Search results for "ngunu"

Hin pinhod takun munhidah itlug, mumpaptok kah manuk. (say. of ngunu) If you want to eat eggs, raise chickens. [This saying implies that one needs to work if one wants to eat.] (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.)

ngunu 1comm. using the body or mind to do or make something; work. Nganney ngunum? What is your work? Sim: ganal, tangdan, bokla, suweldu. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2to work. 2.1intrans. to work. Mungngunuwak hi payo hi bigat. I will work in the field tomorrow. muN/nuN. 2.2trans. to work on a particular thing; the object being worked on is prominent. Ingunu yu nan onob di bale te napai. Work on the door of the house because it is destroyed. Ingunum tun pingunuk ke he-a. Work on this which I am assigning you to do. i/iN. 2.3pass. for something to be worked on. Maid di mingunu ad uwani. There is nothing to work on today. mi‑/ni‑. 2.4trans. to work for something or someone; the beneficiary or the thing being worked for is prominent. Ingunuwak hi tulang ku ad uwani te mundogo. I will work for my brother today because he is sick. Ingunuwak nan binanok an pihhu. I will work for the money I borrowed. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. say. Hin pinhod takun munhidah itlug, mumpaptok kah manuk.

ngunut comm. personal belongings; possessions. Iphod mu nadan ngunut mu. Put your belongings in order. Sim: alikamen. (sem. domains: - Unique, 6.8.1 - Have wealth.)

alikamen comm. personal belongings; possessions. Inal-ala nan am-in di alikamen na. He took all of his things. Sim: ngunut. (sem. domains: - Own, possess.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

bokla₂ 1trans. to work for wages or other needs. Boklaok nan ginawat kun boga. I will work for the rice I borrowed. Kaatnay binoklam nah em nakiboklaan? How much did you earn where you went to work (lit. joined in earning)? ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: ganal, tangdan, ngunu, suweldu. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2intrans. to join in earning. Eyak makibokla ad baliwon. I am going to earn a living in the lowlands. maki‑/naki‑. der. makibokla id. kay ta makiboklan nuwang

ganal (sp. var. ganar) 1comm. salary rate. Kaatnay ganal muh ohan algo? How much is your salary rate for one day? Nabongley ganal na hi ohan algo. His salary for one day is fifty pesos. Sim: tangdan, bokla, ngunu, suweldu. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2intrans. to receive a specified salary. Mungganal hi hinggatut hi ohan algo. He is paid a hundred per day. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to give someone a specified salary rate. Ganalan dakayuh liman pihu hi hin-olat. He will give you a salary rate of five pesos an hour. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.

suweldu 1comm. a wage or salary. Idat mu nan suweldu da hi bigat. Give their salaries tomorrow. Sim: ganal, tangdan, bokla, ngunu. (sem. domains: - Pay.) 2intrans. to receive salary. Maid di pihhu taku te uggeyak nunsuweldu. We have no money because I did not receive my pay. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: sueldo.

tangdan 1comm. earnings; wages. Kaatnay tangdan mu. How much did you earn? Sim: ganal, bokla, ngunu, suweldu. (sem. domains: - Earn.) 2trans. to give wages to someone. <The person receiving the wages is cross-referenced by the affix.> Tangdanan daka ta iem tun kalton hi malket. I’ll give you wages and you’ll take this box to the market. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

ag’a adjunct. 1a polite expression; please; excuse me. {This is a polite expression that can be used to soften a request or demand; also, it can be used to excuse oneself from an event or communication situation.} Idat yu agah tuwe ke Maria? Will you please give this to Maria? Agak, apapon daka? Agam, ten pinhod mu. Shall I go ahead and slap you? Go ahead, if it pleases you. Aga ta mangmangngeyak pe. Excuse me, I’m going ahead. Agat ek aton hanan ngunuk ta magibbu. Excuse me, I will go to finish my work so that it will be done. Aga, nangamung boh pidwana. There now, till next time. Aga, di inalam ad Manila. Please (let me see) what you got in Manila. Aga ke ta ha-oy di muntudok. Move away so I’ll (be the one) to write. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.) 2expression that means to go ahead and do something or continue action. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits. Agam, deket pinhod mun makie ya mundadaan kah pihhum ta deke ya imme ta. Go ahead. If you want to join in going, save your money so that we can go. (sem. domains: 3.5 - Communication.) der. agannat

agang hungry. 1.1sta. to be hungry; non-agentive cause of hunger is exertion, work, time. Maagangan da nadan mungngunu. Those working will be hungry. Naagangan te ugge nangan dih biggatna kinali immanamut hi gagala te maal-aliwot hi inagang na. She was hungry because she didn’t eat breakfast; that’s why she went home early because she was feeling dizzy from her hunger. Idadaan yu ta mangan da te naagangan da. Prepare (the food) so that they can eat because they are hungry. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 6A Physiological states. (sem. domains: - Hungry, thirsty.) 1.2proc. to become hungry; the process is in view. Immagang. I have become hungry. Umanamutak te imma-agang. I’ll go home now because I have become very hungry. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. maagangan

ahigaud (comp. of gaud, ahi) nom. a phase of the agricultural cycle; plowing of ricefields to prepare for planting; the plowing is done by hand using wooden spades. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahigaud. The men have much work during the plowing season. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

ahitunod (tunod) nom. season for transplanting rice from seedbeds to the fields. Dakol di ngunu nah ahi tunod. There’s a lot of work during the transplanting season. Nagibbuy ahi tunod tuh boble. The season of transplanting here in our village is finished. Gen: ahi. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time, 6.2 - Agriculture.)

alibaddu intrans. to move about in a restricted area; mill around; to move about continuously. Adiyak pakangngunu te mun-alibaddu day u-unga. I cannot work because the children are moving about everywhere. muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

alittu (sp. var. alistu) 1adv. quickly. Alittun mungngunu. He works quickly. (implies he is industrious) Time. (sem. domains: - Quick.) 2advpred. to do something quickly. <The adverbial predicate governs the action with the affix cross-referencing the verbal action object.> Alittuwan yun mungngunu. Work fast. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Time. Sim: gagala. 3intrans. to move quickly. Immalittu da te mangali nan ap-apu da. They moved quickly because their leader was approaching. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: alistu.

am-ama (der. of ama) comm. refers to an old man, from about 60 years old. Te am-in da takon di unga weno am-ama, muntuttudu weno mun-adal ya numbubunut da ot matuddu nimpe ngunu da. (1 Chronicles 25:8b) Because all of them whether young or old men, whether teaching or learning, they were chosen by casting lots and their work was taught. (sem. domains: 2 - Person.)

ambaballuka adjunct. an expression of giving over or implying an unwillingness to debate an issue. Ambaballukan unga an tinaynan di aammod na! Poor child who was left by his parents! Ambaballuka uggek ingngunu ya ugge. Never mind whether I did the work or not. Ambaballukay mangan eta ot. Let’s go, I’ll give-up eating (for now). Attitudinal. (sem. domains: - Attitude.)

amo jealous. 1.1proc. to be jealous; to be envious. Umamowak ke hiya. I am so jealous of him. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . Sim: ah’ol. (sem. domains: - Jealous.) 1.2trans. to envy someone; the affix cross-references the person that is envied. Inamohan dah Pedro. They were jealous of Pedro. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 1.3rec. for two people to jealously guard the amount of work that each needs to do. Mun-inammo dah ngunu. Neither of them want to do the work./Both of them want the other to do the work. muN‑ ‑in‑.

