung trans. to aid someone in need; to help; to assist. Tulungam te deyan mahmok. Help him because he is pitiful. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. Sim: baddang, dang-a, abono. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.2 - Help.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ustu 1advpred. describes something that satisfies a requirement or need; enough; adequate. An ustuh tuwe? Is this enough? Evaluative. (sem. domains: 8.1.7 - Enough.) 2adequacy. 2.1intrans. to have a satisfactory fit; to be adequate. Umustu nan pantalon an ginatang mun ha-oy. The pants you bought fit me. ‑um‑. 2.2trans. to make something adequate. Ustuwom tun pihhu ingganah tapus. Make do with this money until the end of the month. on/in. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: justo.

‑in‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross references the direct object; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 5 verbal roots. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Dinulhukak nan apuy te nalutu di kanon ta. I extinguished the fire because our food is cooked. Sim: ‑an. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2when this circumfix co-occurs with verbal root classes other than Class 5, the affix cross-references a specific site-object. Uhup nan tinaddogak hidi. I stood there for a long time. .

‑um‑ ‑an TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a non-past tense process and cross-references a specific object. Ya hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. And the most important thing is to spend (your money) on those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Oha bo ya nakalligat di pumalattugan. Another reason is, their guns were hard to shoot (not automatic). Bumanidbidak hi liblu nah bakasyon. I do nothing but read books during vacation. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2non-past tense, reciprocal action. Pumanuddugan da yaden nahuyop hi inada. They keep running after each other while their mother is asleep.

abu 1adv. (prim) an adverb that limits and minimizes whatever concept that it modifies, e.g. an action, process, number, emotion. <Morphology: Derivation and compounding are common word formation processes with this morpheme.> Ha-on ya abu di ume. I only will go. Hanada ya abu makahhapul muy gatangom. Spend only for things that you really need. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us was only two basins of rice. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: ampod. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.) 2adv. (sec) an expression of restriction or limitation. Abu moh nae! Stop that! Abu moy kumodokodoh pihhu. Enough of your begging for money! 3trans. can become a derived verb that cross-references an object. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. comp. abuna comp. adin-abu comp. ot ya abu der. ab-abbu der. abuwan der. abuy

ad dalom₁ (n. ph. of dalom) comm. the area below the surface of the earth. Man-ut gagala ya tinummol da, mu ugge da immed dalom di lamut da. (Mateo 135-6b They quickly sprouted, but their roots did not go deep (under the surface of the earth). ...ta hidiye nan am-in wadah luta, hi langit, ad dalom ya mundukkun dah pundayaw dan hiya. (Philippi 2:10) ...therefore, everyone on earth, in heaven and under the earth will kneel in their worship of him. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)

agum sta. to be greedy; describes one who wants everything for himself. Hay naagum an tagu ya pinhod nan ibagin am-in nganneh diyen maid di kanana on abu mo. (Job 20:20) As for the greedy person, he wants to own everything without ever being satisifed (never saying no more is needed now). ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 3.3.1.8 - Lust.)

ahi₁ 1asp. future time aspect verb auxiliary when co-occurring with a non-past tense verb; there is also a modal component, i.e. a determination or an intention to act or a certainty that something will happen component. {This form is used primarily in clauses expressing time sequences having purpose or prediction.} <This form occurs before the verb; pronouns become enclitics> Wadan pidwana ke ya ahi makaippaptok am-in. Perhaps the next time, it will be well-planned. Ahitaku bo ume. We shall go again. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangmung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. (sem. domains: 8.4.1.2.2 - Yesterday, today, tomorrow.) 2asp. encodes a sequential aspect of events encoded in the verbs when co-occurring with past tense verbs; before. <Occurs preceding the second event verb in a sentence.> Ne dinanuman ta ingganay lumuwag ya ahi inha-ad nadan udum an midum. Then, add water and bring to boil before adding the other ingredients. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It is night before it comes out to fly around. Mahapul an ibakiyan ya ahi pinumhod. Instead a pagan priest has to perform a ritual to make him well (before he will be well). comp. ta ahi

algo₁ comm. during sunlight time; day. [The meaning of this form is no doubt related to the identical form with the gloss ‘sun’. The time unit ‘day’ relates to the time period from sunrise to sunset.] Ihap-em nan paeh udum an algo te adi mahap-ayan hi hin-algo ya abu. Dry the palay again some other day because it can’t be dried in just one day. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Hi kadwan di algo ya humamuy moy bubud. On the second day, the fermenting rice gives out its peculiar smell. Hituwen algo di kanan dah Ang-ang. This day is called Ang-ang. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) comp. hin-algo der. maal-algo id. gagala on immey algo infl. kaalgoalgo

alutiptip sta. burning sensation when urinating; urge to urinate Aga, aga ta ha-oy ni-an di humgop teden naalutiptippak. Please, let me be the first to use the comfort room for I really need to urinate. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological process - State. (sem. domains: 2.2.7 - Urinate, urine.)

andaan (daan) int. interrogative pronoun; where. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. If where ever now there is even a little money found, hide it until some day when you might need it badly. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.4 - Question words.)

anidu intrans. to warm oneself near the fire. Eka mun-anidu nah kad-an nan dalikan. Warm yourself by the hearth. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu. I thought that only a fire (can warm us) and yet even that can can warm us. La-uwanay lulug ya deyan umanidu hin tininggadan da. Its height comes to your knee and yet, it gives heat when they light it. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1B Movment with a directional component. Sim: dangdang. der. pun-aniduwan

apayo 1comm. fish and crab trap with sharp bamboo prongs pointed inward so fish cannot squeeze out; placed at a point where water exits a rice terrace. Apayoy mahapul hi pangalah yuyu nah payo. A fish trap is needed to be able to get Japanese fish from the field. Ihulbuk mu nan apayo nah dolya. Set the fish trap along the wall of the field. (sem. domains: 6.4.2 - Trap.) 2trans. to use a fish trap for catching fish E nangapyoh Juan. John went to catch fish using the apayo-trap. maN‑/naN‑. Sim: hingihing.

ay apu adjunct. an interjection that expresses dismay. Oh!; Oh my; Oh lord. Ay apu! Din golang an ingkamal nay pihhu. Oh! Look at the child, he placed a coin in his mouth. Ay apu! Ya uggek inila. Oh my! I did not know. Ay apu, imbagak an em alan mo te mahapul kud uwani. Oh my, I told you to get it now because I need it now. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)

baba 1comm. refers to a place of lower elevation. Immeh baba te waday ena tibon. He went down because he went to see someone. Sim: da-ul. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.) 2intrans. to get down; to go below. Bumaba kah na. Get down from there. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3proc. the process of something becoming lower, whatever has degrees of elevation or levels. Hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblun mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. What is important is that your spending should be for those books you need so that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Bimmaba day magatang. They lowered (the price) of what was being sold. 2G Processes. 4trans. (sec) to lower one’s status. i‑/iN‑.

bag’a trans. 1to ask something. Ot piayag dah ama ot ibaga dan hiya hin nganney aton da. And so they called for father and they asked him what they should do. Ituluy kun ibaga tun wadah nomnom ku. I will continue to ask this that is in my mind. Waday nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering it to them. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. Sim: kodo, pakada. (sem. domains: 3.3.2 - Request, 3.5.1.5 - Ask.) 2to tell something. Ninomnom nay imbagan amanan din hi Antonion kananay deket mabdang ke. He remembered what his late father, Antonio, told him that if it was roaming spirits. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) bagbaga-an infl. mamagbaga

bainti (sp. var. bahinti) 1adj. the count twenty of something. Bainti an tatagu di mahapul. Twenty people are needed. Number quantifier. Sim: dalan, duwampulu. (sem. domains: 8.1.1.1 - Cardinal numbers.) 2sta. to be worth twenty. Idatanak hi mabainti kindi. Give her candies worth twenty pesos. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: veinte.

balita 1comm. a metal rod around six feet long with one end pointed and the other end flattened for prying and excavating. Alam nan balita ta hidiyey pundulig mu nah ongal an batu. Get the crowbar and use it to move the big stone. Mungka-ut ta ke ya mahapul di balita. When we dig we need a crowbar. Sim: kabra. (sem. domains: 6.2.8 - Agricultural tool.) 2trans. to use a crowbar. Balitaon yu nan luta te makulhi. Use a crowbar in breaking the ground because the soil is hard. Adi mabalita nan ongal an batu. The crowbar cannot move the huge stone. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑.

bangko₂ 1comm. bank, a financial institution. Inhaad nay pihhu na nah bangko. He placed his money in the bank. Waday ittay an pihhuk nah bangkod Lagawe. I have a small amount of money in the bank at Lagawe. (sem. domains: 6.8.5.3 - Owe.) 2trans. to place money in the bank. Em ibangko nan pihhum ta adi map-u. Go and bank your money so that it will not be spent. Ibangkom nan binoklam. Put your wages in the bank. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to bank money. Mumbangko ka ta mahapul mu ke on em inala. Bank (your money) so that if you need it you can just draw some out. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