anhan (sp. var. ahan) adjunct. 1an intensifying polite adjunct; please, sorry. [The word is generally used in a polite request or as a polite emphasis, but may also be used sarcastically. It is used intentionally to evoke particular feelings in the hearer; the context disambiguates the feelings that the speaker intends to evoke.] Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: - Persuade.) 2to emphasize, related to degree or uniqueness. Hinae anhan nan em ipatipatibo? Is it only that which you are showing off? Makulug anhan nan kinalik. What I said is really true. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) 3first thing; a priority. Pa-anhanom an aton ni-an nan kinalik ta ahim aton di udum an ngunum. Make what I told you the first thing you do before your other work. pa‑ ‑an. comp. kay-ahan der. ipaanhan der. mangipaanhan infl. paanhanon

apuwap (sp. var. apuap) trans. to caress; rub gently a specific body part; massage. Apuwapom di tuktuk na ta mahuyop. Rub her forehead gently so she will go to sleep. Inapuwap inay odog ku ot mibangngad nah pun-ingunu na. She patted my back and returned to her work. Ap-apuwapona ya pinpinhod damdaman nan gawgawa. She smoothed its feathers and the duck liked it. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile actions. (sem. domains: - Touch.)

at do. 1.1trans. to do something; refers to an action. Adim aton hina. Do not do that. Atonah tuwet adi mundagan e bumudduy di ena kinan. It does this so that what it eats will not come out at once. ‑on/‑in‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.) 1.2pass. was done/will be done; happened/will happen. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. That is all I have heard about that case (lit. what was done). Tinibon nan ohan nadah mungngunu ya inila na moy naat. One of the workers immediately knew what went wrong (lit. what was done). ma‑/na‑. umat der. kaatan der. pangat infl. aton infl. maat infl. mangat infl. pa-at

at’op 1comm. roof; roofing material. Hinnanotak di atop nan balemi. I changed the roof of our house. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2trans. to construct a roof; to use as roofing. Iatop yu nan gulun. Roof with the cogon grass/Use cogon grass for the roof. Atopan yu nan baleda ad uwani. You are going to roof their house today. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3pass. to be roofed. Naatopan moy baleda. Their house is already roofed/has a roof. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 4intrans. to make a roof. Mun-atop da nadan mungngunu. The workers are constructing the roof. Umatop kayuh pun-hiduman taku. Make a roof for our shelter. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑.

aton (infl. of at) trans. to do something in particular, i.e. specific. Ekat em aton po nan ngunum te inat ku mo nan ken ha-on. You go and do your work because I have already done mine. ‑on/‑in‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. Sim: innun. (sem. domains: 7 - Physical actions.)

bahho mistaken. Sim: halla. 1.1trans. to do something wrong; to make a mistake; to err. Adim ibahho nan impingunuk ke he-a. Don’t deliberately err in the work I let you do. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3 - Language and thought.) 1.2pass. to be mistaken or wrong, generally referring to what is thought or said. Nibahho nan kinalinan dakami. What he told us is wrong. Nibahhoy punnomnom da. Their thinking is mistaken. mi‑/ni‑.

bak’ug 1sta. hunchbacked. Mabakug dah gagala nadan aammod an mungngunuh payo te iyuyuung da. Those parents who work the ricefields become hunchbacked because they are bent-over everyday. ma‑. (sem. domains: 2.1 - Body.) 2trans. to hunch the back; slouch; bent from waist. Adim bakbakuggon te ad-adin tibon. Do not hunch your back because it is not good to look at. ‑on/‑in‑ CV(C)‑. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.1.8 - Bend down.)

bakwad intrans. to roam around; going from place to place without purpose. Mumbakwaddan hi Jose te humigan mungngunu. Jose roams about because he is too lazy to work. muN‑ ‑an/nuN‑ ‑an. 1B Movement with a directional component. Sim: duka. (sem. domains: 7.2.4 - Travel, 7.2 - Move.)

balin₁ advpred. refers to the possibility of an action or process. Nu mabalin ya hay mo informative books di bidbidom If possible, you should already prefer to read informative books Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. Adi mabalin nan batu. The stone cannot be overturned. ma‑ . Modality. (sem. domains: - Can, - Possible.) infl. mabalin

baltung 1comm. ritual in which the Ifugao shamans stamp their feet after each sentence of the ritual chant. Ingunu da nan baltung nah hogop. They perform the baltung-ritual during the hogop-ritual. (sem. domains: - Custom.) 2trans. to perform the baltung-ritual. Baltungan dah tulun babuy nan balen da Jose. They are going to perform the baltung ritual with three pigs in the house of Jose. Mumbaltung hi Jose. Jose will perform the baltung-ritual. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑. 3comm. refers to the sound of the rapid stamping of feet. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 4intrans. to stamp one’s feet in rapid succession. [performed during the hogop ritual.] Mumbaltung da boh hilong. They are going to stamp their feet again tonight. Bumanalbaltung hanadan u-unga. The children are always stamping their feet. Mapmaphod hhi Dulyaggan ten mumbaltung. Dulaggan was very skillful when he was doing the baltung ritual. muN‑, ‑um‑.

bang-ot 1trans. to put cooking pot over the fire. Ibang-ot mu nan boga. You cook the rice. (implies putiting the rice in a pot and putting the pot on the fire) Ibang-otan yu nadan mungngunu. Cook rice for those who are working. Nganney bang-otan? Nan ong-ongal an bangay bang-otan te dakol kami. What pot shall I cook with? Cook with the big pot because there are many of us. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3A Move and position object at site. Sim: ha-ang, apin. (sem. domains: - Cooking methods.) 2intrans. to cook food, usually thought of as rice. Mumbang-ot kah kanon hi datuwen tatagu. Cook food for these people. muN‑/nuN‑. infl. mumbang-ot

biyag 1comm. life. Pumhod di biyag hin waday dinol ke Apu Dios. Life will be better if we put our trust in God. Te mama-id key manuk ya hidiyey poppog di biyag nah punnomnom na. Because without chickens, he thinks that would be the end of his life. Sim: nitaguwan. 2sta. to be alive; to live. Mabiyag kaya nadan intanom mu. Those you planted will definitely live. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. 3nom. refers to making a living; supporting oneself and dependents. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. puN‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano. der. biyagon der. mabiyag der. mumbiyag

bognat sta. to experience a relapse after sickness. Adika e mungngunu te mabognat ka man. Do not go to work because you might have a relapse. Adika ni-an mumbalbal te mabognat ka te kattungom. Do not wash clothes yet because you just gave birth and you will have a relapse. ma‑. Sim: gid’u, makihal. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

bol’e 1sta. tiredness; fatigue; usually refers to muscle fatigue. Mable ka ke ya mun-iyatu ka. If you are tired, rest. Nableyak an uumbun. I am tired of sitting down. Adiyak pakah-od ke Talakka te nakakkableyak mon muntattattayun. I couldn’t wait for Talakka because I was so tired from hanging (from a tree). ma‑/na‑, naka‑ C. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: atu. (sem. domains: 2.4.4 - Tired.) 2proc. to be in the process of becoming tired. Mungkable ak te neligat tuwen ngunu. I am becoming tired because this work is hard. mungka‑/nungka‑. infl. mun-ible

buggan₂ adj. beauty of a female. [This may be a coinage from the name of the Ifugao heroine, Bugan.] Man-u te buggan ka mu uggem inilan mungngunu. It’s true that you are beautiful but you do not know how to work. Qualifier. Sim: maddikit, balasang, pintas. (sem. domains: - Beautiful.)

bulidu 1sta. to be irritated; to be annoyed. Mabulidu te naapput. He is irritated because he lost. ma‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: - Angry.) 2trans. Buliduwonak nah ingngunuk te dakol ya naligat. I am annoyed with my work because there is so much and it's hard. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

bungbung 1comm. explosives; dynamite; the sound of dynamite exploding. Inibka da nan bungbung nah wangwang. They threw the dynamite into the river. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to blast something with the use of dynamite or any explosive. Bungbungon yu din ongngal an batu. Blast that big stone. Mumbungbung da nadan mungngunuh kalata. The road workers are blasting rocks. Nabungbungan nan batu kinali niwahiwahit hi nungkikidawwi. The stone was blasted, that is why it is scattered that far. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑, na‑ ‑an. 4A Change the structure of object. (sem. domains: 7.9.3 - Destroy.) 3intrans. to dynamite fish; to fish with explosives. maN‑. der. mamungbung der. pumbungbung

bungotan (infl. of bungot) trans. to scold someone. Bungotan daka hin adim aton nan impangunu da. They will scold you if you did not do the work they left you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented site. Sim: boh-ol. (sem. domains: - Rebuke.)

bungul₂ 1comm. a cluster of things grouped which could be counted; grouped closely. Gumattang kah ohan bungul di littuku. Buy a bunch of rattan-fruit. Sim: bingil, amung, alimungmung, kampeg, panu. 2sta. to be in clusters. Nabungul nadan mungngunu nah pingngit di kalata. The workers where gathered in clusters on the street side. ma‑.

butbut₁ sta. to have small holes in soft things like cloth, dress, plastic, bag, mat. Nakabbutbutan nan pungngunuk an bulwati mu lokolokobak. My working clothes are full of holes but I keep patching them. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an, naka‑ C ‑an. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. Sim: lokong, uwang, abut, guk-ang. (sem. domains: 7.8.4 - Tear, rip.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

CV1C2 1intensifier. the reduplication of the first syllable, CV(C), and the medial consonant of an adjective noun root is the form of the morpheme that encodes intensity; very. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahiga-ud. The men have more work during the plowing season. Hi Luis an ong-ongal ya himpuluy toona ya hi ke Julie ya onom. Luis, the older (lit. bigger), was ten years old and Julie was six. Mu dakdakol di kaapputan ta maahinut ot ya abun am-in. But one loses more times than he wins such that eventually, everything will be lost. 2dim. refers to something smaller than the norm; this reduplication form encoding this meaning co-occurs only with nouns.

dadlu trans. to give up hope; to despair; to no longer value life. [This is an emotion that results in certain types of behavior, e.g. abandoning family, selling possessions or taking one’s life.] Indadluwam mo ahan di nitaguwam ta deyan pun-igattang mun am-in di ngunut mu. You don’t value your life anymore and so you are selling everything you have. Indadluwana ot e muntu-un nah pangdo. She lost all hope so she went and jumped from the cliff. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. Sim: lakud. (sem. domains: - Hopeless.)

daluhdu trans. to remove grasses with a bolo. Idaluhdum nan punggabut mu nah kaddat ta makikaan nan lamut na. You remove the crabgrass (with the bolo) so that its roots will also be removed. Mundaluhdu nadan mungngunu nah payo. The field workers are removing the grasses (with a bolo). i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3B Move and release object. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 - Cut.)

dewet intrans. to go about without purpose; to roam; to gallivant. Mundewet nan imbabalem. Your child is always roaming around without any purpose. Adi kayu e dumewedewet te dakol di mingunud uwani. Don’t go gallivanting because there is much work to do now. Nadewet hi Maria. Maria is a gallivanter. ‑um‑/‑imm‑, muN‑/nuN‑, ma‑. Sim: umga, lubwat, baat. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.)

dinol 1rely on. 1.1trans. to trust someone or something; to believe in the reliability of another. (sem. domains: - Trust.) 1.2trans. to rely on; depend on. Gapu bot mauleyak ya pundinlam ta hay pinhod muy at-attom. Just because I am kind, you depend on that and do whatever you like. Pundindinlam hi inam an mangingunuh kanom. You are always depending on your mother to provide your food. Idinol muh kalyon da inam. Trust in what your mother says. i‑/iN‑, puN‑ ‑an. Sim: piyal. 2trustworthy. 2.1sta. to be worthy of confidence; to be trustworthy, one who can be relied on. Adi midinol te hinaulak. He is not trustworthy because he deceived me. mi‑. 2.2sta. to be and feel confident; to trust in someone or something. Madinol kami an hi Apu Dios an mamaddang dakami. We are confident that God will help us. Naapput da te makadinnol da te hay inila da ya makattakut di Ipugao. They were defeated because they were unsuspecting because they thought (were confident that) the Ifugao were cowards. ma‑, maka‑. 3comm. trust. Maid dinol kun he-a. I have no trust in you. (sem. domains: - Trust.) der. madinol infl. idinol infl. makadinnol infl. mangidinol infl. midinol

distulbu (sp. var. dittolbo; sp. var. distorbo) 1comm. disturbance; annoyance. Opya ka te distulbu ka ya abu. Keep quiet because you are only a disturbance. Kaanom nan alad te distulbu tuh ingunu. Remove the fence because it is a disturbance to the task. 2trans. to disturb. Adim distulbuwon nan golang te nahuyop. Do not disturb the child because he is asleep. Madistulbu nadan nahuyop hi ngalam. Those asleep will be disturbed by your noise. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 4 - Social behavior.) 3intrans. to annoy. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

dogap 1trans. to treat impartially or indifferently; to act in a way that does not differentiate among people. Idgap da kanuy pangibalohan da nah iKiangan. They do not differentiate among the people of Kiangan in taking revenge. Inidgap day ayag an adi umat nah waday imbitasyon an ammuna nadan nidattan an ume. They did not differentiate in their inviting of people, unlike when there are invitations and only those who receive them may go. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Impartial.) 2vary an action or activity. 2.1trans. to change or vary an activity ; to vary an action or activity without differentiating. Adim dogapon di pakikanam. Don’t eat at just anybody’s house. (randomly selected) Dogapom di ubunam. Why don’t you find a permanent seat and quit jumping from seat to seat. (check) morphology: dogapon ‑on ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. 2.2pass. to be non-discriminate; varied. Nadgap di ngunuk. I have work that is varied. Nadgap di inayagan da. They called for just anyone. Nadgap di kalkalyom. You are talking of various topics.

e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume

gadul trans. to excuse oneself, by giving a reason or alibi for not doing something. Munggadugadul an adi makien dakayu. He is looking for an alibi so that he does not have to go with you. Pangigadulanay maid libluna ot lumah-un. He made his not having a book the reason and went out. Nganney pangigadulam an adi ume? What is your excuse for not going? Hanan tagun humigan mungngunu ya adina pinhod an lumah-un te igadul nan kal-ina ya waday layon nah dola. (Proverbs 26:13) As for the person who is lazy to work, he doesn’t want to go out because he excuses himself by saying that there might be a lion outside. muN‑, pangi‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Cause, - Reason.)