bog’a (fr. var. bingga) 1comm. uncooked generic rice, milled or husked. Nakattina hanan bogak nah bay-ong. My rice inside the sack was very wet. Pinpinhod ku nan ipugo an boga. I like the native rice. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume, ongal an banga o palyuk, binokbok ya buhi. These are needed in the making of rice wine: ordinary rice, glutinous rice to be mixed with the ordinary rice, a big pot or vat, native yeast and a wine jar. spec: bulkitan, ipugo, tinoon, dayyakot. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2comm. riddle Inihdi ke nan danum hinuy-up na nan danum ya timmaba da. (boga) You put it in water, it sucks the water and becomes fat. (rice) (riddle) 3deriv V. to cook rice with focus on the activity. Mumboga da ya mungkail da. They cook rice and make wine. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to get or take rice. Adi umanamut hi John ad uwanin linggu te dakol di bingga na handih immeh di. John will not come home this week because he took much rice when he went there. ‑in‑. der. mabga

bulubul 1trans. to wash away something. Duyagam nan balen di babuy hi dakol an danum ta mabulubul nan tain di babuy. Pour plenty of water in the pigpen so the pig’s waste will be washed away. Bulubulon yu nan luta nah gawwan di kalata. Wash away the soil in the middle of the street. Mahapul di tuping tedeyan mungkabulubul tun luta. A retaining-stone-wall is needed because the soil is being washed away. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. Sim: anud. (sem. domains: 5.6 - Cleaning.) 2proc. for soil to be washed away; to erode. Mahapul di tuping tedeyan mungkabulubul tun luta. A retaining (stone) wall is needed because the soil is being washed away. mungka‑/nungka‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: burubur.

dayakkot (sp. var. of dayyakot) 1) comm. rice, sticky variety; glutinous rice, used in rice cakes, candy and wine-making. Maid di dayakkot kinali uggeyak nungkail. There’s no sticky-rice, that’s why I did not make wine. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume... These are needed in the making of wine: ordinary-rice, glutinous-rice to be mixed with the ordinary rice... Syn: diket. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2) trans. to add or mix sticky rice. Dayakkotan yu nan boga ta yumam-o hin mihaang. Place some glutinous-rice in the regular-rice so it will be soft when cooked.

deket (comp. of deke, ta The conjunction links a statement of means with a statement of purpose.) conj. 1if; a conjunction that connects a dependent clause expressing a condition with a main clause expressing a purpose or circumstance; if it is so, then. <This is a compound of two conjunctions.> Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan If you are hungry, there are a lot of eating places. Deket adim pinhod an madistorbo nah hilong ya buhugom. If you don’t want to be disturbed at night, you feed him well. Compounding conjunctions. Sim: hin, konnat, nu. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) 2when; a conjunction that connects a dependent time clause to the main clause that encodes an action, activity or process. Deket e man-aladuh Francis on ahina mahapul nan pungkawad na. When Francis goes to plow, that is when he needs the chain. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)

deya (sp. var. daya) (comp. of de, ya) adjunct. see there! expression of confirmation. Deya ot an nun-obbo kayun dimmatong. There, you arrived one after the other. La-uwanay lulug ya deyan umanidu hin tininggadan da. Its height comes to your knee and yet, there, it gives heat when they light it. Interjection. comp. deyahdi comp. deyahna comp. deyahtu

diggal 1comm. mirror; window-glass. Adik mahapul di diggal te hiya damdaman manighigay angak. I don’t need a mirror because it’s obvious that my face is ugly. (sem. domains: 2.3.1.7 - Reflect, mirror.) 2intrans. to look in the mirror. Mundiggal ka ta ang-angom nan uling hi tamel mu. Look at your face in the mirror so you will see the soot on your cheek. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to look in a mirror at something in particular. Idiggal mu nan angam. Look at your face in the mirror. i‑/iN‑. 4comm. eyeglasses. Ingkapyaan dah diggal na. They made him a pair of glasses. 4.1trans. to use eyeglasses. Diggalom nan immeh matana. Use your eyeglasses in looking at the thing in her eye. -on/-in-.

gadgad 1trans. to scrape away dirt or something else that adheres, using a knife or stick. Gadgadam nan bila te dakol di lamut na ya napipitok. Scrape the tubers because they have many roots and they are muddy. ‑an/‑in‑ -an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.7.5 - Rub.) 2pass. the skin is scraped from an area resulting in an abrasion. Gimpak ku nan dingding ya nagadgadan di hukik. When I kicked the wall, my foot was scraped. Nihuttetak ya nagadgadan di lulung ku. I tripped and fell and my knee was scraped. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 2.5.3 - Injure.)

gatang (sp. var. of gattang) trans. 1) to transact buying-selling business. 2) to buy; the thing being bought is prominent. Hay ke bo pihhu ya adi nalnalgom on ginatang. And as for money, don’t just spend it on anything. Hanada ya abu makahhapul muy gatangom. Spend it only for things that you really need. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.1 - Buy.) 3) to sell; the thing being sold is prominent. Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. Maid moy ena igattang. He had nothing more to sell. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.2 - Sell.) (infl. gumatang infl. igatang infl. magatang infl. migattang infl. nangatang)

guk-ung adj. empty; describes a container as having nothing in it. Mahapul an yuduwon dat bumudal nan guk-ung di papan ta ahida bo ha-adan hi ohan papan. They needed to push out the empty bullet shell with a stick and insert another one. Qualifier. (sem. domains: 8.1.8.1 - Empty.)