gagaid intrans. to be willing and eager to do something. Gagaidak an mangat hi pinhod Apu Dios. I’m willing to do what God wants. Gimmagaidak an mangiat nan kanam an ingunuk. I am willing and eager to do what you told me to do. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: bot’al, gahugahu, gaga-o. (sem. domains: - Willing.)

ganna 1comm. pain; sickness. Immali bo nan ganna na kinali adi mungngunu. His sickness recurred that is why he is not working. Sim: dogo, bon-ag. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.) 2intrans. to be sick. Mungganna hi inana kinali ibakiyan da. His mother is sick that is why they are performing a baki ritual. muN‑/nuN‑.

gid’u sta. to have a relapse when sick; to feel weak and dizzy. Adika ni-an mungngunu te magidu ka man. Do not work yet because you might have a relapse. ma‑. 6A Physiological Process - State. Sim: bognat, makihal. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)

gikda trans. to finish a task; to complete a task. Igikdam nan ngunum ta ume ta. Finish your work so that we can go. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: gibbu. (sem. domains: - Complete, finish.)

gobernadol 1comm. refers to a governor; the head of the provincial government in the Philippines. Mungngunu nan gobernador ad Lagawe. The governor holds office (works) in Lagawe. (sem. domains: - Government official.) 2intrans. to become the governor; to work as a governor. Pinhod Pedlon munggobernadol. Pedro wants to become the governor. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

gun-ud intrans. to obtain something of value or useful. Adika umeh di te maid gun-udom. Do not go there because there’s nothing to be gained. Hi Apu Dios nangamung an mangidat hi gun-udon di hin-oh-an ditaku, mipuun hi ingngunu taku. (1 Corinth 3:8b) It is up to God to give what each of us will obtain (reward) based on the work we have done. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. Sim: gunguna. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.)

gunguna comm. to have a use or value. Bumaddang ka tuh ngunu ta waday gungunam an immali. You help in the work so that there’s a use in your coming. Sim: hilbi; Sim: gun-ud. (sem. domains: - Value.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

haliw-a trans. to hinder someone from accomplishing what the person intends to do. Nahaliw-an e umbun. He was hindered from sitting down. Hiyay humaliw-ah ek hogpan hi ngunu. He is the one hindering me in going to get a job. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Hinder.)

ham’ak trans. 1to look for something; to search. Hamakom nan natalak an nuwang. Look for the lost water buffalo. Humamak kah babai ta malahin ka. Look for a girl so that you will marry. Eyak manamak hi ngunu. I am going to look for a job. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑, maN‑/naN‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: anap. (sem. domains: - Look.) 2refers to having found something that was looked for. Himmamakak hi dakol an pihhu. I found much money. ‑imm‑.

hanakul trans. 1to try by all means to do something; to try one’s best. Ihanakul nan manamak hi ngununa. He is trying his best to find a job. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Try, attempt.) 2to give something sacrificially.

hantuh (tuh, hi, han) dem. when, future; then, future; demonstrative pronoun belonging to Set 2; refers to a future time when an event is expected to happen. Hantuh aliyan da ya piayag daka. When they will come, I will send for you. Kanan apunay ahina idattan hi ligaluna hantuh madatngan an algon di nitungawana. His grandfahter promised to give him a gift on his next birthday. Dakdakol di ngunun di linalaki hantuh ahiga-ud. The men have more work when it is plowing season. (sem. domains: - Demonstrative pronouns.) hantudah

hapul 1need. 1.1sta. to be needed; refers to the need for something useful, required, or desired. Mahapul di pihu te mun-iskulak. Money is needed because I am going to school. Deket kaspangarigan ta waday makahhapul mu ya ma-ma-idan di pihhum... Now, just in case you have an urgent need and you don’t have any money... ma‑, makaC‑. (sem. domains: - Need.) 2look for. 2.1trans. to look for something that is needed, with the focus on the activity of looking. Eyak munhapul hi ngunu. I am going to look for a job. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 7.6.2 - Find.) 2.2trans. to look for something that is needed with the focus on the object being looked for. Em hapulon hi inam. Go look for your mother. Nganney hapulom? What are you looking for? (What is it that you need?) Andaan mo ta deket waday takon di ittay an hinapulan an pihu ya intalu ta nangamung hi udum an algo an ahi nin makahhapul. When you have just a little money, why not keep it for a rainy day when you might need it badly. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: masapul.

hedel intrans. daydreaming; absent-minded; may appear to be stupid. Dakol di mingunu kinali adim hehedelon hina. There is much to be done that is why do not be daydreaming. Loktat ya mahedel ka hin abunay butong di inilam. There will come a time when you will be adsent-minded because all you know is drinking. Kay nahedel di punggungunay mu. It’s like you are a silly person with your constant moving. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. Sim: do-ol. (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.)

helmet 1comm. helmet; hard plastic or steel helmet. gen: taddung. (sem. domains: 5.3.4 - Clothes for special occasions.) 2intrans. to wear a helmet. Munhelmet ka hin eka mungngunu. Wear a helmet when you go to work. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

hik’ot 1comm. scabbard; sheath for large knives, e.g. bolo, machete, sword; includes the belt holding the sheath. Kaanom di hikot ta ahika hunggop. Remove your sheath (with bolo understood) before you enter. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to put a bolo in its sheath. Ihikot muy otak mu. Put your bolo in its sheath. Am-in nadan mungngunu ya inhikot day ispada da. All those who are working, they will sheath their swords. i‑/iN‑. 3intrans. Aga, mundadaan kayu ya munhikot kayu. Go, prepare yourselves and don your sheathed bolos. muN‑/nuN‑.

hiknad trans. to complete work; to finish a task; to end something. Maid hiknad di ligat hantuh tap-on di luta. There is no end to the hardships on this earth. Gal-an yu ta ihiknad yu di ngunu yu. Hurry up so that you will complete your work. Nihiknad mo. It is completed. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. Sim: gibbu. (sem. domains: - Complete, finish.)

hilbi 1comm. to have usefulness or worth; valuable. Nganney hilbinah tuwe? What is the use of this? Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is worthless without education and without a job. Sim: gunguna. (sem. domains: - Value.) 2intrans. to be of value to someone, implies serving someone in some way. Hiyay munhilbin ha-on. He is of value to me. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: silbi. ph. v. maid di hilbina

hinnun intrans. to be hesitant or undecided about doing an action. Munhinnuhinnun Maria an makie te dakol di ingngunu na. Maria was undecided about going along because she has much work. Munhinnuhinnunak an mangiat nah pangngununa te uggek inilay atok. I am hesitant to do the work he assigned because I don’t know how to do it. muN‑/nuN‑ CV(C)CV‑. 1C General class. (sem. domains: 3.3.1 - Decide, plan.)

hongngok 1sta. to be inattentive, to be preoccupied. Tipe anhan di hongngok mu? Why are you so preoccupied? (sem. domains: 3.2 - Think.) 2trans. to ignore what is going on because of being preoccupied. Hohongngokom yaden mundadama da! You are just looking on inattentively and yet they are fighting. Hohongngokom yaden dakol di mingunu. You are just staring into space yet there are a lot of things to be done. CV‑ ‑on.

humtik 1intrans. to click the tongue in disapproval. Adika humumtik hi waday pingunu dan he-a. Do not click your tongue when they have some work for you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2D Vocal sounds, expressing feeling. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2comm. sound of clicking of tongue in complaint, disapproval or in amazement. Dingngol nay humtik di e daka baalon. She heard the click of your tongue when she was about to send you for an errand. 3intrans. to click the tongue; durative aspect. Munhumhumtik handi naapput hi tulang na. He was clicking his tongue when his brother lost. muN‑/nuN‑.

ie (infl. of e) trans. to take something with oneself. Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 - Carry.) infl. pangieyan

im-ut trans. to bar passage; to block passage. Adiyu im-ut nan ngunut yuh na te dalanon. Do not block the way there with your things because it is a passageway. Umutam nan alad. Block the opening in the fence. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

impaki- TACR. this prefix encodes past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or a group of objects. Impakidawat na nan papel nah basket. He received the paper inside the basket with the other. Impakiala da am-in nadan ngunut da ya limmu da. They got all of their household items and their property. Sim: paki-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

indamyo 1comm. a scaffold, planks of wood. Ongal nan indamyon didan mungngunu. The scaffolding of the workers is big. 2trans. to make a walkway out of planks of wood. Indamyuwan yu nan pangipadalnan nadah batu. Make a walkway where the stones will be brought up. ‑an/iN‑ ‑an.

innun advpred. the way of doing something; course of action or decision-making; the means for doing something. Maid innun an e mungngunu te maid di mun-adug. There’s no way to go and work because there is no one to babysit. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan-prayer for him. Hay nungkakaten mumbaga ya maid di innunan mumbaki ta iappitana dida. Someone who is dead might ask for something (be in need), then, he has no way of offering to them. ‑an. Manner. Sim: aton. (sem. domains: - Way, manner.)

intuppi comm. rice snack; immature rice is roasted and husked by pounding. Pinhod kuy intuppi mu naligat di ngunu na. I love the intuppi-snack but it’s preparation is hard work. Sim: ballu. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)

isplikar 1intrans. to explain something. Mun-isplikar nan mittulu yaden mungngala ka. The teacher is explaining something yet you are very noisy. muN‑/nuN‑, puN‑ i‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.8 - Interpreting messages.) 2nom. explanation. Donglom nan pun-iisplikar na. Listen to his explanation. puN-. 3intrans. to explain something in particular. Iisplikar na hin nganney aton nah ngunu. He is explaining how to do the work. i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: explicar.

kaalgoalgo (infl. of algo) nom. everyday. Kaalgoalgo on mungngunu taku. We work everyday. ka‑CV(C)CV‑. (sem. domains: - Regular.)

kahin- mod. this prefix encodes an unexpected or unacceptable action. Kudukdulnay gibbuwon di inlappun ngunu mu nan eta bo kahinlappuh oha. It is better to finish work that has been started then to start something else. Deket natu-iy baka weno kabayun di hinag-on yu nah dalan ya adi kayu kahin-ang-ang hi hinnatkon an kay hanan uggeyu tinibo. If the cow or horse of your neighbor falls over on the trail, don’t look at something different as though you didn’t see that.

kamukamu trans. to do something by trial and error. Adiyu yu kamukamuwon nan impangunuk. Do not do the task I gave you by trial and error. Matibon nakamukamu nan nginunu da. It could be seen that the work they did was by trial and error. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: 9.1.2 - Do.)

karpentero 1comm. carpenter. Karpentero di mahapul da an mungngunu. They need a carpenter to work. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) 2v. to do carpentry work. Mungkarpentero ka nah daulon. Do carpentry work under the house. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.6.3 - Working with wood.) 3trans. to build or repair something. Karpenterowon yu nan alang. Do carpentry work on the rice granary. ‑on/‑in‑. 4A Change the structure of object. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: carpintero.

kaud 1intrans. to paddle a boat in order to move; to row a boat. Hanadan pungngunuwon dan mungkaud. Their work was to paddle (boats). muN‑/nuN‑. 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.1 - Manner of movement.) 2nom. a paddle/oar for a boat. Hay pungkaud na ya nakapyah oak. His paddles were made of oak. puN‑. (sem. domains: - Boat, 6.7 - Tool.)

kilog 1trans. to provide food for sustenance resulting in stamina and strength. Maid di emi ikilog an mungngunu. We do not have any provisions to go to work. Hay gattuk di ingkilog hanadan aammod dih tiempon di gubat te maid di udum hi makan. Sweet potatoes were the sustenance provision of our grandparents during wartime because there was no other food. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.) 2sta. to be well-fed and so to be healthy; to gain strength. Makilog nan unga te nal-ot an mangan. The child is healthy because he is a good eater. Hiya peman di nangipaptok nah unga ta ingganay kumilog. He was the one who took care of that child until he gained strength. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Sim: bika, kuhog, olot.

kinwani advpred. necessity; indicates that something is indispensible. Kinwaninay pihhuh pun-adal. Money is a necessity in schooling. Kinwaninay wadaak ta ahim ingngunu. It is necessary that I be here before you work. Kinwaninay ha-oy tuwali. It is necessary that I really be the one. Kinkinwaniy apul ta ahi ta mummoma. Lime is a necessity before we can chew betel mix. Modality. Sim: mahapul, importante. (sem. domains: 9.4.5 - Evidentials.)

kolbata 1comm. necktie. Dakol di kolbatam. You have many neckties. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear a necktie. Mungkolbata day mungngunuh opisina. Office workers wear neckties. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: corbata.

kudukdul 1advpred. for something to be better or preferable to another thing to which it is compared. Kudukdul hin mungngunuwak te adiyak mundogo. It’s better if I work because I don’t get sick. Mu indani ya pimmalak bo ot nomnomonan kudukdulnay umanamut. But after awhile, she groaned again and so he decided it would be good to return home. Evaluative. (sem. domains: - To a larger degree.) 2trans. to prefer a specific action over another. Kudukdulok di umanamut mu nan eyak mun-iyan hitu. I would prefer to go home than to overnight here. Pakudukdulok di mundaldallan mu hay um-umbun. I prefer to walk about rather than to be sitting down. ‑on/‑in‑, pa‑ ‑on. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: - Choose.) 3proc. for something to improve; become better. Kimmudukdul di giknak handi tinibo daka. My feeling became better when I saw you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: - Become, change state.)

lagda 1intrans. to be unpredictable in behavior, to be whimsical or capricious; characterizes one who demands others’ indulgence. Ag-agam boy lagdan tun unga. Oh, how whimsical is this child. Makallagdah Maria ke da apuna. Maria is so capricious with her grandparents. makaC‑. Sim: hona. (sem. domains: - Immature in behavior.) 2trans. to refuse to do something that is expected by others. Linagdan ugge inat nan impingunum. He intentionally did not do the thing you told him to do. ‑on/‑in‑.

langkuyya trans. to regard something lightly; to refuse to take seriously; to take lightly or easily. Langlangkuyyaona nan impingunum. He is taking lightly the task you gave him. Inilam an bokon langkuyyay mun-iskul hi college. You know that you must not take college education lightly. (meaning you have to study hard) ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: lapuy. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)

laput trans. to risk health or life by fervently doing something difficult. Ilaput nan mumpayo ta hay pakanah imbabalena. He works so hard in the ricefields, risking his health, so that he will be able to feed his children. Tipe ahan ta ilaput mu? Why do you take such risks? Ilaputanan mungngunu. He works very hard risking his health. i‑/iN‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Risk.)