gumawat (infl. of gawat) intrans. to incur debts; to borrow a specified amount of money. Gumawat kah hinlibu ta igattang takuh mahapul. Borrow an amount of one thousand so we can buy our needs. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.8.5.3 - Owe.)

hayyudut (sp. var. hayudut) 1sta. to be kind, loving or gracious; compassionate. Mahayyudut hi Juan. Juan is kind and loving. general: This word is rarely used by younger speakers. {arch} ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: 4.3.1 - Good, moral, 4.3.4 - Do good to.) 2proc. to become kind. Humayyudut mo te waday mahapul na. She is becoming kind now because she needs something. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 3trans. to be kind or loving to someone in particular. Hayyudutam di imbabalem. Have a great love for your children. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. mahayudut

hiblot sta. the good or bad remarks of certain people that can result in severe stomach pains or loose bowel movement; a type of curse. Nahiblotan kanu nangayanah bobleda teden mahakit di putuna. He believes he was cursed when he went for a visit to their place because his stomach is painful. Ipaptok yuh diyen tagu ta adina hiblotan tun makan. You take care of the needs of that person so that he will not make any remarks about the food. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Sim: idut, dug-a, duhngil, Ayak, Hagoho, gamud, bong’eg. (sem. domains: 4.9.4.4 - Curse.)

hin-ag intrans. to look through an aperture or something that is somewhat transparent so that light is the background. Ihin-ag mu ten immalih Tomas. Peep out to see if Tomas has come. Ihin-ag mu ta ang-angom di nitudok nah papel. Hold it against the light to see what is written on the paper. Ihin-ag mu an mangita-une nah bilat. Hold the needle against the light to thread it. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 2.3.1 - See.) infl. munhin-ag

hingkatang (infl. of katang) adv. 1refers to a short period of time; sometimes thought of as unexpected; a moment; short time. Hingkatang di nanib-ak ot ume. I saw it for a moment then it was gone. Hingkatang an immaliy udan. The rain came for a short time. Nuntikod nan radyo hi hingkatang. The radio stopped for a moment. Hingkatang ya ammunay nala-u ya timmaddog nan inhinyero ot eda mo mihanin duwat The engineer was able to stand seconds after the worker finished praying so they both went to seek cover. Time. Sim: bigla, maid maptok, na-ala, maag. (sem. domains: 8.4.2.1 - A short time.) 2indicating there is no time lapse, something happens instantly and unexpectedly; suddenly. Tibom te hingkatang ya mag-a ka. Look out, because you might fall suddenly. (sem. domains: 8.4.8.1 - Quick.) infl. hingkakatang

hingngot (sp. var. hongot) 1comm. engagement to marry, engagement offerings; the main offering is usually three pigs. [The engagement offerings are brought by the man’s family to the woman’s family; the word also refers to gifts, other than animals, such as bundles of wood, and a basketful of malagkit rice with coins placed on top. The animal engagement offerings are specifically referred to as the imbango.] In-eday hingngot Juan ad Bae. They brought Juan’s engagement offerings to Bae. Ine day hingngot Bugan. They brought the animals needed for the marital engagement of Bugan. Sim: Hongot; Sim: bango, Tokop di mom-on. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. to give animals and other paraphernalia used in the marital engagement arrangements. Mumpakan he dakel an babuy ta waday ihngot na hin malahin. He is feeding a lot of pigs so that he will have animals to use if he decides to be married. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to bring the betrothal gifts for the engagement ceremony. Munhongot da Juan hi bigat. Juan will bring the animals needed for his engagement tomorrow. Munhongot hi Juan ke Ana. Juan will bring his engagement offerings to Ana. muN‑/nuN‑. 4trans. to bring necessary animals for the marital engagement. i‑ ‑an.

hintaguwan nom. 1refers to a related group of people; lit. one-group-of-people. Adi ka umogon an bumaddang te bokon kayu hintaguwan. Don’t be selfish in helping because you’re not related. Adi mahapul an eyak tangdanan te konak hintaguwan. I don’t need to be paid because I belong to your group. hiN‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2refers to anyone who is not a part of the local group of people. Dakol di hintaguwan an nakiboblen dakamid uwani. There are many foreigners living among us today.

hituweh (hituwe) dem. this; the form is based on hituwe, a member of Set 3 demonstrative pronouns and co-occurs with the determiner hi. Ya adiyu kanan di intudok kuh tuwen dakayu te pinhod kun umidat kayuh mahapul ku te maid hituweh nomnom ku. And don’t think that I wrote this to you because I want you to give what I need because there is nothing like this in my mind. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)

humlun (infl. of hulun) trans. to cause something in particular. Mahapul mu ta maid di humlun hi bumabaan di grades mu. You need (to see) that nothing will cause your grades to be lowered. Hay hinumlun ya imbaag nah tulang na. What caused it is that he called his brother names. Sim: gapu te. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.5 - Cause, 9.6.2.5.1 - Reason.)

huttet sta. to fall backward. Nihuttet nan babai nah tete. The girl fell on the steps. Nihuttetak ya nagadgadan di lulung ku. I fell and my knee was scraped. mi‑/ni‑. Sim: hupdug, hubag. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5.1 - Fall.)

igatang (infl. of gatang) trans. to sell something. <The affix cross-references what is being sold.> Igattang ku tun bale te mahapul kuy pihhu. I will sell the house because I need money. An igattang da nan bulhe? Are they selling the beans? i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 6.8.4.2 - Sell.)

innun advpred. the way of doing something; course of action or decision-making; the means for doing something. Maid innun an e mungngunu te maid di mun-adug. There’s no way to go and work because there is no one to babysit. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan-prayer for him. Hay nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. ‑an. Manner. Sim: aton. (sem. domains: 9.5.1.4 - Way, manner.)

insenso comm. incense. [The use of incense was not a part of the traditional culture; however, there is a shrine in Kiangan in commemoration of the Japanese killed in World War II; this is the most common place to see the use of incense.] Nuntolog nadan Hapon hi insenso. The Japanese lit some incense. Munhamuy nan insenso an gineeng di Hapon. The incense burned by the Japanese is odorous. (sem. domains: 4.9.5.5 - Offering, sacrifice.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

ittay (sp. var. itay; sp. var. ittang; sp. var. kittay) 1adj. small; little, evaluative measure of size, extent or amount. Ittay tun inalak an boga. The rice I brought is a small amount. Ittay tun hinamal, munhaang ka pay. The rice is not enough for us, cook some more. Umeeley ka hi ittay. Move a little further. Ittay di indat mun hiya. You gave him a small one only. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.1 - Small.) 2trans. to decrease in size, extent or amount. Ittayon yu di idat yu. Give them small amounts. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 8.1.4.3 - Decrease.) 3proc. to become small as a process. Umittay nan boga. The rice will become few. (lit. become small) ‑um‑/‑imm‑. der. inita-itay der. kaittay infl. it-itay infl. kait-itayan

kadakol (der. of dakol) nom. refers to the amount or number of an entity. Nah kadakol di tatagu ya mahapul an halipat-an di pihhu. With the number of people, you have to be careful with your money. Hay kadakol di danum weno gatan di niyug ya nangamung di pinhod. The amount of water or coconut milk depends on what one prefers. Bukalom nan binokbok ya konoknongom di kadakol di punhagmuk mu. Now, crush the binokbok-leaves into powder and estimate how much you need. ka‑. (sem. domains: 8.1 - Quantity.)

kah-in (sp. var. kanah-in) advpred. for something to be necessary or required; must. Adik idat tun gattak, kah-in di bayadam. I won’t give you this milk; you must pay for it. Kah-in di waday himpulun mukkol ta ahi mapnu nan saku. Ten more pieces are needed to fill up the sack. Kah-in di he-ay ume ta he-ay e makihummangan ke hiya. You must go so that you’ll be the one to talk to him. Kah-in di idat mun ha-oy ta ahik bayadan. You must give it to me before I will pay it. Modality. (sem. domains: 9.4.2.3 - Necessary.)

karpentero 1comm. carpenter. Karpentero di mahapul da an mungngunu. They need a carpenter to work. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) 2v. to do carpentry work. Mungkarpentero ka nah daulon. Do carpentry work under the house. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.6.3 - Working with wood.) 3trans. to build or repair something. Karpenterowon yu nan alang. Do carpentry work on the rice granary. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: carpintero.

kaspangarigan adjunct. this adjunct modifies a statement that is a specific example of the more general statement that precedes it Nu kaspangarigan ta pinhod mu pay an mumbidbid hi novels ya bidbid mu nadan historical. If, for example, you like to read novels then, read those historical ones. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum ya tawagam hi Pedro. Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money, call Pedro. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 3.5.8.4 - Show, indicate.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

kawad 1comm. small chain, e.g. dog leash. Idat mu nan kawad ta igakod da nan ahu. Give the chain so that they will tie the dog. Imme ot ena hapulon nan nangikawad nah kawad an intalu na. He went to find out who used the chain that he hid. Sim: gakod, bobod. (sem. domains: 6.7.5 - Fastening tool.) 2trans. to use or attach a chain. Ikawad mu nan ahu te kumalat. Chain the dog because it bites. Mahapul an ikawad yu nan ahu te waday mala-u on ginunggungana. You must chain the dog because it barks at everyone who passes by. Kawadon yu nan ahu ta adi kumalat. Leash the dog so that it will not bite. Deket e mun-aladuh Francis on ahina mahapul nan pungkawad na. It is when Francis goes to plow that he needs to use the chain. i‑/iN‑, ‑on/‑in‑, puN‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.)