lapuy trans. 1to think something is easy to do; to regard something lightly. Lapuyom udot di ngunum. You take your work in an easy manner. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. Sim: langkuyya. (sem. domains: - Attitude.) 2to disregard the competence or ability of an opponent. An laplappuyonak ke he-a? Do you take me lightly? (You think you can challenge me?) ‑on/‑in‑.

lasona comm. to give a reason for behavior. Hanan mahigan tagu ya dakol di lasonah adina pungngunuwan. (Proverbs 22:13a) As for the lazy person, there are many reasons for why he will not work. (sem. domains: - Defend against accusation.)

ligat (sp. var. rigat) 1hardship. 1.1sta. for something to be difficult; a hardship. Naligat di matagu te munligat ta. It’s hard to be alive because we experience hardships/difficulties. Te inilam met an naligat di pangal-an hi pihhu. Because you very well know that it is hard to earn money. na‑. 6D Descriptives. Sim: loh’an, holtap. (sem. domains: 4.4.2 - Trouble.) 1.2proc. refers to the process of becoming difficult. Lumigat di biyag hin maid ngunu. Life will become difficult if there is no work. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2trans. to accept something with misgiving and apprehension. Ligatona nan moltana. He was apprehensive about his fine. ‑on. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: - Worried.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano: rigat. infl. mangipaligligat

lista 1comm. list; a record of a number of items. (sem. domains: 6.8.7 - Accounting.) 2trans. to make a list; write down as a record. Hituwey listaan nadan immalin nungngunu. This is the list of those who came to work. Ipatibom nan listaam. Show your list. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: lista. der. ilista

lugal 1comm. space, e.g. room to stand or sit in. Maid di lugal mu te napnu. You have no space because it is full. (sem. domains: - Space, room.) 2trans. to make a space for placing something or someone, generally done by moving something that is occupying the space needed. Lugalan yu nan ka-hogop na ta waday ubunana. Make space for the one who just entered so that he can sit down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of a site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.) 3comm. generally refers to having time to do something. Maid di lugal kun makingunud bale yu. I have no time to join in working at your house. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: lugar.

Lukat prop. ritual for the first weeding of a ricefield, October. Ingunu da Lukat nah alang Matima. They are performing the Lukat-ritual in the granary of Matima. Cal: Lukat, Pudung, Loka, Ugwid, Bolnat, Kulpi, Hagophop, Paad, Pokol, Ingngilin, Tuldag, Ponpon, Takdog, Kahiu, Hikgut, Apui. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.)

Lunes (sp. var. lunit) 1comm. Monday. Lunis ke on eda mungngunu. On Mondays they go to work. Syn: pinghana. (sem. domains: - Days of the week.) 2sta. refers to the coming Monday; when it will be Monday. Malunis kayu ya ume takud Lagawe. Come on Monday we will leave for Lagawe. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: lunes.

mabiyag (der. of biyag) sta. to be alive; to live. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. ma‑. (sem. domains: 2.6 - Life.)

madam (sp. var. mam) comm. respectful address of female of status or authority; madam; ma’am. Hi madam di nangituddu ketuwe. Madam was the one who taught us this. Mam, uggek kinapya nan ngunuk. Ma’am, I did not do my work. (sem. domains: - Woman.) Language Of Borrowing: English.

maid 1negative predicate. 1.1negpred. a negative predication; the negative opposite of the existential predicate. Maid di inat kuh gaga-iho. I did not do anything bad. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. (sem. domains: - No, not.) 1.2negpred. negative predication expressing the non-existence of an agent. Maid di mun-ay-ayyam hi banting. Nobody will play with matches. Ek ang-angon, munhidhid-ipak te nahilong ya- maid hi Lammooy I went to see, I was straining my eyes because it was dark, Lammooy was not around. 1.3negpred. negative predication expressing the non-existence of a thing or possession. Maid di pihuk. I have no money. Mungngunu kayu te maid di poppog di tiempo. Work, because time is without end. Maid moy ena igattang. He had nothing more to sell. Maid, tumakut kamin e mangala mu maka-i-imin nangidat ot alan mi mo. “Nothing. We were afraid to take the candy but she was smiling as she gave it so we took it.” 2sta. to become non-existent; mama-id, the reduplication expresses the process of disappearance, i.e. becoming non-existent. Athidi bon gulatnat mama-id am-in di mumbaki ta hiya ya abuy matdaan. Like that also, if there are no longer pagan priests except for him. (sem. domains: - Exist.) der. ma-idon der. ma-ma-idan der. mama-id id. Ma-ma-idan di nitaguwak. ph. v. maid di poppog na

makibokla (der. of bokla) 1comm. a class of people who work; working class. Dakol day makibokla ad uwani mu maid di mangngunu. There are many workers now but there is no work. maki‑. (sem. domains: 4.1.2 - Types of people.) 2intrans. to join in earning wages. Eyak makibokla ad baliwon. I am going to earn a living in the lowlands. maki‑.

makihal (der. of kihal) sta. to have a relapse in sickness. Adika ni-an mungngunu te makihal ka man. Do not work yet because you will certainly have a relapse. ma‑. Sim: gid’u, bognat. (sem. domains: 2.4 - Body condition.)

malkadu (sp. var. markadu; sp. var. malket) 1comm. market place, open-air stands selling a variety of food, clothing and other things. Eka munggattang hi malkadu. Go and sell in the market. E nuntenda hi malkadu. He went to sell in the market. Sim: tendaan. (sem. domains: 6.9.3 - Marketing.) 2intrans. to go to buy things in a market place. E mummalkadu hi pihda na nadah mungngunu. He is going to buy food for the workers. Eyak mummalkadu hi ihda. I am going to buy viand. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to buy things offered in a market. Minalket kuy duwan dolog. I bought two mudfish in the market. Imalketam hi ihda da. Buy viand for them. ‑on/‑in‑, i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: mercado.

mandal 1intrans. to have control of and give orders; to command. Hiyay mummandal nadah mungngunu te kapatas. He will be the one to command the workers because he is a foreman. muN‑/nuN‑. 4B Tactile - Touch contact. (sem. domains: - Command.) 2trans. to give orders to a particular person. Mandalom ta galgal-ana. Command him to hurry. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: mandar.

mangat (infl. of at) trans. to do something; the agent-subject is topicalized. <This particular form of at is used when the discourse requires the agent-subject to be in the pre-verb position.> Kon waday laing yun mangat nah ipangunuk? Do you have the skill to do my work? Hanan tagu ya tobalonan mabayadan an mangat hi gaga-iho. That person, he will accept payment to do bad. maN‑/naN‑.

mapat-al (der. of pat-al) sta. daytime; for the sun to be shining. Mu hay tagu ya mungngunu nah mapat-al inggana mahilong. (Psalms 104:23) But as for a person, he works during the daytime until night.

miathidi (der. of athidi) pass. predicates a comparison of a situation or event to a previous reference; for some action or activity to be compared to what had been done previously; will be like that. Mu hanah mikapitun toon ya miathidi, adiyu ngunuwon. (Exodus 23:10) But during the 7th year, you will not work like that. (refers to field work) Kinali, dakol an toon an niat-athiddih Juan. That’s why Juan had been like that for many years. mi‑/ni‑.

mibangngad (infl. of bangngad) v. to return to a task or at a stated time. Himbatangan ot mibangngad kami. We returned in the afternoon. Inapuwap inay odog ku ot mibangngad nah pun-ingunu na. She patted my back and returned to her work. mi‑/ni‑.

mumbinnaddang (sp. var. mumbaddang) rec. to help one another in work. Munbaddang kayun mangingunu ketuwe. Help each other work on this. Munbibinnaddang taku nah ahiani. Let us help one another during harvest time. muN‑ ‑inn‑/nuN‑ ‑inn‑.

mumpuN- TACR. this prefix encodes distributive, i.e. there is a plurality of subjects involved in the action, activity, or experience; it cross-references the subject; non-past tense. Waday mumpundogo ke dida. There are many sick among them. Hinanhanan day ngadan am-in nadan mumpungngunuh di. They asked for the names of all who will work there. Sim: numpuN-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

naki- participatory. this prefix encodes the concept of participation in an action or activity; it cross-references the agent-subject; past tense. Hi Mariay nakiali ke ha-on. Maria came with me. Nakiatuwak damdama handih nakingunuwak. I was also tired when I joined in working. Nakitanom hi ama na ke dakami. His father joined in planting with us. Sim: maki-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

nan-om (der. of onom) quan. the cardinal number sixty. Nan-om dan am-in an immed Lagawe. They were sixty in all who went to Lagawe. Nan-om an tataguy immen e nanamak hi ngunu. Sixty people went to look for work. na‑. (sem. domains: - Cardinal numbers.)

ngala 1intrans. to make noise, by humans as they talk continuously or loudly. Mungngala da nadan u-unga te maid di mittulu da. The children are noisy because their teacher is absent. Nakangalla kayu dih hilong. You talked too much last night. muN‑/nuN‑, naka‑. 1D Sounds. Sim: ngakngak, ngel’ek. (sem. domains: - Types of sounds.) 2trans. to scold or shout at someone. Kah-in di ngalaan dida on ahida nungngunu. You have to scold them by shouting before they work. an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: - Rebuke.)

nganuy trans. to give up an activity or cause; to abandon. Antipe bot em inganuy nan ngunum? Why did you abandon your work? i‑/iN‑. Sim: walong. (sem. domains: - Abandon.)

nuN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense and durative time aspect; it cross references the subject and is the default affix for Class 1 verbal roots. <Morphophonology: The velar consonant in coda position assimilates to the point of articulation of the first consonant in the root.> Nip-ot bo te nundogo ot mate. To top it all off, he fell sick and died. Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is as good for nothing without education (lit. have not learned) and without a job. 2past tense, signals a durative aspect activity rather than a punctiliar action when co-occurring with a transitive verbal root, cross references subject. Nuntudokak ke hiya nimpe. 3when the prefix co-occurs with the reduplicant CV(C)-, it encodes past tense, durative-continuative aspect and cross references the subject. 4when this affix co-occurs with Class 6 verb roots, it changes statives to durative processes; it encodes past tense and cross references the subject. 5the prefix derives verbs from nouns; it encodes past tense and cross- references the subject. Man-ut nun-iskul mu ingganah grade four ya abu. He took formal education to grade four only Nun-ampuyo kamin am-in an binabai. All of us women wore the Ifugao skirt. 6the prefix encodes past tense, reflexive and cross references both the subject and object expressed in a single noun phrase. Indani ya naatu da nin nundopap. After a while maybe they were tired of grappling with each other.

o-oha (fr. var. oh-ohha) (infl. of oha) adj. a few; a small number of people or things. O-oha di mungngunu. There are few workers. Number quantifier. (sem. domains: - Few, little.)

odog comm. back of body. Mahakit di odog ku. My back aches. Inapuwap inay odog ku ot mibangngad nah pun-ingunu na. She patted my back and returned to her work. Sim: bangkug, binleg. (sem. domains: 2.1.2 - Torso.)

ong-ong trans. to dedicate something to a god or a cause. Ianamut pay nadan ngunut an nakapya balituk a silber an miong-ong nadah dios da. He will take home the objects made of gold and silver to be dedicated to their gods. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Dedicate to religious use.)

opisina (sp. var. upisina) 1comm. office. Mungngunuwak hi opisina. I am working in an office. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 - Parts of a building.) 2intrans. to report for work in an office. Mun-opisina da hi bigat. They will report for work in the office tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: oficina.

paanhanon (infl. of anhan) trans. to prioritize; to make something the most important or most valuable. Paanhanom an aton ni-an nan kinalik ta ahim aton di udum an ngunum. Make what I told you the first thing you do before your other work. pa‑ ‑on/impa‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: - Important.)

pakyaw 1comm. contract system for labor. Pakyaw di ngunun di gabut nan payo. They cut the grass of the field by contract. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2v. to work on a contract basis. Pakyawon da di gayon nan garden. They will contract to hoe the field. Dahdiy numpakyaw nah iskul? Who did the labor contract for the school? ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: - Hire, rent.) 3trans. to buy large amount of something by contract, i.e. wholesale. Pakyawom nan igattang nan amput. Contract to buy all of the garlic she is selling. ‑on/‑in‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog.

palat di oban (comp. of oban) comm. a pregnancy ritual performed to prevent abortion or miscarriage; literally means the handle of the baby-carrying-blanket. [This is done for the first child; the father’s kin give the oban 'baby-carrying-blanket' that they themselves have made, if possible.] Pun-ingunuday palat di oban te nuntungo moh Talakka. They are performing the ritual for pregnanacy because Talakka already gave birth. (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony.)

pamdol trans. to entrust something to someone. Ipamdol kun he-a nan ngunu te adiyak umali. I will entrust the work to you because I’m not coming. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: - Entrust to the care of.)

paN- -an₁ dervN. this circumfix is a clausal nominalizer; it nominalizes a verb that co-occurs with argument constituents, the resulting nominalized clause becomes a constituent argument of the main verb. Mu nan naminhod an mangipangpanguluh mangulug ya mahapul an pangi-enat maid di pamihulan di tagun hiya. (1 Timothy 3:2a) But as for the one who wants to be a leader of believers, his way must be good so that there is no basis for any person’s scorning of him. Adi kayu mumplanuh panadagan yuh ibbayu. (Sechariah 8:17a) Don’t plan the destruction of your companions. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work for getting our livelihood. Te inilam met an naligat di pangal-an hi pihhu. Because you very well know that it is hard to get money. (sem. domains: - Derivational affixes.)