ke₁ (deke) conj. 1if; marks a conditional clause, hypothetical or real. Maid ke hi Juan ya uggeyak immali. If Juan had not been around I would not have come here. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan prayer for him. Wada ke ot di pihhu yu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) 2follows a predicate and marks a time phrase or clause. <The allomorph y of the linker di is an enclitic.> Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Mala-u key duwan hinlingguwan ya damanan hiitom nan baya ta inumon taku! After about two weeks, pour out the wine from the jar and we’ll drink with you. 3when; marks a time clause. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. Nagibbu ke nan kapkapyan di hagabi, kalyon day algoh pangihakyatan da. When the hagabi-bench is completed, they say the day that it will be brought home. (sem. domains: 9.2.5.2 - Clause conjunctions.)

konong₂ trans. to estimate the amount of something. Bukalom nan binokbok ya konoknongom di kadakol di punhagmuk mu. Crush the binoknok leaves into powder and estimate how much you need to sprinkle. (sem. domains: 3.2.2.3 - Evaluate, test.) infl. konoknong

luk-ib trans. to peel off outer skin or rind. Luk-ibam nan ukin di tabuyug. Peel off the rind of the pomelo. Naluk-iban nan lulug na handi nihugbub. The skin on his knee was peeled off when he tripped. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.8.4 - Tear, rip.)

lukluk₂ trans. to lay or rest head on something, face down. Inumbun ot inlukluk nay ulu nah nambattanan di lulug na. He sat down and rested his head between his knees. i‑/iN‑. 3G Move body or body parts directionally. (sem. domains: 7.1.9 - Move a part of the body.)

ma-ma-idan (der. of maid) exispred. intensified negated existential predicate; there is none, not any. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum ya umanamut ka. Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money, you return home. Naminghan ya maka-al-algo bon ma-ma-idan tataguh kalata. Once, it was noontime and there was not a single person on the road. CVC‑ ‑an.

mangi- top. this prefix cross-references a topicalized agent-subject; co-occurs with Class 3 verbal roots; non-past tense. Mihaad nan hagabi nah dola ta nangamung mo nan kon hagabi an ahi mangip-iphod. The hagabi-bench is placed in the yard and it is up to the owner to have it finished (lit. made-good). Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung. That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to place the dynamite sticks. Sim: nangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

matadom di mata na (id. of tadom) to see very well (lit. his eyes are sharp). Matadom di matana te tibonay uwang nan bilat. Her eyes are sharp because she can see the eye of the needle.

nin adjunct. modifies a statement as expressing a tentative possibility; perhaps; possibly; maybe. Umali nin hi biggatna. He may possibly come tomorrow morning. Pangalim nin kattog di babale nadan udum bon matibo mo bokon ta datuwe nan kalyon an bapor. You think maybe what you see are houses but these are what they call ships. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangmung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have found just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.4.4.4 - Possible.) comp. deke pe nin ta comp. wada nin ph. v. damana man nin

nungka- proc. this prefix encodes the distribution of a process or state over a number of objects; completive aspect. <This prefix generally co-occurs with process-state verbal roots or with passive forms of active verbs.> Nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. Naminghan ya immanamut hi ohan biggatna ya nungkabibik-iy bulwatina. One morning he came home with his clothes torn in several places. Ya nada ke bon kakaiw an sycamore an nungkalngo ya hannotan takuh sedar an kapkaphodan an kaiw. And also as for those sycamore trees that were felled, we will replace them with sedar which is the best tree. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)

o conj. conjoins alternative choices. Mahapul datuwe ten mungkail ka: boga, dayakkot an pummayume, ongngal an banga o palyuk, binokbok ya buhi. These are needed in the making of rice wine: ordinary rice, glutinous rice to be mixed with it, a big pot or vat, native yeast (leaves of the binokbok- plant) and a wine jar. Mahapul an hanan himmagabi ya taganah kolong hi nuwang o babuy ta pihdana nadah deh muyung ya nadan udum an bumadbaddang. The man performing the hagabi-ceremony must go on butchering carabao or pigs to feed the people in the forest and all the others who are helping him. Coordinating conjunctions. Sim: weno. (sem. domains: 9.2.5.2 - Clause conjunctions.)