Pan’al prop. the ritual for sowing rice in seedbed. Pun-ingunu day panal te in-eda nan binong-o nah punhopnakan. They are performing the panal-ritual because they already brought the selected rice for planting in the seedbed. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion.) Lourdes S. Dulawan: Ifugao Culture and History)

papuut advpred. to do something quickly. Ipapuut nay ngunuh payo. He works quickly in the field. Siguladun naagangan te papuutanay kakan. It’s certain he’s very hungry because he is eating quickly. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, i‑/iN‑. Time. (sem. domains: 8.4.8 - Speed.)

porman 1comm. foreman; superintendent of workers. Hiyay porman tudan mungunuh kalata. He is the foreman of these people working on the road. (sem. domains: 4.5.3 - Exercise authority.) 2intrans. to act as a foreman or superintendent of a group of workers. Hi Jose di mumporman nadah mungngunu nah kapyaon dan iskul. Jose acts as the foreman of those working to build the school. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.

puN- -an₂ dervN. this circumfix derives a noun. Adi mabalin an eta mabiyag hin maid di ustuh ngunuh pangal-an hi pumbiyagan. It isn’t possible to live if we don’t have adequate work to provide our livelihood. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.)

puN- -on 1caus. this circumfix encodes non-past tense and a causative concept; the object is cross-referenced. Mumpundikhal da nan pungngunuom. Your workmen are splitting wood. Pundallomom tun balituk nah kaban mu. You put this gold at the very bottom of your trunk. Sim: impuN--, pun-i-. (sem. domains: - Verb affixes.) 2mod. this circumfix encodes a mitigated causative; Class 4 verbal root. Pun-ang-angom hi mama. Let mama watch. Punha-angon dakan ha-on. I’ll let you cook. Pumbakkaom din golang nah dulung. Let the baby crawl on the floor.

rekomendar trans. to recommend someone. Naala nah ngunu te inrekomendar ku. He got the job because I recommended him. Hiyay nunrekomendar ke ha-oy. He was the one who recommended me. i‑/iN‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: - Praise.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.

salamat 1adjunct. thank you. Salamat ta immali kayu. Thank you for coming. Interpersonal. Sim: agyaman. (sem. domains: - Thank.) 2trans. to thank someone with emphasis on that person in contrast with others Hiyay salamatan yu te hiyay nangingunuh dakdakol. Thank him for he was the one who worked on it. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3intrans. to thank someone. Munsalamat ke he-a te in-anamut mu tun imbabalek. I thank you for bringing my child home. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: Tagalog: salamat. der. mumpasalamat

ta₂ pers. 1we two; first person, dual pronoun; the form is a member of both Set 1 and Set 2. <As a member of both Set 1 and Set 2, the form always encodes subject; however, the affix on the verb disambiguates whether or not the subject is cross-referenced.> Gapu bo ta deh tu ta ya ditan am-in di pangipamdolam hi ngunu. Just because we two are here we are being held responsible for all the work. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) 2our, yours and mine; first person, dual possessive pronoun, i.e. something belongs to the two of us, the speaker and the addressee. Nap-u moy balun ta. Our food is now consumed.

takap 1trans. to move and attach something to another thing. Itakap mu tun papel nah dingding. You attach this paper to the wall. Nitakap nan hukap di battikul nah anga na. The cover of the snail was attached to his face. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.) 2pass. (fig) to cling or always stay close to someone. Mitatakap tun golang ta maid di aton an mungngunu. This child is constantly clinging to me so that it is impossible to do any work. mi‑/ni‑. id. mitatakap

takdog₂ trans. 1to defend or represent someone. Deyan edaka indiklamuh ya dahdiy nomnomom an mangitakdog ke he-a? There, they sued you in court and who do you think will defend you? Itakdog dakan ha-oy. I will defend you. i‑/iN‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. (sem. domains: - Defend against accusation.) 2to supervise. Em takdogan nadan mungngunu nah kalata. Go and supervise those people working in the road. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. infl. mangitakdog

talna sta. to be peaceful. Natalna hitud Kiangan. It is peaceful here in Kiangan. Tumalna tun boble taku hin maid day mangakon mungngunuh gubilnu. Our place will be peaceful if there are no corrupt government workers. ma‑/na‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: - Calm.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.

tanud₂ trans. to support financially. Tanudam tun imbabalem. You support this child of yours. Wadaday tanudak kinali tagak hi ngunu. I have some people to support financially that is why I keep on working. Eyak makiboklat waday pananud ku hanadah imbabalek. I will go to earn money so I will have something with which to support my children. Ad uwanin naligat di kitaguwan te hay kanginan di magattang ya adiyak mo ahan pakatanud nah opat an imbabalek. At this time it’s hard to live because of high prices and I can hardly support my four children. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, paN‑, paka‑. 5C Goal oriented actions. (sem. domains: - Provide for, support.)

te conj. the logical connection that marks a reason; because. Maka te ume ta. Come because we are leaving. Om, te maid di hilhilbi hin ugge ta nun-adal ya maid di ngunu. Yes, because one is worthless without education and without a job. Bahul nadan nangipunduwana te uggeda ninomnom di aton da. It was the fault of those who were put in-charge because they didn’t think about what they will do. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: - Cause, - Reason.) comp. tedeya

tonton 1genealogy. 1.1comm. a history of the descent of a person or family; a listing of ancestors involving successive generations. [The recitation of the names of ancestors was traditionally done during rituals related to discovering the cause of sickness or misfortune and ameliorating the situation by offering a sacrifice.] Uggek inilay tonton di aammod taku. I don’t know how to recite our genealogy. (sem. domains: - Religious ceremony, - Family, clan.) 1.2intrans. to recite genealogy; to enumerate. Hi amam di manonton hin nganney nun-iibaan taku. Your father will be the one to trace our genealogy to see if we are related.. maN‑/naN‑. Sim: ipadon. 2trans. to name things one by one; to list; enumerate. Anakkaya, tipet mahapul an tanontonom di ingngunum. Oh my, why do you have to enumerate all the work you’ve done. ‑on/‑in‑ + ‑an‑. Speech Verbs - General.

uhuk comm. a mine shaft. Mungngunuwak hi uhuk. I’m working in the mines. (sem. domains: - Underground.)

upong sta. to be a quiet person; docile. Makangunuwak udot te naupong tun golang. I can do my work easily because this baby is so docile. na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. (sem. domains: - Patient.)

uppe adjunct. an expression of contraexpectation; so at last; why only now. [An intended action or desire is contravened by another action or desire.] Kinan da ke uppe on ahim hapulon. After they’ve already eaten it, then you look for it. Imme kami ot ahim uppe ibuddal nan tinapay; talagam naimut ka. We were already gone when you brought out the bread; you are really selfish. Immali ka uppe te imme. So now you came because he left. Immali uppe te nagibbuy ngunu. Only now he came because the work is over. An maawatam uppey kinali na? Do you understand at last what he said? Maid muppe di makalim. So now you have nothing to say. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.2.6 - Particles.)

upput trans. to complete an activity; to finish a task. Upputom nan ngunum ta umanamut ta. Finish your task and we will go home. Naupput mo ahan nan gabutam. Your weeding is finally finished. ‑on/‑in‑, ma‑/na‑. (sem. domains: - Complete, finish.)

wakilat 1trans. to scatter, as in littering carelessly. Bimmoh-ol ot iwakilat na nadan ngunut hi bale da. He got angry and then scattered the things in their house. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: dulmun, galut, gam-ut. (sem. domains: - Separate, scatter.) 2intrans. to scatter things. Munwakilat ka ke ya hupliton daka. If you scatter things, I will whip you. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: wahit.

waklin trans. to set something aside. Iwaklin mu nan ngunut ku. You set-aside my things. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 - Put.)

waya 1sta. to be vacant; an unoccupied space. Umbun ka ot nawaya. Sit down because there is a lot of room. na‑. 6C Process or state of inanimate objects. (sem. domains: - Empty.) 2free time. 2.1comm. free, unscheduled time. Maid waya nan e mun-ay-ayyam. He has no free time to go play. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.) 2.2n. to be sitting around doing nothing even though there is work to be done; to be idle. Wayawayah kabigabigat hi Maria te uggena inila mungngunu. Maria is idle everyday because she doesn’t know how to work. (sem. domains: - Lazy.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.