on 1lk. this linker connects a complement to a main clause predicate or an adverbial predicate. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu ta. I thought that it is only a fire by which we can acquire heat. Maanlaanak an mundawdaw-en nah bungana on kinkinnan ku. I enjoyed picking and eating the fruit. (sem. domains: 9.6.3.1 - Markers of transition.) 2det. introductory determiner; marks an indefinite, non-specific person or thing; the person or thing referent is contingent on information in context. Wada on tagun immalin manamak ke he-a. There was a man who came looking for you. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to put dynamite sticks (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) comp. deke on

papan 1comm. bullet. An waday papan nae? Does that have a bullet in it? Mahapul an yuduwon dat bumudal nan guk-ung di papan ta ahida bo ha-adan hi ohan papan. They needed to push out the empty shell with a stick and insert another one. Syn: bala. (sem. domains: 4.8.3.7 - Weapon, shoot.) 2trans. to use bullets. Ipapan mu nan indat kun he-a. Use the bullets I gave you. Batu di pamapan hi lattik. Stones are used for bullets in slingshots. i‑/iN‑, paN‑. 3trans. to load a gun with bullets. Papanam nan palattug mu te dakol day hamuti hitu. Load your gun because there are many birds here. Kanak on ugge napapanan kinali kinalbit. I thought that it was not loaded that is why I squeezed the trigger. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.

pidwa (der. of duwa) to repeat. 1.1caus. cause something to be done twice; repeat. Adik mo ipidwa nae. I will not repeat that again. ipi. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.2.6 - Repeat.) 1.2trans. to do a specific action twice. Adi mahapul an pidwaon Jose an tuwikon nan babuy te nate mo. Jose did not need to repeat piercing the pig because it was already dead. Pidwaom nan kinalim. Repeat what you said. pi‑ ‑on. 1.3v. to do something twice. Mumpidwaak an umaliyak an manibon dakayu. I will come to see you twice. Inunom nan agam hi mumpidwah kabigabigat. Drink your medicine twice daily. mumpi‑/numpi‑. pamidwa der. pidwana ph. v. pidwa bo

puN- -an₁ TACR. 1this circumfix encodes a distributive concept; it distributes an action or activity to plural objects and cross-references the objects. Bimmoh-ol hi ama ot pumboh-olan dakami. My father was so angry that he scolded us. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this circumfix cross- references a topicalized time or place. Kediyen algon pumbungbungan da ya immali on inhinyeron mangiha-ad hi bungbung That day when they blasted the rocks, an engineer came to put dynamite sticks. Daanay pungkekeyan yu? Where will you swim?

puntos comm. card players; bettors in a gambling card game. Mahapul di tulum puntos ta ahi da mun-ay-ayyam. They need three players so that they can play. (sem. domains: 4.2.6 - Entertainment, recreation.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

ta nangamung₁ adv. the time concept related to an event, activity or action that continues ‘up to the time of’ specified in the sentence. Miha-ha-ad dah nah muyung ta nangamung di magibbuy hagabi. They camp in the forest until the Hagabi is finished. Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.) ph. v. damanat nangamung

ta₁ The conjunction links a statement of means with a statement of purpose. conj. 1so that. <Morphophonology: Following words ending in vowels ta can be reduced to a clitic form t attached to the preceding word.> Kah-in di he-ay ume ta he-ay e makihummangan ke hiya. You must go so that you’ll be the one to talk to him. Coordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.7 - Purpose.) 2and, with a purpose. Ekat em iabba nan duyat. Go to carry the baby on your back. Manginbubuttik ka aga dih tendaan ta eka gumattang hi suka. Please run to the store to buy vinegar. 3in order to. Immaliyak ta awitok tun golang. I came in order to take this baby. Hay atom ta matikod nan pumbabahhulan yu ya tayanam tun boble. What you need to do in order to stop the bad relationship between you is for you to leave this place. Kah-in di waday himpulun mukkol ta ahi mapnu nan saku. Ten more pieces are needed in order to fill up the sack. comp. deke pe nin ta comp. deket comp. hin anoka ta comp. ta ahi

taab trans. to cut out wedges in wood or tree; to notch wood. Mahapul an taaban nan kaiw hin longhom. You need to cut a wedge (on the trunk) first if you are going to fell a tree. Muntaab da hi kaiw. They are cutting out wedges on the wood. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) der. tinaab

taya₁ trans. to collect liquid by placing a container under outlet. Tayaom nan muntodtod an danum. Collect this dripping water in a container. Itayam tun palanggana nah gulipu ta ulahak tun duyu. Put this basin under the water pipe and I will wash the dishes. Muntaya kah pun-amom. Collect water for your bath. Tumaya kah inumon taku. Collect some water for our drinking needs. Mitaya ka nah gulipu. Put yourself under the pipe. (lit. collect the water on your body, regarding bathing) ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, mi‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.5.1 - Gather.) id. mitaya ka

tinggad trans. to light something with a match. la-uwanay lulug ya deyan umanidu hin tininggadan da. Its height comes to your knee and yet, it gives heat when they light it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented site. (sem. domains: 5.5.1 - Light a fire.)

tinulid comm. 1thread for sewing. Maid di mangitit hi tinulid an igattang da. They are not selling any black thread. (sem. domains: 7.5.4.1 - Rope, string.) 2riddle Hinunggop on limmah-un on inhaad na di iwitna. (bilat ya tinulid) It goes in and out, leaving part of its tail behind. (needle and thread) (riddle) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

tobab 1comm. the name of a gong instrument, used as a percussion instrument for the lead rhythm. (sem. domains: 4.2.3.5 - Musical instrument.) 2comm. a kind of wedding dance, performed to the playing of gongs. Tobab di intayo da. They danced the tobab. (sem. domains: 4.2.4 - Dance, 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 3trans. to beat a gong with hands, using a clenched fist and an open palm or both hands clenched. Tobabom nan gangha. You beat the gong. Mundukkun hi Juan an muntobab. Juan kneels down while beating the gong. Hi Juan di mambab ta mahaldot. Juan will be the one to beat the gong so that it will be sonorous. ‑on/‑in‑, maN‑/naN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. der. mambab

tobong 1comm. pieces of wood, bamboo, or metal used to pierce and pick up cooked root vegetables; used in roasting meat. [The tool is usually stuck in walling for next use. It is also used in the kulkulibag-childbirth-ritual.] Alam nan tobong ta ihongba ta tun dotag. Get the barbecue stick so that we will roast this meat. Sim: tuduk. 2trans. to pierce with a pointed stick and roast; to barbecue. Itbong ku nan altet ihdam. I’ll roast the liver for your viand. Mahong-o nan mitbong an dolog. Fish roasted over a fire is delicious. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. (sem. domains: 5.2.1.1 - Cooking methods.) 3trans. to pierce. Natbong di taklek nah bilat. My hand was pierced by the needle. Timbong ot ha-adanah uwe nan dotag an ianamut yu. He pierced and placed rattan strips on the meat you are to bring home. Timbong day ingana te pinhod nan munhingat. They pierced her ears because she wants to wear earrings. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑.

tuduk₁ trans. to pierce or prick. Tudukon day taklem. They will pierce your hand. Ituduk da nan bilat hi pukol mu. They will prick you with a needle in the shoulder. Natuduk di taklek nah palahyang. My hands were pierced with the thorns of the citrus tree. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Sim: tobong. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

tulludan (der. of tulud) nom. a box or crate, sled-like for hauling soil in the ricefield made of gabgab wood; it is pushed when full. Mahapul day tulludan nah payo te adalom nan bongwana. They need a wooden crate for hauling soil in the field because the other half of it is deep. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.)

tuwik 1trans. to prick; to stab; to pierce. Tuwikom tun nabkul tuh taklek. Prick the blister in my hand. Itwik mu nan bilat. Prick it with the needle. Tinwik dah Pukit ad Ambabag. They stabbed Pukit in Ambabag. Natwik di taklek. My hand was pricked. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑/iN‑, ma‑/na‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: tupig, ubut. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.) 2intrans. for something to prick. Tumwik nan hubit di kawayan. The bamboo thorns prick. ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

ula trans. to wash, e.g. hands, feet, dishes, other parts of the body. Ulaham nan puyok hi hukim. Wash the mud off your feet. Mun-ula ka. You wash (your hands). Mangula kah duyu. Wash some of the dishes. Pakiulam di taklen tulang mu. Wash the hands of your sisters also. Iulam nan hinagob ku. Use the water I got for your washing needs. ‑an,/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑, i‑/iN‑, paki‑. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 5.6 - Cleaning.)

ulo 1comm. a blanket, generic term. Deket kotol ya mahapul di mahdol an ulo. When it is cold, a thick blanket is needed. Sim: oban. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to place a blanket on someone. Ulowam nan imbabalem ta adi maktol. Place a blanket over your child so that he will not feel cold. Iulom nan wadan nah kaban. Use the blanket in the wooden trunk. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. to use blanket. Mun-ulo ka. Use a blanket. muN‑/nuN‑.

yudu trans. to push an object out of a container of some kind. Mahapul an yuduwon dat bumudal nan guk-ung di papan ta ahida bo ha-adan hi ohan papan. They needed to push out the empty bullet-shell with a stick and insert another one. ‑on/‑in‑. 4D Release, remove or detach object. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.)